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Fluid Mechanics II
1
Chapter 1 Inviscid Flow
2
Outline
Minor Riview
History of Potential Flow and Boundary Layer
Types of Motion or Deformation of Fluid Elements
Rotationality
3
Rotationality
Irrotational Flow Approximation
Continuity Equation
Stream Function
Velocity Potential
Elementary Flows
Complex Flows
Classification of Fluid Mechanics
Gas Liquids Statics Dynamics
0 =
∑ i
F 0 >
∑ i
F
, Flows
Fluid Mechanics
Air, He, Ar,
N
2
, etc.
Water, Oils,
Alcohols, etc.
∑ i
Viscous/Inviscid
Steady/Unsteady
Compressible/
Incompressible
∑ i
Laminar/
Turbulent
Compressibility Viscosity
Vapor
Pressure
Density
Pressure
Buoyancy
Stability
Surface
Tension
Classification of Fluid Flows
Viscous vs Inviscid Flow
Internal vs External Flow
Compressible vs Incompressible Flow Compressible vs Incompressible Flow
Laminar vs Turbulent Flow
Steady vs Unsteady Flow
One, Two and ThreeDimensional Flows
The Reynolds number describes
the degree of turbulence.
The Reynolds number describes
the degree of turbulence.
uD
Re =
ρ
Reynolds Number
force viscous
force inertia
D u
D u
] / [
] / [
Re
2
2
= =
=
ρ µ
µ
Turbulent fluids have viscosity, but we usually measure
viscosity in laminar flow.
Wat er
Dye
St reamline f lowing dye
Laminar Flow:
“Streamline” flow.
Fluid moves in a
straight line with the
applied force.
Layers slide by with
Wat er
Dye
Turbulent f low
QuickTime?and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Layers slide by with
no swirls.
Turbulent Flow:
“Disorderly” flow.
Small packets of fluid
moving in all directions
and all angles to
normal line of flow.
Viscosity
Some fluids move slowly.
They have a high viscosity.
Syrup
pours
It is very viscous.
pours
slowly.
Some fluids move quickly.
They have a low viscosity.
Water
It is less viscous.
pours
quickly.
Viscosity
A fluid’s thickness or resistance to flow is
called its viscosity.
A fluid is said to be more viscous if it does
not flow as readily as another fluid. not flow as readily as another fluid.
Gases are less viscous than liquids,
so they flow very easily through
pipes.
Gases vs Liquids
The particle theory helps us to understand
that this resistance is due to the stronger
attraction among particles.
Why?
Different substances are composed of
different particles and this is why fluids can
have different viscosities.
Viscosity is a useful and important fluid property.
Industries produce liquids, such as lubricants, with
special viscosities. If motor oil is not viscous enough,
it will not protect the engine parts from friction; if it is
too viscous, it will not flow to all parts of the engine
that need protection. [Viscosity causes fluid to adhere
Importance of Viscosity
that need protection. [Viscosity causes fluid to adhere
to a surface – known as noslip condition]
Salad dressing must be thin enough to pour out of a
bottle, yet thick enough to coat lettuce properly.
It influences the power needed to move an airfoil
through the atmosphere.
It accounts for the energy losses associated with the
transport of fluids in ducts, channels, and pipes.
It plays a primary role in the generation of turbulence.
An object moving
through or on a fluid
meets resistance.
F
v
x
Fluid Resistance
Force causes the fluid
to move.
The velocity is
proportional to the
force.
F v
x
∝
The resistance tends to
keep the fluid in place.
Law of inertia
y
v
x
F
Velocity Gradient
The fluid moves most
near the object and least
farther away.
This is a velocity gradient
or strain rate or rate of
deformation.
y v
x
∝
y
Newton combined these
two proportionalities.
This is the law of viscosity.
y
v
x
F
Law of Viscosity
A is the area of the
solid sliding on the fluid
The constant µ is the
dynamic viscosity and
depends on the type of
fluid. dy
du
y
v
A F
x
µ τ
µ
=
=
y
Viscous Behavior of Various Materials
18
Newtonian fluid:
the shear stress of
the fluid is directly
proportional to the
velocity gradient.
Inviscid flow: The flow in which viscous
effects do not significantly influence the
flow and are thus neglected.
Inviscid Flow vs Viscous Flow
Viscous flow: The flow in which viscous
effects are important and cannot be
ignored.
The primary class of flows, which can be modeled as inviscid flow, is
external flows.
Any viscous effects that may exist are confined to a thin layer, called a
boundary layer which is attached to the boundary. The inviscid flow
outside the boundary layer in an external flow is called free stream.
For many flows, the boundary layers are so thin that the can simply be
ignored when studying the gross features (e.g., lift and drag and locate
possible separation points) of a flow around a streamlined body (e.g.,
Inviscid Flow vs Viscous Flow
possible separation points) of a flow around a streamlined body (e.g.,
airfoil).
Inviscid flow is also encountered in contractions inside piping systems
(viscous effects require substantial areas in order to be significant), in
short regions of internal flows (called inviscid core length) where
viscous effects are negligible, and wake in highReynoldsnumber flow
around bodies
Viscous flows include the broad class of internal flows, such as flows in
pipes, conduits and open channels. In such flows, viscous effects cause
substantial “losses” and account for the huge amounts of energy that
must be used to transport oil and gas in pipelines.
In the 19th century, two schools of thought existed on fluid
mechanics.
Hydraulicians: looked at experimental data and attempted to
generalize them into useful design equations. Their equations were
generally empirical, without much theoretical content.
Hydrodynamicists: started with 2D and 3D equations and tried to
The History of Potential Flow and Boundary Layer
21
Hydrodynamicists: started with 2D and 3D equations and tried to
apply them to practical problems. They ignored the viscousfriction
and density change term by hypothesizing a perfect fluid with zero
viscosity and constant density, in order to calculate the complete
behavior of many kinds of flows. These mathematical solutions
agreed to very well with some observed behavior (except involving
no solid surfaces, and etc).
“Hydrodynamicists calculate that which cannot be observed;
hydraulicians observe that which cannot be calculated.”
In 1904 Ludwig Prandtl introduced a new concept, called the
boundary layer: if a fluid flows past the leading edge of a flat
surface, there will generate a velocity profile. Inside the boundary
layer, the effects of viscosity are too large to be ignored. Outside the
boundary layer, the laws of perfectfluid flow should be satisfactory.
The calculations were still very difficult, and so only approximate
mathematical solutions were possible.
The History of Potential Flow and Boundary Layer
22
mathematical solutions were possible.
But, this idea clarified numerous unexplained phenomena and
provided a much better intellectual basis for discussing complicated
flows.
So, it is clear that the ideas of perfectfluid flow and boundary layer
are intimately tied together.
We will consider perfectfluid or inviscid flows in this chapter, and
boundary layer in chapters 3 and 4.
Deformation of a Fluid Elements
General deformation of fluid element is rather complex; however, we can
break the different types of deformation or motion into a superposition of
each type.
23
Velocity
Angular Velocity
Linear Strain Rate
Shear Strain Rate
In order for these deformation rates to be useful in the calculation of fluid
flows, they must be expressed in terms of velocity and derivatives of velocity.
1. Linear Motion/Translation
“Simplest” form of motion —the element moves as a solid
body.
The rate of translation vector is described as the velocity
vector in Cartesian coordinates:
k w j v i u V
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ
+ + =
24
2. Linear Deformation
Linear strain rate is defined as the rate of increase in length per unit
length. It is expressed in Cartesian coordinates as
Solid objects such as wires, rods, and beams stretch while pulled. Then,
they usually shrink in direction(s) normal to that direction.
z
w
y
v
x
u
zz yy xx
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
= ε ε ε , ,
25
they usually shrink in direction(s) normal to that direction.
This is also true for fluid elements. Therefore, for an incompressible flow,
if the element stretches in one direction, it must shrink by an appropriate
amount in other direction(s) to compensate.
The shape does not change, “linear deformation”
2. Linear Deformation
Velocity gradients can cause deformation, “stretching” resulting in a change
in volume of the fluid element.
Rate of Change for one direction:
For all THREE directions:
The volumetric strain rate is
26
For all THREE directions:
V
z
w
y
v
x
u
dt
d
zz yy xx
ˆ
) ( 1
⋅ ∇ =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
= + + =
∀
∀
ε ε ε
δ
δ
The rate of increase of volume of a fluid element per unit volume is
called as volumetric strain rate or volumetric dilatation rate or bulk
strain rate. It is positive if the volume increases.
The linear deformation is zero for incompressible fluids.
0
ˆ
= ⋅ ∇ V
The volumetric strain rate is
the sum of the linear strain
rates in three mutually
orthogonal directions.
3. Angular Motion/Rotation
Angular velocity or rate of rotation at a point is defined as the average
rotation rate of two initially perpendicular lines that intersect at that point:
Angular motion results from
cross derivatives.
27
3. Angular Motion/Rotation
The rotation of the element about the zaxis is the average of the angular
velocities :
Likewise, about the yaxis, and the xaxis:
Counterclockwise rotation is considered positive
and
28
and
The three components gives the rotation vector:
Using vector identities, the rotation vector is onehalf the curl of the
velocity vector:
Vorticity and Rotationality
The definition of the rotation vector operation is the following:
29
If , then there is no rotation, and the flow is said to be
irrotational ; the vorticity of an irrotational flow is zero.
The vorticity is twice the angular rotation:
These calculations were carried out for any rigidbody rotation.
Vorticity and Rotationality
For a flow to be irrotational, each of the rotation (and therefore vorticity)
vector components must be equal to zero.
The zcomponent:
The xcomponent lead to a similar result:
30
The ycomponent lead to a similar result:
Vorticity and Rotationality
The vorticity vector in cylindrical coordinates (r, θ, z):
For 2D flow in the rθplane:
z
r z r
r
z
e
u
r
ru
r
e
r
u
z
u
e
z
u u
r
ˆ
) ( 1
ˆ ˆ
1
ˆ

