Category: MECHANICAL

IPCL NC: Training Module

Module No IPCLDSMEC095

INDIAN PETROCHEMICAL S CORPORATION LTD NAGOTHANE

TRAINING MODULE FOR

NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTINGS

LEARNING CENTRE NC

Prepared by: DN Rev: 01

Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004

Approved By: AKS Pages: 1 of 83

Category: MECHANICAL

IPCL NC: Training Module

Module No IPCLDSMEC095

OBJECTIVE:
Non destructive testing (NDT) is one of the important topic in day today life. Though NDT techniques are used in industries, certain techniques like X-ray, ultrasonic testing is used in medical field. It is very interesting to know that X-rays were first used in medical field, later in industry. In this module various NDTs / NDE are listed out but NDTs, which are most commonly used are explained in little detail to familiar with NDTs.

Prepared by: DN Rev: 01

Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004

Approved By: AKS Pages: 2 of 83

Category: MECHANICAL

IPCL NC: Training Module

Module No IPCLDSMEC095

MODULE IMPLEMENTATION PLAN TOPIC: NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING FOR: NDT REV:0 SR CONTENTS AUTH RESOURCES NO OR 1 Introduction DN ASM NDT Handbook
2 Techniques of NDT Liquid Penetrant Test DN ASM NDT Handbook / ASME hand book ASM NDT Handbook / ASME hand book ASM NDT Handbook / ASME hand book ASM NDT Handbook / ASME hand book ASM NDT Handbook / ASME hand book

CODE NO: IPCLDSMEC173 DATE : 09-11-2004 SITE: IPCL-NC AVAILABLE LEARNING VALIDATION ( Y/N) Y

Y

3

DN

Y

4

Magnetic Particle DN Testing Radiography DN

Y

8 Hrs.

Quiz

5

Y

6

Ultrasonic Testing

DN

Y

Prepared by: DN Rev: 01

Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004

Approved By: AKS Pages: 3 of 83

Category: MECHANICAL

IPCL NC: Training Module

Module No IPCLDSMEC095

INDEX CHAPTER NO. 1 2 DESCRPTION INTRODUCTION TO NDT TECHNIQUES LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Introduction Principle Basic steps of Liquid Penetrant Testing Quality control of Penetrant Quality control of Developer Selection of Penetrant Technique Process control of Temperature Common uses of Liquid Penetrant Testing Nature of Defects PAGE NO. 6 12

2.10 Advantages & Disadvantages of LPT 2.11 Health & Safety Precautions in LPT

3

RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 History of Radiography Natural Radioactivity Inverse Square Law Absorption Radiographic Technique Sharpness of Radiographic Images Filters in Radiography Controlling Radiographic Quality Film Processing

21

3.10 Viewing Radiographs 3.11 Image considerations 3.12 Radiographic Interpretation 3.13 Discontinuities

Prepared by: DN Rev: 01

Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004

Approved By: AKS Pages: 4 of 83

8 4.2 4.17 Wavelength & Defect Detection 7 Bibliography 83 Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 5 of 83 .3 4.6 4.7 5.2 5.7 4.4 5.12 Couplant 5.5 4.16 Distance Amplitude Correction (DAC) 5.5 5.1 4.13 Normal Beam Inspections 5.1 5.6 5.9 Introduction Principle Magnetising Current Lighting Particle Concentration & Condition Magnetic Field Indicators Quantitative Quality Indicators Pie Gage Slotted Strips 48 5 ULTRASOINIC TESTING 5.8 5.15 Weldments (Weld Joints) 5.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 4 MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING 4.3 5.9 Introduction Wave Propagation Wavelength Frequency & Velocity Sound Propagation in Elastic Material Material Affect on Speed & Sound Acoustic Impedance Ultrasonic Wave Generation Refraction & Snell’s Law Calibration Methods 61 5.14 Angle Beams Inspection 5.10 Introduction to Common Standards 5.11 The IIW Type Calibration Blocks 5.4 4.

magnetic particle testing. NDE method would not only locate a defect. technically. NDT techniques that locate and characterize material conditions and flaws that might otherwise result in failure of pressure vessels. but it would also be used to measure something about that defect such as its size. These tests are performed in a manner that does not affect the future usefulness of the object or material. NDE is used to describe measurements that are more quantitative in nature. and orientation. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 6 of 83 . radiography. NDT / NDE METHODS The number of NDT methods that can be used to inspect components and make measurements is large and continues to grow. NDT applies to industrial inspections. interdisciplinary field that plays a critical role in assuring that structural components and systems perform their function in a reliable and cost effective fashion. electromagnetic or eddy current testing. NDE may be used to determine material properties such as fracture toughness. shape. penetrant testing. NDT allows parts and materials to be inspected and measured without damaging them. However. formability. Because it allows inspection without interfering with a product's final use.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 CHAPTER – 1 INTRODUCTION NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING The field of Nondestructive Testing (NDT) is a very broad. There are six NDT methods that are used most often. NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is a term that is often used interchangeably with NDT. These methods are visual inspection. and ultrasonic testing. These methods and a few others are briefly described below. While technologies are used in NDT that are similar to those used in the medical industry. In other words. typically nonliving objects are the subjects of the inspections. and other physical characteristics. Generally speaking. pipelines or machinery components. NDT provides an excellent balance between quality control and costeffectiveness.

thus allowing imperfections to be readily seen. or changes in the material's conductive and permeability properties. With fluorescent dyes. LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (LPT) Test objects are coated with visible or fluorescent dye solution. Surface and near-surface imperfections distort the magnetic field and concentrate iron particles near imperfections. The electrical currents are called eddy currents because they flow in circles at and just below the surface of the material. 4. Visual examination involves procedures that range from simple to very complex. ultraviolet light is used to make the bleedout fluoresce brightly. 2. MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MPT) This NDT method is accomplish by inducing a magnetic field in a ferromagnetic material and then dusting the surface with iron particles (either dry or suspended in liquid). 3. vivid color contrasts between the penetrant and developer make "bleedout" easy to see. and a developer is applied. boroscopes or fibroscopes to gain access and more closely inspect the subject area. caused by imperfections.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 1. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 7 of 83 . Excess dye is then removed from the surface. The developer acts as blotter. drawing trapped penetrant out of imperfections open to the surface. can be detected with the proper equipment. mirrors. ELECTROMAGNETIC (ET) OR EDDY CURRENT TESTING Electrical currents are generated in a conductive material by an induced alternating magnetic field. previewing a visual indication of the flaw. VISUAL OR OPTICAL TESTING (VT) Visual inspection involves using an inspector's eyes to look for defects. dimensional changes. The inspector may also use special tools such as magnifying glasses. Interruptions in the flow of eddy currents. With visible dyes.

The most commonly used ultrasonic testing technique is pulse echo. Leaks can be detected by using electronic listening devices. Emission sources can be evaluated through the study of their intensity. The resulting shadowgraph shows the dimensional features of the part. imperfections within the material emit short bursts of acoustic energy called "emissions. Radiographic Testing 3. In this module most commonly and widely used NDTs explained in detail as under: 1. Ultrasonic Testing Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 8 of 83 . RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING (RT) Radiography involves the use of penetrating gamma or X-radiation to examine parts and products for imperfections. liquid and gas penetrant techniques. ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) Ultrasonic testing uses transmission of high-frequency sound waves into a material to detect imperfections or to locate changes in material properties. 8. 7." As in ultrasonic testing. ACOUSTIC EMISSION TESTING (AET) When a solid material is stressed. and location. and structures. Magnetic Particle Testing 4. acoustic emissions can be detected by special receivers. An X-ray generator or radioactive isotope is used as a source of radiation. pressure vessels. Radiation is directed through a part and onto film or other imaging media. Possible imperfections are indicated as density changes on the film in the same manner as a medical X-ray shows broken bones. rate. wherein sound is introduced into a test object and reflections (echoes) are returned to a receiver from internal imperfections or from the part's geometrical surfaces. pressure gauge measurements. Liquid Penetrant Testing 2. LEAK TESTING (LT) Several techniques are used to detect and locate leaks in pressure containment parts. 6.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 5. and / or a simple soap-bubble test.

The surface must be free of oil. This method is used as an effective NDT in welding fabrication / maintenance / condition monitoring / quality control. Excess penetrant is removed by cleaning and developer (a fluffy chalk like powder) is applied over the surface. Due to blotting nature of the developer.3. which can be viewed either in normal light for contrast dye or in “black light” (UV light) for fluorescent dye.3 BASIC STEPS OF A LIQUID PENETRANT INSPECTION 2. those are open to the surface are detected by `blotting action' after the surface has been treated with penetrant.2 PRINCIPLE: In LPT.1 INTRODUCTION: Liquid Penetrant testing (LPT) is one of the Non Destructive Testing (NDT) methods of inspection to locate discontinuities those are open to the surface. water. 2. 2. sanding. The sample may also require etching if mechanical operations such as machining. grease. or other contaminants that may prevent penetrant from entering flaws. entrapped penetrant in the discontinuities flows out and gives an indication. or grit blasting Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 9 of 83 . which is having flows(discontinuities) those are open surface due to capillary action.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 CHAPTER – 2 LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (LPT) 2. porosities etc. LPT can be used on any material except those are extremely porous & irregular surface. Sufficient time is allowed so that the penetrant can enter in narrow discontinuities. Discontinuities such as cracks. a liquid penetrant (contrast colour dye or fluorescent) is applied over the thoroughly cleaned and dry surface. The indication is always greater than the discontinuity due to diffusion of the penetrant in the developer.1 SURFACE PREPARATION One of the most critical steps of a liquid penetrant inspection is the surface preparation.

The ideal dwell time is often determined by experimentation and is often very specific to a particular application. and the type of defect being inspected. brushing or immersing the parts in a penetrant bath. The times vary depending on the application. to allow as much penetrant as possible to be drawn from or to seep into a defect. the form of the material being inspected. These and other mechanical operations can smear the surface of the sample. penetrant material is applied either by spraying. penetrant materials used. the material. 2. Minimum dwell times typically range from 5 to 60 minutes. Penetrant dwell time is the total time that the penetrant is in contact with the part surface.3. Generally. there is no harm in using a longer penetrant dwell time as long as the penetrant is not allowed to dry. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 10 of 83 . 2.3 PENETRANT DWELL The penetrant is left on the surface for a sufficient time.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 have been performed. thus closing the defects.3.2 PENETRANT APPLICATION Once the surface has been thoroughly cleaned and dried. Dwell times are usually recommended by the penetrant producers or required by the specification being followed.

Plate Lack of fusion. Developers come in a variety of forms that may be applied by dusting (dry powdered). Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 11 of 83 . or first treated with an emulsifier and then rinsing with water. Steel. Brass and Bronze. Cracks Cracks Cracks Cracks Cold shuts. direct rinsing with water. Titanium and High temp. Magnesium. Laps. or spraying (wet developers). this step may involve cleaning with a solvent. Porosity.4 EXCESS PENETRANT REMOVAL This is a most delicate part of the inspection procedure because the excess penetrant must be removed from the surface of the sample while removing as little penetrant as possible from defects. dipping. Porosity. Steel.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 DWELL TIME FOR SOME OF THE MATERIALS (As per ASTM E 165.3. Depending on the penetrant system used. alloys Carbide tipped tools Plastics Glass Ceramics All forms All forms All forms Castcastings and welds WroughtExtrusions.5 DEVELOPER APPLICATION A thin layer of developer is then applied to the sample to draw penetrant trapped in flaws back to the surface where it will be visible. Table 2) Material Form Type of discontinuity Minimum Dwell time (minutes) Penetrant Aluminium. Cracks all forms) 5 Developer 7 10 7 5 5 5 5 7 7 7 7 2.3. Lack of fusion. 2. forgings.