¹

\

∂
∂
−
∂
∂
+

¹

\

∂
∂
−
∂
∂
+

¹

\

∂
∂
−
∂
∂
=
θ θ
ζ
θ
θ
θ
31
For 2D flow in the rθplane:
z
r
e
u
r
ru
r
ˆ
) ( 1
ˆ

¹

\

∂
∂
−
∂
∂
=
θ
ζ
θ
Example
Example: A velocity field in a particular flow is given by V = 20y
2
i – 20xyj
m/s. Calculate the angular velocity and the vorticity vector at the point (1,
1, 2).
32
Example
Example: Determine whether the following 2D flows are rotational or
irrotational:
(a) u = 2y, v = 3x;
(b) v = 0, w = 3yz;
(c) u = 2x, w = 2z.
33
The Irrotational Flow Approximation
Irrotational approximation:
We must keep in mind that the assumption of irrotationality
is an approximation, which may be appropriate in some
regions of a flow field, but not in other regions.
In general, inviscid regions of flow far away from solid walls
0
ˆ ˆ
≈ × ∇ = V ζ
34
In general, inviscid regions of flow far away from solid walls
and wakes of bodies are also irrotational.
However, there are situations in which an inviscid region of
flow may not be irrotational (e.g., solidbody rotation).
Inviscid Flow: Irrotational Flow
Examples where inviscid flow theory can be used:
35
Viscous Region  Rotational
Inviscid Region – Irrotational
4. Angular Deformation/Shear Strain
Shear strain rate at a point is defined as half of the rate of
decrease of the angle between two initially perpendicular lines that
intersect at that point.
Consider a fluid element translating and deforming in 2D xy
plane, the shear strain rate, initially perpendicular lines in the x and
ydirections:
  ∂ ∂ v u d 1 1
36
Consider 3D, the shear strain rate in Cartesian coordinates:


¹

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
= − =
x
v
y
u
dt
d
xy
2
1
2
1
α ε

¹

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
=

¹

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
=


¹

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
=
x
w
z
v
z
u
x
w
x
v
y
u
yz zx xy
2
1
2
1
2
1
ε ε ε
Angular Deformation/Shear Strain
Now, we combine linear strain rate and shear strain rate into
shear strain tensor:









¹

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
∂
∂


¹

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂

¹

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂


¹

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
∂
∂
=





=
y
w
z
v
y
v
y
u
x
v
x
w
z
u
x
v
y
u
x
u
yz yy yx
xz xy xx
ij
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
ε ε ε
ε ε ε
ε
37




¹
\
∂
∂


¹

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂

¹

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂

¹
\
∂ ∂ ∂

¹
\
∂ ∂

¹
\
z
w
z
v
y
w
z
u
x
w
y z y y x
zz zy zx
2
1
2
1
2 2
ε ε ε
We will see it again in Chap 2 We will see it again in Chap 2
Example
Example: A velocity field in a particular flow is given by V = 20y
2
i – 20xyj
m/s. Calculate the nonzero strain rate components at the point (1, 1, 2).
38
Conservation of Mass: Cartesian Coordinates
The differential form of the equation for Conservation of Mass:
In vector notation, the equation is the following:
If the flow is steady and compressible:
39
The Continuity Equation
If the flow is steady and compressible:
If the flow is steady and incompressible:
Examples
Example: Assuming ρ to be constant, do the following flows satisfy continuity?
(a) u = 2y, v = 3x;
(b) u = 0, v = 3xy;
40
Streamlines
A streamline is a line drawn
through the flow field in such a
manner that the local velocity vector
is tangent to the streamline at every
point along the line at that instant.
The tangent of the streamline at a
41
The tangent of the streamline at a
given time gives the direction of the
velocity vector. A streamline does
not indicate the magnitude of the
velocity.
The flow pattern shown by the
streamlines is an instantaneous
visualization of the flow field.
Conservation of Mass: Cylindrical Coordinates
42
If the flow is steady and compressible:
If the flow is steady and incompressible:
The Continuity Equation
Examples
Example: Check the following incompressible flows for continuity and
determine the vorticity of each:
(a) v
θ
= 6r, v
r
= 0;
(b) v
θ
= 0, v
r
= 5/r.
43
Stream Functions
Stream Functions are defined for steady, incompressible, 2D flow.
2D Continuity Equation:
Then, we define the stream functions as follows:
44
Now, substitute the stream function into the continuity equation:
Any flow that satisfies stream
function automatically satisfies
the continuity condition.
Stream Functions
The slope at any point along a streamline:
Streamlines have constant ψ, thus dψ = 0:
45
Streamlines have constant ψ, thus dψ = 0:
w
dz
v
dy
u
dx
= =
The stream function is
constant along a streamline.
Stream Functions
Now, calculate the volume flow rate per unit depth between streamlines:
46
The change in the value of the stream function is related to
the volume flow rate per unit depth between two
streamlines.
Incompressible, planar stream function in cylindrical coordinates:
Incompressible, axisymmetric stream function in cylindrical
coordinates:
Stream Functions in Cylindrical Coordinates
47
coordinates:
0
) ( ) ( 1
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
z
u
r
ru
r
z r
r r
u
z r
u
z r
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
− =
ψ ψ 1 1
Interpretation of Stream Function
A single variable (ψ) replaces two variables (u and v); once ψ
is known, both u and v can be generated.
The stream function satisfies the continuity equation.
Curves of constant ψ are streamlines of the flow.
The difference in the value of ψ from one streamline to
48
The difference in the value of ψ from one streamline to
another is equal to the volume flow rate per unit width
between the two streamlines.
In steady flow, there is no flow across (perpendicular) to a
streamline.
Example
Example: The velocity components in a steady, incompressible, 2D flow field
are u = 2y and v = 4x. Determine the stream function and show on a
sketch with several streamlines.
49
Streamlines
For real fluid flows, the fluid adjacent to the boundary of a solid body
does not move relative to body – it sticks to the wall. So, in real fluids
the wall is a streamline of zero velocity.
But, the perfect fluid has no tendency to stick to walls because it has
no viscosity. So, the streamline adjacent to a solid body in perfectfluid
flow is one with finite velocity.
This leads to the idea that we may divide a perfectfluid flow along a
50
This leads to the idea that we may divide a perfectfluid flow along a
streamline and substitute a solid body for the flow on one side of the
streamline.
Potential Flow
In the region outside the boundary layer, where the fluid may be
assumed to have no viscosity, the mathematical solution takes on the
form known as irrotational flow (also known as potential flow).
This form is analogous to the flow of heat in a temperature field or to
the flow of charge in an electrostatic field. All these flows obey
Laplace’s equation under certain restrictions (for example: steadystate
mass balance for a constantdensity fluid).
51
mass balance for a constantdensity fluid).
Not every velocity potential satisfies Laplace’s equation, and so not
every velocity potential represents a potential flow. For example, φ = x
2
,
x
2
+ y
2
, e
x
, sin x do not satisfy Laplace’s equation, so they cannot
represent potential flows because they violate the mass balance for a
constantdensity fluid.
Consider a velocity field that is given by the gradient of a scalar function φ
(called velocity potential function):
Such velocity field is called a potential flow (or an irrotational flow) and
possesses the property that the vorticity ω, which is the curl of a velocity
vector, is zero:
Potential Flow: Velocity Potential
φ ∇ = V
ˆ
52
vector, is zero:
With the velocity given by the gradient of a scalar function, the differential
continuity equation ( ), for an incompressible flow, gives
which is known as Laplace’s equation.
0
ˆ
= × ∇ = V ω
0
2
= ∇ = ∇ ⋅ ∇ φ φ
The flow must be irrotational if there is a velocity potential.
0
ˆ
= ⋅ ∇ V
Potential Flow: Velocity Potential
For irrotational flow, there exists a velocity potential:
Take one component of vorticity to show that the velocity potential is irrotational:
53
Substitute u and v components of velocity potential:
0
2
1
2 2
=


¹

\

∂ ∂
∂
−
∂ ∂
∂
x y y x
φ φ
We could do this to show all vorticity components are zero.
The flow must be irrotational if there is a velocity potential.
If the curl of a vector is zero, the vector can be expressed as the gradient of
a velocity potential.
Potential Flow: Velocity Potential
Then, rewriting the u, v, and w components as a vector:
For irrotational, planar flow:
Now substitute the stream function:
54
Then for incompressible irrotational flow:
Now substitute the stream function:
Then,
Laplace’s Equation
Pierre Laplace (17491827)
Potential Flow: Velocity Potential
Potential flows are
irrotational – vorticity is
zero.
If the vorticity is present
(e.g., boundary layer, wake),
then the flow cannot be
55
then the flow cannot be
described by Laplace’s
equation.
Potential Flow: Velocity Potential
Laplacian Operator in Cartesian coordinates:
Laplacian Operator in cylindrical coordinates:
If a Potential Flow exists,
with appropriate boundary
conditions, the entire velocity
and pressure field can be
specified.
56
where the gradient in cylindrical coordinates, the gradient operator,
Then,
May choose cylindrical
coordinates based on the
geometry of the flow problem,
i.e., pipe flow.
Potential Flow: Velocity Potential
Lines of constant ψ are streamlines:
Now, the change of φ from one point (x, y) to a nearby point (x + dx, y + dy):
57
Along lines of constant φ, we have dφ = 0,
0
The equipotential lines are orthogonal to streamlines where they intersect.
Lines of constant φ are called equipotential lines.
Potential Flow: Velocity Potential
The flow net consists of a family of streamlines and equipotential lines.
The combination of streamlines and equipotential lines are used to visualize a
graphical flow situation.
The velocity is inversely
proportional to the spacing
Velocity decreases
along this streamline.
58
between streamlines.
Velocity increases
along this streamline.
Streamlines and equipotential lines
intersect at right angles.
Stream Function and Velocity Potential
The stream function is
defined by continuity; the
Laplace equation for ψ
results from irrotationality.
59
The velocity potential is
defined by irrotationality;
the Laplace equation for φ
results from continuity. 0
2
1
2 2
=