When the penetrant is first received from the manufacturer. The standard specimen should be stored in an opaque glass or metal.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 2. 2. Penetrants that are in-use should be compared regularly against the standard specimen to detect changes in color. odor and consistency.7 INSPECTION Inspection is then performed under appropriate lighting to detect indications from any flaws which may be present.8 CLEAN SURFACE The final step in the process is to thoroughly clean the part surface to remove the developer from the parts that were found to be acceptable. 2. and virtually all organic dyes deteriorate over time resulting in a loss of color or fluorescent response. This development time is usually a minimum of 10 minutes and significantly longer times may be necessary for tight cracks.3.3. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 12 of 83 .6 INDICATION DEVELOPMENT The developer is allowed to stand on the part surface for a period of time sufficient to permit the extraction of the trapped penetrant out of any surface flaws.3. This check involves placing a drop of the standard and the in-use penetrants on a piece of Whatman #4 filter paper and making a side by side comparison of the brightness of the two spots under UV light. Therefore. When using fluorescent penetrants. regular checks must be performed to insure that the material performance has not degraded. sealed container. a sample of the fresh solution should be collected and stored as a standard for future comparison. The performance of a penetrant can be affected by contamination and aging. Contamination by another liquid will change the surface tension and contact angle of the solution. 2.4 QUALITY CONTROL OF PENETRANT The quality of a penetrant inspection is highly dependent on the quality of the penetrant materials used. a brightness comparison per the requirements of ASTM E 1417 is also often required.

Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 Additionally. Additionally. highly porous. the surface tension and contact angle of the mixture will increase since water has a higher surface tension than most oil-based penetrants in self-emulsifiable penetrants. It must draw out of the discontinuity a sufficient amount of penetrant to form an indication. water washable penetrants are checked with a refractometer. When water contaminates oil-based penetrants. Most specification limit water contamination to around 5% to be conservative.5 QUALITY CONTROL OF DEVELOPER The function of the developer is very important in a penetrant inspection. In a fluorescent penetrant inspection. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 13 of 83 . the water content of water washable penetrants must be checked regularly. surface layer. the amount of penetrant brought to the surface must exceed the dye's thin film threshold of fluorescence of the indication will not fluoresce. Water-based. water contamination can produce a gel break or emulsion inversion when the water concentration becomes high enough. the developer makes fluorescent indications appear brighter than indications produced with the same amount of dye but without the developer. highly porous layer with many paths for the penetrant to be moved due to capillary action. water washable penetrants are checked using the procedure specified in ASTM D95 or ASTM E 1417. Non-water-based. In order to accomplish these functions. a developer must adhere to the part surface and result in a uniform. and it must spread the penetrant out on the surface to produce a visible indication. The rejection criteria are different for different penetrants so the requirements of the qualifying specification or the manufacturer's instructions must be consulted. they will be covered individually. but the desired end result is always a uniform. Since the quality control requirements for each of the developer types is slightly different. 2. Some developers are applied wet and other dry. Data indicates that the water contamination must be significant (greater than 10%) for gel formation to occur. The formation of the gel is an important feature during the washing processes but must be avoided until the stage in the process.

1 DRY POWDER DEVELOPER A dry powder developer should be checked daily to ensure that it is fluffy and not caked.2 WET SOLUBLE / SUSPENDIBLE DEVELOPER Wet soluble developer must be completely dissolved in the water and wet suspendible developer must be thoroughly mixed prior to application. it should be replaced. the batch should be discarded. flowing or immersion of the component.5. excessive powder can be removed by gently blowing on the surface with air not exceeding 35 kPa or 5 psi. It should be similar to fresh powdered sugar and not granulated like powered soup.5. direct check of the solution Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 14 of 83 . Apply a light coat of the developer by immersing the test component or dusting the surface. the solution should be examined weekly using both white light and UV light. If there are ten or more fluorescent specks in a 10 cm diameter area. To check for contamination. Some specification require that a clean aluminum panel be dipped in the developer.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 2. The concentration of powder in the carrier solution must be controlled in these developers. 2. Since the developer solution is in a sealed vessel. It should also be relatively free from specks of fluorescent penetrant material from previous inspection. 2.5. and examined for indications of contamination by fluorescent penetrant materials. These developers are applied immediately after the final wash. This is checking is performed by spreading out a sample of the developer and examining it under UV light. If a scum is present or the solution fluoresces. Prolonged contact of the component with the developer solution should be avoided in order to minimize dilution or removal of the penetrant from discontinuities.3 SOLVENT SUSPENDIBLE Solvent suspendible developers are typically supplied in an sealed aerosol spray can. After the development time. A uniform coating should be applied by spraying. They should never be applied with a brush. The concentration should be checked at least weekly using a hydrometer to make sure it meets the manufacturer's specification. Care should be taken to avoid a heavy accumulation of the developer solution in crevices and recesses. dried.

When a visible penetrant system. even coating on the surface of the part. Furthermore. Fluorescent penetrants are generally more capable of producing a detectable indication from a small defect because the human eye is more sensitive to a light indication on a dark background and the eye is naturally drawn to a fluorescent indication. However. 2. the developer coating must be thick enough to provide a white contrasting background but not heavy enough to mask indications. The spray developer should produce a fine. when properly applied can have the highest sensitivity and are very convenient to use but are usually not practical for large area inspection or in highvolume production settings. indications down to 0.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 are not possible. When a dark indication on a light background is further reduced in size. 2.6 SELECTION OF A PENETRANT TECHNIQUE When sensitivity is the primary consideration for choosing a penetrant system.5. it is up to the inspector to control the thickness of the coating. The developer should be applied under white light condition and should appear evenly transparent.4 DEVELOPMENT TIME Part should be allowed to develop for a minimum of 10 minutes and no more than 2 hours before inspecting. Make sure the can is well shaken and apply a thin coating to a test article. When using a fluorescent penetrant system. the way that the developer is dispensed must be monitored.0001 inch) were detectable when the contrast between the flaw and the background was high enough.003 mm (0. it is no longer detectable even though contrast is increased. or visible dye penetrant. with a light indication on a dark background. the first decision that must be made is whether to use fluorescent dye penetrant. Solvent removable penetrants. When applying a solvent suspendible developer. visible systems are more easy to use in the field. a very light coating should be used. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 15 of 83 . Since visible dye penetrants do not require a darkened area for the use of an ultraviolet light. If the spray produces spatters or other an uneven coating the can should be discarded.

Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 16 of 83 . which can have a positive or negative effect on sensitivity. In its day. However. Heating the part prior to inspection is no longer necessary and no longer recommended. this served to increase inspection sensitivity by increasing the viscosity of the penetrant. A tip to remember is that surfaces that can be touched for an extended period of time without burning the skin are generally below 52oC (125oF). post-emulsifiable or solvent removable penetrants will be used. the converse is also true and lowing the temperature will have a negative effect on the flow characteristics. Parts were either heated or processed hot off the production line. the penetrant materials used today have 1/2 to 1/3 the viscosity of the penetrants on the market in the 1960's and 1970's. these systems add another step. which is one of the factors known to reduce sensitivity. raising the temperature of the penetrant will increase the wetting of the surface and the capillary forces. to the inspection process.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 Another consideration in the selection of a penetrant system is whether water washable. The impact will be positive if the evaporation serves to increase the dye concentration of the penetrant trapped in a flaw up to the concentration quenching point and not beyond. Since the surface tension of most materials decrease as the temperature increases.7 PROCESS CONTROL OF TEMPERATURE The temperature of the penetrant materials and the part being inspected can have an effect on the results. 2. and thus cost. Higher temperatures and more rapid evaporation will have a negative effect if the dye concentration is caused to exceed the concentration quenching point or the flow characteristics are changed to the point where the penetrant does not readily flow. Of course. Temperatures from 27 to 49oC (80 to 120oF) are reported in the literature to produce optimal results. The method of processing a hot part was once commonly employed. Many specifications allow testing in the range of 4 to 52oC (40 to 125oF). However. Postemulsifiable systems are designed to reduce the possibility of over-washing. Raising the temperature will also raise the speed of evaporation of penetrants.

etc. LPT can be used to inspect almost any material provided that its surface is not extremely rough or porous. Liquid penetrant inspection is used to inspect of flaws that break the surface of the sample. one of the major limitations of a penetrant inspection is that flaws must be open to the surface. Some of these flaws are listed below: • • • • • • • • • Fatigue cracks Quench cracks Grinding cracks Overload and impact fractures Porosity Laps Seams Pin holes in welds Lack of fusion or braising along the edge of the bond line As mentioned above. titanium.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 2.8 COMMON USES OF LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING Liquid penetrant Testing (LPT) is one of the most widely used nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method. Materials that are commonly inspected using LPT include the following: • • • • • Metals (aluminum. Its popularity can be attributed to two main factors. which are its relative ease of use and its flexibility. steel. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 17 of 83 . copper.) Glass Many ceramic materials Rubber Plastics LPT offers flexibility in performing inspections because it can be applied in a large variety of applications ranging from automotive spark plugs to critical aircraft components. Penetrant material can be applied with a spray can or a cotton swab to inspect for flaws known to occur in a specific area or it can be applied by dipping or spraying to quickly inspect large areas.

and conductive and nonconductive materials may be inspected. the crack length alone does not determine whether a flaw will be seen or go undetected. The flaw must be of sufficient volume so that enough penetrant will bleed back out to a size that is detectable by the eye or that will satisfy the dimensional thresholds of fluorescence. magnetic and nonmagnetic. Typically. PRIMARY ADVANTAGES • • The method has high sensitive to small surface discontinuities. the crack length at the sample surface is used to define size of the defect. The volume of the defect is likely to be the more important feature. Sensitivity is defined as the smallest defect that can be detected with a high degree of reliability. i. The primary advantages and disadvantages when compared to other NDE methods are summarized below. • • Aerosol spray cans make penetrant materials very portable. liquid penetrant inspection has both advantages and disadvantages. Penetrant materials and associated equipment are relatively inexpensive. • • Parts with complex geometric shapes are routinely inspected. A survey of any probability-of-detection curve for penetrant inspection will quickly lead one to the conclusion that crack length has a definite affect on sensitivity. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 18 of 83 .e. metallic and nonmetallic. Indications are produced directly on the surface of the part and constitute a visual representation of the flaw. PRIMARY DISADVANTAGES • Only surface breaking defects can be detected. • Large areas and large volumes of parts/materials can be inspected rapidly and at low cost. The method has few material limitations.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 2. However.10 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF LPT Like all nondestructive inspection methods. 2.9 NATURE OF THE DEFECT The nature of the defect can have a large affect on sensitivity of a liquid penetrant inspection.

However. Many of the chemicals used contain detergents and solvents that can dermatitis. there is a number of health and safety related issues that must be addressed. grinding. Chemical handling and proper disposal is required. Surface finish and roughness can affect inspection sensitivity. and grit or vapor blasting must be removed prior to LPT. liquid penetrant inspection operations can be completed without harm to inspection personnel. should be used and stored in small quantities. Precleaning is critical as contaminants can mask defects. Some of the penetrant materials are flammable and. therefore. 2. They should only be used in a well-ventilated area and ignition sources avoided. certain precautions must be taken as directed by the material safety data sheets (MSDS) for the chemicals. Metal smearing from machining. it is highly recommended that the MSDS be reviewed so that proper chemical safety and hygiene practices can be followed. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 19 of 83 . CHEMICAL SAFETY Whenever chemicals must be handled. Eye protection should always be worn to prevent contact of the chemicals with the eyes. only a few of the most common concerns will be discussed here.11 HEALTH AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS IN LPT When proper health and safety precautions are followed. Before working with a chemical of any kind. Post cleaning of acceptable parts or materials is required. Since each inspection operation will have its own unique set of health and safety concerns that must be addressed. • • • • • The inspector must have direct access to the surface being inspected. Multiple process operations must be performed and controlled. Gloves and other protective clothing should be warn to limit contact with the chemicals.Category: MECHANICAL • • • IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 Only materials with a relative nonporous surface can be inspected.

accelerate wrinkling and increase the risk of skin cancer. These wavelengths place UV light in the invisible part of the electromagnetic spectrum between visible light and X-rays. Excessive UV light exposure can cause painful sunburn. The most familiar source of UV radiation is the sun and is necessary in small doses for certain chemical processes to occur in the body. The greatest threat with UV light exposure is that the individual is generally unaware that the damage is occurring. Therefore. like UV lamps. UV lamps sold for use in LPT application are almost always filtered to remove the harmful UV wavelengths. can cause injury much more quickly. There is usually no pain associated with the injury until several hours after the exposure.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT SAFETY Ultraviolet (UV) light or "black light" as it is sometimes called. too much exposure can be harmful to the skin and eyes. and retinal damage. Because of their close proximity. The lamps produce radiation at the harmful wavelengths so it is essential that they be used with the proper filter in place and in good condition. However. has wavelengths ranging from 180 to 400 nanometers. cataracts. laboratory devices. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 20 of 83 . therefore. deliver UV light at a much higher intensity than the sun and. UV light can cause eye inflammation. where penetrants are designed to fluoresce. Skin and eye damage occurs at wavelengths around 320 nm and shorter which is well below the 365 nm wavelength.

He found the new ray could pass through most substances casting shadows of solid objects. Roentgen also discovered that the ray could pass through the tissue of humans. French scientist Henri Becquerel discovered natural radioactivity.000-volt X-ray tube that allowed radiographs of thick steel parts to be produced in a reasonable amount of time. Working with a cathode-ray tube in his laboratory. That same year. This ray was capable of passing through the heavy paper covering and exciting the phosphorescent materials in the room. In 1896. General Electric Company developed 1. Roentgen observed a fluorescent glow of crystals on a table near his tube. Prior to 1912. though some X-ray pictures of metals were produced.000 volt X-ray generators. In 1931. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 21 of 83 . but not bones and metal objects. the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) permitted X-ray approval of fusion welded pressure vessels that further opened the door to industrial acceptance and use.2 NATURAL RADIO ACTIVITY Shortly after the discovery of X-rays.1 HISTORY OF RADIOGRAPHY X-rays were discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (1845-1923) who was a Professor at Wuerzburg University in Germany. 3. X-rays were used little outside the realms of medicine. He concluded that a new type of ray was being emitted from the tube. The reason that X-rays were not used in industrial application before this date was because the X-ray tubes (the source of the X-rays) broke down under the voltages required to produce rays of satisfactory penetrating power for industrial purpose.000. and dentistry. industrial radiography took another step forward with the advent of the 200. providing an effective tool for industrial radiography. another form of penetrating rays was discovered. In 1922.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 CHAPTER – 3 RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING 3.

Wavelength of visible light is of the order of 6000 angstroms while the wavelength of x-rays is in the range of one angstrom and that of gamma rays is 0. many other radioactive elements have been discovered or produced.7x1010 disintegrations (nuclear decays) per second. These new sources were far stronger than radium and were much less expensive.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 It was Henri Becquerel who discovered this phenomenon while investigating the properties of fluorescent minerals. Strength of source is measured in Curie (Ci). The manmade sources rapidly replaced radium. they named it 'polonium' in honor of Marie Curie's native homeland. Marie and her husband. While working in France at the time of Becquerel's discovery. Both polonium and radium were more radioactive than uranium. Since these discoveries. In 1946. The material allowed radiographing castings up to 10 to 12 inches thick. the Curies discovered another radioactive element in pitchblende. or shining element. In 1898. These electromagnetic waves are of a high energy level and can break chemical bonds in materials they penetrate. Later that year. Polish scientist Marie Curie became very interested in his work. This very short wavelength is what gives xrays and gamma rays their power to penetrate materials that light cannot. She suspected that a uranium ore known as pitchblende contained other radioactive elements. a French scientist. Radium became the initial industrial gamma ray source. Intensity of radiation is expressed in Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 22 of 83 . and use of gamma rays grew quickly in industrial radiography. During World War II. 1 Curie is equivalent to 3.0001 angstrom. He utilized photographic plates to record this fluorescence. certain minerals glow (fluoresce) when exposed to sunlight. the Curie's discovered another radioactive element. Pierre Curie started looking for these other elements. manmade gamma ray sources such as cobalt and iridium became available. industrial radiography grew tremendously as part of the Navy's shipbuilding program. which they named 'radium'. X-rays and Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation of exactly the same nature as light. Becquerel was researching the principles of fluorescence. but of much shorter wavelength.

009 Useful thickness range(mm) 12 .33 0. A radiograph with higher contrast will provide greater probability of detection of a given discontinuity.32 0.17.3 INVERSE SQUARE LAW Any point source which spreads its influence equally in all directions without a limit to its range will obey the inverse square law.3 0. The intensity of the influence at any given radius (d) is the source strength divided by the area of the sphere. Where.5 1. I1 & I2 are intensities of sources at distance d1 & d2 .26 Years 30 Years 127 Days Energy(MeV) 0. This comes from strictly geometrical considerations.90 2. An understanding of absorption is also necessary when designing x. 3.4 ABSORPTION Absorption characteristics of materials are important in the development of contrast in a radiograph. or exposure vaults. cabinets. Sources Used in Industrial Radiography and its properties are given below: Source Ir-192 Co-60 Cs-137 Tu-170 Half Life 74 Days 5.66 0.5 – 12. and photon energy is fundamental to producing a quality radiograph. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 23 of 83 . It is the amount of received by the material at distance of 1 meter from 1curie source.200 20 . 1. Absorption characteristics will increase or decrease as the energy of the x-ray is increased or decreased.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 roentgens meter hour (RHM). Half-life is time required to reduce the source strength to half of its original value. An understanding of the relationship between material thickness.5 3.65 50 .4 1.and gamma ray shielding.08 RHM 0. All measures of exposure will drop off by the inverse square law. absorption properties.

when an electron and positron are created with the annihilation of the x-ray photon (absorption). or classical scattering) occurs when the x-ray photon interacts with the whole atom so that the photon is scattered with no change in internal energy to the scattering atom. some due to absorption.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 Attenuation of x-rays in solids takes place by several different mechanisms. nor to the x-ray photon.5 RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE Radiographs shall be made with a single source of radiation centered as near as practical with respect to the length and width of the portion of the weld being examined. coherent. The source to subject distance shall not be less than the total length of film being exposed in a single plane. resulting in the ionization of the atom. 1.02 MeV. Subsequently. 5. The source to subject distance shall not be less than seven times the thickness of weld plus reinforcement and backing . Compton Scattering (C) (also known a incoherent scattering) occurs when the incident x-ray photon ejects an electron from an atom and a x-ray photon of lower energy is scattered from the atom." This needs careful attention because a good radiograph can only be achieved if there is minimum x-ray scattering. Pair Production (PP) can occur when the x-ray photon energy is greater than 1. 2. 3. Photoelectric (PE) absorption of x-rays occurs when the x-ray photon is absorbed resulting in the ejection of electrons from the outer shell of the atom. 4. Photodisintegration (PD) is the process by which the x-ray photon is captured by the nucleus of the atom with the ejection of a particle from the nucleus when all the energy of the x-ray is given to the nucleus (absorption). This provision does not apply to panoramic exposures. then the radiation shall penetrate any of Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 24 of 83 . others due to the scattering of the beam. the ionized atom returns to the neutral state with the emission of an x-ray characteristic of the atom. 3. Thomson scattering (R) (also known as Rayleigh. Thompson scattering and Compton Scattering were introduced in the material titled "Interaction Between Penetrating Radiation and Matter" and "Compton Scattering.if any .

An adequate number of exposures shall be made to demonstrate that the required coverage had been obtained.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 the weld represented in the radiograph at an angle greater than 26. beyond each free edge where the weld is terminated. a double wall technique shall be used.A single-wall technique shall be used for radiography whenever practical. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 25 of 83 . short screen. or any other process that obscures portions of the total weld length shall render the radiograph unacceptable. When it is not practical to use a single wall technique.5.1 SINGLE WALL TECHNIQUE In the single wall technique. Short film. Joints limits shall show clearly in the radiographs. the radiation passes through only one wall of the weld which is viewed for acceptance on the radiograph . excessive undercut by scattered radiation. Welded joints shall be radiographed and the film indexed by methods that will provide complete and continous inspection of the joint within the limits specified to be examined. 3. exposed to direct radiation from the source.5 deg from a line normal to the weld surface. Film shall have sufficient length and shall be placed to produce at least 0.5" film.

Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 .5.2 DOUBLE WALL TECHNIQUE For materials and welds in pipe and tube 3. 3. a technique may be used in which the radiation passes through two radiation walls and the weld in both walls is viewed for acceptance on the same film.5" or less in nominal outside diameter. the radiation beams may be offset from the plan of the weld at an angle sufficient to Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 26 of 83 . For welds.

three exposures 120 degrees apart shall be required.5" radiographic examination shall be performed for single wall viewing only. Double wall technique. the weld may be radiographed with the radiation beam positioned so that the image of both walls are superimposed. in which case at least three exposure shall be made at60deg to each other.5 or less. in which case a minimum of two exposures taken at 90deg to each other shall be made for each joint. For welds in pipe and tubes with a nominal outside diameter 0. single wall viewing –for material and welds in pipe and tubes with a nominal outside diameter greater than 3. As a minimum. An adequate number of exposures shall be taken to ensure complete coverage. single wall viewing may be used provided the source is offset from the welds. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 27 of 83 .Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 separate the images of the source side and film side portion of the weld so that there is no overlap of the areas to be interpreted. As an alternate.

Category: MECHANICAL

IPCL NC: Training Module

Module No IPCLDSMEC095

3.6

SHARPNESS OF RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGE:

Geometric unsharpness limitation - geometric unsharpness of radiograph shall not exceed the following. Geometric unsharphness of the radiograph shall be determined in accordance with:
Ug = Fd /D

Prepared by: DN Rev: 01

Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004

Approved By: AKS Pages: 28 of 83

Category: MECHANICAL
Where • • • • Ug = geometrical unsharpness F = source size in mm

IPCL NC: Training Module

Module No IPCLDSMEC095

D = distance in mm from the source of the radiation to the weld or object being radiographed d = distance in inches from the source side of the weld or object being radiographed to the film.

3.7

FILTERS IN RADIOGRAPHY

At radiation energies, filters consist of material placed in the useful beam to absorb, preferentially, radiations based on energy level or to modify the spatial distribution of the beam. The use of filters produces a cleaner image by absorbing the lower

energy x-ray photons that tend to scatter more. For industrial radiography, the filters added to the x-ray beam are most often constructed of high atomic number materials such as lead, copper, or brass. The thickness of filter materials is dependent on atomic numbers, and the desired filtration factor. Gamma radiography produces relatively high energy levels at essentially monochromatic radiation, therefore filtration is not a useful technique and is seldom used.

3.8

CONTROLLING RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY

One of the methods of controlling the quality of a radiograph is through the use of image quality indicators (IQI). IQIs provide a means of visually informing the film interpreter of the contrast sensitivity and definition of the radiograph. The IQI indicates that a specified amount of material thickness change will be detectable in the radiograph, and that the radiograph has a certain level of definition so that the density changes are not lost due to unsharpness. Without such a reference point, consistency and quality could not be maintained and defects could go undetected.

Prepared by: DN Rev: 01

Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004

Approved By: AKS Pages: 29 of 83

Category: MECHANICAL

IPCL NC: Training Module

Module No IPCLDSMEC095

Image quality indicators take many shapes and forms due to the various codes or standards that invoke their use. In the United States two IQI style are prevalent; the placard, or hole-type and the wire IQI. IQIs come in a variety of material types so that one with radiation absorption characteristics similar to the material being radiographed can be used.

3.8.1 HOLE-TYPE IQIS
ASTM Standard E1025 gives detailed requirements for the design and material group classification of hole-type image quality indicators. E1025 designates eight groups of shims based on their radiation absorption characteristics. A notching system is incorporated into the requirements allowing the radiographer to easily determine if the penetrameter is the correct material type for the product. The thickness in thousands of an inch is noted on each pentameter by a lead number 0.250 to 0.375 inch wide depending on the thickness of the shim. Military or Government standards require a similar penetrameter but use lead letters to indicate the material type rather than notching system as shown on the left in the image above. Image quality levels are typically designated using a two part expression such as 22T. The first term refers to the IQI thickness expressed as a percentage of the region of interest of the part being inspected. The second term in the expression refers to the diameter of the hole that must be revealed and it is expressed as a multiple of the IQI thickness. Therefore, a 2-2T call-out would mean that the shim thickness should be two percent of material thickness and that a hole that is twice the IQI thickness must be detectable on the radiograph. This presentation of a 2-2T IQI in

Prepared by: DN Rev: 01

Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004

Approved By: AKS Pages: 30 of 83

Category: MECHANICAL

IPCL NC: Training Module

Module No IPCLDSMEC095

the radiograph verifies that the radiographic technique is capable of showing a material loss of 2% in the area of interest.