¹

\

∂ ∂
∂
−
∂ ∂
∂
x y y x
φ φ
Potential Flow: Plane Potential Flows
Velocity components for steady, incompressible, irrotational, 2D regions of
flow in terms of velocity potential and stream function in various
coordinate systems:
Planar, Cartesian:
Planar, Cylindrical:
60
Planar, Cylindrical:
Planar, Cartesian:
Planar, Cylindrical:
r r
u
z r
u
z r
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
− =
ψ ψ 1 1
Axisymmetric, Cylindrical:
Axisymmetric, Cylindrical:
z
u
r
u
z r
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
=
φ φ
The Conversion between Velocity Field,
Stream Function and Velocity Potential
φ ψ ⇔ ⇔ ) , ( v u
61
φ ⇔ ) , , ( w v u
Incompressible? Continuity equation?
Stream function exists? Irrotational? Velocity
potential exists?
Incompressible? Satisfy
continuity equation?
Stream function
Irrotational? Velocity
potential exists?
62
exists?
0 = • ∇ V
0
2
= ∇ φ 0
2
= ∇ ψ
0 or 0 = = ζ ω
Example
Example: A velocity potential in 2D flow is . Find the stream
function for this flow.
2 2
y x y − + = φ
63
Example
Example: The 2D stream function for a flow is . Find
the velocity potential for this flow.
xy y x 7 4 6 9 + − + = ψ
64
Example
Example: In a 2D incompressible flow, the fluid velocity components are
given by and . Show that the flow satisfied the
continuity equation and obtain the expression for the stream function.
If the flow is potential, obtain also the expression for the velocity
potential.
y x u 4 − =
x y v 4 − − =
65
Example
Example: The 2D flow of a nonviscous, incompressible fluid in the vicinity of
the 90º corner is described by the stream function .
Determine the corresponding velocity potential.
θ ψ 2 sin 2
2
r =
66
α
πθ
φ
α π
cos
/
Ar =
α
πθ
ψ
α π
sin
/
Ar =
Before we discuss the elemental flows, let’s visit this
website:
http://simscience.org/fluid/green/potential.html
Elementary Flows
67
Next we will learn how the velocity fields of some
elementary and complex flows can be expressed in
terms of stream function and velocity potential.
http://simscience.org/fluid/green/potential.html
1. Uniform Flow
Question: Do φ
1
= Ax and φ
2
= Ax + By satisfy Laplace’s equation?
For φ
1
= Ax , u = ∂φ
1
/∂x = A, v = ∂φ
1
/∂y = 0
So, φ
1
describes a uniform, steady flow of velocity A in the positive x
direction. This might be the description of a wind blowing over the ocean at
a steady, uniform velocity of A.
68
a steady, uniform velocity of A.
For φ
2
= Ax + By, u = ∂φ
2
/∂x = A, v = ∂φ
2
/∂y = B
So, φ
2
describes a uniform, constantvelocity flow with velocity (A
2
+ B
2
)
1/2
,
making the angle arctan (B/A) with the x axis.
These uniform flows are not of much practical interest
alone, but they can be combined with other flows to solve
more interesting problems.
1. Uniform Flow
For Uniform Flow in an arbitrary direction, α:
φ = Ux
ψ = Uy
u = U
v= 0
69
2. Source and Sink Flow
0
Now, obtain the stream function for the flow:
Integrating to obtain the solution:
r
m
ln
2π ππ π
φ φφ φ =
( ) m v r
r
= π 2
v
r
v
θ
70
The streamlines are radial lines and the equipotential
lines are concentric circles centered about the origin:
φ lines
ψ lines
2. Source and Sink Flow
If m is positive, the flow is source; if m is negative, the flow is
sink.
is the volume rate of flow per unit depth issuing from the
source or sink, where Q is flow rate, and L is height.
These flows are of practical significance in the petroleum
L Q m / =
71
industry; it describes the flow into oil well in a thick horizontal
stratum.
The equations v
r
= m/2πr, v
θ
= 0 show that the radial flow
velocity becomes infinite at r = 0 (mathematical singularity); thus,
this equation cannot describe any real flow at r = 0.
Examples
Example: A nonviscous, incompressible fluid flows between wedgeshaped
walls into a small opening. The velocity potential (in m
2
/s), which
approximately describes this flow is φ = 2 ln r. Determine the
volume rate of flow (per unit length) into the opening.
72
3. Vortex Flow
In vortex flow the streamlines are concentric circles, and the equipotential
lines are radial lines.
where K is a constant, namely the strength of the vortex.
Solution:
The sign of K determines whether the flow rotates
clockwise () or counterclockwise (+).
73
clockwise () or counterclockwise (+).
In this case, ,
The tangential velocity varies inversely with
the distance from the origin.
At the origin it encounters a singularity
becoming infinite.
φ lines
ψ lines
3. Vortex Flow
Rotation refers to the orientation of a fluid element and not the path
followed by the element. The elements deform to maintain a constant
orientation.
In general flow there is both deformation and rotation.
An ideal flow is one that has no viscosity and is incompressible.
74
If an ideal flow is initially irrotational, it will remain irrotational.
Two vortices: free vortex and forced vortex.
The swirling motion of the water as it drains from a bathtub is similar to
that of a free vortex, while the motion of a liquid contained in a tank is
rotated about its axis with angular velocity corresponds to a forced vortex.
Free Vortex and Forced Vortex
Irrotational Flow: Free Vortex Rotational Flow: Forced Vortex
Traveling from A to B, consider two sticks
Velocity
increases
inward.
Velocity
increases
outward.
i.e., water
draining from a
bathtub
i.e., a rotating tank
filled with fluid
75
Initially, sticks aligned, one in the flow direction,
and the other perpendicular to the flow.
As they move from A to B the perpendicular
aligned stick rotates clockwise, while the flow
aligned stick rotates counter clockwise.
The average angular velocities cancel each other,
thus, the flow is irrotational.
Irrotational Flow: Rotational Flow: Rigid Body Rotation
Initially, sticks aligned, one in the
flow direction, and the other
perpendicular to the flow.
As they move from A to B the sticks
move in a rigid body motion, and thus
the flow is rotational.
0
ˆ ˆ
= × ∇ = V ζ ζζ ζ V
ˆ
2
ˆ
× ∇ = = ω ζ
Free Vortex and Forced Vortex
76
A simple analogy can be made
between flow A and a merrygo
round or roundabout, and flow B
and a Ferris wheel.
As children revolve around a
roundabout, they also rotate at
the same angular velocity as that
of the ride itself. This is analogous
to a rotational flow.
In contrast, children on a Ferris
wheel always remain oriented in
77
A simple analogy: (a) rotational
circular flow is analogous to a
roundabout, while (b) irrotational
circular flow is analogous to a
Ferris wheel.
wheel always remain oriented in
an upright position as they trace
out their circular path. This is
analogous to an irrotational flow.
Tornadoes and Hurricanes
A combined vortex flow is one in which there is a forced vortex at the core, and a free
vortex outside the core.
The minimum pressure at the vortex center can give rise to a “secondary flow” which
is produced by the pressure gradient in the primary (vortex) flow.
In the region near the ground, the wind velocity is decreased due to the friction
provided by the ground.
However, the pressure difference in the radial direction causes a radially inward flow
adjacent to the ground, and upward flow at the vortex center.
78
Pressure difference between the vortex
center and outer edge:
p
1
– p
0
= –ρV
max
2
Circulation
Circulation (Γ) or vortex strength gives a measure of the average of
rate of rotation of fluid particles that are situated in an area that is bounded
by a closed curved.
This concept is often useful when evaluating forces (such lift force)
developed on bodies immersed in moving fluids.
It is defined as the line integral of the tangential component of the
velocity (V) around a closed curve fixed in the flow.
79
velocity (V) around a closed curve fixed in the flow.
Γ ΓΓ Γ = 0 for irrotational flow.
If there are singularities enclosed within the curve, Γ ≠ 0, for example:
free vortex.
Circulation: Free Vortex
For the free vortex:
(Integrate the entire circle)
Γ= 0
80
The circulation is nonzero and constant for the free vortex:
The velocity potential and the stream function for the free vortex can
be rewritten in terms of the circulation:
Examples
Example: The pressure far from an irrotational vortex (a simplified tornado) in
the atmosphere is zero gauge. If the velocity at r = 20 m is 20 m/s, estimate
the velocity and the pressure at r = 2 m.
81
Circulation
How is circulation calculated from rpm and radius?
82
Example
Example: A liquid drains from a large tank through a small opening. A vortex
forms whose velocity distribution away from the tank opening can be
approximated as that of a free vortex having a velocity potential
Determine an expression relating the surface shape to the strength of
the vortex as specified by the circulation.
θ π φ ) 2 / (Γ =
83
4. Doublet Flow
Combination of an equal Source and Sink pair.
Rearrange and take tangent,
84
Note, the following:
Substituting the above expressions,
and
Then,
If a is small, then tangent of angle is approximated by the angle:
4. Doublet Flow
Now, we obtain the doublet flow by letting the source and sink approach one
another (a → 0), and letting the strength increase (m → ∞).
85
K is the strength of the doublet, and is equal
to ma/π.
is then constant.
The corresponding velocity potential then is the following:
Streamlines of a Doublet:
ψ lines
Doublet strength is for a
double oriented in the
negative xdirection.
Summary of Basic Flows
u = U
v = 0
Γ = 0
Γ = 0
86
Γ = 0
Origin is singular point
Origin is singular point
Γ = K around any closed curved enclosing origin
Γ = 0 around any closed curved NOT enclosing origin
Origin is singular point
Γ = around any closed curved
Superposition of Basic Flows
Because potential flows are governed by linear partial differential
equations, the solutions can be combined in superposition; we will
superimpose simple functions to create flows of interest.
If φ
1
and φ
2
are each solutions of the Laplace equation, then Aφ
1
, (A +
φ
1
), (φ
1
+ φ
2
), and (Aφ
1
+ φ
2
) are also solutions,.
Thus, some of the basic ψ and φ can be combined to yield a streamline
87
Thus, some of the basic ψ and φ can be combined to yield a streamline
that represents a particular body shape, or complicated incompressible,
plane flow.
The superposition representing a body can lead to describing the flow
around the body in detail.
The superposition is only valid for irrotatioanal flow fields for which the
equations for φ and ψ are linear.
The velocity at any point in the composite field is the vector sum of the
velocities of the individual flow fields.
1. Rankine HalfBody
The Rankine HalfBody is a combination of a source and a uniform flow.
88
Stream Function (cylindrical coordinates):
Velocity Potential (cylindrical coordinates):
1. Rankine HalfBody
There will be a stagnation point, somewhere along the negative xaxis where
the velocities due to the source and uniform flow are cancelled (θ = π).
For the source: For the uniform flow: θ cos U v
r
=
For θ = π,
U v
r
=
Then, for a stagnation point, at some x = b (r = b), θ = π:
m
89
r
m
U v
r
π 2
= = and
Now, the stagnation streamline can be defined by evaluating y at r = b, and
θ = π . The value of ψ at the stagnation point:
θ
π
θ ψ
2
sin
m
Ur + =
1. Rankine HalfBody
Since m/2 = πbU, it follows that the equation of the streamline passing
through the stagnation point, and gives the outline of the Rankine half
body:
Then,
For inviscid flow, a streamline can be replaced by a solid boundary. So,
90
For inviscid flow, a streamline can be replaced by a solid boundary. So,
the source and uniform can be used to describe the flow around a
streamlined body placed in a uniform stream – halfbody.
The other streamlines can be obtained by setting ψ = constant.
Singularity (inside the body)
1. Rankine HalfBody
The width of the halfbody:
Total width = 2π ππ πb
The magnitude of the velocity (V) at any point in the flow:
and
( )
r
b θ π
θ
−
= sin
91
Noting,
Knowing the velocity we can now determine the pressure field using the
Bernoulli Equation:
p
o
and U are at a point far away from the body and are known.
1. Rankine HalfBody
We wish to find the flow pattern around some arbitrary body.
This is normally done by combining uniform flows, sources,
sinks, etc.
When a combination is found that produces a streamline with
the shape of the body in question, the flow outside the
streamline is a representation of the flow around the body.
92
streamline is a representation of the flow around the body.
The flow inside that line normally has no meaning and is
ignored.
The singularity in the flow field (source) only occurs inside
the body.
1. Rankine HalfBody
The velocity tangent to the surface of the body is not zero,
i.e., the fluid “slips” by the boundary (as neglecting viscosity).
So, all potential flows differ from the flow of real fluids
(considering viscosity) and do not accurately represent the
velocity very near the boundary. However, outside this layer,
the velocity distribution will generally correspond to that
93
the velocity distribution will generally correspond to that
predicted by potential flow theory if flow separation does not
occur.
The pressure distribution along the surface will closely
approximate that predicted from the potential flow theory since
the boundary layer is thin, and there is little variation of
pressure through the boundary layer.
Example
Example: The shape of a hill arising from a plain can be approximated with the top
section of a halfbody. The height of the hill approaches 60 m.
(a) When a 60 km/hr wind blows toward the hill, what is the magnitude
of the air velocity at a point on the hill directly above the origin (point 2)?
(b) What is the elevation of point (2) above the plain and what is the
difference in pressure between point (1) on the plain far from the hill and
point (2)? Assume an air density of 1.23 kg/m
3
.
94
2. Rankine Oval
Rankine Ovals are the combination a source, a sink and a uniform flow,
producing a closed body.
95
Stream function and velocity function describing the flow:
2. Rankine Oval
The streamline ψ = 0 forms the surface of a body of length 2l and width 2 h
placed in a uniform flow.
Ua/m is large slender body
Ua/m is small blunt shape body
96
The body halflength
The body halfwidth
“Iterative”
2 / 1
1