It should be noted that even if 2-2T sensitivity is indicated on a radiograph, a defect of the same diameter and material loss might not be visible. The holes in the penetrameter represent sharp boundaries, and a small thickness change. Discontinues within the part may contain gradual changes, and are often less visible. The penetrameter is used to indicate quality of the radiographic technique and not to be used as a measure of size of cavity that can be located on the radiograph.

3.8.2 WIRE PENETRAMETERS
ASTM Standard E747 covers the radiographic examination of materials using wire penetrameters (IQIs) to control image quality. Wire IQIs consist of a set of six wires arranged in order of increasing diameter and encapsulated between two sheets of clear plastic. E747 specifies four wire IQIs sets, which control the wire diameters. The set letter (A, B, C or D) is shown in the lower right corner of the IQI. The number in the lower left corner indicates the material group. The same image quality levels and expressions (i.e. 2-2T) used for hole-type IQIs are typically also used for wire IQIs. The wire sizes that correspond to various hole-type quality levels can be found in a table in E747 or can be calculated using the following formula.

3.8.3 PLACEMENT OF IQIS
IQIs should be placed on the source side of the part over a section with a material thickness equivalent to the region of interest. If this is not possible, the IQI may be placed on a block of similar material and thickness to the region of interest. When a block is used, the IQI should the same distance from the film as it would be if placed directly on the part in the region of interest. The IQI should also be placed slightly away from the edge of the part so that atleast three of its edges are visible in the radiograph.

Prepared by: DN Rev: 01

Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004

Approved By: AKS Pages: 31 of 83

then attempts to manipulate radiographic contrast will have no effect on the amount of detail present in that radiograph Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 32 of 83 . Whether processing is done by hand or automatically by machine. Thus protecting the film from any water or chemicals that may be located on the surface of the wet side. First to produce a radiograph adequate for viewing. excellent radiographs require the highest possible degree of consistency and quality control. and to provide adequate shelf life of the radiograph. which is most often a metal bin that is used to store and protect the film. Film should be located in a light. wash out residual processing chemicals. 3. temperature.1 MANUAL PROCESSING & DARKROOMS Manual processing begins with the darkroom. time. The darkroom should be located in a central location. adjacent to the reading room and a reasonable distance from the exposure area. tight compartment. the wet side. For portability darkrooms are often mounted on pickups or trailers.9 FILM PROCESSING Processing film is a science governed by rigid rules of chemical concentration. A radiograph may be retrieved after 5 or even 20 years in storage. If detail in a radiograph is originally lacking.9. and secondly to prepare the radiograph for archival storage.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 3. Each of step in film processing must be excited properly to develop the image. One must bear in mind that radiographic contrast and definition are not dependent upon the same set of factors. and physical movement. The objective of processing is two fold. will be used to process the film. While another area. An area next to the film bin that is dry and free of dust and dirt should be used to load and unload the film.

flexible plastic such as cellulose acetate. the emulsion.2 THE BASE All radiographic film consists of a base for which the other materials are applied. 3. It is this material in suspension that is Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 33 of 83 . There are three important parts to a radiographic film. which is usually a high intensity light source. and the protective coating.9. They are applied to the film during manufacturing and usually take on a pale yellow color with a glassy appearance. An emulsion holds something in suspension. These features are separated into the image layer of the emulsion. and the protective layer. 3. they offer two distinct features to the film. it is subject to interpretation. the characteristics of the film are very important.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 To understand how the image on a radiograph is formed. The softer layers of the gelatin coating are technically known as the emulsion. Radiographic film must be capable of transmitting light.9. It will absorb the water and swell if it is dissolved in cold water.4 THE PROTECTIVE LAYER The protective layer has the important function of protecting the softer emulsion layers below. These include the base. It is not sensitive to radiation. The clarity or transparency of the film base is an important feature. The principle function of the base is to provide support for the emulsion. It offers very important properties to film manufacturers. which include shrinkage (during drying that forms glassy protective layers) and dissolving in warm water. This is commonly done by using a film illuminating device. The film base is usually made from a clear.3 THE EMULSION The film emulsion and protective coating comprise the other two components and are essentially made from the same material. nor can it record an image. 3. Once a film has been processed chemically.9. Although they are made from the same material. It is simply a very thin skin of gelatin protecting the film from scratches during handling. This plastic is similar to what you might find in a wallet for holding pictures.

When the gelatin hardens the silver bromide crystals are held in suspension throughout the emulsion. stop bath. A special chemical within the developer solution acts on the film by reducing the exposed silver bromide crystals to black metallic silver. consisting of alkali and metol or hydroquinone mixed with water. There are three processing solutions that must be used to convert an exposed film to a useful radiograph. The developer’s purpose is to develop. Once a film has been exposed to radiation and possesses the latent image. This is what forms the visible image on the radiograph. This process of developing is actually a multi-step process. Keep in mind that the protective coating of the film is made of gelatin and is sensitive to temperature and water. they become important in the development process. Upon exposure of the film to radiation. Each grain or crystal of silver bromide that has become ionized can be reduced or developed to form a grain of black metallic silver. The developer solution is comprised of a combination of chemicals. 3. silver bromide is added to the solution of dissolved gelatin.5 THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING FILM 1. The purpose of the alkali is to penetrate the protective coating allowing the metol to reduce the exposed silver bromide to black metallic oxide. During manufacturing of the film.9. To begin the process of converting the latent image on the radiograph to a useful image we first expose the film to the developer solution. and the fixer. the silver bromide crystals become ionized in varying degrees forming the latent image. Recall the characteristics of the film manufacturing mentioned earlier. Each of these solutions is important in processing the image so that it may be viewed and stored over a period of time. and to make the latent image visible. Before the developer can change the silver crystals it must penetrate the protective coating of the film. This visible image is made up of an extremely large number of silver crystals each is individually exposed to radiation but working together as a unit to form the image. The purpose of developing the film is to bring the latent image out so that it can be seen visibly. it requires chemical development. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 34 of 83 . These are the developer.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 sensitive to radiation and forms the latent image on the film.

Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 2. it is becoming increasingly common to digitize radiographs and view them on a high resolution monitor. It is important to recognize that alkali’s and acid’s neutralize each other. 3. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 35 of 83 . it is then rinsed in water and dried so that it may be visually examined. Once the film has been properly developed. The area should be clean and free of distracting materials. It is this process that is used to preserve the radiographic image over time.10 VIEWING RADIOGRAPHS Radiographs (developed film exposed to x-ray or gamma radiation) are generally viewed on a light-box. The function of the stop bath is to quickly neutralize any excessive development of the silver crystals. Ambient light levels of less than 2 fc are often recommended. is preferable in the viewing room. The viewing conditions can enhance or degrade the subtle details of radiographs. The fixer must first remove any unexposed silver crystals and then harden the remaining crystals in the emulsion. However. Before beginning the evaluation of a radiograph. 3. Magnifying aids. Over development of the silver crystals results in a radiographic image that is virtually impossible to interpret. and film markers should be close at hand. rather than total darkness. This is also a multi-step process. Thin cotton gloves should be available and worn to prevent fingerprints on the radiograph. masking aids. The brightness of the surroundings should be about the same as the area of interest in the radiograph. the viewing equipment and area should be considered. This bath is comprised of a glacial acetic acid and water. Ambient light levels should be low. The third step in development is the fixer. Its function is to permanently fix the image on the film. Room illumination must be arranged so that there are no reflections from the surface of the film under examination. Proper viewing conditions are very important when interpreting a radiograph. but subdued lighting. The second step in the development process is the stop bath.

spot viewers. the radiograph should be checked to ensure that it does not contain processing and handling artifacts that could mask discontinuities or other details of interest. Once a radiograph passes these initial checks it is ready for interpretation. With such low levels of light passing through the radiograph the delivery of a good light source is important. Film viewers should provide a source of defused. Radiographic film interpretation is an acquired skill combining. is rest. If the component is inspected while in service. or as required by contractual documents. area viewers.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 Film viewers should be clean and in good working condition. The mind as well as the eyes need to occasionally rest when interpreting radiographs. When viewing a particular region of interest. as required by the procedure. left to right top to bottom etc.. One part of the interpretation process. The technician should develop a standard process for evaluating the radiographs so that details are not overlooked. techniques such as using a small light source and moving the radiograph over the small light source. A film having a measured density of 2. The radiographic process should be performed in accordance with a written procedure or code. is helpful and will prevent overlooking an area on the radiograph. There are four groups of film viewers. or changing the Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 36 of 83 . A process for viewing radiographs. visual acuity with knowledge of materials. and that it contains the correct identification information. adjustable. The required documents should be available in the viewing area and referenced as necessary when evaluating components.01 percent of the incident light to pass. This process is often developed over time and individualized.0 will allow only 0. an understanding of applied loads and history of the component is helpful. These include: strip viewers. manufacturing processes.0 percent of the incident light to pass. It should be verified that the radiograph was produced to the correct density on the required film type.0 will allow only 1. should first be determined. Next. sometimes overlooked. and their associated discontinues. and a combination of spot and area viewers. A film containing a density of 4. Radiographic film quality and acceptability. and relativity cool light as heat from viewers can cause distortion of the radiograph. It should also be verified that the proper image quality indicator was used and that the required sensitivity level was met.

3.11.Absorption differences in the specimen . Magnifying tools should also be used when appropriate to help identify and evaluate indications.Scatter or secondary radiation Film contrast is determined by the following: . the interpreter will increase his or her probability of detecting defects. The high sensitivity to ionizing radiation provides excellent detail and sensitivity to density changes when producing images of industrial materials.Time of development Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 37 of 83 . Viewing the actual component being inspected is very often helpful in developing an understanding of the details seen in a radiograph. By using the proper equipment and developing consistent evaluation processes. the more visible features become.Grain size or type of film .Wavelength of the primary radiation . Radiographic contrast has two main contributors: subject contrast and detector or film contrast.Concentrations of film processing chemicals . Subject contrast is determined by the following variables: . 3.Chemistry of film processing chemicals . Image quality is determined by a combination of variables: radiographic contrast and definition. Many variables affecting radiographic contrast and definition are summarized below and addressed in following sections.1 RADIOGRAPHIC CONTRAST Radiographic contrast describes the differences in photographic density in a radiograph. The contrast between different parts of the image is what forms the image and the greater the contrast. Interpretation of radiographs is an acquired skill that is perfected over time.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 intensity of the light source will help the radiographer identify relevant indications.11 IMAGE CONSIDERATIONS The most common detector used in industrial radiography is film.

Above this point they will emit electrons to provide more exposure of the film to ionizing radiation thus increasing the density of the radiograph. 3. As the wavelength shortens and penetration increases. Lead screens in the thickness range of 0.004 to 0.015 inch typically reduce scatter radiation at energy levels below 150. Definition increases as the source to film distance increase. which is the distance between the specimen and the detector. These geometric factors include: Focal spot size. In other words. The focal spot size should be as close to a point source as possible to produce the most definition. Fluorescent screens produce visible light when exposed to radiation and this light further exposes the film. Film graininess.11. The grain size of the film will affect the definition of the radiograph. Specimen to detector (film) distance. the apparent graininess of the film Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 38 of 83 . 000 volts.Temperature of development . which is the distance from the source to the part. Abrupt changes in specimen thickness may cause distortion on the radiograph.Degree of mechanical agitation (physical motion) Exposing the film to produce higher film densities will generally increase contrast. There are a number of geometric factors of the X-ray equipment and the radiographic setup that have an effect on definition.2 DEFINITION Radiographic definition is the abruptness of change in going from one density to another. which is the area of origin of the radiation. Movement of the specimen during the exposure will produce distortion on the radiograph. the specimen and detector should be as close together as possible. Wavelength of the radiation will influence apparent graininess.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 . and screen mottling will decrease definition. darker areas will increase in density faster than lighter areas because in any given period of time more x-rays are reaching the darker areas. For optimal definition. Source to film distance.

01% of transmitted light reaches the far side of the film. and the experience level for recognizing various features in the image. Visual acuity is the ability to resolve a spatial pattern in an image. and (3) evaluation.0 H&D (Hurder and Drifield) for acceptable viewing. increased development of the film will increase the apparent graininess of the radiograph. As these combine with processing variables a final product or the radiograph is produced. The ability of an individual to detect discontinuities in radiography is also affected by the lighting condition in the place of viewing. contrast will also increase.3 RADIOGRAPHIC DENSITY Film speed. gradient. The following material was developed to Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 39 of 83 . As density increases. Density considerations date back to early day radiography.0 H&D is the result of only 1 percent of the transmitted light reaching the sensor. Hurder and Drifield have been credited with developing much of the early information on the characteristic curve and density of a radiograph. (2) interpretation. All of these steps make use of the radiographer's visual acuity. 3.0 H&D an extremely bright viewing light is necessary for evaluation. requirements have been established for acceptable radiographs in industry. and graininess are all responsible for the performance of the film during exposure and processing.11. 3. Codes and standards will typically require densities of a radiograph to be maintained between 1.0 H&D only 0. however as density reaches 4. The density of a radiograph in industry will determine if further viewing is possible.12 RADIOGRAPH INTERPRETATION . A density reading of 2. technically should be stated "Transmitted Density" when associated with transparent-base film. Density. Also. This density is the log of the intensity of light incident on the film to the intensity of light transmitted through the film.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 will increase.WELDS Interpretation of radiographs takes place in three basic steps. which are (1) detection. This is true above 4. At 4.8 to 4. In viewing the radiograph.0 H&D.

This is the result of gas attempting to escape while the metal is still in a liquid state and is called wormhole porosity.13 DISCONTINUITIES Discontinuities are interruptions in the typical structure of a material. 3. are referred to as defects. weld material or "heat affected" zones.13.1 GENERAL WELDING DISCONTINUITIES The following discontinuities are typical of all types of welding. 3. These interruptions may occur in the base metal. All porosity is a void in the material it will have a radiographic density more than the surrounding area. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 40 of 83 . Sometimes porosity is elongated and may have the appearance of having a tail. Cold lap is a condition where the weld filler metal does not properly fuse with the base metal or the previous weld pass material (interpass cold lap). which do not meet the requirements of the codes or specification used to invoke and control an inspection. Discontinuities.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 help students develop an understanding of the types of defects found in weldments and how they appear in a radiograph. in clusters or rows. Porosity is the result of gas entrapment in the solidifying metal. Porosity can take many shapes on a radiograph but often appears as dark round or irregular spots or specks appearing singularly. The arc does not melt the base metal sufficiently and causes the slightly molten puddle to flow into base material without bonding.

The moisture turns into gases when heated and becomes trapped in the weld during the welding process. It is one of the most objectionable weld Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 41 of 83 .Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 . dark. Slag inclusions are nonmetallic solid material entrapped in weld metal or between weld and base metal. Incomplete penetration (IP) or lack of penetration (LOP) occurs when the weld metal fails to penetrate the joint. jagged asymmetrical shapes within the weld or along the weld joint areas are indicative of slag inclusions. Cluster porosity appear just like regular porosity in the radiograph but the indications will be grouped close together. In a radiograph. Cluster porosity is caused when flux coated electrodes are contaminated with moisture.

Lack of penetration allows a natural stress riser from which a crack may propagate. straight edges that follows the land or root face down the center of the weldment. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 42 of 83 . Internal concavity or suck back is condition where the weld metal has contracted as it cools and has been drawn up into the root of the weld. On a radiograph it looks similar to lack of penetration but the line has irregular edges and it is often quite wide in the center of the weld image. Appearance on radiograph: usually appears as a dark line or lines oriented in the direction of the weld seam along the weld preparation or joining area. The appearance on a radiograph is a dark area with well-defined. Incomplete fusion is a condition where the weld filler metal does not properly fuse with the base metal.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 discontinuities.

The radiographic image is a noticeable Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 43 of 83 . Undercutting is not as straight edged as LOP because it does not follow a ground edge.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 Internal or root undercut is an erosion of the base metal next to the root of the weld. In the radiographic image it appears as a dark irregular line offset from the centerline of the weldment. Offset or mismatch is terms associated with a condition where two pieces being welded together are not properly aligned. it appears as a dark irregular line along the outside edge of the weld area. External or crown undercut is an erosion of the base metal next to the crown of the weld. In the radiograph.

Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 44 of 83 . A visual inspection will easily determine if the weld reinforcement is in excess of that specified by the engineering requirements. It is very easy to determine by radiograph if the weld has inadequate reinforcement. because the image density in the area of suspected inadequacy will be more (darker) than the image density of the surrounding base material. The difference in density is caused by the difference in material thickness. The dark. Inadequate weld reinforcement is an area of a weld where the thickness of weld metal deposited is less than the thickness of the base material. straight line is caused by failure of the weld metal to fuse with the land area.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 difference in density between the two pieces. lighter area in the weld. The appearance on a radiograph is a localized. Excess weld reinforcement is an area of a weld that has weld metal added in excess of that specified by engineering drawings and codes.

therefore.2 DISCONTINUITIES IN TIG WELDS The following discontinuities are peculiar to the TIG welding process. Cracks can sometimes appear as "tails" on inclusions or porosity.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 Cracks can be detected in a radiograph only when they are propagating in a direction that produces a change in thickness that is parallel to the x-ray beam. Radiographically. tungsten is more dense than aluminum or steel. tungsten may be entrapped in the weld.13. If improper welding procedures are used. Tungsten inclusions. The TIG method of welding produces a clean homogeneous weld which when radiographed is easily interpreted. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 45 of 83 . These discontinuities occur in most metals welded by the process including aluminum and stainless steels. it shows as a lighter area with a distinct outline on the radiograph. Tungsten is a brittle and inherently dense material used in the electrode in tungsten inert gas welding. 3. Cracks will appear as jagged and often very faint irregular lines.

Burn-Through results when too much heat causes excessive weld metal to penetrate the weld zone. burn through appears as dark spots. Whiskers are short lengths of weld electrode wire. On a radiograph they appear as light. Often lumps of metal sag through the weld creating a thick globular condition on the back of the weld.3 DISCONTINUITIES IN GAS METAL ARC WELDS (GMAW) The following discontinuities are most commonly found in GMAW welds. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 46 of 83 . which are often surrounded by light globular areas (icicles). These globs of metal are referred to as icicles. appear as dark irregularly shaped discontinuities in the radiograph. therefore.13.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 Oxide inclusions are usually visible on the surface of material being welded (especially aluminum). On a radiograph. visible on the top or bottom surface of the weld or contained within the weld. Oxide inclusions are less dense than the surrounding materials and. 3. "wire like" indications.

Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 47 of 83 .

and weldments. These characteristics make MPT one of the most widely utilized nondestructive testing methods. Many different industries use magnetic particle inspection for determining a component's fitness-for-use. and aerospace industries. or some of their alloys. forgings. cobalt. nickel. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 48 of 83 . Underwater inspection is another area where magnetic particle inspection may be used to test items such as offshore structures and underwater pipelines. Any place that a magnetic line of force exits or enters the magnet is called a pole. MPT uses magnetic fields and small magnetic particles. Consider a bar magnet. MPT is a fast and relatively easy to apply and part surface preparation is not as critical as it is for some other NDT methods. The only requirement from an inspectability standpoint is that the component being inspected must be made of a ferromagnetic material such iron. 4. It has a magnetic field in and around the magnet. It can be considered as a combination of two nondestructive testing methods: magnetic flux leakage testing and visual testing. such as iron filings to detect flaws in components. petrochemical.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 CHAPTER – 4 MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING 4.2 PRINCIPLE Magnetic particle testing (MPT) is a relatively simple concept. automotive. A pole where a magnetic line of force exits the magnet is called a north pole and a pole where a line of force enters the magnet is called a south pole.1 INTRODUCTION Magnetic particle testing (MPT) is a nondestructive testing method used for defect detection. Some examples of industries that use magnetic particle inspection are the structural steel. Ferromagnetic materials are materials that can be magnetized to a level that will allow the inspection to be effective. The method is used to inspect a variety of product forms such as castings. power generation.

After the component has been magnetized. thus. If any defects on or near the surface are present. the particles will be attracted to and cluster not only at the poles at the ends of the magnet but also at the poles at the edges of the crack. a north and south pole will form at each edge of the crack. two complete bar magnets with magnetic poles on each end of each piece will result. If iron particles are sprinkled on a cracked magnet. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 49 of 83 . If the magnet is just cracked but not broken completely in two. the defects will create a leakage field. The first step in a magnetic particle inspection is to magnetize the component that is to be inspected. it is called a flux leakage field. This cluster of particles is much easier to see than the actual crack and this is the basis for magnetic particle testing.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 When a bar magnet is broken in the center of its length. When the field spreads out. iron particles. The magnetic field spreads out when it encounter the small air gap created by the crack because the air cannot support as much magnetic field per unit volume as the magnet can. The magnetic field exits the north pole and reenters the at the south pole. it appears to leak out of the material and.

As previously mentioned. However. whereas.3. The particles will be attracted and cluster at the flux leakage fields. Therefore. 4. thus forming a visible indication that the inspector can detect 4. the field produced using alternating current is concentrated in a thin layer at the surface of the component. the magnetic field produced by DC generally penetrates the entire cross-section of the component. This phenomenon is known as "skin effect" and it occurs because induction is not a spontaneous reaction and the rapidly reversing current does not allow the domains down in the material time to align. current is said to flow from the positive to the negative terminal when in actuality the electrons flow in the opposite direction.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 either in a dry or wet suspended form. when AC is used to induce a magnetic field in ferromagnetic materials the magnetic field will be limited to narrow region at the surface of the component. Current flow is often modified to provide the appropriate field within the part. DC is very desirable when performing magnetic particle inspection in search of subsurface defects because DC generates a magnetic field that penetrates deeper into the material.3.1 DIRECT CURRENT Direct current (DC) flows continuously in one direction at a constant voltage. are applied to the surface of the magnetized part. A battery is the most common source of direct current. Since AC is readily available in most facilities. The type of current used can have an effect on the inspection results so the types of currents commonly are explained. to three phase 440 volts are used when generating an electric field in a component. In ferromagnetic materials. Alternating current and direct current are the two basic types of current commonly used. Current from single phase 110 volts. it is convenient to make use of it for magnetic particle inspection. 4. it is Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 50 of 83 .2 ALTERNATING CURRENT Alternating current (AC) reverses in direction at a rate of 50 or 60 cycles per second.3 MAGNETIZING CURRENT Electric current is often used to establish the magnetic field in components during magnetic particle inspection.

pulsating current is produced. drive its use beyond surface flaw inspections. Since half of the current is blocked out. the reversing AC can be converted to a one-directional current. The current rises from zero to a maximum and then returns to zero. current is allowed to flow in only one direction.3. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 51 of 83 . 4. The reverse half of each cycle is blocked out so that a one directional. No current flows during the time when the reverse cycle is blocked out. The HWAC repeats at same rate as the unrectified current (50 or 60 hertz typical). With the use of rectifiers.3 RECTIFIED ALTERNATING CURRENT The skin effect limits the use of AC since many inspection applications call for the detection of subsurface defects.4 HALF WAVE RECTIFIED ALTERNATING CURRENT (HWAC) When single-phase alternating current is passed through a rectifier. the convenient access to AC. However. the amperage is half of the unaltered AC. AC can be converted to current that is very much like DC through the process of rectification. The three commonly used types of rectified current are described below.3. 4.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 recommended that AC be used only when the inspection is limited to surface defects.

as well as how light measurements are made. The lighting requirements for each of these techniques. the lighting requirements are different for an inspection conducted using visible particles than they are for an inspection conducted using fluorescent particles.1 LIGHT REQUIREMENTS WHEN USING VISIBLE PARTICLES Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 52 of 83 . the resulting current very closely resembles direct current.4 LIGHTING Magnetic particle inspection predominately relies on visual inspection to detect any indications that are formed. Obviously. Stationary magnetic particle equipment wired with three phase AC will usually have the ability to magnetize with AC or DC (three phase full wave rectified). lighting is a very important element of the inspection process. While particle mobility is not as good as half-wave AC due to the reduction in pulsation.4. The pulsation is reported to significantly improve inspection sensitivity. This added mobility is especially important when using dry particles.6 THREE PHASE FULL WAVE RECTIFIED ALTERNATING CURRENT Three phase current is often used to power industrial equipment because it has more favorable power transmission and line loading characteristics.3. Therefore. providing the inspector with the advantages of each current form. The pulsation of the HWAC helps magnetic particle indications form by vibrating the particles and giving them added mobility.5 FULL WAVE RECTIFIED ALTERNATING CURRENT (FWAC) Full wave rectification inverts the negative current to positive current rather than blocking it out. Filtering is usually performed to soften the sharp polarity switching in the rectified current.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 This type of current is often referred to as half wave DC or pulsating DC. 4. is discussed below. 4.3. 4. HWAC is most often used to power electromagnetic yokes. This produces a pulsating DC with no interval between the pulses. the depth of the subsurface magnetic field is improved. This type of electrical current is also highly desirable for magnetic particle testing because when it is rectified and filtered. 4.