¹

\

+ =
Ua
m
a
l
π
(
¸
(
¸

¹

\

(
¸
(
¸
−

¹

\

=
a
h
m
Ua
a
h
a
h π
2 tan 1
2
1
2
2. Rankine Oval
Ua/m is large slender body
Ua/m is small blunt shape body
97
Ua/m is small blunt shape body
2. Rankine Oval
Downstream from the point of maximum
body width, the surface pressure increases
with distance along the surface.
This condition (called adverse pressure
gradient) typically leads to separation (not
predicted by potential theory) of the flow
from the surface, resulting in a large low
98
from the surface, resulting in a large low
pressure wake on the downstream side of
the body.
The potential solution for the Rankine
ovals will only approximate the velocity
outside the thin, viscous boundary layer and
the pressure distribution on the front part of
the body.
3.1. Flow Around a Stationary Circular Cylinder
Combines a uniform flow and a doublet flow
and
For the ψ to represent flow around a cylinder, ψ = constant for r = a (a = the
radius of the circular cylinder):
K = Ua
2
99
K = Ua
2
Then, and
Then the velocity components:
Doublet strength
3.1. Flow Around a Stationary Circular Cylinder
On the surface of the cylinder (r = a):
The maximum velocity occurs at the top and bottom of the cylinder,
magnitude of 2U (θ = ± π/2).
v
rs
= 0
The figure shows the pattern
of streamlines for this flow.
Why are the
streamlines so
close here?
100
of streamlines for this flow.
We disregard the doublet flow
on the inside of the circle r = a
and imagine that a solid
cylinder replaces this portion
of the flow. A remarkable
feature is the symmetry of the
flow upstream and
downstream of the cylinder.
Why are the streamlines so far here?
close here?
No slip or slip?
3.1. Flow Around a Stationary Circular Cylinder
Pressure distribution on a circular cylinder found with the Bernoulli equation
Then substituting for the surface velocity:
101
Theoretical and experimental agree well
on the front portion of the cylinder. The
actual surface pressures and ideal values
agree for a distance up to β = 60°.
Flow separation on the backhalf in the
real flow due to viscous effects causes
differences between the theory and
experiment. So, the ideal flow is no
longer valid.
The pressure gradient influences flow patterns and pressure distributions
acting on bodies create forces.
A common dimensionless group for describing the pressure distribution is
pressure coefficient (C
p
):
where p is the local pressure, p
0
and V
0
are the freestream pressure and
velocity.
Pressure Coefficient
2
0 2
1
0
V
p p
C
p
ρ
−
=
102
velocity.
The points B and D are points of stagnation (C
p
= +1.0), and the minimum
pressure (C
p
= – 3.0) occurs at the point C.
3.1. Flow Around a
Stationary Circular
Cylinder
Inviscid flow past a circular
cylinder:
(a) streamlines for the flow if
there were no viscous effects.
103
(b) pressure distribution on
the cylinder’s surface,
(c) freestream velocity on
the cylinder’s surface.
The pressure distribution up to the
point of separation is very nearly
the same as that predicted by
potential flow.
Boundary layer
characteristics on a circular
cylinder:
(a) boundary layer
separation location.
3.1. Flow Around a
Stationary Circular
Cylinder
Wake
104
(b) typical boundary layer
velocity profiles at various
locations on the cylinder,
(c) surface pressure
distributions for inviscid
flow and boundary layer
flow.
Turbulent or laminar data
matches better with
irrotational flow
approximation? Why?
From Euler’s equation for pressure gradient and acceleration along a
pathline,
The fluid particle accelerates (a
t
> 0) if the pressure decreases with
distance along a pathline (∂p/s < 0) – favorable pressure gradient.
Favorable and Adverse Pressure Gradient
s
p
a
t
∂
∂
− = ρ
105
The fluid particle decelerates (a
t
< 0) if the pressure increases with
distance along a pathline (∂p/s > 0) – adverse pressure gradient.
Flow separation occurs when the fluid pathlines adjacent to body deviates
from the contour of the body and produce a wake.
It tends to increase drag, reduce lift and produce unsteady forces leading
to structural failure (e.g., Tavoma Narrows Bridge in 1904).
The prediction and control of separation is continuing challenge for
engineers involved with the design of fluid systems.
Flow Separation
106
3.1. Flow Around a Stationary Circular Cylinder
The resultant force per unit length acting on the cylinder can be determined
by integrating the pressure over the surface (equate to lift and drag).
(Drag)
(Lift)
107
Substituting
Evaluating the integrals:
Both drag and lift are predicted to be zero on fixed cylinder in a uniform
flow. The zerolife prediction is acceptable for a real flow, but the zero
drag result is unacceptable.
Jean le Rond
d’Alembert
(17171783)
3.1. Flow Around a Stationary Circular Cylinder
Mathematically, this makes sense since the pressure distribution is
symmetric about cylinder (because of the symmetric pressure distribution, the
force on the front half cancels that one the rear half to produce zero drag).
However, in practice/experiment, we see substantial drag on a circular
cylinder (and called as d’Alembert’s Paradox, 17171783).
Potential theory incorrectly predicts that the drag on a cylinder is zero.
108
3.2. Flow Around a Rotating Circular Cylinder
The addition of the vortex changes the flow pattern everywhere, except at the
cylinder surface and at infinity.
The streamlines that represents the cylinder is still a circle, but the values of the
surface velocity are changed.
Flow around a rotating cylinder is approximated by the combination of a
uniform flow past a cylinder and a free vortex.
109
surface velocity are changed.
This flow is relevant to the flow about wings and airfoils.
r
r
a
Ur ln
2
sin 1
2
2
π
θ ψ
Γ
−


¹

\

− =
θ
π
θ φ
2
cos 1
2
2
Γ
+

¹

\

+ =
r
a
Ur
and
a
U
r
v
a r
s
π
θ
ψ
θ
2
sin 2
Γ
+ − =
∂
∂
− =
=
On the surface of the cylinder (r = a):
The additional vortex only affects v
θs
, but not v
r
.
3.2. Flow Around a Rotating Circular Cylinder
If Γ = 0, then θ
stag
= 0 or π,
i.e., the stagnation points occur at
the front and rear of the cylinder.
If 1 ≤ Γ/(4πUa) ≤1, then the
stagnation points occur at some
Ua
stag
π
θ
4
sin
Γ
= The stagnation points occur at θ = θ
Stag
where (v
θ
= 0):
110
stagnation points occur at some
other location on the surface as
Figures (b) and (c).
If   Γ/(4πUa)   > 1, then the
stagnation point is located away
from the cylinder. There is a
portion of fluid that is trapped
next to the surface and continually
rotates around the cylinder.
3.2. Flow Around a Rotating Circular Cylinder
For the cylinder with circulation, the surface pressure is obtained from
the Bernoulli equation.
2
2
0
2
sin 2
2
1
2
1

¹

\

Γ
+ − + = +
a
U p U p
s
π
θ ρ ρ



Γ
−
Γ
+ − + =
2
2 2
sin 2
sin 4 1
1
U p p
θ
θ ρ
111

¹

\

Γ
−
Γ
+ − + =
2 2 2
2 2
0
4
sin 2
sin 4 1
2
1
U a aU
U p p
s
π π
θ
θ ρ
3.2. Flow Around a Rotating Circular Cylinder
112
3.2. Flow Around a Rotating Circular Cylinder
0 =
x
F
Substituting this equation into F
y
, for the lift, and integrated, yields
For the rotating cylinder, no force in the direction of the uniform flow is developed.
Substituting this equation into F
x
, for the drag, and integrated, yields
Γ − = U F
y
ρ
Magnus Effect Magnus Effect Magnus Effect Magnus Effect – –– –
Lift on rotating bodies Lift on rotating bodies Lift on rotating bodies Lift on rotating bodies
113
The negative sign means that if U is positive in the positive x direction, and
circulation is positive (a free vortex with counterclockwise rotation), the
direction is downward.
Potential flow past a cylinder with circulation gives zero drag, but nonzero lift.
Lift on rotating bodies Lift on rotating bodies Lift on rotating bodies Lift on rotating bodies
http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K12/airplane/cyl.html
The equation relating lift force on airfoils to ρ, U, and Γ is called Kutta
Joukowski law.
3.2. Flow Around a Rotating Circular Cylinder
Uniform flow towards +ve xdirection (U =
+ve), counterclockwise (Γ = +ve)
Low v and high P on tophalf of cylinder
Downward force (F
y
= ve)
114
Downward force (F
y
= ve)
Uniform flow towards +ve xdirection (U =
+ve), clockwise (Γ = ve)
Low v and high P on bottomhalf of cylinder
Upward lift force (F
y
= +ve)
2
Outline
Minor Riview History of Potential Flow and Boundary Layer Types of Motion or Deformation of Fluid Elements Rotationality Irrotational Flow Approximation Continuity Equation Stream Function Velocity Potential Elementary Flows Complex Flows
3
He. etc. Oils. Water. etc. Flows i Compressible/ Incompressible Surface Tension Compressibility Density Viscosity Vapor Pressure Laminar/ Turbulent Steady/Unsteady Viscous/Inviscid . N2. Stability Pressure Buoyancy ∑ F > 0 . Ar.Classification of Fluid Mechanics Fluid Mechanics Gas Liquids Statics Dynamics ∑F = 0 i Air. Alcohols.
Classification of Fluid Flows Viscous vs Inviscid Flow Internal vs External Flow Compressible vs Incompressible Flow Laminar vs Turbulent Flow Steady vs Unsteady Flow One.and ThreeDimensional Flows . Two.
ρuD Re = µ [u 2 / D] inertia force = = 2 [ µu / ρD ] viscous force Turbulent fluids have viscosity. . but we usually measure viscosity in laminar flow.Reynolds Number The Reynolds number describes the degree of turbulence.
W at er Dy e Turb ulent f lo w .W at er Dy e St ream line f low ing d ye Laminar Flow: “Streamline” flow. QuickTime?and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Turbulent Flow: “Disorderly” flow. Small packets of fluid moving in all directions and all angles to normal line of flow. Layers slide by with no swirls. Fluid moves in a straight line with the applied force.
Viscosity .
They have a high viscosity. .Some fluids move slowly. Syrup pours slowly. It is very viscous.
Water pours quickly.Some fluids move quickly. It is less viscous. They have a low viscosity. .
Viscosity A fluid’s thickness or resistance to flow is called its viscosity. . A fluid is said to be more viscous if it does not flow as readily as another fluid.
. so they flow very easily through pipes.Gases vs Liquids Gases are less viscous than liquids.
Different substances are composed of different particles and this is why fluids can have different viscosities. .Why? The particle theory helps us to understand that this resistance is due to the stronger attraction among particles.
it will not protect the engine parts from friction. If motor oil is not viscous enough. . Industries produce liquids. It influences the power needed to move an airfoil through the atmosphere. It accounts for the energy losses associated with the transport of fluids in ducts. It plays a primary role in the generation of turbulence. such as lubricants. channels. with special viscosities. and pipes. [Viscosity causes fluid to adhere to a surface – known as noslip condition] Salad dressing must be thin enough to pour out of a bottle. it will not flow to all parts of the engine that need protection. yet thick enough to coat lettuce properly. if it is too viscous.Importance of Viscosity Viscosity is a useful and important fluid property.
vx ∝ F .Fluid Resistance An object moving through or on a fluid meets resistance. The velocity is proportional to the force. vx F Force causes the fluid to move.
Law of inertia vx F y The fluid moves most near the object and least farther away. vx ∝ y .Velocity Gradient The resistance tends to keep the fluid in place. This is a velocity gradient or strain rate or rate of deformation.
A is the area of the solid sliding on the fluid The constant µ is the dynamic viscosity and depends on the type of fluid. vx y vx F = Aµ y du τ =µ dy .Law of Viscosity Newton combined these two proportionalities. F This is the law of viscosity.
18 .Viscous Behavior of Various Materials Newtonian fluid: the shear stress of the fluid is directly proportional to the velocity gradient.
Viscous flow: The flow in which viscous effects are important and cannot be ignored.Inviscid Flow vs Viscous Flow Inviscid flow: The flow in which viscous effects do not significantly influence the flow and are thus neglected. .
The inviscid flow outside the boundary layer in an external flow is called free stream.g. In such flows. called a boundary layer which is attached to the boundary. such as flows in pipes. Any viscous effects that may exist are confined to a thin layer.. the boundary layers are so thin that the can simply be ignored when studying the gross features (e. and wake in highReynoldsnumber flow around bodies Viscous flows include the broad class of internal flows. viscous effects cause substantial “losses” and account for the huge amounts of energy that must be used to transport oil and gas in pipelines. airfoil). For many flows. which can be modeled as inviscid flow.Inviscid Flow vs Viscous Flow The primary class of flows. conduits and open channels. .. is external flows.g. Inviscid flow is also encountered in contractions inside piping systems (viscous effects require substantial areas in order to be significant). in short regions of internal flows (called inviscid core length) where viscous effects are negligible. lift and drag and locate possible separation points) of a flow around a streamlined body (e.
without much theoretical content. “Hydrodynamicists calculate that which cannot be observed. They ignored the viscousfriction and density change term by hypothesizing a perfect fluid with zero viscosity and constant density. Hydraulicians: looked at experimental data and attempted to generalize them into useful design equations. These mathematical solutions agreed to very well with some observed behavior (except involving no solid surfaces.The History of Potential Flow and Boundary Layer In the 19th century. hydraulicians observe that which cannot be calculated. in order to calculate the complete behavior of many kinds of flows. Their equations were generally empirical.” 21 . and etc). two schools of thought existed on fluid mechanics.equations and tried to apply them to practical problems. Hydrodynamicists: started with 2D.and 3D.
So. Inside the boundary layer. We will consider perfectfluid or inviscid flows in this chapter. this idea clarified numerous unexplained phenomena and provided a much better intellectual basis for discussing complicated flows. it is clear that the ideas of perfectfluid flow and boundary layer are intimately tied together. Outside the boundary layer. there will generate a velocity profile. 22 . the laws of perfectfluid flow should be satisfactory.The History of Potential Flow and Boundary Layer In 1904 Ludwig Prandtl introduced a new concept. The calculations were still very difficult. and so only approximate mathematical solutions were possible. the effects of viscosity are too large to be ignored. But. and boundary layer in chapters 3 and 4. called the boundary layer: if a fluid flows past the leading edge of a flat surface.
Deformation of a Fluid Elements
General deformation of fluid element is rather complex; however, we can break the different types of deformation or motion into a superposition of each type.
Velocity Linear Strain Rate
Angular Velocity Shear Strain Rate
In order for these deformation rates to be useful in the calculation of fluid flows, they must be expressed in terms of velocity and derivatives of velocity. 23
1. Linear Motion/Translation
“Simplest” form of motion — the element moves as a solid body. The rate of translation vector is described as the velocity vector in Cartesian coordinates: ˆ ˆ ˆ j V = ui + vˆ + wk
24
2. Linear Deformation
Linear strain rate is defined as the rate of increase in length per unit length. It is expressed in Cartesian coordinates as
∂u ∂v ∂w ε xx = , ε yy = , ε zz = ∂x ∂y ∂z
Solid objects such as wires, rods, and beams stretch while pulled. Then, they usually shrink in direction(s) normal to that direction. This is also true for fluid elements. Therefore, for an incompressible flow, if the element stretches in one direction, it must shrink by an appropriate amount in other direction(s) to compensate.
The shape does not change, “linear deformation”
25
2. Rate of Change for one direction: For all THREE directions: The volumetric strain rate is the sum of the linear strain ∂u ∂v ∂w ˆ rates in three mutually = ∇ ⋅V = + + ∂x ∂y ∂z orthogonal directions. It is positive if the volume increases. “stretching” resulting in a change in volume of the fluid element. ˆ The linear deformation is zero for incompressible fluids. Linear Deformation Velocity gradients can cause deformation. 1 d (δ∀) = ε xx + ε yy + ε zz δ∀ dt The rate of increase of volume of a fluid element per unit volume is called as volumetric strain rate or volumetric dilatation rate or bulk strain rate. ∇ ⋅ V = 0 26 .
27 .3. Angular Motion/Rotation Angular velocity or rate of rotation at a point is defined as the average rotation rate of two initially perpendicular lines that intersect at that point: Angular motion results from cross derivatives.
the rotation vector is onehalf the curl of the velocity vector: 28 .3. about the yaxis. and the xaxis: and The three components gives the rotation vector: Using vector identities. Angular Motion/Rotation The rotation of the element about the zaxis is the average of the angular velocities : Counterclockwise rotation is considered positive Likewise.
29 . then there is no rotation.Vorticity and Rotationality The definition of the rotation vector operation is the following: The vorticity is twice the angular rotation: These calculations were carried out for any rigidbody rotation. If . and the flow is said to be irrotational . the vorticity of an irrotational flow is zero.
Vorticity and Rotationality For a flow to be irrotational. The zcomponent: The xcomponent lead to a similar result: The ycomponent lead to a similar result: 30 . each of the rotation (and therefore vorticity) vector components must be equal to zero.
Vorticity and Rotationality The vorticity vector in cylindrical coordinates (r. θ. z): ˆ = 1 ∂u z − ∂uθ ζ ∂z r ∂θ 1 ∂ (ruθ ) ∂ur ∂u ∂u ˆr + r − z eθ + ˆ − e ∂r ∂θ r ∂r ∂z ˆ e z For 2D flow in the rθplane: ˆ = 1 ∂ ( ruθ ) − ∂u r e ζ ˆz r ∂r ∂θ 31 .
Calculate the angular velocity and the vorticity vector at the point (1. 32 . 1.Example Example: A velocity field in a particular flow is given by V = 20y2i – 20xyj m/s. 2).
v = 3x. w = 3yz. (b) v = 0. (c) u = 2x. w = 2z. 33 .Example Example: Determine whether the following 2D flows are rotational or irrotational: (a) u = 2y.
g. which may be appropriate in some regions of a flow field.The Irrotational Flow Approximation Irrotational approximation: ζˆ = ∇ × V ≈ 0 ˆ We must keep in mind that the assumption of irrotationality is an approximation. 34 . but not in other regions.. inviscid regions of flow far away from solid walls and wakes of bodies are also irrotational. However. In general. solidbody rotation). there are situations in which an inviscid region of flow may not be irrotational (e.
Rotational 35 .Inviscid Flow: Irrotational Flow Examples where inviscid flow theory can be used: Inviscid Region – Irrotational Viscous Region .
the shear strain rate in Cartesian coordinates: 1 ∂u ∂v 1 ∂w ∂u 1 ∂v ∂w + ε zx = ε xy = + ε yz = + 2 ∂y ∂x 2 ∂x ∂z 2 ∂z ∂x 36 .and ydirections: 1 d 1 ∂u ∂v ε xy = − α= + 2 dt 2 ∂y ∂x Consider 3D. Angular Deformation/Shear Strain Shear strain rate at a point is defined as half of the rate of decrease of the angle between two initially perpendicular lines that intersect at that point. Consider a fluid element translating and deforming in 2D xyplane. the shear strain rate.4. initially perpendicular lines in the x.
we combine linear strain rate and shear strain rate into shear strain tensor: ε xx ε ij = ε yx ε zx ε xy ε yy ε zy ∂u ∂x ε xz 1 ∂v ∂u ε yz = + 2 ∂x ∂y ε zz 1 ∂w ∂u 2 ∂x + ∂z 1 ∂u ∂v + 2 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂y 1 ∂w ∂v ∂y + ∂z 2 1 ∂u ∂w + 2 ∂z ∂x 1 ∂v ∂w + ∂z ∂y 2 ∂w ∂z We will see it again in Chap 2 37 .Angular Deformation/Shear Strain Now.
Example Example: A velocity field in a particular flow is given by V = 20y2i – 20xyj m/s. 1. Calculate the nonzero strain rate components at the point (1. 2). 38 .
Conservation of Mass: Cartesian Coordinates The differential form of the equation for Conservation of Mass: In vector notation. the equation is the following: If the flow is steady and compressible: If the flow is steady and incompressible: The Continuity Equation 39 .
(b) u = 0. v = 3xy.Examples Example: Assuming ρ to be constant. v = 3x. do the following flows satisfy continuity? (a) u = 2y. 40 .
A streamline does not indicate the magnitude of the velocity.Streamlines A streamline is a line drawn through the flow field in such a manner that the local velocity vector is tangent to the streamline at every point along the line at that instant. The tangent of the streamline at a given time gives the direction of the velocity vector. The flow pattern shown by the streamlines is an instantaneous visualization of the flow field. 41 .
Conservation of Mass: Cylindrical Coordinates If the flow is steady and compressible: The Continuity Equation If the flow is steady and incompressible: 42 .
vr = 0. 43 . (b) vθ = 0. vr = 5/r.Examples Example: Check the following incompressible flows for continuity and determine the vorticity of each: (a) vθ = 6r.
we define the stream functions as follows: Now.Stream Functions Stream Functions are defined for steady. 2D Continuity Equation: Then. 44 . 2D flow. substitute the stream function into the continuity equation: Any flow that satisfies stream function automatically satisfies the continuity condition. incompressible.
Stream Functions The slope at any point along a streamline: Streamlines have constant ψ. 45 . thus dψ = 0: dx dy dz = = u v w The stream function is constant along a streamline.
calculate the volume flow rate per unit depth between streamlines: The change in the value of the stream function is related to the volume flow rate per unit depth between two streamlines.Stream Functions Now. 46 .
axisymmetric stream function in cylindrical coordinates: 1 ∂ ( ru r ) ∂ (u z ) + =0 r ∂r ∂z ur = − 1 ∂ψ r ∂z uz = 1 ∂ψ r ∂r 47 .Stream Functions in Cylindrical Coordinates Incompressible. planar stream function in cylindrical coordinates: Incompressible.
Interpretation of Stream Function A single variable (ψ) replaces two variables (u and v). The stream function satisfies the continuity equation. The difference in the value of ψ from one streamline to another is equal to the volume flow rate per unit width between the two streamlines. In steady flow. 48 . Curves of constant ψ are streamlines of the flow. there is no flow across (perpendicular) to a streamline. both u and v can be generated. once ψ is known.
2D flow field are u = 2y and v = 4x. Determine the stream function and show on a sketch with several streamlines.Example Example: The velocity components in a steady. incompressible. 49 .
50 . the streamline adjacent to a solid body in perfectfluid flow is one with finite velocity.Streamlines For real fluid flows. So. the perfect fluid has no tendency to stick to walls because it has no viscosity. This leads to the idea that we may divide a perfectfluid flow along a streamline and substitute a solid body for the flow on one side of the streamline. in real fluids the wall is a streamline of zero velocity. So. But. the fluid adjacent to the boundary of a solid body does not move relative to body – it sticks to the wall.
φ = x2. the mathematical solution takes on the form known as irrotational flow (also known as potential flow). sin x do not satisfy Laplace’s equation. This form is analogous to the flow of heat in a temperature field or to the flow of charge in an electrostatic field. 51 . and so not every velocity potential represents a potential flow. ex.Potential Flow In the region outside the boundary layer. so they cannot represent potential flows because they violate the mass balance for a constantdensity fluid. All these flows obey Laplace’s equation under certain restrictions (for example: steadystate mass balance for a constantdensity fluid). where the fluid may be assumed to have no viscosity. Not every velocity potential satisfies Laplace’s equation. x2 + y2. For example.
which is the curl of a velocity vector. is zero: ˆ ω = ∇ ×V = 0 With the velocity given by the gradient of a scalar function. The flow must be irrotational if there is a velocity potential. 52 .Potential Flow: Velocity Potential Consider a velocity field that is given by the gradient of a scalar function φ (called velocity potential function): ˆ V = ∇φ Such velocity field is called a potential flow (or an irrotational flow) and possesses the property that the vorticity ω. gives ∇ ⋅ ∇φ = ∇ 2φ = 0 which is known as Laplace’s equation. the differential ˆ continuity equation (∇ ⋅ V = 0 ). for an incompressible flow.
53 . there exists a velocity potential: Take one component of vorticity to show that the velocity potential is irrotational: Substitute u and v components of velocity potential: ∂ 2φ 1 ∂ 2φ ∂x∂y − ∂y∂x = 0 We could do this to show all vorticity components are zero.Potential Flow: Velocity Potential For irrotational flow. 2 The flow must be irrotational if there is a velocity potential.
planar flow: Now substitute the stream function: Then. the vector can be expressed as the gradient of a velocity potential. and w components as a vector: If the curl of a vector is zero.Potential Flow: Velocity Potential Then. v. For irrotational. rewriting the u. Laplace’s Equation Then for incompressible irrotational flow: Pierre Laplace (17491827) 54 .
Potential Flow: Velocity Potential Potential flows are irrotational – vorticity is zero.g.. wake). then the flow cannot be described by Laplace’s equation. 55 . If the vorticity is present (e. boundary layer.
the gradient operator. with appropriate boundary conditions.Potential Flow: Velocity Potential Laplacian Operator in Cartesian coordinates: If a Potential Flow exists.e. 56 . the entire velocity and pressure field can be specified. pipe flow. Laplacian Operator in cylindrical coordinates: where the gradient in cylindrical coordinates. Then.. i. May choose cylindrical coordinates based on the geometry of the flow problem.
y) to a nearby point (x + dx. The equipotential lines are orthogonal to streamlines where they intersect. 57 . the change of φ from one point (x. we have dφ = 0. 0 Lines of constant φ are called equipotential lines.Potential Flow: Velocity Potential Lines of constant ψ are streamlines: Now. y + dy): Along lines of constant φ.
Potential Flow: Velocity Potential The flow net consists of a family of streamlines and equipotential lines. 58 . The combination of streamlines and equipotential lines are used to visualize a graphical flow situation. Velocity increases along this streamline. Streamlines and equipotential lines intersect at right angles. The velocity is inversely proportional to the spacing between streamlines. Velocity decreases along this streamline.
The velocity potential is defined by irrotationality. 1 ∂ 2φ ∂ 2φ ∂x∂y − ∂y∂x = 0 2 59 . the Laplace equation for ψ results from irrotationality.Stream Function and Velocity Potential The stream function is defined by continuity. the Laplace equation for φ results from continuity.
Cylindrical: Axisymmetric. Cylindrical: u r = Planar. 2D regions of flow in terms of velocity potential and stream function in various coordinate systems: Planar.Potential Flow: Plane Potential Flows Velocity components for steady. Cylindrical: u r = − 1 ∂ψ r ∂z uz = 1 ∂ψ r ∂r 60 ∂φ ∂r uz = ∂φ ∂z . irrotational. Cartesian: Planar. Cartesian: Planar. Cylindrical: Axisymmetric. incompressible.
v) ⇔ φ (u . w) ⇔ φ 61 . Stream Function and Velocity Potential ψ ⇔ (u . v.The Conversion between Velocity Field.
Incompressible? Continuity equation? Stream function exists? Irrotational? Velocity potential exists? Incompressible? Satisfy continuity equation? Stream function exists? Irrotational? Velocity potential exists? ∇ •V = 0 ω = 0 or ζ = 0 ∇ ψ =0 62 ∇ φ =0 2 2 .
Find the stream function for this flow.Example 2 2 Example: A velocity potential in 2D flow is φ = y + x − y . 63 .
64 . Find the velocity potential for this flow.Example Example: The 2D stream function for a flow is ψ = 9 + 6 x − 4 y + 7 xy .
the fluid velocity components are given by u = x − 4 y and v = − y − 4 x . 65 . obtain also the expression for the velocity potential. If the flow is potential.Example Example: In a 2D incompressible flow. Show that the flow satisfied the continuity equation and obtain the expression for the stream function.
Determine the corresponding velocity potential. incompressible fluid in the vicinity of the 90º corner is described by the stream function ψ = 2r 2 sin 2θ .Example Example: The 2D flow of a nonviscous. ψ = Ar π / α sin φ = Ar π / α cos πθ α πθ α 66 .
Elementary Flows Before we discuss the elemental flows.html Next we will learn how the velocity fields of some elementary and complex flows can be expressed in terms of stream function and velocity potential. 67 .org/fluid/green/potential. let’s visit this website: http://simscience.
For φ2 = Ax + By.1. This might be the description of a wind blowing over the ocean at a steady. steady flow of velocity A in the positive x direction. v = ∂φ1/∂y = 0 So. making the angle arctan (B/A) with the x axis. These uniform flows are not of much practical interest alone. constantvelocity flow with velocity (A2 + B2)1/2. but they can be combined with other flows to solve more interesting problems. u = ∂φ1/∂x = A. φ2 describes a uniform. v = ∂φ2/∂y = B So. Uniform Flow Question: Do φ1 = Ax and φ2 = Ax + By satisfy Laplace’s equation? For φ1 = Ax . 68 . u = ∂φ2/∂x = A. uniform velocity of A. φ1 describes a uniform.
1. α: φ = Ux ψ = Uy u=U v= 0 69 . Uniform Flow For Uniform Flow in an arbitrary direction.
Source and Sink Flow Now.(2πr )vr = m 2. obtain the stream function for the flow: vr 0 vθ φ= m ln r 2π Integrating to obtain the solution: The streamlines are radial lines and the equipotential lines are concentric circles centered about the origin: φ lines ψ lines 70 .
The equations vr = m/2πr. thus. vθ = 0 show that the radial flow velocity becomes infinite at r = 0 (mathematical singularity). it describes the flow into oil well in a thick horizontal stratum. the flow is sink. this equation cannot describe any real flow at r = 0. These flows are of practical significance in the petroleum industry.2. if m is negative. m = Q / L is the volume rate of flow per unit depth issuing from the source or sink. where Q is flow rate. Source and Sink Flow If m is positive. and L is height. 71 . the flow is source.
incompressible fluid flows between wedgeshaped walls into a small opening.Examples Example: A nonviscous. The velocity potential (in m2/s). 72 . Determine the volume rate of flow (per unit length) into the opening. which approximately describes this flow is φ = 2 ln r.
73 .3. Vortex Flow In vortex flow the streamlines are concentric circles. . Solution: where K is a constant. The sign of K determines whether the flow rotates clockwise () or counterclockwise (+). namely the strength of the vortex. In this case. At the origin it encounters a singularity becoming infinite. and the equipotential lines are radial lines. φ lines ψ lines The tangential velocity varies inversely with the distance from the origin.
In general flow there is both deformation and rotation. 74 . If an ideal flow is initially irrotational. it will remain irrotational. The elements deform to maintain a constant orientation. The swirling motion of the water as it drains from a bathtub is similar to that of a free vortex.3. Two vortices: free vortex and forced vortex. An ideal flow is one that has no viscosity and is incompressible. Vortex Flow Rotation refers to the orientation of a fluid element and not the path followed by the element. while the motion of a liquid contained in a tank is rotated about its axis with angular velocity corresponds to a forced vortex.
.. As they move from A to B the perpendicularaligned stick rotates clockwise. the flow is irrotational. The average angular velocities cancel each other. a rotating tank filled with fluid Traveling from A to B. thus. ˆ ζˆ = ∇ ×V = 0 ˆ ζˆ = 2ω = ∇ × V 75 . sticks aligned. Rotational Flow: Rigid Body Rotation Initially. and the other perpendicular to the flow. and the other perpendicular to the flow. while the flowaligned stick rotates counter clockwise. consider two sticks Irrotational Flow: Initially. one in the flow direction. water draining from a bathtub Rotational Flow: Forced Vortex Velocity increases outward. i.e. i. sticks aligned. one in the flow direction. and thus the flow is rotational.e.Free Vortex and Forced Vortex Irrotational Flow: Free Vortex Velocity increases inward. As they move from A to B the sticks move in a rigid body motion.
Free Vortex and Forced Vortex 76 .
A simple analogy can be made between flow A and a merrygoround or roundabout. they also rotate at the same angular velocity as that of the ride itself. A simple analogy: (a) rotational circular flow is analogous to a roundabout. and flow B and a Ferris wheel. This is analogous to a rotational flow. children on a Ferris wheel always remain oriented in an upright position as they trace out their circular path. As children revolve around a roundabout. This is analogous to an irrotational flow. In contrast. 77 . while (b) irrotational circular flow is analogous to a Ferris wheel.
Tornadoes and Hurricanes
A combined vortex flow is one in which there is a forced vortex at the core, and a free vortex outside the core. The minimum pressure at the vortex center can give rise to a “secondary flow” which is produced by the pressure gradient in the primary (vortex) flow. In the region near the ground, the wind velocity is decreased due to the friction provided by the ground. However, the pressure difference in the radial direction causes a radially inward flow adjacent to the ground, and upward flow at the vortex center. Pressure difference between the vortex center and outer edge: p1 – p0 = –ρVmax2
78
Circulation
Circulation (Γ) or vortex strength gives a measure of the average of rate of rotation of fluid particles that are situated in an area that is bounded by a closed curved. This concept is often useful when evaluating forces (such lift force) developed on bodies immersed in moving fluids. It is defined as the line integral of the tangential component of the velocity (V) around a closed curve fixed in the flow.
Γ = 0 for irrotational flow.
If there are singularities enclosed within the curve, Γ ≠ 0, for example: free vortex.
79
Circulation: Free Vortex
For the free vortex:
(Integrate the entire circle) Γ= 0
The circulation is nonzero and constant for the free vortex: The velocity potential and the stream function for the free vortex can be rewritten in terms of the circulation:
80
If the velocity at r = 20 m is 20 m/s.Examples Example: The pressure far from an irrotational vortex (a simplified tornado) in the atmosphere is zero gauge. estimate the velocity and the pressure at r = 2 m. 81 .
Circulation How is circulation calculated from rpm and radius? 82 .
83 .Example Example: A liquid drains from a large tank through a small opening. A vortex forms whose velocity distribution away from the tank opening can be approximated as that of a free vortex having a velocity potential φ = (Γ / 2π )θ Determine an expression relating the surface shape to the strength of the vortex as specified by the circulation.
4. and If a is small. then tangent of angle is approximated by the angle: 84 . Note. the following: Substituting the above expressions. Then. Rearrange and take tangent. Doublet Flow Combination of an equal Source and Sink pair.
85 Streamlines of a Doublet: . and is equal to ma/π.4. we obtain the doublet flow by letting the source and sink approach one another (a → 0). The corresponding velocity potential then is the following: ψ lines Doublet strength is for a double oriented in the negative xdirection. Doublet Flow Now. and letting the strength increase (m → ∞). is then constant. K is the strength of the doublet.
Summary of Basic Flows u=U v=0 Γ=0 Origin is singular point Γ=0 Γ = K around any closed curved enclosing origin Γ = 0 around any closed curved NOT enclosing origin Origin is singular point Origin is singular point Γ = around any closed curved 86 .
and (Aφ1 + φ2) are also solutions.. If φ1 and φ2 are each solutions of the Laplace equation. we will superimpose simple functions to create flows of interest. the solutions can be combined in superposition.Superposition of Basic Flows Because potential flows are governed by linear partial differential equations. . or complicated incompressible. The superposition is only valid for irrotatioanal flow fields for which the equations for φ and ψ are linear. then Aφ1. Thus. some of the basic ψ and φ can be combined to yield a streamline that represents a particular body shape. (A + φ1). plane flow. The superposition representing a body can lead to describing the flow around the body in detail. (φ1 + φ2). The velocity at any point in the composite field is the vector sum of the 87 velocities of the individual flow fields.
Stream Function (cylindrical coordinates): Velocity Potential (cylindrical coordinates): 88 .1. Rankine HalfBody The Rankine HalfBody is a combination of a source and a uniform flow.
somewhere along the negative xaxis where the velocities due to the source and uniform flow are cancelled (θ = π). For the source: For the uniform flow: vr = U cos θ For θ = π. Rankine HalfBody There will be a stagnation point. θ = π: vr = U = m and 2πr Now. The value of ψ at the stagnation point: ψ = Ur sin θ + m θ 2π 89 . v r = U Then. and θ = π . the stagnation streamline can be defined by evaluating y at r = b. at some x = b (r = b).1. for a stagnation point.
it follows that the equation of the streamline passing through the stagnation point. and gives the outline of the Rankine halfbody: Then. So. For inviscid flow. Rankine HalfBody Since m/2 = πbU. Singularity (inside the body) 90 . a streamline can be replaced by a solid boundary.1. the source and uniform can be used to describe the flow around a streamlined body placed in a uniform stream – halfbody. The other streamlines can be obtained by setting ψ = constant.
Rankine HalfBody The width of the halfbody: The magnitude of the velocity (V) at any point in the flow: and Total width = 2πb π Noting. 91 .sin θ = b(π − θ ) r 1. Knowing the velocity we can now determine the pressure field using the Bernoulli Equation: po and U are at a point far away from the body and are known.
The singularity in the flow field (source) only occurs inside the body. 92 . etc. When a combination is found that produces a streamline with the shape of the body in question. This is normally done by combining uniform flows.1. sources. sinks. The flow inside that line normally has no meaning and is ignored. the flow outside the streamline is a representation of the flow around the body. Rankine HalfBody We wish to find the flow pattern around some arbitrary body.
the fluid “slips” by the boundary (as neglecting viscosity).e. outside this layer. The pressure distribution along the surface will closely approximate that predicted from the potential flow theory since the boundary layer is thin.1. 93 . However. the velocity distribution will generally correspond to that predicted by potential flow theory if flow separation does not occur. So. and there is little variation of pressure through the boundary layer. i. all potential flows differ from the flow of real fluids (considering viscosity) and do not accurately represent the velocity very near the boundary. Rankine HalfBody The velocity tangent to the surface of the body is not zero..
(a) When a 60 km/hr wind blows toward the hill.Example Example: The shape of a hill arising from a plain can be approximated with the top section of a halfbody. 94 . The height of the hill approaches 60 m. what is the magnitude of the air velocity at a point on the hill directly above the origin (point 2)? (b) What is the elevation of point (2) above the plain and what is the difference in pressure between point (1) on the plain far from the hill and point (2)? Assume an air density of 1.23 kg/m3.
Stream function and velocity function describing the flow: 95 .2. Rankine Oval Rankine Ovals are the combination a source. producing a closed body. a sink and a uniform flow.
2. Rankine Oval The streamline ψ = 0 forms the surface of a body of length 2l and width 2 h placed in a uniform flow. Ua/m is large Ua/m is small slender body blunt shape body The body halflength l m = + 1 a πUa 1/ 2 The body halfwidth 2 πUa h h 1 h = − 1 tan 2 a 2 a m a “Iterative” 96 .
2. Rankine Oval Ua/m is large Ua/m is small slender body blunt shape body 97 .
Rankine Oval Downstream from the point of maximum body width. 98 .2. resulting in a large low pressure wake on the downstream side of the body. viscous boundary layer and the pressure distribution on the front part of the body. The potential solution for the Rankine ovals will only approximate the velocity outside the thin. This condition (called adverse pressure gradient) typically leads to separation (not predicted by potential theory) of the flow from the surface. the surface pressure increases with distance along the surface.
3. ψ = constant for r = a (a = the radius of the circular cylinder): K = Ua2 Doublet strength Then.1. Then the velocity components: and 99 . Flow Around a Stationary Circular Cylinder Combines a uniform flow and a doublet flow and For the ψ to represent flow around a cylinder.
magnitude of 2U (θ = ± π/2). A remarkable feature is the symmetry of the flow upstream and downstream of the cylinder. Why are the The figure shows the pattern of streamlines for this flow. We disregard the doublet flow on the inside of the circle r = a and imagine that a solid cylinder replaces this portion of the flow.3. streamlines so close here? No slip or slip? Why are the streamlines so far here? 100 .1. Flow Around a Stationary Circular Cylinder On the surface of the cylinder (r = a): vrs = 0 The maximum velocity occurs at the top and bottom of the cylinder.
So. the ideal flow is no longer valid.1. 101 . Flow separation on the backhalf in the real flow due to viscous effects causes differences between the theory and experiment. Flow Around a Stationary Circular Cylinder Pressure distribution on a circular cylinder found with the Bernoulli equation Then substituting for the surface velocity: Theoretical and experimental agree well on the front portion of the cylinder.3. The actual surface pressures and ideal values agree for a distance up to β = 60°.
0) occurs at the point C. and the minimum 102 pressure (Cp = – 3.Pressure Coefficient The pressure gradient influences flow patterns and pressure distributions acting on bodies create forces. A common dimensionless group for describing the pressure distribution is pressure coefficient (Cp): p − p0 Cp = 1 ρV02 2 where p is the local pressure.0). The points B and D are points of stagnation (Cp = +1. p0 and V0 are the freestream pressure and velocity. .
1.3. (c) freestream velocity on the cylinder’s surface. The pressure distribution up to the point of separation is very nearly the same as that predicted by potential flow. (b) pressure distribution on the cylinder’s surface. Flow Around a Stationary Circular Cylinder Inviscid flow past a circular cylinder: (a) streamlines for the flow if there were no viscous effects. 103 .
Wake Turbulent or laminar data matches better with irrotational flow 104 approximation? Why? . (c) surface pressure distributions for inviscid flow and boundary layer flow. (b) typical boundary layer velocity profiles at various locations on the cylinder.1.3. Flow Around a Stationary Circular Cylinder Boundary layer characteristics on a circular cylinder: (a) boundary layer separation location.
Favorable and Adverse Pressure Gradient From Euler’s equation for pressure gradient and acceleration along a pathline. 105 . The fluid particle decelerates (at < 0) if the pressure increases with distance along a pathline (∂p/s > 0) – adverse pressure gradient. ∂p ρat = − ∂s The fluid particle accelerates (at > 0) if the pressure decreases with distance along a pathline (∂p/s < 0) – favorable pressure gradient.
The prediction and control of separation is continuing challenge for engineers involved with the design of fluid systems. 106 . reduce lift and produce unsteady forces leading to structural failure (e.Flow Separation Flow separation occurs when the fluid pathlines adjacent to body deviates from the contour of the body and produce a wake.. Tavoma Narrows Bridge in 1904).g. It tends to increase drag.
The zerolife prediction is acceptable for a real flow. but the zerodrag result is unacceptable. (Drag) (Lift) Substituting Evaluating the integrals: Jean le Rond d’Alembert (17171783) Both drag and lift are predicted to be zero on fixed cylinder in a uniform flow. 107 . Flow Around a Stationary Circular Cylinder The resultant force per unit length acting on the cylinder can be determined by integrating the pressure over the surface (equate to lift and drag).1.3.
the force on the front half cancels that one the rear half to produce zero drag). However. 17171783).1. this makes sense since the pressure distribution is symmetric about cylinder (because of the symmetric pressure distribution. Flow Around a Stationary Circular Cylinder Mathematically. in practice/experiment. Potential theory incorrectly predicts that the drag on a cylinder is zero. 108 .3. we see substantial drag on a circular cylinder (and called as d’Alembert’s Paradox.
The streamlines that represents the cylinder is still a circle. Flow Around a Rotating Circular Cylinder Flow around a rotating cylinder is approximated by the combination of a uniform flow past a cylinder and a free vortex. 109 .2. This flow is relevant to the flow about wings and airfoils. but the values of the surface velocity are changed. The addition of the vortex changes the flow pattern everywhere.3. except at the cylinder surface and at infinity. but not vr. a2 a Γ ψ = Ur 1 − 2 sin θ − ln r and φ = Ur1 + 2 r 2π r On the surface of the cylinder (r = a): vθ s = − ∂ψ ∂r 2 Γ cosθ + θ 2π Γ 2πa = −2U sin θ + r =a The additional vortex only affects vθs.
then the  stagnation point is located away from the cylinder.2.. then the stagnation points occur at some other location on the surface as Figures (b) and (c). Flow Around a Rotating Circular Cylinder The stagnation points occur at θ = θStag where (vθ = 0): sin θ stag If Γ = 0. If Γ/(4πUa) > 1.e. If 1 ≤ Γ/(4πUa) ≤1. i.3. the stagnation points occur at the front and rear of the cylinder. then θstag = 0 or π. There is a portion of fluid that is trapped next to the surface and continually rotates around the cylinder. Γ = 4πUa 110 .
3.2. the surface pressure is obtained from the Bernoulli equation. 1 1 Γ p0 + ρU 2 = ps + ρ − 2U sin θ + 2 2 2πa 2 1 2Γ sin θ Γ2 ps = p0 + ρU 2 1 − 4 sin 2 θ + − 2 2 2 2 πaU 4π a U 111 . Flow Around a Rotating Circular Cylinder For the cylinder with circulation.
Flow Around a Rotating Circular Cylinder 112 .2.3.
U. http://www.2. Substituting this equation into Fy.grc. Flow Around a Rotating Circular Cylinder Substituting this equation into Fx.gov/WWW/K12/airplane/cyl. and Γ is called KuttaJoukowski law.3. The negative sign means that if U is positive in the positive x direction. but nonzero lift. 113 . no force in the direction of the uniform flow is developed.nasa. for the drag. for the lift. the direction is downward.html The equation relating lift force on airfoils to ρ. and circulation is positive (a free vortex with counterclockwise rotation). and integrated. yields Fy = − ρUΓ Magnus Effect – Lift on rotating bodies Potential flow past a cylinder with circulation gives zero drag. and integrated. yields Fx = 0 For the rotating cylinder.
counterclockwise (Γ = +ve) Low v and high P on tophalf of cylinder Downward force (Fy = ve) Uniform flow towards +ve xdirection (U = +ve). clockwise (Γ = ve) Low v and high P on bottomhalf of cylinder Upward lift force (Fy = +ve) 114 .2. Flow Around a Rotating Circular Cylinder Uniform flow towards +ve xdirection (U = +ve).3.