the use of artificial lighting is recommended. at startup of the inspection cycle. The filter should be checked visually and cleaned as necessary before warm-up of the light.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 Magnetic particle inspections conducted using visible particles can be conducted using natural lighting or artificial lighting.4. 4. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 53 of 83 .2 LIGHT REQUIREMENTS WHEN USING FLUORESCENT PARTICLES 4. Black lights should never be used with a cracked filter as output of white light and harmfulness black light will be increased. When using natural lighting. For UV lights used in component evaluations. if a change in intensity is noticed. a bulb that is near the end of its operating life will often have an intensity of only 25 percent of its original output. the normally accepted intensity is 1000 microwatts per square centimeter when measured at 15 inches from the filter face (requirements can vary from 800 to 1200). The cleanliness of the filter should also be checked as a coating of solvent carrier. Regularly checking the intensity of UV lights is very important because bulbs loose intensity over time. but avoid excessive reflected light that could distract from the inspection.2.1 ULTRAVIOLET LIGHTING When performing a magnetic particle inspection using fluorescent particles. The light intensity is required to be 100 foot-candles at the surface being inspected. Black light intensity will also be affected by voltage variations. the condition of the ultraviolet light and the ambient white light must be monitored. it is important to keep in mind that daylight varies from hour to hour. oils. It is advisable to choose a white light wattage that will provide sufficient light. Artificial lighting should be white whenever possible and white flood or halogen lamps are most commonly used. In fact.4. or other foreign materials can reduce the intensity by up to as much as 50%. A bulb that produces acceptable intensity at 120 volts will produce significantly less at 110 volts. so it is important to provide constant voltage to the light. Standards and procedures require verification of lens condition and light intensity. or every eight hours if in continuous use. To improve uniformity in lighting from one inspection to the next. Inspector must stay constantly aware of the lighting conditions and make adjustments when needed. The required check should be performed when a new bulb is installed.

4.4. an electrical current is produced. Radiometers are relatively unstable instruments and readings often change considerably over time. Therefore. Whichever type used.4. The sensor should be centered in the light field to obtain and record the highest reading.2. This current is linear with respect to incident light. the sensing area should be clean and free of any materials that could reduce or obstruct light reaching the sensor. When an external circuit is connected to the cell. The white light requirements here are the same as when performing an inspection with visible particles. they must be calibrated regularly. Some radiometers have the ability to measure both black and white light. UV spot lights Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 54 of 83 .Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 4. Ultraviolet light measurements should be taken using a fixture to maintain a minimum distance of 15 inches from the filter face to the sensor. The minimum light intensity at the surface being inspected must be 100 foot-candles. A radiometer is an instrument that translates light energy into an electrical current.4.2.3 WHITE LIGHT FOR INDICATION CONFIRMATION While white light is held to a minimum in fluorescent inspections. Light striking a silicon photodiode detector causes a charge to build up between internal layers. They should be calibrated at least every six months. 4. A unit should be checked to make sure its calibration is current before taking any light readings. Light levels of less than 2 fc are required by most procedures with some procedures requiring less than 0.2 AMBIENT WHITE LIGHTING When performing a fluorescent magnetic particle inspection. procedures may require that indications be evaluated under white light. it is important to keep white light to a minimum as it will significantly reduce the inspectors ability to detect fluorescent indications. When checking black light intensity at 15 inches a reading of the white light produced by the black light may be required to verify white light is being removed by the filter.3 LIGHT MEASUREMENT Light intensity measurements are made using a radiometer. while others require a separate sensor for each measurement.5 fc at the inspection surface.

Many specifications do not require the white light intensity check to be conducted at a specific distance.4 ml for visible Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 55 of 83 .5. in 0. 4.5 PARTICLE CONCENTRATION AND CONDITION 4. and graduated to 1.1 ml increments for visible particles. Acceptable ranges are 0. The sample must then remain undisturbed for a minimum of 60 minutes for a petroleum-based carrier or 30 minutes for a waterbased carrier.05 ml increments for fluorescent particles.0 ml in 0.1 to 0. ASTM E-1444-01 requires concentration checks to be performed every eight hours or ever shift change. White lights are seldom focused and depending on the wattage.1 PARTICLE CONCENTRATION The concentration of particles in the suspension is a very important parameter in the inspection process and must be closely controlled. The particle concentration is checked after the suspension is prepared and continued regularly as part of the quality system checks. unless shorter times have been documented to produce results similar to the longer settling times.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 are often focused so intensity readings will vary considerable over a small area.4 ml for fluorescent particles and 1.2 to 2. A sample is then taken in a pear-shaped 100 ml centrifuge tube having a stem graduated to 1. The sample is then demagnetized so that the particles do not clump together while settling. will often produce in excess of the 100 fc at 15 inches. The standard process used to perform the check requires agitating the carrier for a minimum of thirty minutes to ensure even particle distribution.5 ml. The volume of settled particles is then read.

they should be examined for brightness and agglomeration. particles or the carrier must be added to bring the solution back in compliance with the requirement. 4. Particle loss is often attributed to "dragout". If the particle concentration is out of the acceptable range. on the other hand.6 MAGNETIC FIELD INDICATORS Determining whether a magnetic field is of adequate strength and in the proper direction is critical when performing magnetic particle testing. knowing the direction of the field is important because the field should be Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 56 of 83 . Fluorescent particles should be evaluated under ultraviolet light and visible particles under white light. Particles. These particles will be "drug out" or lost to the system. the particles should appear loose and not lumped together.5. or be trapped in geometric features of the component. tend to adhere to components. The brightness of the particles should be evaluated weekly by comparing the particles in the test solution to those in an unused reference solution that was saved when the solution was first prepared. and will eventually need to be replaced. As discussed previously. the bath should be replaced 4. Additionally. The brightness of the two solutions should be relatively the same. If the brightness or the agglomeration of the particles is noticeably different from the reference solution.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 particles. Dragout occurs because the solvent easily runs off components and is recaptured in the holding tank.2 PARTICLE CONDITION After the particles have settled.

As discussed in some detail on the "Measuring Magnetic Fields" page. 4. and they cannot be used to establish the balance of fields in multidirectional applications. are used to measure the strength of a field tangential to the surface of the magnetized test object. also called Tesla meters. Nevertheless. However. and they can be used repetitively. The advantages of Hall effect devices are. This is impossible without cutting into the material and cutting the material would immediately change the field within the part. because when the fields are not balanced properly a vector field will be produced that may not detect some defects.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 as close to perpendicular to the defect as possible and no more than 45 degrees from normal. Their main disadvantages are that they must be periodically calibrated.1 GAUSS METER OR HALL EFFECT GAGE A Gauss meter with a Hall Effect probe. there are a number of tools and methods available that are used to determine the presence and direction of a field surrounding the component. In order to measure the field strength it is necessary to intercept the flux lines. they can be used for measurement of residual magnetic fields. they provide a quantitative measure of the strength of magnetizing force tangential to the surface of a test piece. the Hall effect is the transverse electric field created in a conductor when placed in a magnetic field. Being able to evaluate the field direction and strength is especially important when inspecting with a multidirectional machine. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 57 of 83 . There is actually no easy to apply method that permits an exact measurement of field intensity at a given point within a material. The meters measure the intensity of the field in the air adjacent to the component when a magnetic field is applied. cutting a small slot or hole into the material and measuring the leakage field that crosses the air gap with a Gauss meter is probably the best way to get an estimate of the actual field strength within a part. is commonly used to measure the tangential field strength on the surface of the part. Gauss meters.6.

When the field strength is adequate. They are used with the wet method only and. they can accommodate virtually any configuration with suitable selection. as other flux sharing devices.002 or 0. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 58 of 83 . A photoetch process is used to inscribe a specific pattern. The component is then magnetized and particles applied. The QQI is a thin strip of either 0. shims cannot be used as a residual magnetism indicator as they are a flux sharing device. Some of the advantages of QQIs are: they can be quantified and related to other parameters. The use of QQIs is also the only practical way of ensuring balanced field intensity and direction in multiple-direction magnetization equipment. such as concentric circles or a plus sign. Some of the disadvantages are: the application process is somewhat slow. QQIs are nominally 3/4 inch square. QQIs must be in intimate contact with the part being evaluated.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 4. they can only be used when continuous magnetization is used.7 QUANTITATIVE QUALITY INDICATOR (QQI) The Quantitative Quality Indicator (QQI) or Artificial Flaw Standard is often the preferred method of assuring proper field direction and adequate field strength.004 inch thick AISI 1005 steel. a balance of the fields is noted when all areas of the QQI produce indications. the particles will adhere over the engraved pattern and provide information about the field direction. the parts must be clean and dry. they can be easily damaged with improper handling and will corrode if not cleaned and properly stored. and taping or gluing it to the surface. and they can be reused with careful application and removal practices. QQIs are often used in conjunction with a Gauss meter to establish the inspection procedure for a particular component. When a multidirectional technique is used. but miniature shims are also available. This is accomplished by placing the shim on a part etched side down.

Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 59 of 83 . The pie gage is not recommended for precision parts with complex shapes. The division serves as artificial defects that radiate out in different directions from the center.8 PIE GAGE The pie gage is a disk of highly permeable material divided into four. After particles are applied. The gage is placed on the test piece copper side up. The sections are furnace brazed and copper plated. for wet-method applications. or eight sections by nonferromagnetic material.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 Above left is a photo of a typical QQI shim. shows the indication produced by the QQI when it is applied to the surface a part and a magnetic field is established that runs across the shim from right to left. six. The principal application is on flat surfaces such as weldments or steel castings where dry powder is used with a yoke or prods. Diameter of the gage is ¾ to 1 inch. or for proving field magnitude. The gage should be demagnetized between readings. and excess removed. The divisions between the low carbon steel pie sections are to be no greater than 1/32 inch. and the test piece is magnetized. 4. the indications provide the inspector the orientation of the magnetic field. The photo on the right.

Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 Several of the main advantages of the pie gage are: it is easy to use and it can be used indefinitely without deterioration. it can only be used in relatively flat areas. which include: it retains some residual magnetism so indications will prevail after removal of the source of magnetization. Advantages of these strips are: they are relatively easily applied to the component. 4. Disadvantages include: they cannot be bent to complex configuration. they can be used successfully with either the wet or dry method when using the continuous magnetization. The indications produced on the strips give the inspector a general idea of the field strength in a particular area. also known as Burmah-Castrol Strips. are pieces of highly permeable ferromagnetic material with slots of different widths. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 60 of 83 .9 SLOTTED STRIPS Slotted strips. The pie gage has several disadvantages. They are placed on the test object as it is inspected. and it cannot be reliably used for determination of balanced fields in multidirectional magnetization. they are repeatable as long as orientation to the magnetic field is maintained and they can be used repetitively. and they are not suitable for multidirectional field applications since they indicate defects in only one direction.

Acoustics is focused on particles that contain many atoms that move in unison to produce a mechanical wave. However. sound waves can propagate in four principle modes that are based on the way the particles oscillate. internal (electrostatic) restoration forces arise. Many different patterns of vibrational motion exist at the atomic level. Longitudinal and shear waves are the two modes of propagation most widely used in ultrasonic testing. combined with inertia of the particles. which is generally referred to as acoustics.000Hz. surface waves. 5. its individual particles perform elastic oscillations. It is these elastic restoring forces between particles. shear waves. that leads to oscillatory motions of the medium. bats and whales use echo location that can reach frequencies in excess of 100. some mammals can hear well above this. When a material is not stressed in tension or compression beyond its elastic limit. All material substances are comprised of atoms. For example.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 CHAPTER – 5 ULTRASONIC TESTING 5. most are irrelevant to acoustics and ultrasonic testing. however. which may be forced into vibrational motion about their equilibrium positions.2 WAVE PROPAGATION Ultrasonic testing is based on time-varying deformations or vibrations in materials.1 INTRODUCTION Sound in the range of 20 Hz to 18000 Hz is in audible ranges of human ear. Sound can propagate as longitudinal waves. and in thin materials as plate waves. In solids. The particle movement responsible for the propagation of longitudinal and shear waves is illustrated below. When the particles of a medium are displaced from their equilibrium positions. Sound beyond this range cannot be heard by human and called as ultrasonic sound. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 61 of 83 .

FREQUENCY AND VELOCITY Among the properties of waves propagating in isotropic solid materials are wavelength. frequency. as well as solids because the energy travels through the atomic structure by a series of comparison and expansion (rarefaction) movements. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 62 of 83 .Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 In longitudinal waves the oscillations occur in the longitudinal direction or the direction of wave propagation. Compression waves can be generated in liquids. Shear waves are relatively weak when compared to longitudinal waves In fact. Shear waves require an acoustically solid material for effective propagation and. This relationship is shown by the following equation. The wavelength is directly proportional to the velocity of the wave and inversely proportional to the frequency of the wave. They are also sometimes called density waves because their particle density fluctuates as they move. therefore. 5. Since compressional and dilational forces are active in these waves. are not effectively propagated in materials such as liquids or gasses. they are also called pressure or compressional waves. In the transverse or shear wave the particles oscillate at a right angle or transverse to the direction of propagation. and velocity.3 WAVELENGTH. shear waves are usually generated in materials using some of the energy from longitudinal waves.

The typical elastic constants of materials include: • Young's Modulus. The mass of the particles is related to the density of the material. and p is the material density. This is because the mass of the atomic particles and the spring constants are different for different materials. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 63 of 83 .Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 5. E: proportionality constant between uniaxial stress and strain.4 SOUND PROPAGATION IN ELASTIC MATERIALS Sound waves propagate due to the vibrations or oscillatory motions of particles within a material. Each individual particle is influenced by the motion of its nearest neighbor and both inertial and elastic restoring forces act upon each particle. C is the elastic constant. 5.5 MATERIAL AFFECT ON SPEED OF SOUND Sound travels at different speeds in different materials. This equation may take a number of different forms depending on the type of wave (longitudinal or shear) and which of the elastic constants that are used. and the spring constant is related to the elastic constants of a material. An ultrasonic wave may be visualized as an infinite number of oscillating masses or particles connected by means of elastic springs. The general relationship between the speed of sound in a solid and its density and elastic constants is given by the following equation: Where V is the speed of sound.

in a piece of rolled aluminum plate. It must also be mentioned that the subscript ij attached to C in the above equation is used to indicate the directionality of the elastic constants with respect to the wave type and direction of wave travel.Category: MECHANICAL • • IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 Poisson's Ratio. • Lame's Constants.589 cm/microsecond Cast iron . • Shear Modulus. Examples of approximate shear sound velocities in materials are: • • • Aluminum . However.0. Examples of approximate compressional sound velocities in materials are: • • • Aluminum . For example. l and m: material constants that are derived from Young's Modulus and Poisson's Ratio.0.0. a measure of substance's resistance to shear. the shear modulus is used. the elastic constants are the same for all directions within the material. When calculating the velocity of a longitudinal wave. the grains are elongated in one direction and compressed in the others and the elastic constants for the longitudinal direction are different than those for the transverse or short transverse directions.0.313 cm/microsecond 1020 steel . n: the ratio of radial strain to axial strain Bulk modulus.240 cm/microsecond.480 cm/microsecond. G: also called rigidity.0.324 cm/microsecond Cast iron . It is often most convenient to make the calculations using Lame's Constants. When calculating the velocity of a shear wave. Young's Modulus and Poisson's Ratio are commonly used. In isotropic materials. K: a measure of the incompressibility of a body subjected to hydrostatic pressure. most materials are anisotropic and the elastic constants differ with each direction.0. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 64 of 83 .632 cm/microsecond 1020 steel . which are derived from Young's Modulus and Poisson's Ratio.

The determination of acoustic transmission and reflection at the boundary of two materials having different acoustic impedance 2. Assessing absorption of sound in a medium.6 ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE Sound travels through materials under the influence of sound pressure. the excess pressure results in a wave propagating through the solid. The red arrow represents energy of the reflected sound. The sound velocities for a variety of materials can be found in the ultrasonic properties tables in the general resources section of this site. Z = ρV Acoustic impedance is important in 1.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 When comparing compressional and shear velocities it can be noted that shear velocity is approximately one half that of compressional. The following figure will help you calculate the acoustic impedance for any material. while the blue arrow represents energy of the transmitted sound. The acoustic impedance (Z) of a material is defined as the product of density (ρ) and acoustic velocity (V) of that material. so long as you know its density (ρ) and acoustic velocity (V). Because molecules or atoms of a solid are bound elastically to one another. The reflected energy is the square of the difference divided by the sum of the acoustic impedances of the two materials. Note that Transmitted Sound Energy + Reflected Sound Energy = 1 Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 65 of 83 . We can also compare two materials and "see" how they reflect and transmit sound energy. 5. 3. The design of ultrasonic transducers.

7 ULTRASONIC WAVE GENERATION 5.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 5. and vice versa. The active element is basically a piece polarized material (i.e. This phenomenon is known as the piezoelectric effect.1 PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCERS The conversion of electrical pulses to mechanical vibrations and the conversion of returned mechanical vibrations back into electrical energy is the basis for ultrasonic testing. In addition.7. When an electric field is applied across the material. The active element of most acoustic transducers used today is a piezoelectric ceramics. a permanently-polarized material such as quartz (SiO2) or barium titanate (BaTiO3) will produce an electric field when the material changes dimensions as a result of an imposed mechanical force. The active element is the heart of the transducer as it converts the electrical energy to acoustic energy. This phenomenon is known as electrostriction. the polarized molecules will align themselves with the electric field. which can be cut in various ways to produce different wave modes. This alignment of molecules will cause the material to change dimensions. some parts of the molecule are positively charged. resulting in induced dipoles within the molecular or crystal structure of the material. A Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 66 of 83 . while other parts of the molecule are negatively charged) with electrodes attached to two of its opposite faces.

which are now the most commonly employed ceramic for making transducers.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 large piezoelectric ceramic element can be seen in the image of a sectioned low frequency transducer. A thin wafer element vibrates with a wavelength that is twice its thickness. it produces both reflected and refracted waves. New materials such as piezo polymers and composites are also being used in some applications. piezoelectric crystals made from quartz crystals and magnetostrictive materials were primarily used. The first piezoceramic in general use was barium titanate. Refraction takes place at an interface due to the different velocities of the acoustic waves within the two materials. 5. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 67 of 83 . This also occurs with light and this makes objects you see across an interface appear to be shifted relative to where they really are. The primary reason that high frequency contact transducers are not produced in because the element is very thin and too fragile. The higher the frequency of the transducer.8 REFRACTION AND SNELL'S LAW When an ultrasonic wave passes through an interface between two materials at an oblique angle. Therefore. and the materials have different indices of refraction. when the wave encounters the interface between these two materials. In the animation below. The velocity of sound in each material is determined by the material properties (elastic modules and density) for that material. Therefore. When piezoelectric ceramics were introduced they soon became the dominant material for transducers due to their good piezoelectric properties and their ease of manufacture into a variety of shapes and sizes. The thickness of the active element is determined by the desired frequency of the transducer. a series of plane waves are shown traveling in one material and entering a second material that has a higher acoustic velocity. and that was followed during the 1960's by lead zirconate titanate compositions. piezoelectric crystals are cut to a thickness that is 1/2 the desired radiated wavelength. In the early 1950's. the portion of the wave in the second material is moving faster than the portion of the wave in the first material. the thinner will be active element. It can be seen that this causes the wave to bend. They also operate at low voltage and are usable up to about 300oC.

This wave is reflected at the same angle as the incident wave because the two waves are traveling in the same material and. as shown in the following equation. creep waves are not used as extensively as Rayleigh surface waves in NDT. there is a reflected longitudinal wave (VL1) shown. due to their longer wavelengths. The first critical angle can be found from Snell's law by putting in an angle of 90° for the angle of the refracted ray." Because of their inhomogeneous nature and the fact that they decay rapidly. This wave is sometimes referred to as a "creep wave. have the same velocities. Where: VL1 is the longitudinal wave velocity in material 1. When a longitudinal wave moves from a slower to a faster material. but it should be remembered that some of the wave energy is reflected at the interface. much of the acoustic energy is in the form of an inhomogeneous compression wave. Snell's law equates the ratio of material velocities v1 and v2 to the ratio of the sine's of incident (θ) and refraction (θ2) angles. than Rayleigh waves. there is an incident angle that makes the angle of refraction for the wave 90°. therefore.9 CALIBRATION METHODS Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 68 of 83 . Note that in the diagram. At the critical angle of incidence. 5. VL2 is the longitudinal wave velocity in material 2. This is known as the first critical angle.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 Snell's Law describes the relationship between the angles and the velocities of the waves. creep waves are sometimes useful because they suffer less from surface irregularities and coarse material microstructure. This reflected wave is unimportant in our explanation of Snell's Law. However. which travels along the interface and decays exponentially with depth from the interface.

Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 Calibration refers to the act of evaluating and adjusting the precision and accuracy of measurement equipment. which includes the equipment settings. the electronics of the equipment must be calibrated to assure that they are performing as designed. to validate that the desired level of precision and accuracy are achieved. In ultrasonic testing. In ultrasonic testing. several forms of calibration must be done. It is also usually necessary for the operator to perform a "user calibration" of the equipment. Reference standards are used to establish a general level of consistency in measurements and to help interpret and quantify the information contained in the received signal. First. Reference standards are used to validate that the equipment and the setup provide similar results from one day to the next and that similar results are produced by different systems. and the test setup. there is also a need for reference standards. Different type of standard calibration blocks used for various applications described below. Reference standards also help the inspector to estimate the size of flaws. the standards are traceable back to standards at the National Institute for Standards and Technology. the transducer. In a pulse-echo type setup. The user must "calibrate" the system. signal strength depends on both the size of the flaw and the distance between the flaw and the transducer. The term calibration standard is usually only used when an absolute value is measured and in many cases. This operation is usually performed by the equipment manufacturer and will not be discussed further in this material. The inspector can use a reference standard with an artificially induced flaw of known size and at approximately the same distance away for the transducer to produce a signal. By Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 69 of 83 . This user calibration is necessary because most ultrasonic equipment can be reconfigured for use in a large variety of applications.

5. therefore. the inspector can estimate the flaw size. In most cases the artificially induced defects in reference standards are better reflectors of sound energy (due to their flatter and smoother surfaces) and produce indications that are larger than those that a similar sized flaw would produce. 5.11 THE IIW TYPE CALIBRATION BLOCK Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 70 of 83 . Computer programs that allow the inspector to create computer simulated models of the part and flaw may one day lessen this limitation. The type of standard used is dependent on the NDE application and the form and shape of the object being evaluated.10 INTRODUCTION TO THE COMMON STANDARDS Calibration and reference standards for ultrasonic testing come in many shapes and sizes. The material of the reference standard should be the same as the material being inspected and the artificially induced flaw should closely resemble that of the actual flaw. Some of these specimens are shown in the figure above. This second requirement is a major limitation of most standard reference samples. Producing more "realistic" defects is cost prohibitive in most cases and. The information provided here is intended to serve a general introduction to the standards and not to be instruction on the proper use of the standards. Most use drilled holes and notches that do not closely represent real flaws. Be aware that are other standards available and that specially designed standards may be required for many applications. the inspector can only make an estimate of the flaw size.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 comparing the signal from the reference standard to that received from the actual flaw. This section will discuss some of the more common calibration and reference specimen that are used in ultrasonic inspection.

"True" IIW blocks are only made out of steel (to be precise. low-carbon steel in the normalized condition with a grain size of McQuaidEhn #8) where IIW "type" blocks can be commercially obtained in a selection of materials. and scales that are not specified by IIW.11.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 The standard shown in the above figure is commonly known in the US as an IIW type reference block. There are two full-sized and a mini version of the IIW type blocks.2 IIW TYPE US-2 5. The IIW type US-1 block was derived the basic "true" IIW block and is shown below in the figure on the left.1 IIW TYPE US-1 5. killed.11. The Mini version is about one-half the size of the full-sized block and weighs only about one-fourth as much. IIW "type" blocks may also include additional calibration and references features such as notches. 5. It is referred to as an IIW "type" reference block because it was patterned after the "true" IIW block but does not conform to IIW requirements in IIS/IIW-23-59.11.3 IIW TYPE MINI Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 71 of 83 . IIW is an acronym for the International Institute of Welding. circular groves. open hearth or electric furnace. The dimensions of "true" IIW blocks are in metric units while IIW "type" blocks usually have English units.

The block is much smaller and lighter than the IIW block but performs many of the same functions. determining the sound exit point and refracted angle of angle beam transducers. Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Contact Examination of Weldments. 5. The miniature angle-beam block can be used to check the beam angle and exit point of the transducer.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 IIW type blocks are used to calibrate instruments for both angle beam and normal incident inspections. The block can also be used to make metal-distance and sensitivity calibrations for both angle and normal-beam inspection setups. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 72 of 83 .11. and evaluating depth resolution of normal beam inspection setups.4 THE MINIATURE ANGLE-BEAM CALIBRATION BLOCK The miniature angle-beam is a calibration block that was designed for use in the field for instrument calibration. Some of their uses include setting metal-distance and sensitivity settings. Instructions on using the IIW type blocks can be found in the annex of American Society for Testing and Materials Standard E164.

Instructions on using the DC block can be found in the annex of American Society for Testing and Materials Standard E164.6 AWS SHEAR WAVE DISTANCE CALIBRATION (DC) BLOCK The DC AWS Block is a metal path distance and beam exit point calibration standard that conforms to the requirements of the American Welding Society (AWS) and the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO).Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 5.11. This block is used to determine the beam exit point and refracted angle of angle-beam transducers and to calibrate distance and set the sensitivity for both normal and angle beam inspection setups. Instructions on using the DSC block can be found in the annex of American Society for Testing and Materials Standard E164. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 73 of 83 . 5. Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Contact Examination of Weldments.11. Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Contact Examination of Weldments.5 AWS SHEAR WAVE DISTANCE/SENSITIVITY CALIBRATION (DSC) BLOCK A block that closely resembles the miniature angle-beam block and is used in a similar way is the DSC AWS Block.

9 MINIATURE RESOLUTION BLOCK The miniature resolution block is used to evaluate the near-surface resolution and sensitivity of a normal-beam setup It can be used to calibrate high-resolution Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 74 of 83 . Engraved Index markers are provided for 45. 5. and 70 degree refracted angle beams.11.27 mm) to 1.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 5. and 8 (8/64") ASTM flat bottom holes at ten metaldistances ranging from 0.050 inch (1.8 30 FBH RESOLUTION REFERENCE BLOCK The 30 FBH resolution reference block is used to evaluate the near-surface resolution and flaw size/depth sensitivity of a normal-beam setup. 5.75 mm).11.7 AWS RESOLUTION CALIBRATION (RC) BLOCK The RC Block is used to determine the resolution of angle beam transducers per the requirements of AWS and AASHTO. 60.250 inch (31. 5 (5/64").11. The block contains number 3 (3/64").

11.11 DISTANCE/SENSITIVITY (DS) BLOCK The DS test block is a calibration standard used to check the horizontal linearity and the dB accuracy per requirements of AWS.381 mm) to 0.125 inches (3.10 STEP AND TAPERED CALIBRATION WEDGES Step and tapered calibration wedges come in a large variety of sizes and configurations. 5. Tapered wedges have a constant taper over the desired thickness range. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 75 of 83 . 5.175 mm). Step wedges are typically manufactured with four or five steps but custom wedge can be obtained with any number of steps.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 thickness gages over the range of 0.015 inches (0.11.

The couplant displaces the air and makes it possible to get more sound energy into the test specimen so that a usable ultrasonic signal can be obtained. glycerin or water is generally used between the transducer and the test surface. which is typically water. an immersion technique is often used. In immersion ultrasonic testing both the transducer and the part are immersed in the couplant. In contact ultrasonic testing a thin film of oil. is large and. therefore. such as the test specimen. Couplant is generally necessary because the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and solids.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 5. When scanning over the part or making precise measurements. This method of coupling makes it easier to maintain consistent coupling while moving and manipulating the transducer and/or the part Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 76 of 83 . nearly all of the energy is reflected and very little is transmitted into the test material.12 COUPLANT A couplant is a material (usually liquid) that facilitates the transmission of ultrasonic energy from the transducer into the test specimen.

On-line or in-process measurement of extruded Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 77 of 83 . Precision ultrasonic thickness gages usually operate at frequencies between 500 kHz and 100 MHz.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 5. highly attenuating or highly scattering materials. non-attenuating. Typically. by means of piezoelectric transducers that generate bursts of sound waves when excited by electrical pulses. In most applications. The result is expressed in the well-known relationship d = vt/2 or v = 2d/t where d is the distance from the surface to the discontinuity in the test piece. reflect from the back or the surface of a discontinuity. lower frequencies are used to optimize penetration when measuring thick. v is the velocity of sound waves in the material. composites. non-scattering materials. and be returned to the transducer. while higher frequencies will be recommended to optimize resolution in thinner.0001 inch can be achieved in some applications. The transducer employed is a 5 MHz broadband transducer 0. and t is the measured round-trip transit time. plastic. Accuracy's as high as ±1 micron or ±0.13 NORMAL BEAM INSPECTION Pulse-echo ultrasonic measurements can determine the location of a discontinuity in a part or structure by accurately measuring the time required for a short ultrasonic pulse generated by a transducer to travel through a thickness of material. ultrasonic techniques permit quick and reliable measurement of thickness without requiring access to both sides of a part. A wide variety of transducers with various acoustic characteristics have been developed to meet the needs of industrial applications. as they would appear on an oscilloscope. and glass as well as liquid levels and the thickness of certain biological specimens. The diagram below allows you to move a transducer over the surface of a stainless steel test block and see return echoes. this time interval is a few microseconds or less. The two-way transit time measured is divided by two to account for the down-and-back travel path and multiplied by the velocity of sound in the test material. including metals.25 inches in diameter. In thickness gauging. ceramics. epoxies. It is possible to measure most engineering materials ultrasonically.

lack of inter-run fusion. 5. thereby improving detectability of flaws in and around welded areas. Most applications are on low-alloy construction quality steels. lack of side-wall fusion. An angled sound path allows the sound beam to come in from the side. 5. This safe. undercutting and longitudinal or transverse cracks. slag inclusions. lack of root penetration. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 78 of 83 .14 ANGLE BEAM INSPECTION Angle Beam Transducers and wedges are typically used to introduce a refracted shear wave into the test material.15 WELDMENTS (WELDED JOINTS) The most commonly occurring defects in welded joints are porosity. With the exception of single gas pores all the defects listed are usually well detectable by ultrasonic.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 plastics or rolled metal often is possible. however. Ultrasonic flaw detection has long been the preferred method for nondestructive testing in welding applications. accurate. and simple technique has pushed ultrasonics to the forefront of inspection technology. Modern handheld gages are simple to use and very reliable. as is measurements of single layers or coatings in multilayer materials. welds in aluminum can also be tested.

This refracted sound wave will bounce off a reflector (discontinuity) in the path of the sound beam. sidewall. A straight beam transducer. The second step in the inspection involves using an angle beam transducer to inspect the actual weld. and heat-affected zones of a weld.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 Ultrasonic weld inspections are typically performed using a straight beam transducer in conjunction with an angle beam transducer and wedge. Angle beam transducers use the principles of refraction and mode conversion to produce refracted shear or longitudinal waves in the test material. This is important because an angle beam transducer may not be able to provide a return signal from a laminar flaw. is first used to locate any laminations in or near the heat-affected zone. With proper angle beam techniques. The process involves scanning the surface of the material around the weldment with the transducer. crown. This inspection may include the root. producing a longitudinal wave at normal incidence into the test piece. echoes returned from the weld zone may allow the operator to determine the location and type of discontinuity. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 79 of 83 .

and root of the weld. A small steel ball helps to measure a distance-amplitude curve for immersion probes. Disk-shaped reflectors. The following figure shows a test block with a side drilled hole. the inspector can identify the transducer locations on the surface of the material corresponding to the crown. sidewall. A distance amplitude correction curve (DACC) can be constructed from the peak amplitude responses from reflectors of equal area at different distances in the same material. the inspector must first calculate the location of the sound beam in the test material. which causes the echo from a constant reflector to vary with distance. the V-path and skip distance of the sound beam is found. to evaluate echoes of reflectors for all kind of probes. Once they have been calculated.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 To determine the proper scanning area for the weld. These techniques are important because the amplitude of ultrasonic pulses varies with the distance from the probe. distance-amplitude curves are needed. The transducer was chosen so that the signal in the shortest pulse-echo path is in the far-field Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 80 of 83 . Using the refracted angle. Such curves are plotted specifically for a flat-bottom hole target and engraved on a transparent plastic sheet for attachment to the CRT screen.16 DISTANCE AMPLITUDE CORRECTION (DAC) Acoustic signals from the same reflecting surface will have different amplitudes at different distance in the same material. Therefore. side drilled holes and hemispherical bottom holes are used as equivalent reflectors when using contact probes. beam index point and material thickness. 5.

The wave frequency can also affect the capability of an inspection in adverse ways. and 7.17 WAVELENGTH AND DEFECT DETECTION In ultrasonic testing the inspector must make a decision about the frequency of the transducer that will be used. Start by pressing the green "Test now!" button. A rule of thumb in industrial inspections is that discontinuities that are larger than one-half the size of wavelength can be usually be detected. sound tends to scatter from large or course grain structure and from small imperfections within a material. type. and probable location of the discontinuity should be considered. material thickness. As mentioned in the earlier page. the grain structure. Sensitivity and resolution are two terms that are often used in ultrasonic inspection to describe a technique's ability to locate flaws. can usually be inspected with higher frequency transducers. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 81 of 83 .1. Sensitivity generally increases with higher frequency (shorter wavelengths). As frequency increases. Resolution also generally increases as the frequency increases. The wavelength of the ultrasound used has significant affect on the probability of detecting a discontinuity. After determining the amplitudes for various path lengths (4).3. Cast materials often have coarse grains and other sound scatters that require lower frequencies to be used for evaluations of these products. selecting the optimal inspection frequency often involves maintaining a balance between favorable and unfavorable results of the selection.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 (Sec.2). Resolution is the ability of the system to locate discontinuities that are close together within the material or located near the part surface. press "Draw DACC" and then press the green "Test now!" button. Therefore. The transducer may be moved finding signals at depth ratios of 1. 5. 3. Red points are "drawn" at the peaks of the signals and are used to form the distance amplitude correction curve drawn in blue. Sensitivity is the ability to locate small discontinuities. changing the frequency when the sound velocity is fixed will result in a change in the wavelength of the sound. 5. Before selecting an inspection frequency. size. Wrought and forged products with directional and refined grain structure.

Only disadvantage is needs expert personnel and linear defects such as cracks which are not perpendicular to beam will not be detected. and how it is affected by frequency will be discussed later. These are discussed in more detail in the material on signal-to-noise ratio. These include pulse length. Advantages of ultrasonic testing is very fast and surface defects as well as internal defects also detected. Frequency also has an effect on the shape of the ultrasonic beam. properties of the crystal. and the receiver circuitry of the instrument. Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 82 of 83 . so as not to be misleading.Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 Since more things in a material are likely to scatter a portion of the sound energy at higher frequencies. backing material. transducer diameter. Beam spread. type and voltage applied to the crystal. or the divergence of the beam from the center axis of the transducer. that a number of other variables would also affect the ability of ultrasound to locate defects. the penetrating power (or the maximum depth in a material that flaws can be located) is also reduced. It should be mentioned.

Category: MECHANICAL IPCL NC: Training Module Module No IPCLDSMEC095 CHAPTER . ASME Hand Book for Non Destructive Testing. 3. Internet sites Prepared by: DN Rev: 01 Reviewed by: RPG Date: 09-11-2004 Approved By: AKS Pages: 83 of 83 .7 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Volume 14. 2. ASME Section V – Non Destructive Testing. American Society for Metals Hand Book for Non Destructive Testing. 4.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful