Sanskrit Introductory
This print le is available from: ftp://ftp.nac.ac.za/wikner/sktintro.ps600-jan02

A Practical

This course of fteen lessons is intended to lift the English-speaking student who knows nothing of Sanskrit, to the level where he can intelligently apply MonierWilliams' dictionary1 and the Dhatu-Patha2 to the study of the scriptures. .

The rst ve lessons cover the pronunciation of the basic Sanskrit alphabet, together with its written form in both Devanagar and transliterated Roman: ash cards are included as an aid. The notes on pronunciation are largely descriptive, based on mouth position and e ort, with similar English (Received Pronunciation) sounds o ered where possible. The next four lessons describe vowel embellishments to the consonants, the principles of conjunct consonants, and additions to and variations in the Devanagar alphabet. Lessons ten and eleven present sandhi in grid form and explain their principles in sound. The next three lessons penetrate Monier-Williams' dictionary through its four levels of alphabetical order, and suggest strategies for nding di cult words. The last lesson shows the extraction of the artha from the Dhatu-Patha, and the . application of this and the dictionary to the study of the scriptures. In addition to the primary course, the rst eleven lessons include a `B' section which introduces the student to the principles of sentence structure in this fully in ected language. Six declension paradigms and class-1 conjugation in the present tense are used with a minimal vocabulary of nineteen words. In the `B' part of lessons ten and eleven the principles of compound words are introduced.

The course aims at a practical understanding of the basic principles, at getting a `feel' for the language, and not a learning of rules by rote. To this end, each lesson concludes with exercises for the student to put that understanding into practice: answers to the exercises are presented in an appendix.

1 Monier-Williams

both Motilal Banarsidass in India and Oxford University Press in England: although the two are printed from the same plates, the latter is far superior in the quality of printing, paper, and binding | and this is re ected in its much higher price. 2 The edition of the Dhatupat ha referred to in these notes is that edited . by J.L.Shastri and published by Motilal Banarsidass: it is a small book and quite inexpensive.

Sanskrit-English Dictionary is currently published by

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: In the English-speaking world there is currently little appreciation of the value of studying formal grammar: as a result it has become unpopular.g. an appendix of basic English grammatical terms is included. 1996. and o er suggestions for its improvement.iv A Practical Sanskrit Introductory The pronunciation o ered in these lessons is optimised for the English-speaking student to understand the underlying principles of sandhi (sound changes). variations are illustrated in the ninth lesson. these lessons standardize on the form that is most commonly used in currently available printed editions of the Bhagavad G ta and Upanisads. There are several variations in the pronunciation of some of the Sanskrit sounds. Charles Wikner. Where there is a variation in the form of a character (e. In view of this situation. that have been handed down over generations. A or ). although this may confuse the mind trained to think in terms of opposites. and many schools have ceased to teach it. Consider the English spoken in Britain and America for example: they are certainly di erent. wikner@nac.za June.ac. . The common . :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Readers are invited to point out errors in the course. but neither is wrong. of right and wrong. None of these traditions are wrong.

A. More on Verbs The Three Sibilants: sa sa sa B. A.1. Practicing the Alphabet B. Vowel Measures Sanskrit Pronunciation The Three Primary Vowels: a i u The Other Simple Vowels: r l .1. B.5. A. A. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: The Five Mouth Positions B.2. Summary of Verbs B.2. A.1.4.6. A. A. The Compound Vowels: e ai o au Summary of All Vowels The Sixteen Sakti: am ah . Exercises B.6.1.3. A. Devanagar Alphabet Lesson 5 A. More on Verbs The Twenty-Five Stops: ka to ma B. The Final Consonant: ha B.1.1.1. A.4. A.Contents Preface :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: iii v ix 1 Contents Invocation Lesson 1 A.1. Exercises Pronunciation of the Stops Devanagar Alphabet ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 13 Lesson 3 The Four Semi-Vowels: ya ra la va B. A. B. A. A. Exercises 21 Lesson 4 A.5.8.3. Exercises Summary of the Consonants The Alphabetical Order Devanagar Alphabet B.3.4. More on Noun Cases B.2. A.2. B.3. A.7.2. Devanagar Alphabet ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 31 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 37 .4.3. More on Noun Cases B. . Introduction to nouns . The Concept of Dhatu Introduction to Verbs Exercises Flash Cards Lesson 2 A.. A.

A.4. Conjunct Consonants A. Dvandva Samasa B.2. Consonant Sandhi Grid A.6.2. Avyay bhava Samasa B. B.1. History of Vowel Embellishment A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Lesson 6 45 B.1.4. Exercises . Guna and Vrddhi .1. Special Symbols A. Verbal Pre xes B. Summary of Case Information B. Internal Sandhi :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: B.2. Exercises 63 A. Nasal Substitution for Anusvara A.3.2.5. Variations in Samyoga B. Types of Words A. Pronunciation of j~a n A.4.2. Lesson 9 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 71 Lesson 10 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: B. List of Conjunct Consonants Lesson 7 A. Special Conjuncts ksa and j~a n .3. Introduction to Sandhi A.4. Joining Words in Writing B. Vocabulary Summary B.vi A. A.4. Adverbs B. Exercises 53 A.3. Revision A. Visarga Sandhi A.1. Devanagar Numerals B. A.4. More Noun Declensions B. Adjectives B.3. A. Tatpurusa Samasa .2. Use of iti A.3. Samprasarana .1. Savarna . Noun Gender B.2. Pronunciation of ksa . Variations in Devanagar Alphabet B. A.1. Bahuvr hi Samasa B.2.1.2. Sentence Structure: English and Sanskrit B.5. Vowel Sandhi A. Halanta Consonants ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: B. Vowel Accents B. . Exercises 85 .3.1. Exceptions to Vowel Sandhi A.1.3.4. Introduction to Compound Words B.2. Exercises Lesson 8 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: A.1. Vowels after Consonants A. Exercises 77 Lesson 11 A.

2. The Contents Page The Text Body The Index Dhatu Spelling Changes Illustrations of Dhatu-Pat ha Use . 6. 3. 4. 5. 4. 5. 3. 5. Study of the Scriptures Study Practice ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 109 Appendix 1: Suggestions for Further Study Appendix 2: Answers to Exercises Sanskrit Glossary and Index Appendix 3: English Grammatical Terms ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 121 123 135 141 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: . Monier-Williams Dictionary Alphabet and Transliteration Fundamental Structure Page Heading Words Dictionary Practice Words beginning with SaStructure of Devanagar level Structure within non-Dhatu entries References and Abbreviations Special Symbols Signi cance of Hyphen and Caret Symbols Supplement to the Dictionary Dictionary Practice Tracing a Word to its Dhatu Dhatu Entry Information Numbered Entries Misleading Words Di cult Words Dictionary Practice :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 91 Lesson 13 97 Lesson 14 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 103 Lesson 15 1. 6. 8. 5.Contents vii :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Lesson 12 1. 4. Introduction to Dhatu-Patha . 7. 7. 1. 2. 2. 4. 2. 3. 3. 1. 6. 8.

viii A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

reach. . this may be understood as the heat that burns o the dross of ignorance and allows the light of understanding to shine through. .Sastry) . . to succeed.P. A.1. . get about to go to or towards. `let it be'. live. Swam Sarvananda) Let our study be brilliant. | A sa A d a a d ga Na :pa:=+smEa pa d . happen. With reference to our study of Sanskrit.P. splendid. p adhi. Swam Gambh rananda) . light.e.P. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : (Invocation to Taittir ya 2. . May our study be vigorous and e ective.tea:ja a. na Ea genitive dual of personal pronoun `I'.k A d a a d ga Na A a tma nea pa d A a na f . reminding. continue in any condition or relation . obtain .sma:=+Nea . attained. deportment. brilliant. calling to mind.tea:ja .//~va a/ . this gives a rather plodding translation of `Let our study be bright'. having qualities of heat and light. : : : : : : : : (Invocation to Katha Upanisad . : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : (First Lessons in Sanskrit. (The past passive participle used in the sense of an abstract noun. Swam Sarvananda) . Dh. sharpening.) adh ta |mw 22c mfn. the act of causing to remember. pi | to go. or simply `our'. giving the meaning `of us both (student and teacher)'. tejasvin | mw 454c mfn. over and above. go on with. going. . Treating adh tam as a neuter noun and tejasvi its complement. rather than the literal word-by-word translation. moving. adhi | mw 20b pre x expressing above. walk to ow to blow to advance. : : : : : : : : : : (Invocation to Taittir ya 2. learned. gait. or simply `be!' mw 117a be. . smarana | mw 1272b n. glare. A Da a ta m.a A ~tua / . observe. splendour. Judith Tyberg) :pa d a a na .ix I NV O C A T I O N Translations: E ective may our study prove! : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : (Invocation to Daksinamurti Upanisad. studied. | I+. May our study be thorough and fruitful.sea f Bua a va . Dh. whetting observing. . Dh. A ~tua of pas pas |rst persontosingular imperative present. . brilliance.z A d a a d ga Na :pa:=+smEa pa d A a na f A Dya ya nea .P. to undertake anything to be employed in. spread. motion in general. i. Dh. Dh.a neuter nominative singular of adh tam." y y The light of understanding/knowledge/truth. gati | mw 347c f. the act of arising or becoming.i. . glow. especially the Veda s. be take place. `existing in this'). in the sense of matup (`belonging to this'. adhyayana | mw 22c n.1. . | I+. come . | I+.] tejas | sharp (edge of a knife) point or top of ame or ray. to arrive at. : : : (Invocation to Katha Upanisad . studying. Using poetic licence to convey the sense of the whole. to turn the mind towards. perceiving. energetic. . . Swam Gambh rananda) May our study be full of light. understand. .z A d a a d ga Na :pa:=+smEa pa d A a na f ga ta Ea . bhu | mw 760c f. (to be). we have: \May the Light Shine upon our Studies. Panini: ba hu lM C+.te!a:j!a a. read well-read.nd a sa 5 2 122 In the Veda the a x -vin is variously introduced .sea f a na Za a nea nisana | mw 561a n. Let what we are studying be invigorating./~va na !a va Da a ta ma ~tua // neuter nominative singular of adjective tejasvin. . reading.P./~va na Ea A Da a ta m. Comment: Tejas is a name given to the subtle element of re. | a ta:ja Bva a a d ga Na A a tma nea pa d . bright. re ptij | mw 446a to be or become sharp.M. exist. `may it be'. besides.

x A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

for it re ects the natural evolution of creation. and then instead of simply moving the tongue we move the whole jaw | and what a great weight that is to move about. fate.A.A Sanskrit is written in devanagar script. the development of the alphabet and the euphonic combinations that occur in continuous speech. far). but not so in Sanskrit. tone. It is essential to use the correct mouth position and not to merely imitate an approximation of the sound.g. By contrast. sound. each letter represents one. Without this. The short vowels are held for one measure (matra). In Sanskrit. where many means more than two) manifests throughout the grammar. In English. 1. many. The alphabet is systematically arranged according to the structure of the mouth. Having . will not be understood.) 1. The prolonged measure occurs in Vedic Sanskrit but is rare in Classical Sanskrit the prolonged measure (as a full breath) is useful in practising the vowels. and the prolonged for three or more measures.Lesson 1. There are no capital letters. and indeed throughout the systems of thought expressed in Sanskrit. and only one. fat.1 Vowel Measures Vowels can be short (hrasva) or long (d rgha) or prolonged (pluta). The word svara literally means sound. for we barely open the mouth (which means that all sounds are indistinct or blurred). This system of enumeration (one.2 Sanskrit Pronunciation The pronunciation of Sanskrit is very simple: you open the mouth wide and move the tongue and lips as necessary: the tongue and lips are almost pure muscle and have little inertia or resistance to movement. The word devanagar means the `city (nagar ) of immortals (deva)'. manifesting (as a stop in the n sound). two. the letter `a' for example. There are two fundamental divisions to the alphabet: the vowel (svara) and the consonant (vya~jana). accent and n vya~jana an adornment or decoration (to the sound). The prolonged measure in both transliterated Roman script and devanagar is indicated by the short vowel followed by the numeral 3. the long vowels for two measures. may indicate many sounds (e. the pronunciation of English requires much e ort.A. (You may also see it as the long vowel followed by 3. fare.

open the mouth as for a3 and raise the back of the tongue (the tip should be relaxed behind the bottom front teeth). the mouth opens to a mere slit of about 6-mm (a pencil thickness) for Sanskrit this needs to increase fourfold | literally! Try this out for yourself: with the mouth opened to a slit. To sound i3. open the throat and mouth wide. In producing this sound it will be noticed that there is a slight constriction or tensioning in the throat as compared with the relaxed throat when sounding a3. To sound u3. As a very rough guide. they are treated as though the same in the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination) of the grammar. breathe out and simply desire that the vocal cords vibrate. the short a sounds similar to the vowel in `but' and de nitely not `bat' likewise the long a is similar to the vowel in `harm' and not `ham'. There will be a similar tension in the throat as for i3. it does require some attention to break that habit and speak with a moving tongue. . like two ngers. and with tongue relaxed. In producing the short a there is a slight tensioning in the throat that tension should not be there for the long a or the prolonged a3. 1. The mouth needs to open a lot more than you think | so don't think! | use a measure.3 The Three Primary Vowels: a i u The sounding of a3 is simplicity itself: with body and mind relaxed but alert. so pout rather than purse the lips. allow the lips to form a small circular opening of the mouth (so that the moistened back of a pencil just slips in and out. the whole alphabet is simply an embellishment of this sound. sound a prolonged a3 and slowly open the mouth wide and listen to the change in the quality. What could be more natural than that? This sound is central to all the vowel sounds indeed.A. The biggest single factor in practising the re ned sounds of Sanskrit.2 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory become well practised in speaking with a moving jaw. and the long like `peep' or `seat' the short u is similar to the vowel in `put' or `soot'. to the richness and fulness that emerges. The short i sounds similar to the vowel in `pink' and not `pin'. lling the opening) there should be no tension in the lips or face muscles. In spite of this di erence between a and a. and the long u like `boot' or `suit'. is to open the mouth! For English.

the tongue to behind the upper front teeth without touching them. nor try to move it out of that position: simply have no concern with what is happening at the back of the tongue. . `pretty'.5 The Compound Vowels: e ai o au a u r .. de ne the ve mouth positions used for the whole alphabet. Similarly for l3. In fact the vocalic r is still present in Eastern European languages and you may come across . and r even more improbably as r similarly l. or indeed in the American `prdy' for . . each having its own unique mouth position. and l occurs only in one verb (klp. Let's examine what we have so far. tend to be pronounced as lri . Continue the exercise as for r3.A 3 To get to the correct pronunciation of r3. and l. . . . These .4 The Other Simple Vowels: r l . when either of these vowels is followed by a consonant whose mouth position requires that the tip of the tongue be at a lower position. 1. ri. These vowels appear to have vanished from popular speech. and the memory of how to pronounce them has faded. a vestigial i will emerge due to the bunching of the muscle at the back of the tongue when moving the tip downwards. approaching but not touching the roof of the mouth. The pandit of today tends to pronounce r as if it were . . then practise directly sounding r3 for a full breath. for example rk tends to produce r ik. and lr . surnames like Przybylski it is also present in English in some pronunciations of the word `interesting' as `int r sting' or `intrsting'. .Lesson 1.. start sounding with a prolonged i3 and slowly raise the tip of . begin by sounding a prolonged i3 and .A. should produce no i sound at all. . . slowly raise the tip of the tongue so that it pointing to the top of the head. ve basic vowels. This accounts for the transliteration scheme found in the dictionary. . 1. and then the i gave rise to r and l . In practice..A. . to be well ordered or regulated). to manage. Do not try to hold the back of the tongue in the i3 position. 0 0 The long l is not used in the standard grammar. i l. but a word like Krsna .. just attend to the tip of the tongue and listen. Repeat the exercise a few times until comfortable with the sound of r3. We began with a and from this developed u and i to give the three primary vowels. .


A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

Further vowels are derived by combining the a sound with i and u to form the four compound vowels (sandhyaksara). .

e a i

The e sound arises when a is sounded through the i mouth position. Remember that a has a relaxed throat and tongue, while i has the back of the tongue raised and the throat tense: so relaxing the throat while retaining the back of the tongue raised will produce e.

The vowel e sounds similar to that in `fair' or `eight'.

ai a e

The ai sound arises when e is further combined with a as it were. Now the only di erence between e and a is the raised back of the tongue, so to move from e towards the a sound, we need to drop the back of the tongue to a position half way between that used for i and e and the relaxed position used for a.

The ai sounds similar to the vowel in `aisle' or `pie' there should be no glide or slide in the sound from a to i.

o a u

In a manner similar to the arising of e, when a is sounded through the u mouth position, i.e. with the lips in the position for u but the throat relaxed for sounding a, the sound o naturally arises.

The vowel o should sound between `awe' and `owe' (or between the vowel sounds in `corn' and `cone') the ideal is that point where the sound could be taken as either of the two English sounds.

au a o

And nally, the au sound arises when a is combined with o, so that the position of the lips is roughly half way between that used for u and a, and the throat is relaxed.

The au sounds similar to the vowel in `down' or `hound' but without the glide from a to u.

Lesson 1.A


1.A.6 Summary of All Vowels
au o u r . a i l. ai e
Combining the previous ve sketches illustrates the central role played by the a sound. Note that all these vowel sounds may be sounded continuously for a full breath: there is no glide from one sound to another. Also note that the four sounds e ai o au, being an addition of two sounds as it were, are naturally long (d rgha) and may also be prolonged (pluta), but have no short measure.


Throat tense relaxed tense relaxed relaxed tense relaxed relaxed tense tense

Tongue relaxed relaxed raised back raised back half-raised back relaxed relaxed relaxed half-raised back, tip vertical half-raised back, tip upper teeth

Lips wide open wide open wide open wide open wide open small circle small circle large circle wide open wide open

Eng. Approx.


a a i/ e ai u/u o au r . l.

but, not bat harm, not ham pink / peep fair or eight aisle or `pie' put / boot between owe awe down or hound (acre) (table)

The English approximations are only a very rough guide, especially considering the wide variety of accents around the world. Rather follow the instructions given earlier, or oral guidance given in person.


A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

1.A.7 The Sixteen sakti: am ah . .

Strictly speaking, the anusvara and visarga are not part of the alphabet inasmuch as they arise only through the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination). Since these both arise only after a vowel we shall precede them with a (though they can occur with other vowels too) when sounding the sixteen sakti, which form the start of the alphabetical order, i.e.: In the transliteration scheme shown above, the lines and dots, called `diacritical marks', are used because the Sanskrit alphabet has more letters than the English alphabet. Diacritics are combined with Roman letters to represent new sounds, for example the macron (horizontal bar above the letter) is used to indicate the long (d rgha) version of the vowel.

To these fourteen vowels are added the anusvara and visarga to form what are called the sixteen matrka or sakti (powers or energies). The anusvara (m) is . . an `after sound', a nasal sound following a vowel. It is sounded through the nose only, and should be independent of mouth position. Later on we shall consider how it may be substituted by a nasal consonant depending on the following letter. The visarga (h), or visarjan ya, is an unvoiced breath following a vowel, and is . breathed through the mouth position of that vowel. Some traditions append an echo of the vowel after the breath, so that ah may be sounded as aha, etc. . .

a a i

u u r r l. l. e ai o au am ah . . . .

1.A.8 Practising the Alphabet
One way of memorizing the script is by writing it: look at the form of the letter, sound it, and then write it. In this exercise it is important to associate the sound with the form. When you write the letter, write the whole letter without referring back to the original. If, half way through, you forget how to continue the letter, then start again: and do not continue with that half-completed letter. Remember that the exercise is not simply to copy the original form, but to associate a sound with a whole form, so do not practise half letters. When the shape has become familiar then time can be spent re ning the proportions of the letter. Another method of practising the alphabet is to use ash cards with the devanagar letter on one side and the transliterated Roman letter on the other (in case you forget you can turn over). These cards can also be used in the other direction: from the transliterated Roman letter, see if you can visualize the devanagar form. In fact, there needs to be a three way association, namely between both the written forms and the sound, so that any one of these associates with the other two.

and one minute at a time 15{20 times throughout the day with the ash cards. The transliteration of the rst row is a a.6mm) for normal writing. the second i . and the third u u. into the paper) and nally remove the sharp edges by `writing' on 1000-grit water paper on a rm at surface. 6 Here are the rst six devanagar characters to practise. A Aa I o IR .A 7 The ideal way of becoming familiar with these sounds and letters is to spend 15{20 minutes each day on the written exercise. and the thickness of the nib about 1 of the width. File across the nib (in the sketch. so start with an inexpensive calligraphy fountain pen (Schae er.5mm Pens with nibs pre-ground to the correct angle are not generally available. 22 2. You will nd that a broad nib ( 2. They are the short (hrasva) and long (d rgha) measures of the three primary vowels. Platignum.5mm) is best for practising the forms of the letters. As a very rough guide the nib width should be 1 8 of the overall height of the A character.) and le the end of the nib to 22 as shown.Lesson 1. and a much narrower nib ( 0. etc.

last. persevere. linger. be left alone. do not attempt to pronounce the Sanskrit words included in the text: this will save the unnecessary labour of unlearning the incorrect pronunciation. `recitation of roots'). etc. Monier-Williams' dictionary gives several dozen English words that may be used in translating the verb: to stand.Lesson 1. Consider the English verb `to stand'. stop. stand still. constitution. keep on. The pie root sta is allied to the Sanskrit dhatu stha. But a dhatu or root is even more fundamental than a verb. . for these fundamental roots are included in the language itself. stammer. and its grammar fully describes the development of words from the dhatu to its fully in ected form as found in sentences. endure. tarry. a host of words may be derived from `stand'. and may be likened to the universal idea of a verbal activity. and thus the simple verb derived from the dhatu stha may be translated as `to stand'.B. The situation is a lot simpler in Sanskrit. halt. instant. The dhatu itself is not found in general speech or writing. static. con de in. desist. 1. ecstatic. each of which is an aspect of that common universal idea. stay quiet. wait. which diverges into many speci c meanings. stagnant. a list of roots (about 2000 of them) giving grammatical information about their in ection. stay. which is . Pre xes may be added to this to form further verbs. continue.1 The Concept of Dhatu A dhatu is a rudimentary verbal element from which words are derived: it is the nucleus to which other word fragments are added to form a whole word. such as stay. hesitate. etc. remain. such as `standard' indeed. remain stationary. such as `misunderstand'.B Note: Until you are familiar with the pronunciation of the consonants (given in the next lesson). | all these express some sense of `cessation or absence of movement'. such as constant. stand fast'. which is the sense of the meaning of the dhatu stha given in the Dhatu-Patha (lit. meaning `to stand. rely on. stack. adhere to. stow. To appreciate how `stand' changes to `state' for example. estate. make a practice of. which has the sense of `cessation or absence of movement'. and ultimately from its Proto-IndoEuropean (pie) root sta. be intent upon. or su xes may be added to form nouns and adjectives. it would be necessary to study its etymological derivation from the Latin. stem. together with a concise sense of their universal meaning. extant. From this pie root sta are derived other simple English verbs.

tisthasi vadasi ca You stand and you speak. . such as adverbs and conjunctions.B 9 1. tisthami . Note that the order is the reverse of that used in English.. and to the stem is added a personal ending (tin-vibhakti) to form a _ _ complete verb (kriya). kriya (verb) tisthati he/she/it stands .B. there are three persons (purusa): the rst person (prathama. so that uttama-purusa can also mean Supreme Spirit . For example: p however....(up) and -tama (superlative su x) to mean best.2 Introduction to Verbs A dhatu (indicated with a surd or root symbol ` ' before it) develops to form a stem (anga). . madhyama-purusa . for example p vad remains clearly recognizable in the form change as with vadati `he/she/it speaks'. uppermost. . as we have here. As in English. he/she/it stands you stand I stand vadami I speak or I am speaking. . uttama-purusa . Some words. or highest. tisthati .. singular (eka-vacana) forms: dhatu (root) p stha sense of `cessation or absence of movement' anga (stem) tistha to stand _ . In forming the stem (anga).. last person (uttama-purusa). it means `last'. to give the .Lesson 1. do not have endings these are called indeclinables (avyaya).. In Sanskrit the personal ending of the verb changes according to purusa. tisthasi . the dhatu does not necessarily undergo as great a _ p stha. An example of this is ca (`and') which is placed after the last word of the series it links (or after each word in the series). purusa). tisthati vadami ca He stands and I speak. The word uttama derives from ud. simple sentences may be constructed: prathama-purusa . With this limited vocabulary. . middle person (madhyama-purusa). in a series of place or time or order. . or You stand and speak.

B. tisthami vadami ca . Flash cards for the rest of the alphabet will be provided at appropriate places in the course. (c) Look up the verb `stand' in a good English dictionary and observe its wide range of meanings. it is preferable not to learn them.. 3. I speak and you stand 1. vadami tisthasi ca . tisthami vadati ca . (a) Practise sounding the sixteen matrka in their correct order.10 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 1...4 Flash Cards The next sheet has the ash cards for the rst six vowels. (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. and lead to understanding. vadasi tisthami ca . ..B.3 Exercises A wealth of information is presented in these notes. You speak and he stands 2. You stand and he speaks 3. He stands and I speak 4. I stand and he speaks 6. With this aim in mind. It would be useful to keep the ash cards in a box (for example a cigarette box): there will be a total of forty-nine cards for the alphabet. 6.. at the end of each lesson a few simple exercises are presented. and writing them . and a further ten for the numerals. (b) Practise writing and recognizing the rst six vowels in devanagar . 5. (d) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. The practical way to become familiar with the basics of Sanskrit is through practice: all the theory that is provided is simply so that the practice may be intelligent. in Roman script.. tisthasi vadami ca 4. 2. but it is not at all necessary to learn all this or the Sanskrit technical terms: indeed. Cut these out and start using them. tisthati vadasi ca . You speak and I stand 5. .

B + in case you do not have access to a double-sided printer. please glue this sheet to the next before cutting.Lesson 1. 11 * A Aa I + IR o . making use of the registration marks bottom and top of each page.

12 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory u u + i a a .

two mouth positions: e and ai use both guttural and palatal (kanthatalavya). . and . mouth.e.. The back of the mouth as it narrows to form the throat. o and au use guttural and labial (kanthosthya). and the labials (pa-varga) are stops at the lips. l. l.1 The Five Mouth Positions The ve mouth positions are considered from within the oral cavity itself. they need a sound (i. These are arranged in ve sets (varga) according to mouth position and named after the rst letter in the group.A The mouth positions (sthana) used by the vowels (svara) are also used by the consonants (vya~jana). u 2.. there are more consonants in Sanskrit than in English. kanthya talavya murdhanya dantya osthya .. In fact..Lesson 2.. the mouth. . guttural palatal cerebral dental labial a i r . . and the teeth (dantya) used by .ve consonants are called stops (sparsa) because the complete contact (sprsta) in the mouth fully stops the breath (and hence the sound) through .2 The Twenty-Five Stops: ka to ma The rst twenty. 2. The same principle is used in English. The compound vowels make use of . next is the palatal position (talavya) used by the vowel i this is followed by the cerebral position (murdhanya) used by r.. . Like the vowels.. and thus diacritical marks are used with the Roman consonants to represent further sounds.A.A. The a is added for the sake of pronunciation only: being stops. a vowel) to stop (or start). Moving towards the front of the . for example the consonants `b-c-d' are pronounced `bee-cee-dee'. is called the guttural position (kanthya): this is associated with the vowel a. and nally the two lips (osthya) used by u. . the word `consonant' itself is derived from the the Latin cum (together with) and sonare (to sound).. Within these ve mouth positions the consonants are n further classi ed according to inner (abhyantara-) and outer (bahya-) methods of articulation or e ort (prayatna). for example the ve in the guttural column (ka-varga) are stops at the back of the mouth. .

The unvoiced (aghosa) stops have an explosive quality to them.2) describes the sounds authoritatively.: . . . consonant. ta.e. The consonants in the fth row are nasalized (anunasika).. The nasal (anunasika) consonants continue to sound through the nose when the breath through the mouth has been stopped by the tongue or lips. ta tha da dha na pa pha ba bha ma The table is also arranged horizontally by rows: the rst. pa pha ba bha ma . 2. (ghosa) stops have a gentler quality to them as though releasing the stop more . third and fth rows are pronounced with little breath (alpaprana).e. . . the vocal cords vibrate in producing the . i. In . da . whereas the voiced . for example. The aspiration (prana) gives the native English speaker the most problems. slowly: this can be observed by listening to the di erence between ka and ga when `sounded' without the following a. _ . . ka-varga through pa-varga. .A. . ca. these follow after the sixteen matrka in order from . na .A. i. tha . whereas the rst two rows are unvoiced (aghosa). comprises ka. and . guttural palatal cerebral dental labial ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ ta . am ah ka kha ga gha na ca cha .14 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory kanthya talavya murdhanya dantya osthya . dha .3 Pronunciation of the Stops While the previous section (2. and pa. the following notes may assist with rst-time pronunciation. . The rst. . the others not. the second and fourth rows with much breath (mahaprana). ta.. . English there is a tendency to pronounce some consonants slightly aspirated before . . The last three rows are voiced (ghosa). In terms of alphabetical order.

aha'. joy jh | hedgehog (`hej-jhog') n | enjoy. This di erence needs to be greatly increased to distinguish between the alpaprana . jolly. however. tongue _ c | cello.. pronounced purely with the lips (osthya). k | kiss. cab. pinch ~ t/t | tub. i. tap. chair. and this may be used to illustrate the di erence between for example. back kh | bunkhouse (`bung-khouse') g | good. and may be used to give a very rough guide to the Sanskrit pronunciation. the previous section has the authoritative description. dh/dh | redhead (`red-dhead') . There is a tradition that pronounces pha as `fa'. vestigial vowel is inserted. . th/th | anthill (`an-thill') .e.Lesson 2. give. long. but the common error is to use so much breath that a . ja a softer ga. can be incorrectly pronounced as `b Because English pronunciation is acquired by imitating indistinct sounds which are not precisely described. . mumble When in doubt. bha . and so on. canyon. church ch | coach-horse (`coa-chhorse') j | just. Some English consonants are similar to those in Sanskrit. pa and pha: attend to the `p' breath when pronouncing the two English words `pick' and `peek' | hold the nger tips close to the mouth to feel the di erence. pat.. imbibe bh | clubhouse (`club-bhouse') m | amble. English does not distinguish between dental (dantya) and cerebral (murdhanya). kiln. dog. d/d | day. tap ph | uphill (`up-phill') b | be. It may help to consider the palatal stops as a modi cation or softening of the gutturals so that ca is a softer ka. so that ca is pronounced as `tsha'. makes use of both the teeth and lips (dantosthya): the rules of sound and grammar will be easier to understand if . One e ect is that `d' and `t' are pronounced somewhere between the dental (dantya) and cerebral (murdhanya) positions another e ect is that many speakers do not use the palatal (talavya) position for the stops. p | pick. and ja as `dza'. as mentioned earlier. and mahaprana consonants. n/n | gentle.A 15 a long vowel. cart . god . bug gh | loghouse (`log-ghouse') n | sing. gain . problems occur with the centre three mouth positions. hand. particularly for the ghosa consonants for example.

A. . . e ai o au am ah .16 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 2. The Roman transliteration of the four rows is: . a a i u u r r . l. here are all sixteen letters of the matrka to practise.4 Devanagar Alphabet The previous lesson gave the rst six devanagar characters. l. A A a I IR o O Oe A ea A Ea AM AH .

. present. we (two) stand tisthatha . whereas in Sanskrit these are all included in the form of the verb itself. . purusa I stand . the dual form of the verb must be used. future tense) and mood (indicative. The verbs used to _ form simple sentences in this section are all from the rst class (bhvadi-gana).) stand madhyama.Lesson 2.) to express these.tisthati . they (pl.. . A dhatu belongs to one of ten classes (gana) this classi cation is according to . . The personal endings are used to indicate both person and number. .B 2. should. purusa he/she/it stands . tisthavah .) stand Note that when the subject is dual. etc. . ought.tisthami . and plural (bahu-vacana). we (pl. conditional. .. uttama.) stand you (two) stand . dual (dvi-vacana).. variations in the formation of the stem (anga) from the dhatu. There are ten tense/mood classi cations in Sanskrit: these are called lakara or l-a xes because their technical names all begin with the letter l. benedictive. (vacana): in English there is singular and plural...B. . . you (pl. the verbs are divided into number . As in English. they (two) stand bahu-vacana tisthanti .1 More on Verbs As well as the division into purusa (person). imperative. dvi-vacana tisthatah . The conjugations given here are all in the present indicative (simple present tense) called lat. for example: eka-vacana prathama. etc...tisthasi tisthathah .) stand tisthamah . a verb may express time (past. while in Sanskrit there is singular (eka-vacana).): English makes extensive use of auxiliaries (might. purusa you (sing.. had.

They (two) speak and he stands 7.. (d) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. .) stand .. 8. 4.. You (pl.) stand and you (two) speak 8. He stands and you (pl.18 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 2..B. tisthati vadanti ca .. You (two) stand and speak 4. . . vadamah tisthatah ca . We (pl. tisthasi vadavah ca .. 3.) stand and I speak 5. . . 6. (c) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 2.2 Exercises (b) Practise reading and writing the sixteen matrka in Roman script and . . 7. 5. tisthasi vadathah ca . We (two) stand and you (pl. (a) Practise sounding the sixteen matrka in their correct order.. tisthanti vadatah ca .) speak 6. . tisthatha vadathah ca . .. You (two) speak and they (pl. They (pl. .) stand 3. vadatah tisthamah ca .) speak 2. . tisthathah vadavah ca . devanagar .) speak and you (sing. .

B O + + Oe A ea A Ea AM AH 19 .Lesson 2.

.l r .l . . r .20 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ah . am au o ai + e .

`rum'. to a produces la. naturally voiced (ghosa). .. and are . akin to the English `wa': this latter pronunciation accords with the grammatical tradition and makes the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination) easier to grasp. are always referred to by their own name and have no -kara name.. r moving to a produces ra. We shall now consider the nal eight consonants (vya~jana). allow a restricted ow of air through the mouth. They are formed by slight contact ( satsprsta). akara).A The sound or letter ka is called kakara (`ka-action') the sound or letter ga is called gakara.ve stops. This applies to all the sounds/letters. The derivation of the last semivowel (antahstha). . are similar to the English sounds in `yum'. The anusvara and visarga (or visarjan ya). but not rakara. As a moving to a will not produce a new sound. but do pay attention to the mouth position. . .. these follow after the twenty. kanthya talava murdhanya dantya osthya .Lesson 3. ya ra and la. l. and so on. similarly.. : . and `luck'. These are considered to be between vowels and consonants.. including the vowels (e. and u to a produces va. In the alphabetical order.. Other traditions pronounce this as the English `va'. and so are called antahstha (`stand between'). i moving to a gives rise to the sound ya. . . n 3.A. in which case its mouth position. except for ra which is traditionally called repha (`snarl' or `burr') or simply ra.g.e. making use of both teeth and lips is called dantostya.1 The Four Semi-Vowels: ya ra la va A semivowel (antahstha) arises when one of the basic vowels moves to the a sound: . which only arise through the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination) and are thus not strictly part of the alphabet. . i. . there are only four semivowels. pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va . and thus . although transliterated as va. guttural | palatal cerebral dental labial ya ra la va The rst three of these. produces a sound . .

`sh' in `ship' or `wish'. . . A sibilant (hissing sound) is called usman (`heated'). there are two more sibilants.. . .A. are to be taken as authoritative. called the jihvamul ya and upadhman ya. . These are so very rare that for all practical purposes they can be ignored. according to the grammatical tradition it is voiced (ghosa).. These sound analogies are given as a very rough guide: the description given above.A. however. . . It is generally pronounced as unvoiced (aghosa). and sa like the sibilant in the German `ich'. sa sa sa ha. The sibilants are aspirated (mahaprana) and unvoiced (aghosa).2 The Three Sibilants: sa sa sa . kanthya talavya murdhanya dantya osthya . In the alphabetical order this follows the sibilants and is the last letter of the alphabet: . with similar qualities.22 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 3. ya ra la va sa sa sa ..3 The Final Consonant: ha This aspirate (sometimes considered a sibilant) is also called usman (`heated'). restricted (hissing) ow of breath through the mouth. .e. which are described as a `half-visarga' before ka/kha and pa/pha respectively. be sadvivrta (slightly open) or ardhasprsta (half-contact). . . . . sa The sa sounds like the sibilant in the English words `seek' and `kiss'. . and the mouth position in particular. . . : . . guttural | palatal cerebral dental labial | sa sa . 3. In theory. which allows a . . sa like the . They are considered to . i.. In the alphabetical order these follow the semivowels.

. e ai o au am ah . . . ha .A 23 3. The order is best memorized in groups as shown below: a a i u u r r l.Lesson 3. ta pa unvoicedunaspirated full contact tha pha unvoiced aspirated full contact da ba voiced unaspirated full contact dha bha voiced aspirated full contact na ma voiced unaspirated full contact nasal la va voiced unaspirated slight contact sa unvoiced aspirated slightly open voiced aspirated slightly open 3. ra sa .4 Summary of the Consonants The de nitive qualities of the consonants are given in tabular form: kanthyatalavyamurdhanyadantyaosthya .A. ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ ta tha da dha na . tha . . . l. na .5 The Alphabetical Order Having now considered the whole alphabet in sound and Roman transliteration.. ta tha da dha na pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va sa sa sa . . .. da .A. dha . . it would be useful to start becoming familiar with the alphabetical order. guttural palatal cerebral dental labial Qualities ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ ya sa ha ta .

and for kha.6 Devanagar Alphabet Here are the rst ten consonants in devanagar script.A.z . The transliteration of the two rows of devanagar characters is: ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ k Ka ga Ga .24 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 3. ca C . Note the similarity between the forms of i and jha. h this portion of the symbol is written without lifting the pen! .ja Ja Va The loop on the kha and ga is written as follows: e write the down-stroke with the curl at the end. continue the stroke. the rst symbol is ka and not just k. g complete the loop. Each symbol includes the sound a for example. f then change direction to start the loop.

These are the normal endings for an active transitive verb. . is transmitted to another. The division is not at all de nite. The atmanepada (`an expression for oneself') personal endings used in the active form of the verb (called the middle voice) imply an action whose fruit reverts to oneself: this does not mean re exive. Many of the verbs in this course may be conjugated in either pada. purusa . purusa .B. atmane-pada eka. Some verbs are conjugated in one pada only. the sentence \I married her" would be expressed in atmane-pada or parasmai-pada when spoken by the husband or priest respectively.dvibahuvacana vacana vacana nayate nayete nayante nayase nayethe nayadhve naye nayavahe nayamahe These are the only two forms of personal endings to verbs that will be used in this course.1 More on Verbs The personal endings of verbs given thus far are called parasmai-pada (`an expression for another') because the fruit. and has come to be a matter of conventional usage nevertheless many verbs do retain the formal distinction between parasmai-pada (active voice) and atmane-pada (middle voice). please use the pada given: in the case of dhatu n for example.B 3. p n nayate he leads. . some in both. madhyama. By way of illustration. or result of the action. uttamanayami nayavah nayamah . and the .nayati nayatah nayanti . use the atmane-pada endings. but within the limits of the simple sentences in the exercises. When verbs are presented for use in the exercises. purusa . they will be presented in the form: English translation of that form.Lesson 3.nayasi nayathah nayatha . where the dhatu is followed by the eka-vacana prathama-purusa form. and some partly in one and partly in another. parasmai-pada ekadvibahuvacana vacana vacana prathama.

in the verb and it is not necessary to add an explicit Sanskrit pronoun. . feminine (str -linga). .26 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 3. Normally however. the word order is not important (as contrasted with English where it is). and allows the poet for example.B.2 Introduction to Nouns A noun.. and neuter (napumsaka_ _ . the pronoun `they' is implied . and plural (bahu-vacana) form. When the subject of the sentence is explicitly stated. There are some verbs (such as n ) which have both a direct object and a destination. . dvit ya naram narau naran Other nouns that take this form of declension are asva `horse'. . the man leads the horse to the tree. There are seven such grammatical relationships and. walk.. To the pratipadika form are added case-endings (sup-vibhakti) which _ indicate the relationship of the noun to the verb. the direct object of the sentence. run). each of these has a singular (eka-vacana). to juggle the word order to t the rules of scansion. and usually names the subject of a simple sentence or the agent (initiator or instigator of the action) of the verb the second (dvit ya) case ending generally indicates the immediate destination of the action expressed by the verb. then the implied pronoun falls away. Since the noun endings de ne the relationship to the verb. For verbs having a sense of motion (such as go. as in the above example. i. like the verb. linga). as listed in Monier-Williams' dictionary) means `man'. The rst (prathama) of these is the nominative or naming case. . and this is translated as `narah tisthanti'. in which case both are expressed in dvit ya. the verb is found at the end of the sentence. . like the verb.) stand'. has its ultimate origin in a dhatu (root) a xes to the dhatu form the noun-stem (pratipadika) which will have a particular grammatical gender (linga): masculine (pum-linga). for example `the men (pl. . . and the subject precedes the object and destination. the destination is expressed in dvit ya. narah asvam vrksam nayate .e. and vrksa `tree'.) stand'. _ . Where `tisthanti' is translated as `they (pl. The word nara (the pratipadika form. and with its sup-vibhakti endings appears as: eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama narah narau narah . dual (dvi-vacana).

. 5. The man leads the horse.5. asvau naram vrksan nayete .) are speaking and leading.). . narah asvah ca nayete . 5. The horse leads the man to the tree.) lead the horses (pl. . 6. The (two) horses lead the man. narau vrksan nayamahe . . (b) Practise pronouncing the rst ten consonants (vya~jana).B. The tree and the horse are standing. The men (pl. The men (pl. 4. 2. 3. 4. (d) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. as well as reading n and writing them in Roman script and devanagar .A. 3. 6. narah asvau ca tisthanti .Lesson 3.B 27 3. asvah tisthati ca narah vadati ca . (c) Translate the following sentences into English: 1..3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. .. . asvah naram nayate . 2. .

so enjoy the rest while you can! .28 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory This page is intentionally blank: there aren't many of them.

B k Ka ga Ga . ca C .z + + .ja Ja Va 29 .Lesson 3.

30 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory na gha ga kha ka _ + na jha ja cha ca ~ .

A. Note the di erences between da na and i gha and dha and dha and da.Lesson 4. and this gives a bias of `blackness' at the top of the letters: this is 1 visually compensated for by using the 3 and 2 lines to `open' the form of the letter. in devanagar the top horizontal bar is extended to join the letters in a word. . _ . .q Q :Na ta Ta d Da na 1 Note the form of the letters in relation to the 3 and 2 ruled lines. Each symbol includes the sound a for example.1 Devanagar Alphabet Here are the next ten consonants in devanagar script. As we shall see later. . . . 3 . the rst symbol is ta and not just t . . ta tha da dha na f F . The transliteration of the two rows of devanagar characters is: ta tha da dha na . . for example with `P' and `h'. There may be 3 a tendency to limit letters such as :Na and ta to the halfway point: this is a carry over from the Roman alphabet where it is appropriate.A 4.

Thus three vibhakti cover one entire pada.Lesson 4. madhyama.1 Summary of Verbs The tin-vibhakti (personal endings of verbs) are grouped into three's. uttamanayami nayavah nayamah . Thus the pattern is: nayati-nayatah-nayanti (pause) nayasi-nayathah -nayatha (pause) nayami. he takes. ten times a day.dvibahuvacana vacana vacana nayate nayete nayante nayase nayethe nayadhve naye nayavahe nayamahe gacchati nayate labhate vadati vahati tisthati . he carries.B. . it is far more e ective to sound this once. purusa . . purusa . As with practising the alphabet. nayethe-nayadhve (pause) naye-nayavahe-nayamahe. with a pause between each vibhakti and a longer pause between each pada..nayasi nayathah nayatha . . . he speaks. purusa . p gam pn p labh p vad p vah p stha atmane-pada eka. than ten times once a day.nayati nayatah nayanti .B 4. For your convenience a reference sheet with the full conjugation of dhatu n is given below: this also has a list of all the verbs that will be used in the simple sentence exercises. It would be useful to practise sounding the full conjugation of dhatu n . which means _ that one vibhakti consists of the three vacana forms. nayavah-nayamah (longer pause) nayate-nayete-nayante (pause) nayase. parasmai-pada ekadvibahuvacana vacana vacana prathama. he goes. he leads. he stands.

? the generic ending is -ena. thus asvena but vrksena. `he goes home by car'. For example. `he walks from the river'. eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama narah narau narah . . `he goes home with an axe'. but for the time being accept that this change occurs after `r' or `s' in the same word. pa~cam n narat narabhyam narebhyah . `he gives the food to the dog'. but in English it may also be used in the sense of accompaniment. It may also express cause or motive: `out of anger he strikes the boy'. . the recipient or bene ciary or purpose of the action.3).2 More on Nouns Cases The third (trt ya) case ending indicates the `instrument' in relation to the verb: . .B. n For example. but this does not convey the sense of instrumentality. . `he works for money'. it is that `by means of which' the action is accomplished. . dvit ya naram narau naran trt ya narena? narabhyam naraih . `he falls from the tree'. caturth naraya narabhyam narebhyah . for example. This . The fourth (caturth ) case ending indicates the indirect object. For example.B 33 4. `he cuts the wood with an axe': note that here `with' has the sense of `by means of'. The fth (pa~cam ) case ending indicates the place from which the action begins. . `he makes a kennel for the dog'. . but this changes to -ena due to internal sandhi. will be given more fully in a later lesson (11.A.Lesson 4. .

. 3. We (two) take the tree from the man by horse.). .5. . (d) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. We (pl. 4. .) go from the tree to the horses. You (two) are leading the horse for the man. He goes by horse.) with horses. They (pl. asvam vrksat naraya nayate .) carry the trees (pl. asvah vrksam naraya vahati .3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3.1. 4. narah vrksam asvena gacchati . 6.B. . .34 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 4. 6. . . The horses (pl. 2. 3. (b) Practise sounding the full conjugation of dhatu n as given in 4. in Roman n script and devanagar .B. asvah naram vrksam vahati .) carry the man from the trees (pl. 5. vrksan asvat labhadhve . narah asvah ca vrksat gacchatah . . . .A. (c) Practise reading and writing the next ten consonants (vya~jana). . 2. (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. . 5.

q Q :Na + + ta Ta d Da na 35 .B f F .Lesson 4.

.A Practical Sanskrit Introductory n . . . a dha da tha ta + na dha da tha ta 36 + . .

Lesson 5.A
5.A.1 Devanagar Alphabet
Here is the rest of the alphabet in devanagar script. Each symbol includes the sound a for example, the rst symbol is pa and not just p. Note the di erences between ba and va ya and tha pa and sa la and l bha ma . . and sa and kha with ra and va. The transliteration of the three rows of devanagar characters is:

pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va sa sa sa ha .

:pa :P ba Ba ma ya .= l va Za :Sa .sa h

Lesson 5.B
5.B.1 More on Nouns Cases
Unlike the other case endings, the sixth (sasth ) indicates a relationship to a word . .. other than the verb, i.e. to another noun in the sentence. This is usually rendered in English by the preposition `of' or with an apostrophe, for example, `he talks to the son of John', `he drives John's car'. In both these examples John has no relation to the action of the verb: indeed John may be absent, even deceased. This case ending generally indicates a relationship of source or possession, for example, `John's book' may refer to the book that John purchased, or to the book that he wrote. The word in sasth is usually placed immediately before the word to which it is related. . ..

The seventh (saptam ) case ending indicates the place or time where or when the action takes place, and may be rendered in English by the prepositions `in', `on', `at', `among', etc., for example, `he stands on the table', `it is hot in summer'. A word with saptam case ending is often the rst in the sentence, setting the scene as it were. Strictly speaking, Sanskrit has just seven case endings, however many publications give an eighth, sambodhana, which is used for addressing or calling, for example, `Oh Lord, hear my prayers', `John, where are you?'. In fact this is simply a special use of the prathama ( rst) case ending. The strictly correct way of tabling the declension of nara is:

eka-vacana prathama narah . sambodhana prathama he nara dvit ya naram trt ya narena . . caturth naraya pa~cam n narat sasth narasya . .. saptam nare

dvi-vacana narau he narau narau narabhyam narabhyam narabhyam narayoh . narayoh .

bahu-vacana narah . he narah . naran naraih . narebhyah . narebhyah . naranam . naresu .

Lesson 5.B


The vocative particle `he' is traditionally sounded in the paradigm it is optional in a sentence and may be translated as `Oh'. Publications that list sambodhana as an eighth case ending, place that row at the bottom of the table, labelling it simply `sambodhana' and omit the vocative particle he. The sandhi change of n to n that occurs in eka-vacana trt ya, also occurs in . . bahu-vacana sasth , thus asvanam but vrksanam. . .. . . .

The vibhakti of the nouns are, like the verbs, grouped into three's, so that the prathama vibhakti refers to the forms of all three vacana. In practising sounding the full declension of the noun, use the `correct' table given above, i.e.: narah - narau - narah (pause) he nara - he narau - he narah (pause) naram . . . narau - naran (pause) etc.

5.B.2 Exercises
(a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3.A.5. (b) Practise sounding the full declension of nara as given in 5.B.1. (c) Practise reading and writing the last thirteen consonants (vya~jana), in n Roman script and devanagar . (d) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. nara asve tisthasi .. 2. naranam asvah tisthanti . . .. 3. narah vrksam asvat labhate . . . 4. vrksesu narasya asvah tisthanti . .. . .. 5. asvau vrksan naraya vahatah . . . 6. naram vrksat asvaih labhate . . .

8. asve tisthati ca vadati ca .. Continued overleaf . . .

7. asvah naram vrksat gacchati . . .


A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

(e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. He is standing on (two) horses, 2. The man and horse stand among the trees (pl.), 3. The trees (pl.) of the (two) men are standing, 4. The man's horse carries the man from the trees(pl.), 5. The (two) horses carry the man to the tree, 6. Oh horse, you are carrying the tree for the man, 7. He takes the man's horses (pl.) from the tree, 8. You (two) are carrying the man from the tree to the horse.

= l va Za 41 .B :pa :P ba Ba ma + + ya .Lesson 5.

42 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ma bha ba pha pa + sa va la ra ya .

B + 43 + :Sa .sa h .Lesson 5.

+ .44 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ha sa sa .

The written form thus resembles the oral form. 6. Note that the characters are written left to right.Lesson 6. be bo ba a ba a bUa bXa baW bEa ba Ea ba b bu br . this is indicated by an embellishment on the consonant itself. ru . but note these exceptions: . bai bau These vowel signs are used with all consonants (ka through ha). like the Roman. ru & hr . for example ba (ba) is the symbol for the the consonant b together with a following short (hrasva) a. Thus the word bala (strength) is written ba l.1 Vowels after Consonants The short vowel a ( A ) is never written unless it begins a word for example abala (weakness) is written A ba l. (The `a-' pre x to a noun usually means negation. maintaining the principle that a consonant can only be sounded together with a vowel. and that the horizontal line links the letters together. The forms indicating the various following vowels are: ba a ba bua bxa bwa :bea ba ea ba bi bu br . bl. Where the vowel following the consonant is other than a. bl.A The symbols for the consonants inherently include a following a vowel. . rather like the English `un-'. occur only at the beginning of a word.A.) All the vowel forms given earlier.

the downstroke was added for ki. these should link to the character where it joins the top horizontal bar. is debatable. For example: ne . but it does make a nice story ! . is written back to front as it were. devanagar matrka . there should be the seeming anomaly that ki ( a k ) for example. Whether this is true or not. especially if the ` ag' was written somewhere between the two positions. namely for i e o ai au. and where the character meets the bar more than once. For example: ak ki :Nea These syllables are connected together to form words: they are literally connected by the horizontal bar. so that ki ke kai were written as: ki i ke j kai k However. in a script read from left to right. vadami veda g ta guru :de va na a ga:=+a ma a txa k+:a va d a a ma :vea d ga a ta a gua: 6.A. to the rightmost junction.46 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Where the embellishment is above the letter itself (with or without the addition of a following vertical bar). To solve this problem. as personality tends to intrude into handwriting. it could prove di cult to distinguish between ki and ke. with the i-sign before the consonant. Originally the embellishment for i after a consonant had no down stroke at all.2 History of Vowel Embellishment It bothers some students that.

desire limits the mind by attachment. the mind is limited by desire. re ects its subtle position (the relationship or part that it plays). For example. and thus can indicate only two relationships. the order of words shows their connection or relationship to the whole sentence. The subject comes before an active verb. But notice the operation of the preposition | `pre-position' | it is an element which is placed before (`pre-') to give `position' to the word. to indicate its relationship to the activity. . before or after. is given by the position of the words in relation to the verb. a word may be placed before or after the verb | but these are the only two possibilities. in the simple sentence. we make use of a phrase containing a preposition (in our example `by') to indicate the relationship of the word `attachment' to the activity of limiting. Using prepositional phrases we can thus enlarge our sentence. namely subject and object. a word's physical position (in time or space). Now we can split up this sentence into its core subject-verb-object. such as.B 6.g. the information as to which is the limiter and which the limited. Now. that is. in the waking state desire limits the mind from the universal to the particular by attachment. and the object after it. and a number of related phrases: in the waking state desire limits the mind from the universal to the particular by attachment . (The order is reversed for a passive verb. This is an important point: in a sentence.Lesson 6.B. e. as for example.) In order to show the relationship in a more complete sentence.1 Sentence Structure: English and Sanskrit In English speech or writing. desire limits the mind.

e. so let us be clear that the intended meaning of the other two phrases is that `attachment' is the instrument/means/method by which the mind is limited. All the words in the sentence are quite independent of their position (order or arrangement) which is one limitation in a non-in ected language like English but more importantly. or are merely qualifying one of the nouns.48 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory We may now shu e these components around in any order and still retain the meaning: in doing so. There are two points to note here: rstly. for example: from the universal to the particular desire limits the mind in the waking state by attachment . For example. In an in ected language (one that uses case endings) the relationship to the verb is shown by a su x appended to the word our sentence would thus become something like: waking state IN desire SUBJECT limits VERB mind OBJECT universal FROM particular TO attachment BY . and the other case endings indicate the relationship to the verb. and thus minimizes the possibility of misunderstanding. the intention was to indicate that the mind su ers limitation/restriction/reduction from its natural open state of universality to the con ned state when identi ed with the particular. the subject and object also have endings to show their relationship and secondly. we may well lose some clarity. or we may even sound poetic. other interpretations are possible: the phrases from the universal to the particular in the rst of the two split up sentences may be construed as qualifying the word `mind' and thus be understood as a range of separate minds `from gods to dogs' in the second of these split up sentences these phrases could be viewed as qualifying the word `desire' and mean a range of desires `from the general to the personal'. however. the word endings indicate the relationship to the verb by de nition. The problem with these prepositional phrases is that it is not at all clear whether they are related to the activity of the whole sentence (i. the relationship to the verb is precisely de ned. to the verb). and that the `waking state' is the circumstance where/when the limitation takes place. . The phrases can thus be re-arranged to produce all sorts of misunderstandings. In Sanskrit there are seven case endings: the sixth indicates a relation to another noun in the sentence.

A fully in ected language like Sanskrit. provided that the relationship is clearly de ned. so the clothing of a stage actor indicates his role: the crown is not the king. the words marked with `1' in these two sentences are both called the subject of the sentence this accords with the Sanskrit prathama-vibhakti ( rst case ending). . and full stop. Scripture. Thus kartr and karman name the relationship. In English. However. . prathama (and English `subject') etc. having the . being inherently clearer. Like the vibhakti adorning a word. whereas . and these too can change the relationship and the whole meaning of the sentence. semicolon. says desire. and numbers the actual phonic su x endings (physical). but with a passive verb kartr is expressed by trt ya similarly the . which indicate pauses of increasing length. The basic punctuation marks in English are the comma. the virama ( ) and purnavirama ( ) to indicate respectively the halfway point and end of a stanza . English is also sensitive to pauses between phrases. as well as voice. power to bring about the action: with an active verb the kartr is expressed in . and number. in Sanskrit the agent (kartr) is the initiator. prathama respectively. has no need of these embellishments Sanskrit uses only two punctuation marks. prathama. person. In prose they are used to indicate the end of a sentence and the end of a paragraph respectively. when a verb changes from active to passive: desire 1 limits ACTIVE mind 2 (desire limits the mind) mind 1 limits PASSIVE desire 3 (the mind is limited by desire). The a x to the verb indicates tense. colon. karman (that most directly aimed at by the kartr) is expressed in dvit ya and . For example: Scripture says desire limits the mind. but is worn by the actor playing the role of king. our sentence becomes: waking state 7 desire 1 limits VERB mind 2 universal 5 particular 4 attachment 3 . and then associates the two according to circumstance for example. limits the mind. Using the Sanskrit numerical system.Lesson 6.B 49 It matters not whether we give these case endings names or numbers. In fact Sanskrit uses both names and numbers for these relationships: it names the relationships (subtle) when de ning them. of verse. merely indicate that relationship. mood.

. . that applies here: the saptam bahu-vacana ending -su changes to -su following any vowel except a . phalayoh . phalebhyah .B. saptam eka-vacana phalam he phala phalam phalena phalaya phalat phalasya phale dvi-vacana phale he phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh . sasth balayah balayoh balanam . Note that. _ are for the neuter (napumsaka-linga) noun phala `fruit'. (11. linga) noun bala `girl'. .50 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 6. caturth balayai balabhyam balabhyah . sambodhana prathama he bale he bale he balah . caturth pa~cam n sasth . _ prathama sambodhana prathama dvit ya trt ya . pa~cam n balayah balabhyam balabhyah . .3). bahu-vacana phalani he phalani phalani phalaih . .. eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama bala bale balah . There is another sandhi rule applicable within a word. dvit ya balam bale balah . trt ya balaya balabhyam balabhih . . saptam balayam balayoh balasu . phalebhyah .2 Noun Gender The nouns considered thus far are all masculine (pum-linga) the paradigms below . but in the declension of bala it remains . and the feminine (str _ . . . due to internal sandhi. prathama and dvit ya will also change from -ani to -ani if preceded by `r' or `s'. . phalanam phalesu . or a | thus -su is the most common form. as -su. This sandhi rule will be described more fully in a later lesson.. the napumsaka-linga bahu-vacana forms of _ .A.

6. From whom/what? place from which action begins also cause/motive. trt ya . When? Where? place/time where/when action takes place. 4. dvit ya 3. .Lesson 6. 7. direct object By whom/what? Whom? What? indicates immediate destination of action.B Sanskrit case Relation to Verb names the agent/subject of the verb. relation is not to verb.3 Summary of Case Information 5. saptam 51 ..B. caturth indirect object To/for whom/what? recipient. pa~cam n 6. prathama sambodhana 2. the means by which action accomplished. sasth . nominative vocative accusative instrumental dative ablative genitive locative genitive subject Who? What? Latinate name English grammar Answers question 1. calling/addressing. Of whom? Whose? relation of source/possession/etc. bene ciary. purpose of action.

4. 6. 8.). narasya asvah phalam balayah labhate . 6. . 2. 3. . .. The horse carries the fruit (pl. 10. . . The man leads the horse by means of fruit. . . You (two) lead the horse and I take the fruit. . . .) by horse for fruit (pl.B. 5. . The man goes to the trees (pl. bala narah ca vrksam asvam vahatah .). narau vrksanam phalani asvam labhete . 4. The girl takes the fruit (two) from the tree for the horses (pl. 2. . . bale phalani narasya vrksat labhete . .) to the girls for the man. (c) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. .52 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 6. asvah naram ca balam ca vrksam vahati . 3. The horse carries the tree to the girl for the man. narah phale vrksat balayai vahati . The girls (two) stand on the horse and take the fruit (s. 8. balah naran phalani asvena nayante . bala asvam vrksam phalaya nayate . . 10. vrksau gacchami ca phalani labhe . 9. . The man and the girl go among the trees by horse. . bale vrksesu tisthatah vadatah ca . 9. 5.) from the tree. (b) Practise sounding the full declension of bala and phala. We (two) take the man and the girl from the tree to the horse. . 7. The man stands and the girl speaks. (d) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. 7.4 Exercises (a) Practise reading and writing all the letters of the alphabet.

now we consider how to write a consonant that is followed by no vowel at all. and anta (`end'). it forms a consonant cluster.A. This is the form used when a word ends in a consonant. in practice. At a rst glance through these samyoga.nal halanta letter. Thereafter it is just a matter of applying the principles. daunting task. 7.Lesson 7.A.a + ma :N. ntya n. however the virama should (ideally) not be used within a word. halanta ta f . or conjunct consonant.a + ya tma :Nya tma nya . you can discard the notes.2 Conjunct Consonants A conjunct consonant (samyoga. and a di erent method is used. 7. but fortunately you don't have to learn them.a halanta ka k .a + ya ntya . without its following a sound.A We have examined how to write a consonant that is followed by any vowel. The symbols may be written continuously in the usual order from left to right with the rightmost vertical stroke dropped from all but the last letter: t. it is a lot simpler than it looks. below and to the right of the consonant. ) called virama (`stop'). for example the s in svara. so halanta means `ending in a consonant'. Where a word uses a non.a + t. and you will nd that. For example: halanta pa :p. literally `yoked together') comprises two or more . .1 Halanta Consonants The adjective halanta is derived from hal (a technical term referring to any consonant). familiarity with them may seem like a . It is the general principles that are important: once you understand the principles. Simply read through the general principles and use the illustrative examples to understand the principle. namely p. consonants with nothing separating them in particular there is no vowel between them. In the devanagar script this is written as a short stroke ( . is called `halanta pa'. Thus the letter pa for example.

.a + f }:a +a : mna bva sta . but some are modi ed: dda ddha kma tta hna da f a When symbols are modi ed. d + Da .=+:ya : .a + ya :S. . for example: t. k + ma . f + ya . This arrangement can be useful where the rst letter has no vertical stroke on the right: d + ga .. nka _ .a + n. f+f . nkya _ Most symbols retain their familiar shape in compounds.54 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Or they may be written one above the other. .s. . it is often only in combination with other particular symbols. . a dya tya .a + va :S. hma . h + ma . d+d ..a + F + ya .z + k + ya .a *+ a Left to right and vertical arrangements may appear in the same compound: .z + k . * *: dga tta .a + ta h + na .d snya sthya .a + na b. d + ya . in which case they are read from top to bottom: m. .

=. It always appears in a vertical arrangement and is read in the sequence top to bottom. for example: ) a or ( a or Zva )a or (a or Z. . .Lesson 7. ca V. The symbol ra changes form in compounds. When ra comes at the beginning of a compound it takes the form of a hook above the line (the same as above the d rgha ): it is attached above the rightmost vertical of a compound. For example: .a + va a . for example: *: kka kta The symbol Za is often written as ( or ) in combination.a or Vca sva sca The same group of symbols can be found in di erent forms: nca ~ pla cca lla k + t.ca *. + D. Ideas that familiar forms are right and others wrong should be avoided: both proportions and angles of the symbols may be varied.: rdhva This form is also used when ra is the only consonant before the vowels r and l.a + va . rl. + rr .a + l .=. cca :p or :pl or l While there may be di erent conventions and styles for making compounds. . k + ta .=. ca l. + R R . there are no obvious absolute rules.=.A k+k . c.a + va Z.a + .a + . + :pa :pRa rpa Dva Ra i. + l or #tva ktva a or . ca 55 The symbol k (ka) may be compressed to K . Z.a + . . :p.e. or even further to M .

for example.A. . and are quite obvious to see. of the tongue is raised to the murdhanya position before sounding the halanta 7. a Normally the symbols for a samyoga are constructed from their component symbols .3 Special Conjunct Consonants ksa and j~a n . sound halanta ka through the sound of halanta sa | .= a tra (note the truncation of the ta ) This form is retained when ra appears in the middle of a cluster of consonants: g. and their construction re ects their pronunciation.= + ya g{ya grya m. there are two which are quite di erent from their component parts: ksa . + ya mya mrya 7.a + . . the tip of the tongue is in the murdhanya position throughout. A practical method of approaching the pronunciation of these two sounds is o ered next. position as for the normal pronunciation of ka the di erence for ksa is that the tip . the symbols being so di erent from their components. A Practical Sanskrit Introductory When ra is nal in a compound.a + .4 Pronunciation of ksa .56 :p. However. re ect their sounds which are somewhat di erent from their components.e.= . . f + . k + :Sa . prolonged: try it. but it is quite straightforward to pronounce halanta sa . i. Before sounding the halanta ka the breath is fully cut o by the back of the tongue in the kanthya . t. Now. the prolonged halanta sa begins with halanta ka the important point is that . it is represented by a small diagonal stroke: :pra d f " pra dra tra . The idea may be novel.= .. the alphabetical order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary.= d + .a + .j.=.a + .a + Va :]a j~a n Although these two samyoga may be separated into their component parts when.A.

Lesson 7.A


ka. This means that halanta ksa may by sounded repeatedly without moving the . tip of the tongue from the murdhanya position. (This sound is reminiscent of
ten-year-olds playing cops and robbers!) Although the ksa is originally formed by halanta ka joining with a following sa . . (i.e. k + sa ksa), and may be thus separated when, for example, the alphabetical . . order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary, the pronunciation, as re ected in the changed symbol, is in practice ( k ) + s + a. s . .

7.A.5 Pronunciation of j~a n
The pronunciation of this is similar to the French `J' as in `Jean-Jacques', or as in the `z' sound in the English words `mirage', `rouge', `measure', or `vision' but in all cases it is sounded through the talavya mouth position, and is strongly nasalized. As a practical method of approaching this sound, begin by sounding the English `hiss' and holding the sibilant | this sibilant is much like the Sanskrit halanta sa. Now sound the English `his', again holding the sibilant: note that the di erence between these sibilants is that the vocal cords vibrate for `his' and not for `hiss'. Now with the tongue in the talavya position, sound a prolonged halanta sa. And then repeat the sound but allowing the vocal cords to vibrate | with some imagination, this is beginning to sound like a prolonged halanta ja, which is of course, impossible to sound. Now repeat this voiced sound allowing it to be strongly nasalized. This is about as close as one can get to describing the sound of halanta j~a. n There are two common errors in sounding j~a. Firstly, the halanta j~a tends to n n be followed by an additional nasal consonant before the vowel (i.e. j~ + n + a) the n ~ halanta j~a is a single sound. Secondly, the nasalization is often carried over into n the vowel: to correct this, practise sounding aj~a, attending to both a sounds, n which should be the same. Although the j~a is originally formed by halanta ja joining with a following na n ~ (i.e. j + na j~a), and may be thus separated when, for example, the alphabetical ~ n order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary, the pronunciation, as j re ected in the changed symbol, is in practice ( n ) + a. ~


A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

7.A.6 List of Conjunct Consonants
The following is a standard list of conjunct consonants, arranged in alphabetical order: simply read through the list and you will nd that most of the symbols are easily recognizable.
*: kka " ktra k+.a kya a ksa . gya gya Gya ghya *: nksa _ . *: ngha _ z a nya _ . cya cya :]ya j~ya n *.a a ncma ~ f a tya . *" dghra . :Nf nta .. :NQ ndha .. tk tkra a tna tya tya t=+:ya tsnya #Ka kkha " +.a ktrya k kra ma ksma . g{a gra Gra ghra *+. nksva _ . *+:a nghya _ a cca #:ca kca #Na kna . *: kna *: kla va ksva . *+ ghna *: nkta _ *+ a nkhya _ *: nna __ . cC cchra " *.a jja .j"a jra *+ nja ~ .* dga . q: a dya . :Nq: a ndya .. :Nya nya . + a ttra tpra tpra tva tva . " dgra . d a ddhya d a dya :a a dhnya

dda . dbha d dva

chya .$ma jma *.a a ncya ~ F: a thya . * ddha .. :NF ntha .. :NNa nna .. a tta ya tnya a tra Tya thya +a ddya . d a dbhya d a dvya

ktva k+.a krya ya ksya . g{ya grya *: nka _ * nkha _ *:" nghra _ . cC ccha C chra " .$ya jya VC ncha ~ F thra " . * a dma . :Nq nda .. :Nma nma . ya ttya tpa tpa ya trya . dga . d ddha +a dma :a dhna

kta *:+.a knya *: kva K.ya khya *+ a ghnya *+:a nktya _ *: nga _ *: nna _ *.a c~a n jJa jjha .$va jva *+ a njya ~ .*+.a dgya . Q. a dhya . :Nq ndra " .. :Nva nva . va ttva tma tma tsa tsa . dgha . dna d dra D}.a dhma

+.a ktya

kma *:+.a kvya K.'a khra Gma ghma *+ a nkya _ *+.a ngya _ *+ nma _ . cma cma :]a j~a n *.a nca ~ * tta .. * dgha . Q dhra " . :Nq a. ndrya " .. tk tka tTa ttha t}ya tmya t=+:a tsna . " dghra d dba d a drya Dya dhya

Lesson 7.A
Dra dhra nd nda npra npra ya ptya :p pla b.d bda b.ya bya Bva bhva mma mma yva yva va lva )a sca ) sla : " stra .. :Spa spa . .~Ka skha .=+:a sna .~ya sya Drya dhrya nd ndra n}.a nma :pa pna :pva pva b.Da bdha b.ra bra }:a mna }ya mya k lka h lha )ya scya ) a sva : " a. strya .. :Spra spra . .~ta sta .=+:ya snya .~:a sra h:a hya Dva dhva nDa ndha nya nya :ppa ppa :psa psa + a bna + a bva }.pa mpa ma mra pa lpa + a vna )a sna ) ya svya : stva .. :Sma sma . .~tya stya .~.pa spa .~va sva :h hra nta nta nDra ndhra n{a nra :pma pma :p~va psva + a bba B.a bhna }.pra mpra }+ mla ma lma v.ya vya Zya sya ZZa ssa : stha .. :Sya sya . .~: a stra .~.P spha .ssa ssa ntya ntya a nna nsa nsa :pya pya b.Ga bgha b.Ba bbha Bya bhya }ba mba }va mva ya lya v.ra vra )ra sra : sta .. :SNa sna .. :Sva sva . .~tva stva .sma sma n: a ntra npa npa a pta :pra pra b.ia bja


b.Bya bbhya Bra bhra }Ba mbha yya yya



hna . hva

lla + a vva )rya srya : a stya .. :SNya snya .. .~k ska .~Ta stha .s}ya smya hna

Just as a matter of interest, the greatest number of conjunct consonants in a real word is ve: the usual example quoted for this is k+:a t=+:yRa (kartsnya).

The table does not cover all possible combinations of consonants, but, on the other hand, it does contain many that are quite rare and which you may never come across in print. So, having worked through the table, you may be con dent that you will be able to decipher any samyoga that you may meet. .

under) The English verb `to tend' derives from the pie root ten.B 7. then a grasp of their etymological derivation from the root and pre xes should contribute to enlarging that understanding.B. is called an upasarga in Sanskrit grammar. Other words may be derived from that pre xed verb. given the meanings of these verbs. For example (with pre x meanings given): p Assuming that the meaning of these verbs is already understood (more or less). The grammarians list just twenty-two of these in alphabetical order they are: . to. but the converse is not necessarily so: given the meanings of the root and pre xes only. towards. when appended to a verb. and they carry the sense of this compound as though it were a separate dhatu this is also the case in English. which may then be separately looked up. with. The situation is Sanskrit is similar: the meaning of a pre xed verb (as a compound) needs to be looked up in the dictionary.1 Verbal Pre xes attend contend distend extend intend portend pretend subtend (at-. A pre x. attentive. very) (in-. towards.Lesson 7. before. to stretch: when a pre x is appended to it. out of. its meaning alters. instead of. wholly) (dis-. together. it can be appreciated that that the pre xes are instrumental in modifying the original root to give its particular meaning. attendance. away) (ex-. in) (por-. which will also give its component parts of pre x(es) and dhatu. it may prove di cult to arrive at the meanings of the particular verbs. at) (con-. apart. before) (sub-. the derivation of attention. as for example. attendant. instead of) (pre-. Again. from the verb `attend'.

out. into. above. opposite down. well The above list is included here for reference only. past. to. di cult. a familiarity with the Sanskrit forms will be useful. vi-hr to roam . fore against. from. hard down. along with. (reversing) apart. forward. to a distance around. o . close. forth. implying separation or dispersion with. towards. against. from. conjoined with good. into away. away. into. near. to excess over. but usually modi es the sense sometimes the changes is so great as to make the sense of the original dhatu quite unrecognizable. less. forth. proximate to. at. near. and should not be learned however. asunder. back. onward. at. forth over.Lesson 7. away. sam-hr to destroy . pra-hr to hit . pari-hr to abandon . about before. next to. like. return. away. to. from towards. across.B 61 beyond. over. onto after. o . in. along. out. near. again. excellent. a-hr to eat . back. on. (reversing) up. down. An upasarga may simply emphasize the original sense of the dhatu. towards. forth away. together. return. hard bad. out. out. forth back. under. upon. near. under bad. for example: dhatu hr to take away . on. atiadhianuapaapiabhiavaaudupadurdusninirnisparaparipraprativisamsu- . above towards. surpassing. towards. di cult. to. backwards. on. upwards. following away.

B.1). The girl's horses (two) take the fruit (pl.A. ca a ta +taH va d taH .Ba tea e A:) aH :P+.a ya aH vxa a ~ya :P+.A. 6.5.a vxa a a n. The horses (pl.) carry the trees (pl.a ba a l+. to see how their meanings link to the given etymology. 2.a ByaH l+.) for fruit (pl. given 7. in a good English dictionary.m.B. A:) aH 5. You (pl. 4.a a na na:=+a ya va h a ta 3. ba a l+.).l+.a .62 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 7. 3.l ba a l+.a A:) a a n. ca vxa a ~ya :P+.) of the tree. The girl and the horse go among the trees (pl. 5.a na:=+~ya A:) a m. (g) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1.a na ya tea (f) Now translate the sentences in (e) into English. (h) Now write your answers to (g) in devanagar .a yEa l+.a va h a vaH 2. (e) Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: 1. (d) Look up the words `attend' etc. (b) By now the alphabet should be familiar: practise writing all the characters of the alphabet with particular attention to their proportions (see the note at the end of 4. ba a l+. . The man takes the tree from the horse for the girl.1.). You (two) lead the horse to the fruit (pl.) to the man. na:=+~ya 4.) carry the fruit (pl.l+. (c) Write out a fair copy of the devanagar sentences given in (e) below.) for the men (pl.2 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3.) from the tree by horse. na:=H ba a l+.a vxa a a t.Ba ntea ba a l+.a m. na:=+aH 6.

You may also nd it written as gM.e. . This symbol. gh. kh.A. (k. This symbol is rare it is pronounced like a half visarga. This symbol indicates a compulsory anusvara (i. This means that the ka-varga sounds . even though . called candrabindu (lit. . the rest of the word being provided from the context. The elision of an A at the beginning of a word due to the rules of sandhi.A. and their mouth positions di er.4) are called savarna (`same group').2 Savarna . the measure of contact or openness | see section 3. i.a and called the pranava sabda. An abbreviation is indicated by this sign. ~ *: .teaY a pa for . 8. repha) in the Vedas. (See section 3. `moon-dot'). For grammatical purposes. Contrast this with AM . .a. is a nasal sound following after the vowel. and is traditionally pronounced as a soft gna ( gna ). is indicated with this symbol called avagraha: it is not sounded. .e.tea a pa in transliteration it is represented by an apostrophe or prime mark. placed above a vowel indicates that the vowel itself is nasalized for example. This marks the end of a verse or paragraph.1 Special Symbols The following symbols are not strictly part of the alphabet. to pa-varga each form a savarna group of ve sounds. te pi. likewise ca-varga through _ . The mystical symbol Om pronounced A ea3 m. and n | see section 2. The antahstha y l and v may also be nasalized.Lesson 8. before an usman or .2. and is called jihvamul ya when before k or kh.2) are savarna. A< is A sounded through both nose and mouth together.tea A a pa is pronounced .A.A. are also declared to be savarna. which is just the bindu (`dot') above the vowel. and upadhman ya when before p or ph. where the anusvara.) 0 Y < > ? ^ Those sounds which are pronounced in the same mouth position and with the same e ort within the mouth itself (i.A 8. For example. g.A.e. but constitute special symbols such as punctuation: This punctuation mark is used at the end of a half-verse or sentence.

4 Devanagar Numerals The numbers one to ten respectively are expressed in Sanskrit as eka dva tri catur pa~can sas saptan astan navan dasan zero is called sunya. .A.z -like sound in Northern India.A. and m. but not before an antahstha. 8. Before ya la or va the anusvara may optionally be sounded as a nasalized version of that letter. Here are the ten numerals in devanagar script. literally `void' or n . if the .ve from k to ma) then the anusvara is sounded as the nasal of the same mouth position as the following letter | thus .sa *:+.7) arises through the rules of sandhi: primarily it is the replacement for a nal m before a consonant. The second tradition is much like the pronunciation of `n' in English: sound the words `wink'. substitutes the nasal that is savarna with the following consonant.sMa k+: pa is pronounced . `empty'..sa V]a a. so that 1234 is written as 1234. .A. It would be useful (for these lessons at least) to practise that method. . and `wind' | prolonging the nasal if necessary | and note that the mouth position is determined by the following letter. and so on. follows the tradition of substituting the savarna . and .ve from ka to ma). pa. The numerals use the familiar order of signi cance.sMa::]a a as . `winch'. for example .64 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 8. There are two traditions for pronouncing the anusvara: one tradition always pronounces it as an anusvara (a .3 Nasal Substitution for Anusvara The anusvara (see section 1.e.sMa ya ea ga may be pronounced as .a -like further South) the other tradition . in his dictionary. ordered 0 to 9: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Monier-Williams. i. nasal before a sparsa (the twenty. following consonant is a sparsa (one of the twenty.sa y< ya ea ga.

.) carry the small man from the small man.). the noun in gender. quali es. and the `(a)' and `( )' inserted after the . . . . trt ya eka-vacana and sasth bahu-vacana. _ . . mf(a)n. and nad (str -linga ending in .B 8. _ but it would be useful to spend some time observing the di erences between the declensions. .e.Lesson 8. small sundara. i. guru (teacher. case and number. In Monier-Williams' dictionary a visesana is listed in the form: . 8. .1 More Noun Declensions The pratipadika form of nouns may end in letters other than those considered thus far: the table on the next page includes the three declension previously covered and adds agni ( re. alpa.B. _ and sundar like nad . . attractive The small men (pl. where `mfn.B. Thus using alpa (small).' stands for `masculine-feminine-neuter'. beautiful. These declensions need not be practised.2 Adjectives An adjective (visesana) quali es a noun: it is dependent the noun as an attribute.. pum-linga ending in -i). requiring the visesana to agree with . mf( )n. we could have: alpah narah alpam naram alpat narat vahanti . . The sandhi rule changing n to n following r or s follows through all declensions in . As may be seen from the above examples. .. pum-linga ending in . it may be declined in all three genders (as required by a visesana). `f' of `mfn. in the feminine. . handsome. _ -u). The small beautiful girl stands. This dependence manifests in the grammar.' indicates the str -linga form in declension thus alpa declines like bala. the visesana precedes the noun which it . . For example: alpa sundar bala tisthati .

nadyoh . gurau guru he guru guru gurubhyam gurubhyam gurubhyam gurvoh . narayoh . phalayoh . nad he nadi nad m nadya nadyai nadyah . Feminine in -a phalani he phalani phalani phalaih . balayah . nad bhih .66 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Declension Paradigms Masculine in -a Neuter in -a narah . agnayah . agnibhyah . naraya narat narasya nare narau he narau narau narabhyam narabhyam narabhyam narayoh . agn nam agnisu . balabhih . nadyah . he agnayah . gurvoh . balabhyah . narebhyah . balayoh . gurun gurubhih . narebhyah . agnau agn he agn agn agnibhyam agnibhyam agnibhyam agnyoh . nad h . nad nam nad su . gurunam . Masculine in -i agnih . nad bhyah . bala he bale balam balaya balayai balayah . balabhyah . phalebhyah . he guro gurum guruna . phalanam phalesu . agnibhyah . he guravah . naran naraih . agnyoh . gurubhyah . balanam balasu Masculine in -u Feminine in - guruh . he nara naram narena . phalebhyah . naresu . he narah . gurusu . guravah . guroh . gurubhyah . nadyah . balah . he nadyah . balayam bale he bale bale balabhyam balabhyam balabhyam balayoh . agneh . phalam he phala phalam phalena phalaya phalat phalasya phale phale he phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh . gurave guroh . naranam . he agne agnim agnina agnaye agneh . narah . he balah . balah . . nadyam nadyau he nadyau nadyau nad bhyam nad bhyam nad bhyam nadyoh . agn n agnibhih . nad bhyah .

man :P+.a l+. ca ind. avyaya mf(a)n. . quickly I+.a f. using the adverb s ghram (quickly): narah s ghram gacchati . It is .B. tree A a.B 67 8.sua nd:= naman visesana . .cC+.B.4 Vocabulary Summary The following is a complete list of all the vocabulary used in this course: kriya p ga m. usually found immediately before the verb for example. horse gua: m.3 Adverbs An adverb (kriya-visesana) quali es a verb: it is indeclinable (avyaya).l n. river na:= m.a ta he goes p na a na ya tea he leads p l+. fruit ba a l+.B. teacher na d a f. thus (lesson 9. small mf( )n.a ta .Ba tea he takes p va d.B. p . re A:( a m. va d a ta he speaks p va h va h a ta he carries . handsome ind.Lesson 8. beautiful.a ind. 8. and Za a Gra m. the man goes quickly.~Ta a a ta +a ta he stands m.2) .a ga . girl vxa a m.//gna / A pa .

A. (c) Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: ba a l+. (f) Now write your answers to (e) in devanagar .sua nd:=e A gna aE a ta +a ta 6 (d) Now translate the sentences in (c) into English.a A pa m.//gna m.a A .a na ya tea 3 na:=+Ea .sua nd:=+a t.a . 6.a l+. The girl of the teacher stands on the handsome horse.sua nd:=+m.a .sua nd:=+a a Na :P+.sua nd:=+a ba a l+. The beautiful girl leads the man to the small teacher quickly.l+.a A gna yea Za a Gra m. 2.a m.a A:( a m.a A:( a m.5.5 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. The teacher stands among the beautiful fruit of the small tree. 5.a vxa a m. (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1. .a na:=+a t.Bea tea 4 gua:=+vaH A pa m.68 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 8.cC+. The man's teacher goes to the river by horse.Ba tea 2 .a na d a Ea na ya ntea 5 A paH vxa aH .a a na A pa a t.a l+. (b) Practise reading and writing the ten numerals in devanagar .a ta 1 a/ na:=H A pa m.a ba a l+. The girl carries the small fruit to the man's teacher.B. 4.a na d a m.a ga .a vxa a a t. The teacher of the girl stands in the small river. 3.

B 0 1 2 3 4 + + 5 6 7 8 9 69 .Lesson 8.

70 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 9 8 7 6 5 + 4 3 2 1 0 .

the accent system is not as simple as illustrated above: rstly. E .ps*) English has a stress accent system (e. the notation system di ers among the various Vedas.za/wikner/accent. not raised (anudatta).g.A The next three sections may be considered as informational only they are provided for completeness. and a combination of the two or moving tone (svarita). There are three tones: raised (udatta). so one has a ae This is a variation of the form O . These are only marked in the Veda.ac. n .Lesson 9. familiar form as A a A ea A Ea.2 Variations in Devanagar Alphabet Just as there are variations in the Roman alphabet (e.A. Where these are marked in the dictionary in Roman transliteration. 9. for example: The horizontal bar under the syllable indicates anudatta the vertical line above the syllable indicates svarita and udatta syllables are not marked. a and a). In classical Sanskrit texts.s!a tyMa :]a !a na ma n!a ntMa b. (For a fuller treatment of the subject see ftp://ftp. the udatta and svarita will be indicated by the acute and grave accent marks respectively. the marking system may be simpli ed so that many anudatta are also not marked nally. Thus the above example in transliteration would be: In practice.ra satyam j~anamanantam brahma . 9. and just as one has derivatives of the Ea . listen to the `to' syllable in `photograph' and `photographer'). but there is no stress system in Sanskrit (indeed there should be no stress at all in the study of Sanskrit!) Sanskrit is either sounded with the pitch accent described above.g. in continuous speech the accent is a ected by the accents on adjacent syllables secondly. so there are variations in devanagar : some of the less obvious ones are illustrated below: This is an alternate form of A. .1 Vowel Accents Accent is the sounding of a vowel at a higher or lower pitch or tone (svara). the accent is not marked.nac. or in ekasruti.A. a neutral accentless tone.

72 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory This is another form of . P An alternative of (hla). you may nd that much of the information now is clearer.A. This would be a good time to lightly revise all the notes about the alphabet. a a a gM.4 Revision The next page has a summary of the information about the alphabet. D 9. there are no hard and fast rules governing the formation of a samyoga however. similarly for .3 Variations in Samyoga . A radically di erent form of :Na. Another form of the Vedic anusvara > (see 8. J a . Q Another form of (hva). 9.A. O A variation of (hna).q.a L \h The following are variations in the numerals: =1=1 =6=6 =4=4 =8=8 = = =5=5 =9=9 As was mentioned in Lesson 7. . starting from Lesson 1: now that you are more familiar with the alphabet. . Vedic form of . n This is a variation of the form for a (ksa). there are a few that are sometimes not obvious: . . An alternative form of :]a (j~a). This is a quite common form of dx (dr). A rarer form of the Vedic anusvara. An alternative form of Ja. and the following page is a reference sheet of the character shapes of the alphabet. Obviously the same as l. but far less common. Another variant of Ja. Vedic form of Q.1).A.

= :Sa 8 > > > > > > < > > > > > > : ta Ta d Da na l .ya:*+ na k+:NF: a 8 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > < > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > : ( ta a l+. twa R l. a 9 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > = > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > ) k Ka ga Ga .v. ca C .a | {z A a Bya nta:= :pra ya a - A pa pra a Na ma h a pra a Na Ga ea Sa A Ga ea Sa ba a h:a :pra ya a - .pxa .sa :pa :P ba Ba ma va .tea :tEa o ta ea au am ah .pxa 8 > > < > > : } A ntaH ~Ta 9 > > = > > IR +.ea .~.ja Ja Va ya f F .v.pa ZRa A nua na a a sa k IR +.Lesson 9.~.ya mUa DRa nya d ntya A ea . tUa .q Q :Na . a mUa DRa nya }| { z }| { z }| { z }| { d ntya k+:NF+.Sa a d vxa ta Za h +:Sma n. r .ya k+:NF+.A 73 Za a z k+:NF: a ta a l+. tWa R e ai .ta a l+. a z }| { z }| { z }| { A nua ~va a:= a va sa gRa A A a I IR o a ta O Oe A ea A Ea AM AH r . tXa R l.v.ya A ea . ta Ea tMa taH exceptions: Alphabetical Order v.z .Sa t~. . txa R a ta a i a ta ta a u u tua .

ja Ja Va ya h Za f F .q Q :Na . ca C .z I .sa o :pa :P ba Ba ma va .74 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory A k Ka ga Ga .= :Sa ta Ta d Da na l .

and nipata (particle). typically referring to something that has been said it is the Sanskrit equivalent of inverted commas. . 9.B. as well as the verbal quali er (kriya-visesana) which is . The naman and kriya have the fundamental notions of `being' and `becoming' respectively. The upasarga (verbal pre x) has been discussed in 7.B. the samj~a (proper noun. naman (noun)." he says. . The naman type includes the basic naman (common noun etymologically derived from a dhatu).1 Types of Words Sanskrit grammarians traditionally describe four types of words: kriya (verb). There is no system of indirect or reported speech in Sanskrit. the trt ya vibhakti of asvena is not related to the . the sarva-naman (pronoun). and the nipata (particle) is a catch-all for the remaining types of word. kriya vadati. This isolating function of iti may also be used to separate a de nition from the word being de ned. indeclinable (avyaya). and so on. vacana and vibhakti. For example: asvena gacchami iti vadati \I am going by horse. n meaning cannot be etymologically determined).1.B. or a grammatical rule from an example of its application. even if the word `gacchami' were omitted. from what follows: in the above example. upasarga (verbal pre x).2 Use of iti The nipata iti means `thus': it lays stress on what precedes it. vacana and lakara.Lesson 9. The nipata are avyaya (indeclinable). personal name or technical term whose . Note that iti grammatically isolates the phrase or sentence before it. which conjugate according purusa . _ . so the above may equally be translated as: He says that he is going by horse. and although they are separate words they are not used by themselves: words of this class are ca (and) and he (vocative particle). and the nominal quali er or adjective (visesana): all these decline according to linga. The kriya type includes the basic kriya (verbs derived from a dhatu) and the nama-dhatu (verbs derived from nouns).B 9. .

a vxa a a ya a t.Ba tea I+.) for fruit (pl.) are quickly taking the girl's fruit (two) to the man.a yEa va h a ta 3 :P+. You (pl.76 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 9.a ta ba a l va d taH 1 e :he gua:=+ea ba a l na ya sea I+. 2.m. \I am taking the fruit (pl. We (two) take the fruit (pl.a va h a a ma 5 na d a A pa m. (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1. 4. (c) Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: na:=H :P+. The beautiful girl leads the horse to the small trees (pl.) from the girl's tree.l+.a ba a l+.B. 3.sua nd:=+a m. (b) Write out the alphabet once per day. in the form given in the chart on page 74 (ideally h should be on a line by itself).a A:( ea na na:=+a ya va h taH 4 vxa a m.). The man says to the girl that he is carrying the tree to the river. Associating the sound/letter with its position on the chart provides a visual `short-cut' to where a sound/letter is in relation to the alphabetical order as a whole: this will prove to be a very useful trick when using the dictionary. The man and girl go to the handsome teacher by river. . 6." the girl says to the teacher.a a na ba a l+.l+.) to the horse.a va h a ta 6 (d) Now translate the sentences in (c) into English. thereafter practice sounding the order while following the alphabet chart on page 74.a vxa a m.a A pa Ea A gna a A:( aE H Za a Gra m. 5. (f) Now write your answers to (e) in devanagar .3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order (which should be familiar by now) following it through the diagram on page 73 once familiar with the relationship of the alphabetical order to the diagram.a a na l+.a .l+.a ta A paH na:=H va d a ta 2 e A:( aH vxa a ~ya :P+.a m.

3).A 10. and preceded by a voiced consonant it is voiced (ghosa). We shall examine external sandhi broadly and Sandhi applies to vowels too: consider how \he is" becomes \he's".A. internal to an individual word. and thus it has an inherently phonetic script the English script does not do this. The rules of internal and external sandhi are largely the same.Lesson 10. and for the various pronunciations of the English letter `n' mentioned in that section (8. So. try swapping the sibilants around: `catz and dogs'. they are both replaced by a long IR . the letters are symbols representing the sounds: in Sanskrit the notation changes when the sound changes. when a long IR meets a short I. and the other a long measure. but the sound is the same. consider the English phrase `cats and dogs'. It is quite . and for the ease of pronunciation. which is pronounced as `cats and dogz'. sounded | and that's the key | you will hear that both vowels have the same sound: certainly one has a short measure. and this is one of the reasons that foreigners mutter darkly about English spelling! The rules of sandhi only make sense in sound and not in writing: thus it is important. This is the principle behind the nasal substitution for the anusvara that was considered earlier. isn't it? So there is an English sandhi rule that a sibilant preceded by an unvoiced consonant is unvoiced. and to hear that sound. Sandhi applies to other consonants besides nasals: for example.) sounds coming together. The rules also apply between words as they come together to form a sentence: this is called external sandhi. natural. external to the individual words. to sound it aloud (or in the mind at least). (The apostrophe functions somewhat like the avagraha (Y). When Sandhi applies whenever two sounds come together | and this is the point: it is . Di cult.A. Have you heard why it is so? Well.1 Introduction to Sandhi Sandhi (`placing together') is the principle of sounds coming together naturally and harmoniously. The rules of sandhi apply within a word as it is being developed from its elemental components to its fully in ected form: this is called internal sandhi. Why should that be? Looking at it doesn't help you need to sound it. when reading the written word. inasmuch as it is not sounded. but each has its own eld of special cases and exceptions. which is to say without awkwardness or tongue-twisting. In the written form.

Also V stands for any vowel. vrddhi form . . 2 al al 3 A useful way of considering guna. The breve ( ) and macron ( ) diacritical marks. and also gives . ar ar l. arises when a word ending in a vowel is followed by a word beginning with a vowel. 1 a a a a a a 1 e ai u o au r .A. . 10. considered as degrees of strengthening of the three primary vowels. and vrddhi as A a Oe and A Ea. guna form .A. unless explicitly restricted. 2 In the grammatical formation of words. is the strengthening of the ve simple vowels .3 Vowel Sandhi Vowel sandhi. as you would expect. . 3 The vrddhi form of . and that means to work through each principle | in sound | and understand that they are simply statements of the obvious. namely A a l. A. guna as the three vowels A O and A ea. This process has been described in Section 1. the breve ( ) above the vowel indicates a short measure only. but what is important is to understand them. for example.2 Guna and Vrddhi . used together ( ) indicate a long or short measure of the vowel.5. simple vowel 10. There are only six principles that cover all cases: it is not necessary to learn these.A. by the addition of a single measure of A (so as to leave A itself unchanged). the d rgha measure does not occur. in the same sentence or line of poetry: a vowel nal is not changed before a consonant or in pausa. . does not arise in the grammar. Panini de nes . . the means for deriving the strengthened forms of the other two simple vowels and . In these notes. The grammatical terms guna (`secondary form') and vrddhi (`increase') can be . and vrddhi as the strengthening of the guna by the addition of a further measure of . . at the end of a sentence. .78 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory only lightly touch on internal sandhi as it a ects the declension of formed words. and the macron ( ) long measure only combined ( ) they indicate a long or short vowel.

A 79 1. . the . a + l. a+ )e ) u+u)u r+r)r . a+a)a Note that is not shown here. position: V u+V r+V . a + e ) ai a + o ) au a + ai ) ai a + au ) au 4.A.2). long) meet a vowel of the same kind (hrasva or d rgha). When A (hrasva or d rgha) is followed by a guna or vrddhi sound. l. + V + ) yV ) vV ) rV ) lV where V stands for any di erent vowel.A. . + a+u)o a + r ) ar . . so that when meets or . . When a simple vowel (hrasva or d rgha) other than A is followed by a di erent vowel. the result is . ) al 3. short or d rgha. When one of the ve simple vowels (hrasva. When A (hrasva or d rgha) is followed by one of the ve simple vowels other than A (hrasva or d rgha). vrddhi sound replaces both. It was mentioned earlier that the d rgha measure of is not used in the grammar (Section 1. the rst vowel is replaced by the antahstha of the same mouth . . . guna replaces both.4) and that and are savarna (Section 8. they are both replaced by the d rgha measure of that vowel.Lesson 10. 2. .

-ye-yai-yo-yau- -u -va-va-vi-v -u-u-vr-2 . and i or u) and the second of those parts is replaced by the antahstha of the same mouth position. l. -le-lai-lo-lau- -e -e -a a-a i-a -a u-a u-a r. -r. -yl. -yr. -ra-ra-ri-r -ru-ru-r. may then optionally be elided: generally it is only retained when the preceding vowel was au. when O or A ea are followed by hrasva A.80 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 5. -a l. -a r. . -la-la-li-l -lu-lu-r. The antahstha . -r. -re-rai-ro-rau- Final Vowel -l. e + V ) a + i + V ) ayV ) a V ai + V ) a + i + V ) ayV ) a V o + V ) a + u + V ) avV ) a V au + V ) a + u + V ) avV where V stands for any vowel. -a r. it splits into its component parts (a or a. and overriding it. -a l.-ve-vai-vo-vau- -r . As a quite non-obvious exception to the above rule. -avr. -vl. When a compound vowel (e ai o au) is followed by another vowel. -r.-a e-a ai-a o-a au- -o -o -a a-a i-a -a u-a u-a r. is no substitute for understanding the principles in sound. -vr. r. -r. though useful in its own way. 0 0 -a-a-e-e-o-o-ar-2 -ar-al-ai-ai-au-au- -a1 -ya-ya---yu-yu-yr-2 . 6. -avr. eaioau- . -a l. -a e-a ai-a o-a au0 -au -ava-ava-avi-av -avu-avu-avr. e+a)e o+a)o All the information on vowel sandhi may be conveniently displayed in tabular form | called a sandhi grid | which. -a e-a ai-a o-a au0 -ai -a a-a a-a i-a -a i-a u-a r. the A is elided and replaced by an avagraha. -ave-avai-avo-avau- Following Vowel aaiuur. -a r.

. the grid cannot determine from -a. sup-ta from dhatu svap. Particles consisting of a single vowel. pronouns. as for example. and neither r nor l as a word initial. . 10. and prcch-ati from dhatu . while it is clear that -a + aproduces -a-.4 Exceptions to Vowel Sandhi There are some exceptions. vowel of the same mouth position (and the following vowel is elided). holy and holiness. b. called pragrhya (`to be taken separately'). Samprasarana is the process whereby an antahsthah is replaced by the simple . are included in the table for completeness. For external sandhi these are: a. beauty and beautiful. . easy and easily. but they . Examples of this are ij-ya derived from dhatu yaj. and the r .whether either (or both) of the original a's were long or not. . c.3.Lesson 10. This is the complement to rule 4 in 10. 1 81 Note: l does not occur as a word nal. uc-atha from dhatu vac.. sandhi rules do not operate.A. or ending in A ea: these are usually interjections or exclamations. the basic vowel may be replaced by its hrasva equivalent. Prolonged (pluta) vowels.A The breve ( ) above the vowel indicates a short measure only. or O .A. . A similar process occurs in English when a nal `y' is replaced by `i' before adding another su x. prach. is that resolving a given sandhi into its components is not at all straightforward: for example. . 10. One thing that the table does illustrate. 2 Optionally. . where .5 Samprasarana . The terminations of duals (whether nouns. retained. for example: maha + rsi ) maharsi or maharsi. or verbs) ending in d rgha IR . rather like the English `Ah' and `Oh'. ..A. and the macron ( ) long measure only combined ( ) they indicate a long or short vowel.

g.. it is hyphenated. Words thus ` xed' by a su x (pratyaya) may be joined together to form a compound word. or may have a meaning quite di erent from its parts (e. as it were. these su xes may be concatenated and further pre xes may be added. as: bread-winner full-grown light-weight roof-garden break-down ginger-beer old-fashioned single-minded double-decker heart-shaped pony-tail store-room far-fetched hot-house red-hot whole-hearted re. or express a speci c idea related to its parts (e.B. reman). attentive having the quality of attending. When a compound is not yet fully accepted in English writing (e. attendance the action of attending. as for example.B. This ` xing' of the meaning is accomplished by the addition of a su x (pratyaya) the process in English is similar for example. attention the quality of attending. are derived: attendant one who attends.g.1 Introduction to Compound Words The dhatu (root) is the basic form of a word denoting verbal activity: in order to form a noun (naman) or adjective (visesana) etc. from the verb `attend' given in 7.B 10. `inattentiveness'. as in the following English examples: bedroom reside headache screwdriver blackbird gingerbread housekeeping sightseeing breakfast greenback newspaper songwriter daydream haircut paperback sunrise dressmaker handwriting rattlesnake wheelbarrow The compound word may simply be a conveniently brief way of expressing a longer phrase (e. to make it into an object that is manifest and knowable. gravestone : stone marking a grave). this activity needs to `freeze'. attentiveness the state of having the quality of attending. where it may cause one to stumble when reading it).g. As shown by the last word in this list. pigtail : a plait of hair hanging down from the back of the head from its resemblance to the tail of a pig]).y lamp-post right-handed world-wide . .1.g. .Lesson 10.

( rst) purusa person = rst person.cC+. the vibhakti ending is added to the end of the :pra Ta ma pua: +:Sa compound as a whole. words are joined together in writing except after words ending in a vowel. For example: na:=+a n. self-knowledge. for example: atman (self) + j~ana (knowledge) ) atmaj~ana.2 Joining Words in Writing Sanskrit is spoken without any break between words. only the last member appears to decline. Sanskrit makes extensive use of the samasa.a a ma Ideally. while earlier members retain their pratipadika form. ) may only be used at the end of a sentence. or special cases. Although a samasa may comprise many words. If the principal (more important) word of the compound is underlined. but in transliteration these are often shown hyphenated.cC+.B 83 In devanagar . of these four main classes. n n In declining the compound word. a compound word (samasa) is always written without a break. ) na:=+a na pea na a:( ea na ga . 10. for example: prathama.a a ma . then the n is dropped. are called a-luk samasa. all the principles are covered in considering the joining of just two words (call them `A' and `B') a more complex samasa is simply a case where A and/or B is itself a samasa. then the four classes of samasa may be indicated as: AB dvandva (meaning `A and B') AB tatpurusa (A is in some case relationship to B) . the virama ( . AB avyay bhava (forms indeclinable (avyaya) functioning as an adverb) AB bahuvr hi (serves as an adjective qualifying an external principal) Other types of samasa are subdivisions. . A samasa is formed by simply placing the pratipadika (stem) forms together and applying the sandhi rules at the junction.e.B.Lesson 10. very extensive use indeed so much so. This makes expressions in Sanskrit at once concise and precise.a A pea na A:( ea na ga . anusvara or visarga. that it is unusual to nd a sentence without a samasa. There are a few exceptions to this rule: words such as atmane-pada and parasmai-pada where the case-a x of the rst word is not dropped. One exception to this should be noted: if the pratipadika ends in -an. i. and the written form re ects this: after the operation of sandhi.

//~ta a/ .3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order while following the consonants on the alphabet chart on page 74.B. a va + A:*+ na + A a na nd +. 30. 12.sa tya a va SNa ea + A a ~ya :pa:=+ma na . k+:a pa + I+.a + IR +( a:= Za a . :de va a + A a na nd + A a tma n.e. 13. i. 8.sa a Dua + IR +.a a Za va gua: :pa:=+ma :pra a ta + A .a + O k+:m.Za k+:tRxa + A: a BUa + I+. 11.ca a yRa + I+.ya m. 9.a + A a na nd + A a . by repeatedly pronouncing the word pairs aloud very swiftly. 26.Za ma h a + IR +( a:= ma a ya a + O va h ~tea + O va + O k+:tva m. 23.84 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 10. 24. 3. 14. 6.a Sa ma Dua ma h a k+:tRxa k+:a na + A Ta + I+.//nta + A mxa ta m.nd ma h a + h:=e +. not from right answers! 1.a + A ea d na m.a a/ na d a + IR +. 17. 29. (b) Write out the alphabet chart on page 74 once per day from memory.a ta + A kH + O va a pa txa :pa Ea + Aaad A a na nd + O ta d . 27. and then writing down what is heard: the results may afterwards be checked against the rules or the sandhi grid. 4. 20. 21.nd + A a na nd . Do remember that the purpose of the exercises is a practical understanding: one learns from mistakes. 19. (c) Join the following word pairs using vowel sandhi: this exercise is most usefully done in sound alone. 28. 25. 10. 2.k+:a:= 16. 15. 18. 22. 5. 7.

-as before a ghosa consonant becomes -o the -s is dropped before . A . and a preceding A I or o lengthened. it is replaced with a sibilant (s s or s) of the same mouth position as that of . and the preceding vowel. Basically a nal s or r becomes r before a voiced (ghosa) sound (which includes the vowels. c/cht/th.g.sa eaY or O Sa eaY before any other letter the visarga is dropped. And the nal s or r becomes a visarga before an unvoiced (aghosa) sound (whether . where the nal is -r and the following word begins with r. .. .=. is elided. any vowel other than a a- r- . 2 -Vr = any vowel before the nal r. -Vr -Vr -V3 -Vr -Vs -Vs . is that before c/ch t/th or . as for example at the end of a sentence or line of poetry.(a disallowed combination).1 Visarga Sandhi -o -a -o -o -as -as . t/thany other aghosa vya~jana n . followed by another . Note: The words . -Vh . t/th. 0 This is most conveniently presented directly in tabular form: Final Vowel -as -as -Vs1 -Vr2 Next Initial Sound The table is simple enough. of course) the exceptions to this are: . . unless that vowel is hrasva A in which case A s.A. is lengthened. -as -Vs -ah -Vh . -as -ah . the following consonant.a+A becomes A eaY . a consonant or a pause in sound) the exception to this. ) 1 -Vs = any vowel except a or a before the nal s. -ah . 3 any other ghosa vya~jana n . a vowel.=. the rst r is dropped. 2.saH or O SaH followed by hrasva A becomes . 1. -ah -Vh .A 11.Lesson 11. if a i or u. -a -Vr -a -Vr -a -V3 -a -Vr -as -Vs -as -Vs .. -Vs -Vh . avasana (e. One very important point to note about this table. is the last row: an avasana is a pause or stop in speech.

when a word ends in -n or -n preceded by a short vowel. a word may begin with any vowel or consonant except h m n n n r l . and the remaining three are nasals. this should be replaced with an s before applying the visarga sandhi. . As with the visarga sandhi. . _~. There are no sandhi changes when a vowel meets a consonant. The kanthya nasal remains unchanged.. . when the word is used in a sentence. this sandhi must be removed: where the word is given in the tables with a nal visarga.as well).and s. n m or h. remain unchanged when followed by an aghosa sound but note that a nal -t . .86 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory This also applies when a sentence is split up into its independent words (padani) by removing the external sandhi. . . to the mouth position of a following talavya or murdhanya ghosa sound. and . nal -m changes to anusvara before any consonant (see 8. The immediate relevance is that the declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs is given in the form of independent words. . while the dantya nasal (like the -t) changes . these four are replaced by their ghosa equivalents. The rst four of the nal consonants are the alpaprana aghosa sparsa (except c) .e. The sandhi of words ending with a . a process called sandhi vigraha.) -VnnV_ __ -Vn V.) -Vcch- -Vn V. 11.(which is ghosa) .2 Consonant Sandhi As a rule.A.: -V ch. and observe its special changes before l. . . and _ the following word begins with a vowel..and s-. So.. . then the nasal is doubled. visarga (h) were discussed in 11.h.. with two exceptions: when a word ends in a short vowel and the following word begins with ch-. an anusvara and sibilant of the following mouth position of a following talavya. or with any vowel except r and l.A. and to .1 this table covers the remaining consonants. . i. and the h.A. consonant of the same mouth position when the following sound is ghosa. case the substitute replaces the following s. Before an h. and may end (before an avasana or pause) with one of eight consonants k t t p n _ . which means that sandhi rules applicable to a following avasana have already been applied. k h ) gGa ). this table is split according to the following sound being ghosa or aghosa. . . mahaprana equivalent of that ghosa substitute (e.is replaced by the . . The nal aghosa (k t t and p) are basically replaced with the ghosa alpaprana . changes to the mouth position of a following talavya or murdhanya sound (both ghosa and aghosa). murdhanya or dantya aghosa also note the special changes before l.(in the last .) -VnnV- .3 for pronunciation of the anusvara). then a c is inserted secondly. A .g.

-g -d -d -b -n _ . following s r r or r . -n -~3 n -n -m -m -m . -n -n -n -n -l< 2 -n -n -ms . -g -d -d -b -n _ .3 Internal Sandhi n . is replaced by even if ka-varga. -m . t/thp/phss/s. is replaced by even if there is an intervening m or h . -m . 3 -~ s. -g -d -d -b -n _ ..may also become -~ ch-. -k -t -t -p -n _ . The nasal doubles to -nn or -nn if the preceding vowel is short. . y v h or vowel intervene n when followed by a vowel. -m . -k -t -cch-p -n _ . n. -m . . -g -d -d -b -n _ .a l becomes < l .-n _ . -g -d -j -b -n _ .-ddh. 11. and which a ect the spelling of vibhakti endings in particular. -g -d -l -b -n _ . s unless it is the nal letter or followed by r. pa-varga. are: s following k r i u u r r e ai o or au . -k -t -t -p -n _ . -m .Lesson 11. -m . -k -t -t -p -n _ . m v y or n (which last becomes n). . -m . 1 2 -n -n1 -n -~ n -n . -k -t -c -p -n _ . -m . -ggh.. i.e. n n The two most common rules of internal sandhi.A Final Consonant (before avasana) 87 -k -t -t -p -n _ . -ms .. . -n _ -n -n -m -n _ . -m . __ This is a nasalized l. -m .. -k -t -t -p -n _ . -m . -g -d -d -b -n _ . -m . -ms . -g -d -d -b -n1 _ .A. -m . -k -t -t -p -n _ .-ddh.-bbh. . . -m . . . . -m . Next Sound any vowel g/ghj/jhd/dh. d/dhb/bhn/my/r/v- lhk/khc/cht/th.

B. but has a word if the compound is dissolved. the members are di erent objects. and is characterised as having the same case ending .Lesson 11. Pairs of opposites are often put in this form.. `his man') samasa is a determinative compound in which the . .. .. vrksamulam ( vrksasya mulam (sasthi-tatpurusa) . has a case relationship to). or modi es.e. For example: Tatpurusa | also called vyadhikarana-tatpurusa. .. . . 11. for example: = pleasure and pain.B The following detailed notes may be used for reference: they need not be studied. . i. 11.e. is characterised as having . ca (and).. For example: Itaretara | the members are considered separately the gender of the compound is ramah ca krsnah ca ) ramakrsnau (note the dual) = Rama and Krsna. Karmadharaya | this is a descriptive determinative compound. . the members refer to the same object for example: denoting direction or a numeral as its rst member for example: . also called samanadhikarana-tatpurusa. . rst member depends on (i. The compound may be further classi ed according to the case relationship (dvit ya through saptam ) of the rst member to the second. . There are two types of dvandva: the gender of the last member the number is the sum of the members.B.1 Dvandva Samasa The dvandva (lit. There are several types: di erent case endings if the compound is dissolved.2 Tatpurusa Samasa . . . . Samahara | the members are taken collectively as a unit it is always neuter singular. . . . . . `couple') samasa is a copulative compound in which the members.. sukham ca duhkham ca ) sukhaduhkham (note the singular) . tree-root. . The tat-purusa (lit. . the second.. = root of a tree. would be in the same case (vibhakti) and connected by the conjunction .e. purnacandrah ( purnah (full) candrah (moon) = full-moon. . i. if not compounded. Dvigu | this samasa has the same sense as the karmadharaya.

1): raja-putra ( rajan (king) + putra (son) raja-putra = whose son is a king (bahuvr hi) .B. an-.3 Avyay bhava Samasa The avyay bhava (lit. = the son of the king. . or a-) as its n .(the sense is proportion) + sraddha (faith) = according to (one's) faith.(many). from p vac.Lesson 11. 11. Na~-tatpurusa | a compound with a negative particle (na-. a noun. = with anger. .speaking. bahu. rst member. giving a negative or privative sense for example: a-j~anam ( a. `(having) much rice') samasa is a descriptive compound forming an adjective (visesana) agreeing with a noun (expressed or understood) . In the Vedic Sanskrit the determinative and descriptive compounds were distinguished by accents (see 9. and the whole takes the form of the neuter singular for example: sakrodham ( sa. while the latter becomes an adjective or epithet. n n 11.B. the king's son (tatpurusa). angrily. `an unchanging nature') samasa is indeclinable (avyaya) and functions as an adverb. singular (lit. to speak) also dvi. . act. lotus-eyed.(two).(the sense is accompaniment) + krodha (anger) yathasraddham ( yatha.4 Bahuvr hi Samasa The bahuvr hi (lit.(negation or absence) + j~anam (knowledge) = ignorance.A. make) = potter . = whose eyes are (like) lotuses. The rst member is an indeclinable (preposition or adverbial pre x). The di erence between the tatpurusa and the bahuvr hi is that the former remains . for example: padmaksa ( padma (lotus) + aksa (eye) . one .B O k+:va . .ca na 89 example: eka-vacana.). giving `dual' and `plural'] Upapada | this compound has a dhatu derivative as its second member for kumbha-kara ( kumbham (pot) + p kr (to do. and the last a noun (naman). (similarly a-kara etc.

(b) Write out the alphabet chart on page 74 once per day from memory. . 7. phalani asvam vahati iti guruh balah vadati . . . alpebhyah phalebhyah sundaresu vrksesu gacchavah .90 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 11. . 6. applying sandhi rules as necessary | and it will be necessary quite often! | and then translate them into English. . . guru alpam naram vrksayat s ghram gacchatah . 10.Bea tea 1. For example: narah asvah ca alpan vrksan labhete . guruh agnim narat gacchati iti alpa bala vadati . 9. 2. . .B. 8. . . 4. .. . . . bala asvam naram ca vrksat labhate . na:=+eaY:( a (a a pa a nvxa a a < l+. . bala asvam alpam nad m vrksat nayate . (c) Write the following sentences in devanagar . narau alpam vrksam agnim asvat vahatah . narah vrksam agnim balayai asvena vahati . . . bala alpah asvah ca agnim narat gacchatah . 5. narah vrksan phalebhyah asvena gacchati . . . . 3. . . The man and horse take the small trees.5 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order while following the consonants on the alphabet chart on page 74. .

from which one may deduce the standard alphabetical order (which of course. . and appreciating the devices that Monier-Williams has employed in order to make it simple to use. . The alphabet used in the dictionary.Lesson 12 12. or very di cult: the di erence lies in understanding the founding principles of the dictionary. however. and as many again for exceptions. and subsequent lessons will cover the details. .1 From here forward the lessons will no longer be divided into parts `A' and `B'. xviii This dictionary is either very simple to use. The dictionary often marks the accents of vowels in transliteration: the udatta is marked with the acute accent ( ) and the svarita with the grave accent ( ) | this is illustrated in section 9.1.e. Monier-Williams Dictionary In the dictionary.2 Alphabet and Transliteration Some of the devanagar characters used in the dictionary di er from the standard followed in these lessons. each lesson. is presented below in the standard format.A. ". be exercises related to the dictionary or Dhatu-Patha at the end of . and some transliterations di er from the generally accepted standard. do note that the dictionary was completed at the end of the Nineteenth Century. words are listed in their pratipadika (stem) form. which are sometimes given in Latin rather than English. there will. the rst part of the word will be found in the dictionary. 12. There is an interesting section on the subject of accents on page of the dictionary introduction. beginning with the fourth paragraph \Then a third improvement . without the vibhakti endings that they gather in actual use therefore in seeking the meaning of words found in Sanskrit writings. In this lesson the broad structure of the dictionary is explained. in both devanagar and transliterated Roman characters. There will be an element of guesswork in this because only the six most common noun declensions have been given: forty declensions are necessary to cover all possibilities. The rest of the lengthy Preface and Introduction need not be read however. the dictionary does use). i. and the last syllable or two forming the vibhakti ending needs to be omitted. and thus there is some Victorian coyness in translating sexual terms.

12. . ka Ka kha ga ga Ga gha . ignored: simply treat m and n as synonymous with the anusvara. Q dha .sMa sa a:= (samsara).3 Fundamental Structure The dictionary is arranged on etymological principles.. . rstly. xxxvi Monier-Williams distinguishes between a `true' anusvara (n) which is inherent in the word from its dhatu and is found in such words as AM sa (ansa) and a hM sa (hinsa). . together with its applications and uses secondly. dictionary. thus allowing a penetrating insight into the very essence of the word. . and the `substitute' anusvara (m) which arises through the operation of the rules . . . This distinction is .sa sa ta pa :P pha ba ba Ba bha ma ma va va :pa h ha Observe the devanagar characters used for A and its derivatives in the sixteen sakti. F tha . is immensely valuable in the penetrating study of the scriptures. the anusvara. and this facilitates a broad understanding of the word.q d a . . as for example . ca ta . and it is this that makes it such a powerful tool. These are also shown on page (facing page 1) of the .z na _ ca C cha . peculiar to Monier-Williams (the standard is to use m throughout). that cognate words derived from the same dhatu are gathered together. of grammar.sa a:= ) . This combination.ja ja jha Va na ~ ya ya Za sa _ . and the consonants Ja and :Na observe also the transliteration for r r l. . it becomes a trivial matter to trace the word back to its dhatu.a + . . The two main advantages of this arrangement are.92 a I IR o O A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Oe ea Ea M H a a i k u u ri r lri lr e ai o au am/an ah . s and s. giving both breadth and depth to the understanding of a word. l. a na . and may be . .= ra :Sa sha f ta Ta tha d da Da dha na na l la . ..sa m.

Now look at the next page: at the bottom of the rst column is the entry bua D. The entries in this column should be the same as the list given above: con rm this. and the sub-structure of derived words is listed under the devanagar entry in transliterated Roman script the derived words are themselves listed alphabetically. and not just two.Lesson 12 93 Besides the etymological arrangement.Za in devanagar script should be between Bilasa and Bilma.nTa a ba a l+.a in large devanagar type. Bila Bilasa Bilma Bilmin Billa Bilva Bilvaka Bilvak ya Bilvala a ba l+. and Buddhaka and Buddhi (middle of third column). The words derived from this dhatu include Buddha (middle of second column). the dictionary is also ordered alphabetically. Do not proceed any further with this lesson until this principle of the independence of the two levels of alphabetical order is clear. the words in Roman script are themselves listed alphabetically (still in Sanskrit order). The list also demonstrates the two levels of alphabetical order: without these levels. and observe that each entry begins with an indented word in devanagar or bold Roman script.a l a ba a l+. but to understand how to use this tool called a dictionary. but their order is independent of the outer structure using devanagar script. Such an entry indicates a major dhatu.a l a ba a l+. The seeming con ict between these two is resolved quite simply: the main etymological structure is ordered alphabetically in devanagar script. the words a ba l+. in this case). and that each entry comprises just one paragraph. as one would expect of a dictionary. Now open your dictionary at page 732. Continuing through these . For example. The reason for this instruction is that the dictionary uses four levels of alphabetical order.nTa a ba a l+. At this stage the purpose is not to nd word meanings. Similarly. and are all derived from the previous word in devanagar script ( a ba l. A word of caution: the dictionary contains a wealth of information | do be alert to attention being captured by some interesting item. the entries could be listed as follows: a ba:=+a l a ba l. Look down the rst column.Za a ba h Na Comments on the list: The entries in devanagar script are listed in alphabetical order and ignore any intervening words in transliterated Roman script.

Buddhasena (with hrasva a).| at this stage just note that they are the guna and vrddhi forms | the . Work through these samasa until satis ed that they are in fact in alphabetical order. Thus these samasa sub-entries are truly a third level of alphabetical order. observe the change of the rst vowel from Buto Bo. :a). Buddhagama (with d rgha a) follows after the previous samasa -sena. which returns to the second level of alphabetical order: the point to note here. Return to the second column.g. Three inches (75 mm) below this is -kapalin in bold type: nd this.(e.g. The next entry word is Buddhaka. but more of that later): observe that these words or listed in alphabetical order. . to the entry Buddha in the middle of column two. These form s . the nal a of buddha is changed: thus. is -vara-locana . and similarly in the line below that. Buddhagama and subsequent samasa are spelled out in full because. Now return to page 733. This means that -kapalin is appended to the entry word Buddha so as to form the samasa Buddhakapalin . Continuing at this level.94 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory derived words on the next page. before the next word in devanagar script (bua. where the leading hyphen is mentally replaced by the entry word. and on the following page to Bau. note that there can be several pages between devanagar entry words and secondly. signi cance of this will be explained later. and thus out of sequence as far as the second level in concerned. The rest of the column has several more such words in bold type and each beginning with a hyphen (and the hyphen is not irrelevant. is that a samasa like Buddhagama is before it. the next word in bold type is -kalpa. forming the samasa Buddhakalpa.e. due to the rules of vowel sandhi. The next line contains the word (in light italic 2 type) -pari_ odhaka . Similarly. This is the third level of alphabetical order: samasa beginning with the entry word (which may be in Roman type or devanagar ) are listed within the body of the paragraph for that entry in alphabetical order. and nd the fourth samasa entry -kshetra (about 2 1 inches (60 mm) from the bottom). i. This third level may be viewed as an extension of the second level. following -kapalin .to Bau. in strict alphabetical order. as will be explained later. Bauddha).through Bo. note the strengthening of the dhatu vowel of the entry words from Bu.(e. There are two points to appreciate here: rstly. Bodha). note that in the third column (about three inches (80 mm) down) is Buddhagama: the caret c ( c ) above the vowel indicates that it is long (d rgha) | it conveys more information in fact. remembering the two levels of alphabetical order.

are also in alphabetical order: this is the fourth (and last!) level . turn a few pages backwards (towards A) and follow the devanagar entries in the body of the dictionary. Note that these two sub-sub-entries listed under the .sa (sa). given in both devanagar and Roman transliterated forms. indicate respectively the rst and last entry words to be found on that page. At this stage you could start to make use of the dictionary if there are words that you particularly want to look up. and note that the rst (birala) is in devanagar script in the text. on the next page the heading words are at the second and third levels and turning over the page. 12. This situation does not happen often and so one forgets about it.e. When you suspect that you have been misled by the page heading words.4 Page Heading Words The words in the top margin of each page. Buddhiksetrapari_ odhaka and s . of alphabetical ordering. . i. . being derive from di erent words in the devanagar script: had one been looking for bua }Ba a (the rst entry in the second column). Buddhiksetravaralocana. but be aware that it can happen. sub-entry -ksetra. but for the moment leave aside words beginning with . Again. the words at the top of page 735 are both at the second level but are in reverse alphabetical order. Examine the words at the top of page 732 for example. Do make use of these rather than the body of the text as you scan through the pages looking up a word: but don't rely on them totally.Lesson 12 95 further samasa when appended to -ksetra. the heading words would have been quite misleading. for they can sometimes be misleading in that they do not indicate at which of the four levels of alphabetical order they occur. and the last (b jin) is in transliterated Roman: these words are at di erent levels in the hierarchy of alphabetical orders.

(5) Misunderstanding the structure of the devanagar and transliterated entries. yoga 4. ananta 20. visnu . so simply nd the word and note the page and column in the form: buddhi 733b (i. When you are more familiar with the dictionary. brahman 9. Common errors of rst-time users are: (1) Confusing the English and Sanskrit alphabetical orders. page 733. rajas 11. 1. You have been warned: but go ahead and fall at on your face anyway! But then do observe what tripped you up. sar ra 18. (2) Forgetting that `a' and `a' for example. . 14. 15. 5.5 Dictionary Practice Look up the words in the following list in the dictionary. purusa . 8. krsna . guru 10. manas 17.. it should take no longer to nd a word in the Sanskrit dictionary than it does in the English dictionary. j~ana n 6.e. prakrti .. atman 2. 16. (3) Not seeing what is actually there. 13. hrdaya . vyakarana . The exercise is to nd the word in the dictionary and not to examine the meaning of the word. hetu 3. second (=b) column). say fteen seconds.. ananda 7. The words in the list will all be found at the start of an entry (like buddhi) and not buried in the text the words may be in devanagar or transliterated in the dictionary. are two separate letters. (6) Wasting time by reading interesting but irrelevant entries. citta 12. both in the list of words and in the dictionary: watch those diacritics! (4) Failing to use the page heading words.96 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 12.. rsi . bhakti 19.

di culties may arise if the rules for pronouncing the anusvara are not thoroughly practised.Lesson 13 13. .a and is . of course. In looking up words containing the anusvara it is essential to sound the word. and thus there are many words beginning with it since the nal -m is often replaced with the anusvara. and then look . . completeness) is very common. one needs to make the same nasal substitution for the anusvara for the words in the dictionary.sa *:+. .sa *:+. expressing conjunction.sMa va a:= will be before . follows the anusvara in the alphabetical order). pa for . Again. and . the last being in the dictionary order of .//nDa etc.sa V]a a and for . in the word . -yu.) are listed after the antahstha and usman. in column two of page 124 is the entry A h m. / There are two points to bear in mind here: rstly. . look up . up the word in the standard alphabetical order with that substituted nasal. examine the third column of page 1125 of the dictionary: the last three words given in devanagar script are .sa a. and derived from it (and hence transliterated) is the next entry word aham (note the anusvara): the samasa formed with aham | (-yati. the anusvara in . For example. is sounded with its replacement savarna nasal to give A h *:+=+Na (and.sMa a Da. union. etc.sMa::]a a.sMa k+:a l .a | and that is the alphabetical order in sound! u u This principle applies wherever the anusvara occurs. i.z . For example.c. replacing the anusvara with its savarna nasal where applicable.pra d a na similarly for .sMa k+:. .sMa va a:= is not substituted and therefore.(`altogether'. then found in the dictionary where one would expect to nd .sMa k+: pa.1 Words Beginning with Sa- The pre x sam. -vadin etc. the tradition followed by MonierWilliams makes this nasal substitution only before a sparsa (the twenty. .sMa pra d a na the anusvara is sounded as the savarna m.sa }.a in devanagar .) are listed in alphabetical order | but note that the sparsa (-karana.ve from ka to ma) and secondly. . As an illustration of the importance of sounding the words. substituted with a nasal: for example.sMa k+: pa. . . pa.e. -kartavya. the anusvara .sa *: .sa ga:= which in turn will be before . sound them! Do remember that in the dictionary the anusvara before an antahstha is not . . in the dictionary order where the anusvara appears before the consonants. and not only to words beginning with sam-.

ca:=. The word bua k is onomatopoeic (i. like the thing signi ed). is also given the alternative reading vung the similarity in both sound and form of ba and _ va allows this to happen. The next word. This is followed by bua k whose etymology is not known. The last word in this column is in large devanagar type. it sounds . the dhatu bua *:. indicating a major dhatu: the entry for this word begins with its transliterated form. or . i " which stands for `class-1'. references to columns two and three: common words like this are often listed in the devanagar with a cross-reference given to their etymological entry position. or have a pre x added. gives . and is followed by ba a Ba tsa which is not a dhatu. except for those beginning with a pre x which form the bulk of the words listed in devanagar . should ideally only contain dhatu. followed by \ cl.bua q.c. which means that the dhatu is not known (to Monier-Williams anyway) and may be foreign words absorbed into Sanskrit. For the next three words. is class-6. and half-way down the column is :pra a ta sa ma a a d Z. but in practice it includes those words whose form has changed radically (e.98 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 13. but this. Returning to the top of the rst column. will be explained in the next lesson. both class-1 and -10.suc the next entry :pra a ta sMa . and bua q.e.a p having three pre xes prati-sam-a. is a dhatu. The next dhatu bua *:. the rst entry is ba a B.g. which is a dhatu. . There are ten classes of dhatu (i. whose dhatu is not known. p has two pre xes prati-sam. but the entry shows that it is derived from the dhatu badh. Turn to page 733 of the dictionary and examine the devanagar entries in the rst column. namely the entries in devanagar script.car.a. and allows each element to be separately examined in the dictionary.dis. simply be aware that a devanagar entry.a and in transliteration is p conveniently split into the pre x and dhatu as prati. bua: d. The transliteration shows the etymology of the word. but does illustrate the many types of entries listed in devanagar . This is followed by the onomatopoeic bua du d and nally the dhatu bua D. ten ways of conjugating verbs). and the dhatu bua d. These are followed by the onomatopoeic bua q+. The next two entries are dhatu note that bua f is given as . . by samprasarana). Page 672 of the dictionary is representative of this type of entry: the second column begins with :pra a ta sua . That was a pretty mixed bag of words. followed by its transliterated form and a class number. the personal name bua a d l.e. and bua *:+:sa whose root is not known. At this stage. . no etymology is given. together with the other information given in the dhatu entry.a.2 Structure of Devanagar Level The outermost layer of the dictionary.

a species of grass . . indicating a visesana however. . . pum-linga naman . . . followed . . This is the general order followed in the dictionary within the text for an entry word. . . for a long time . are listed in their pratipadika form. visesana form . feminine. . buried in the text for that word. . and avyaya (indeclinables.' or `n. napumsaka-linga naman. long.' (masculine. visesana (adjectives). must have the same linga as that naman. from a quality (visesana) to . . Here. you are given an insight into the mythology of India. and this is shown in the dictionary _ by `m.'. Force) arises Buddhi (Intelligence). by a description indicating their meaning. _ 12th line: (a ) f. . as a bonus. typically kriya-visesana adverbs). guided by Dharma (Law). knowledge'. a wise or learned man'. . to a naman. str -linga naman _ 14th line: n.Lesson 13 99 13. Now lightly read through the text for the word Buddhi in the third column.' one may yet nd `m. lofty. a wise man'. Thus the same pratipadika form may be a visesana or a naman. and are thus indicated in the dictionary as _ `mfn. . produces Bodha (Knowledge). where the gods and their consorts are the personi cation of universal forces: from Daksa (the Creative . a long vowel .' Examine the entry for Buddha in the second column of page 733: it begins with `mfn. . word indicates `mfn. Return to page 733. _ . and lightly read through the text for the word Buddha: the information provided about Gautama Buddha (the founder of Buddhism) is typical of the encyclop dic scope of the dictionary. m. and must therefore be able _ to take any form of the three linga. so if the heading . six lines down is `m. .' etc. . long. neuter).' buried in the text | this re ects the overall structure of the dictionary in tapering down from the general to the particular. so Buddha can also be a masculine naman and further down (just before the bold type -kapalin ) is `n. avyaya form 7th line: m. 5th line: (am ) ind. thus the word Buddha can also be a neuter noun.3 Structure within non-Dhatu Entries The entries for naman (nouns). The visesana. The rst division of naman is into linga (gender). `f. which.'. in bringing a quality . the speci c (naman). The converse does not apply: had the entry been `Buddha. there will be no `mfn. tall . . A fuller illustration of this principle is shown under the entry d a GRa near the bottom of the third column of page 481: 1st line: mf(a)n. . an oblong tank . .

if the word `conscious' is under discussion. The following page of the dictionary lists the abbreviations that are used.4 References and Abbreviations xxxiii On page of the Introduction is the List of Works and Authors that MonierWilliams has consulted in compiling the dictionary: look for a few works that you know to see how it is abbreviated in the body of the dictionary. and ness. for Bhagavad-g ta and MBh. As an illustration of its use. consciousness. These are used in the transliterated script for samasa (compound words).6 Signi cance of Hyphen and Caret Symbols Turning again to page 733 column two. b d denotes the joining of two long vowels. Bhag. but will be elucidated in the next section. The caret symbols a b c d denote a joining of vowels. as a + a ) a.g. The last four symbols are not very clear.5 Special Symbols and a b c d The little circle ( ) is a standard abbreviation symbol in the devanagar script to denote either the rst or last part of a word that has to be supplied from the context. Make it a discipline to look up the references (when appropriate) and abbreviations (always) when you are not sure what it stands for | this way you will very soon become familiar with them. a c denotes the joining of a short with a long vowel. e.100 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 13. 13. the abbreviation con or even c may be used similarly ly would mean consciously. so that the words may readily be looked up separately: a denotes the joining of two short vowels. for example. a c 13. as a + a ) a. as a + a ) a. rather than repeat the word in full. a + i ) e. Monier-Williams also uses this symbol to abbreviate English words in order to save space. a + u ) o etc. for MahaBharata. c b denotes the joining of a long with a short vowel. The next page of the dictionary has a list of symbols that are used: read through and understand these. short or long. nd the samasa listed under Buddha beginning with -kapalin and -kalpa: the hyphen not only indicates that the word . as a + a ) a. d These are also used when the rules of sandhi change the vowel sound. and very helpfully indicate the length of the nal and initial vowels at the point of union.

5.ya a ta =e +k l+. 15. 12.Gua sa: va ta a a va va a h k+:a l x . section 10.pa Dxa k . as in Buddhagama. 10.sMa ~k+:ta k+:a l+.8 Supplement to Dictionary Dictionary Practice 1. 19. this use of the caret symbol allows the second word of the samasa to be correctly determined as beginning with a d rgha a. is given the thin stroke in the caret symbol. Similarly. and this is why the next samasa. . which stands for c Buddha-agama. and hyphenated appropriately.3): the reasoning here is that. 13. 3.Lesson 13 101 is appended to Buddha (see section 12. and they may be printed in devanagar or transliterated Roman or both.. Look up the words in the following list in the dictionary: the words may be at any of the four levels of alphabetical order.2). Ba ga va +a ta a ma na ea Ba va Za a sa na a va vea k . 16. 11.cC+ja a a ta A gxa h a ta . the samasa printed as Buddha duka stands for a . so that agama can be separately looked up.yua ga mUa Q . 14. although O and Oe are both long vowels.3). . 6. If a word is not found in the main dictionary. kaya . Where the samasa is printed in full. . 4. Buddha-eduka and not Buddha-aiduka (which are the two possibilities listed in . but that kapalin and kalpa are words that may be separately looked up in the dictionary. 13. 7. .A.A.7 13. 18. and varna for example. 2. 20. 8. may usually be separately found in the dictionary).sMa ga ma ma a Na a a: a ya Da mRa ba a l+ +. A nva ya v. 9. the vowel sandhi grid of 10. the `weaker' of the two vowels in terms of guna and vrddhi (see . look for it in the supplement of Additions and Corrections beginning on page 1308. -kaya-varna-parinispatty-abhinirhara is itself hyphenated (each element.sMa ya ea ga Dya a na ya ea ga A Dya a:=+ea pa (ra: d a txa a h:=+Nya ga BRa :pUa vRa pa a pa a d }+e +. 17.

102 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

badge. mfn. indication . a consonant . . .1. .ya:*+. `distribution'. . indicating . speci cation a mark. ornament manifestation. . adorn.vi Here is an example of vowel sandhi used in forming a word. follow the entry words backwards (towards A ) until an entry given in devanagar (the outermost level of alphabetical order). m. token . . . n Vy-a~jana.1 Tracing a Word to its Dhatu Since the dictionary is essentially etymologically arranged. In the middle of the second column is: v. .vi. . a~j. . .a~j . . . In the second column of page 1028 is found: n v. . The dhatu of vya~jana is given in the rst column of page 11: n A:*+. display p This is the kriya from which the naman vya~jana derives. before vowels for 3. namely vyand dhatu a~j. This is best illustrated by example: nd the word Vy-a~jana in the third column of page 1029. used as a pre x to verbs and nouns . . ind. Since this entry is not in devanagar . n n. . . . .y. a va Compare this with the sense of the upasarga vi. in comp. manifesting.given in 7. . Compare all this information with the description of vya~jana given at the start n of the rst lesson. . . sign. In the third column of page 949 is the entry: 3. it is quite straightforward to trace a word to its dhatu. to celebrate . make n clear . Now that may appear to be a very owery description of what . a consonant. to express `division'. to decorate . . decoration. to cause to appear. beautify to n cause to appear. `arrangement' . . . manifest.Lesson 14 14. The next step in n analysing this word is to look up the two component parts of this verb. . vy.a vy.B. `distinction'. to anoint thoroughly to decorate.

(Again. xxi Next there is `cl. xxvi The next eight lines show conjugations of this dhatu for other lakara (tenses and moods) etc. bodhati and bodhate for . which are printed in light italic.4. and that creation itself is spoken into existence.g. simply note that some of the forms have the rst syllable `re-duplicated' (e. in the rst column on the next page).. where the form will be buddhyati. P. `cl.) .104 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory is simply a consonant.e. `bodhati. show the lat (present . passive forms of the verb are given. . Next. . which indicates that there is another entry budh. i.63)' is a Dhatu-Patha reference next `budhyate ' shows the lat . indicative) prathama purusa eka-vacana forms. . Without adorning the vowel sounds with consonants there would be no language: without language there would be no mathematics or science. . that the dhatu vowel remains unchanged when conjugated as a class-4 verb. which may or may not be another dhatu (in fact it is a visesana listed . ti ' means that in the epics it may also be found conjugated in (class-4) parasmai-pada.11)'. also P. as also derivative verb forms. A dog may be able to howl a perfect prolonged u3 . . parasmai-pada and atmane-pada respectively. before starting the English translations `to wake' etc.g. The `ep. but in the class-1 conjugation the vowel has the guna form some other classes use the vrddhi form. two words.2 Dhatu Entry Information Turn again to the dhatu budh at the bottom of the rst column of page 733. (Observe.' indicates that the dhatu conjugates according to class-1 rules in both parasmai-pada and atmane-pada this is followed by the Dhatu-Patha reference `(Dhatup. no culture or civilisation | all this rich diversity is founded on the simplicity of vowels and consonants. 14. The following . A. but in this complicated hi-tech age the profundity of simple things is often overlooked: the ability to form a range of consonants is what separates man from animal. just as a matter of interest. no history or philosophy. many scriptures speak of the creative power of speech.i. abudhram).A. te '. bubodha) or pre xed with `a' (e. conjugation as a class-4 verb.) Within the English translation section. The last four lines show associated verbs in several other Indo-European languages. Indeed.' which means that it may also be found as a class 4 atmanepada verb `( . That the dhatu is printed in large devanagar means that it is a major dhatu this is followed by the numeral `1'. but can it embellish that to say `Who could fool you?'.

v. whilst others give more information. In the next column. such as k 1. . column. which both have the same etymological derivation. which is found by looking up ucita on page 172c. there are ve entries for cit on pages 394{5.2. and so on. where entries have the same spelling. . Turning to page 662. mfn. set or placed along or . For example. page 300. The entry for pratipana that we are now examining is at the third level of alphabetical order. Further down the column are two entries for anucchindat which have di erent derivations from the same dhatu. unusual strange . . p Note the numerals and the di erent derivations indicated in the transliterated forms. nd the entry for pratipana in the middle of the second . . he usually. nd the two consecutive entries for A nua a . but the overall format is similar.' in the list of abbreviations on page (two pages before page 1). xxxv Be aware that the numbered entries inform you that there are at least two entries with the same spelling: for example.) |now nd the meaning of . wrong.Lesson 14 105 Some dhatu entries give much less information. Note that the numerals appear before the transliterated form. turning to the second column on page 32. Also note that these words do not have consecutive entries: indeed they may be separated by several pages. A nua a . both here and in A nua a . ci.3.ca ta 2. but not always. observe that there are two entries for A nua::]a a. improper. Monier-Williams numbers these 1. but the rst is a verb and the second a noun.ca ta | A nua a . and we now need to nd it at the outermost (devanagar ) alphabetical order: this is at the bottom of the second column on page 667.a near the top of the px rst column. mfn. an-ucita. kr at the end of .ca ta above. p The rst is derived from 1.3 Numbered Entries Words having the same spelling may have quite di erent etymologies having di erent derivations. ci ). . their meanings will be quite di erent: in such cases. as we shall see shortly. gives pointers to where the other entry may be found. . see s.v. `s. Here Monier-Williams gives a clear reference to where we have just come from: where the numbered entries are widely spaced ( ve pages in this case). where it is given as {1. 14. such as ba a B. (for 2. ( 1. anu-cita. -pana m.ca ta 1. which in turn indicates that there is more than one dhatu ci (in fact there are three) the second is derived from p uc.

and thus the entry word is found near the bottom of 958b. We shall examine three such words here. However. and as a noun in the second column. which in turn does not refer to the other two. These examples illustrate that the page heading words are a useful guide to get within ten pages or so of the target word.sa: va in 1138b. The trick here is to escape out of the current level of alphabetical order to the next higher level: searching backward for the entry word under which these samasa are listed. It would be a useful exercise to nd them..ca a:= . looking for a va .. :pra::]a a is indicated as a verb in the rst column of page 659. _ Vicara | Turn to page 950: again. and the page ends with a va k+:l : continue forward at the devanagar level.car. However. of samasa. Be warned that this numbering system is not perfect: for example. This . cea t. Astanga | Turn to page 116: according to the heading words we should nd . Sattva | This will be found listed as . Again..4 Misleading Words Because of the etymological foundation of the dictionary and its four levels of alphabetical order. not even at the third level _ .. All the samasa listed on this page are derived from a va on the previous page.a . Although there are these inconsistencies. for reasons best known to himself. . . according to the heading words we should nd vicara in the middle of the second column. not according to the heading words which indicate that it is on the previous page. but there is no astanga. Monier-Williams has here decided to have a separate entry word for samasa where the adjoining word starts with `a': astanga is on the third line of the rst column of page 117.106 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory and a sixth on page 398. but neither refer to cet in 397c. in the third column of page 401 are two entries for . 14. . This will p be found near the bottom of 958c where it simply refers to vi. if the word had not been found on page 1138. This is the outermost (devanagar ) level | now remain at that level and search for vicara. there are fortunately very few of them. some words may not be straightforward to nd. The next devanagar entry is a vMa Za on 953b. and in the next column asta.. _ . If we look down the second column there are three entries for asta.. we come to a va on the previous page. but that they can also mislead. It is in fact listed at the third level in 1134c where it simply gives `see below' | this means scan forward over entry words (at level-1 or -2) for the entry. you would not have found it on this page. where it gives a cross-reference to page 1135 column 2: and indeed there it is listed as Sat-tva. _ astanga here. but these are not numbered.

a . Don't get excited: it is a guess and could be wrong. or yata-atman.sua ( ve entries) or . So let's split the word at a: we could have yata-atman. then consider the following: (a) If it is a short word (one or two syllables) then it may not be listed in the dictionary at all: the declension of pronouns. sva-adhyaya. working from the left again.5. Nevertheless. see p 1277. (b) If it has three or more syllables. then examine entries at the next level of alphabetical order. yata-atman. If the word is still not found. then examine the heading words a few pages before and after. or sva-adhyaya. However. sva-dhyaya.' And indeed there we nd two entries: the rst a as a noun and the second as a verb. svaadhyaya. this is not the end of the story: we want to nd the dhatu from which . Having found nothing useful under .Lesson 14 107 confusion arises because the page heading words may refer to any of the rst three levels of alphabetical order: if the word sought is not quickly found on the expected page. but it does get there if the word is listed in the dictionary. and there is no entry word Yata. 13. to produce su-adhyaya. sva-adhyaya.~va a Da a na. we nd the closest entry is . col. yata-atman. but reading the text for that entry we nd `svadhyaya. This detective work is illustrated with two words: Yatatman | The word is not found as a samasa under ya or ya t. 14. until nally at the outermost devanagar level. treat it as a samasa and use the sandhi rules to split it into parts at every syllable | this process may seem rather laborious.sUa (four entries) or . and 14. Alternatively we could have tried splitting the word ourselves. are just plain di cult to nd.2.~va and thus nd the entries in 1277b.4).5 Di cult Words Some words. The rst two don't help because we have already found that there is no entry word Yata | but there is an entry word ya ta .~va a.7. because of their etymological development. is irregular and the only recourse is to lists of paradigms. we would have arrived at . for example. su-adhyaya. When you have exhausted all the tricks that you know with the dictionary (see sections 12. following this clue to page 845 we nd Yatatman in the third column | who would have c guessed that it came from dhatu yam? Svadhyaya | Having worked our way to the devanagar level of alphabetical order.

6.6 Dictionary Practice 1.ca: a k+:mRa a va d (skilled in painting) . adhya-aya. we return p to the devanagar level (A Da a ). and there the dhatu is given as i. 5.108 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory this word derives. So we proceed to the next syllable: adhi-aya.1 (as an aid. adh -aya. and adhya-aya.ca a pa ya (steadiness) a . starting from the left. the English equivalent is also given): . giving a-dhyaya: but nothing suitable is found under A (six entries). So we do the same trick again. adhya-aya. (fearlessness) :pUa NRa (abundance) :pra tya a h a:= (withdrawal) A . 2. 14. but under A Da a we nd the entry word Adhy-aya! Having found the word. 4. 3. na a a ta ma a a na ta a (not too much pride) A Ba ya Look up the following words in the dictionary and trace their etymology as shown in 14. nor is the entry word dhyaya found. Again we nd nothing helpful under A a Da (two entries). but cannot nd adhyaya on page 23 where we would expect it. adhyaaya.

where adi means . i. i.A. note the numeral forms used (especially for 8 and 9). as it were: it provides a sense of the underlying meaning of the dhatu | usually in just one word! The Dhatu-Patha (lit. with that used in the Index.' is the abbreviation for `Nominal Verb'. and its meaning is restricted according to the context. The eleventh class. derive directly from the dhatu. which name things.e. of each dhatu from the Dhatu-Patha. is a class of dhatu derived from nouns. after the rst dhatu in its section: for example. `freeze' an aspect of the activity of a dhatu whereas verbs. the rst is Bva a a d ga Na . This lesson is concerned with extracting the artha.1. is a dhatu dictionary. Bva a . Introduction to Dhatu-Patha . `Recitation of Roots') also encodes a wealth of grammatical .2) and since the page numbers are also in devanagar . which express the activity of a sentence.1 A word standing alone expresses a universal: in a sentence it refers to a particular.e. `beginning with'. .Lesson 15 15. As an example of this class in the dictionary. which word p is formed from bhu-adi-gana. the class beginning with bhu. Each gana is named . . or `meaning'.) The immediate utility of this page is that it connects the dictionary classi cation. (Note: `Nominal' is the adjectival form of `noun'. names that have come to be used as verbs. Note that this publication makes use of alternate character forms to those we have been using in this course (see section 9. and its application in the study of the scriptures. see 2. A word is thus given many meanings in the dictionary: the particular meaning is selected according to the context in which it is used. e. .g. Nouns. information about the conjugation of verbs and the formation of nouns derived from each dhatu: much of this information will not be used at this stage of the study. cl. or classes of dhatu conjugation.2 The Contents Page This lists the ten gana. A dhatu is therefore the most universal element of all words and the Dhatu-Patha . k+:Nq+:a a d ga Na . where `Nom. and here means `derived from a noun'. Payasya in 586a. 15.

and subsequent pages. of the page. .a Turn to the rst page of the body of the Dhatu-Patha: after the heading the rest . For example. and the next entry is: O Da vxa: d Ea and so on. forming a simple list of words which. etc.3 The Text Body BUa . In the lefthand column the rst entry is: This is the rst dhatu (bhu) together with its artha.a ea pa ta a pEa:( a ya RaYY Za aH Sua giving both dhatu the same artha. These extra syllables are called anubandha (lit. not compounded. .a and na a D. Thus all words derived from this dhatu have this sense of expansive good fortune | a sense that may be overlooked in some of the English words o ered in translation. and sometimes one appended before it: for example. a little lower down is the entry: na a Txa . Note the layout which gives the dhatu and artha in two columns: there may be more than one dhatu in the rst column.110 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 15.a . and encode further grammatical information which is not now required: our interest at this stage is in the basic dhatu and its artha. the bahu-vacana form.B. The artha is generally expressed in saptam vibhakti. In the Dhatu-Patha each dhatu usually has an extra syllable appended to the end . | mw1011a)'.sa: a a ya a m. fortune. and the artha may spread over more than one line. Where the artha is a single word.1). success. increase. `bound along with'). ca (and). When the artha has two or more words. na a Dxa ya a:*. the eka-vacana form is used when two words (formed into a samasa).a na a T. In this type of samasa only the last word of the compound takes a vibhakti ending the others remain in their pratipadika form. (sattayam). the dvi-vacana form and when three or more words. the above four appear in the dictionary as BUa O D. become happy grow strong { mw231c) is used `in the sense of vrddhi (growth. For example. the dhatu edh (to prosper. of it. or `meaning'. would be expressed in the same vibhakti and be joined together with . which may be translated as `in the sense of'. the compound formed is an itaretara dvandva samasa (see 11. are divided into two columns. Following this are a few lines of technical information which may be ignored.

both in saptam vibhakti. . and not that happiness and refreshment that comes from without. through the senses | here we have a subtlety of meaning that is not at all obvious from the English translation. from the stillness of unmanifest sound.e. . i. . ends in halanta vya~jana). read -u. The itaretara dvandva samasa will generally not be found in the dictionary as one would expect to nd a samasa listed. The last . for an ending in -i. This is straightforward enough: simply start at the left and nd the word in the dictionary that uses most syllables assume that is the rst word. . for an ending in -ayam. . read -a. is thus that which comes from within. artha illustrated above. read -i. read -a. for an ending in -au. then the rst of the pair is a visesana.ya e Za b. For example. which is removed. entry on the rst page is of this type: :h a d A v. The quality of happiness and refreshment referred to.de Here the dhatu hrad (to delight or refresh { mw1307c) is used `in the sense of unmanifest (avyakta { mw111b) sound (sabda { mw1052b)'. remove -i (i. (c) bahu-vacana samasa end in su. in other cases simply remove the -su. for those ending in -esu. n for an ending in -uvi. (b) dvi-vacana samasa end in -yoh. . read -a. and then repeat the process with the following syllables | but do remember that sandhi rules apply at the junction of words. Some entries in the Dhatu-Patha di er from the common format of dhatu and .e. instead the words will need to be looked up separately. use the following: (a) eka-vacana endings have six forms: for an ending in -e. read -i.Lesson 15 111 To get back to the pratipadika form as listed in the dictionary. for an ending in -yam. when the artha is given as two separate words.

) (d) When the artha is followed I+. then ` A Ta RaH ' may be translated as `for the purpose of'. it means that this artha is not given elsewhere in the Dhatu-Patha. some of which is helpful in nding the correct dhatu. ( ) and may have the order of dhatu and artha reversed: these dhatu have a special meaning when they are a ma t. expressing motive.tyea k (= I+.a m.a has the artha a hM sa a Ta RaH ( a hM sa a = injury. ca ( = and. also). or `with the aim of harming'. i. (c) When the artha is followed by na ea .4 The Index In the body of the Dhatu-Patha the dhatu are grouped together according to . .t. and may be construed as `for the sake of (causing) injury'. . (b) When the artha is given as a word followed by . enclosed by purnavirama . dhatu k+:T. then this has the same artha as the previous dhatu. . Fortunately the Dhatu-Patha . 15. (na ea .a causatives (treated as having an I+.a ta-A nyea = thus in another).cya tea = na-o+. For example.a ta-O k = thus in one) e e or I+.cya tea = not spoken. (e) Where the artha is given as a samasa ending in A Ta RaH (prathama bahu-vacana of A TRa bahu-vacana because the artha applies to several dhatu). ca .e. harm { mw1297c). i.tya nyea (= I+.e. This ordering is not at all helpful in seeking the entry for the dhatu. and are comments by the compiler of this edition.a which prevents the normal lengthening of A in the causative). common grammatical features of their development into words. not mentioned elsewhere. includes an index listing the dhatu in alphabetical order and indicating where each dhatu is listed in the body.. then the artha for that dhatu is that word together with the artha of the previous dhatu. The index also provides more grammatical information.112 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory The interpretation of other variations in the format is described: (a) When the dhatu is followed by . this refers to artha given in di erent versions of the Dhatu-Patha as handed down.cya tea . (f) Some entries have an unusual format.

ignored at this stage. . A ga k+:a f l+. 4 P. (c) The bhasa (= speech synonymous with pada used in this . (e) The page number on which the dhatu together with its artha may be found.sa-I+. Where the dictionary gives both .f.a-I+. (d) Whether the dhatu is .a ya Ma ga ta Ea u Note that the index has two entries for dhatu A k with di erent anubandha . . These columns. which may be atmane-bhasa. in fact. do make use of the information given in the dictionary immediately after the dhatu heading word: this information gives the class (gana) and bhasa of the dhatu (see (b) and . and may be found on page 17 column 1. . . whereas the dictionary lists only one dhatu A k. (b) The gana to which the dhatu belongs: this column has just the . . Where the dhatu has more than one entry in the index. as `P. . (the table of contents .' means class 1 (bhvadi-gana) and atmane. parasmai-bhasa. The rst entry of the index shows that the dhatu A k (with its anubandha) belongs to Bva a a d ga Na . bhasa `cl.'. `cl. . A k and A a k ). . so that a dhatu together with its grammatical information is listed on one line.Lesson 15 113 The index starts on page 53: each page is divided into two columns. from left to right. which is shown in full on the contents . . (c) above) for example. . provide the following information: (a) The dhatu together with its anubandha: the index is ordered alphabetically according to this column. does not do so): this may be . or A a na f (= A n. is :pa:=+smEa-Ba a Sa a.sea f (= .' means divadi-gana parasmai-bhasa. . one row of tabulated data. . six columns wide. this is the equivalent of ubhayato-bhasa in the Dhatu-Patha. rst syllable of the gana. page. 1 A. on page 99. At the end of the index. accepts augment I in its . A.e.f. (f) The column on that page where it may be found. i. course). bhasa. atmane and parasmai ). ubhayato-bhasa (= both. is an Addendum listing entries that had been omitted from the main index. expansion). .e. in the Dhatu-Patha gives the order of the gana). etc. or . vowels (i. as: A k .

.a may be spelt here with an initial :S. p E. p E. ( bh ) fear. . . as :Na a l.1. P. . and thus provides no further insight into the sense of the dhatu than that provided by the dictionary entry. to fear. mw758a Illustrations of Dhatu-Patha Use . The notes in section 15.65. then its artha found in the body. and 7.a listed as a Sa vua o+.) .64. Dh. w E.jua :pa A 26 1 Dh. alarm. u These spelling changes may also be combined.3. 15. . In this case the given artha is itself derived from the dhatu being examined.6) will be used as a practical demonstration in the use of the Dhatu-Patha: the . so the dhatu entry a Va Ba a is sought in the Dhatu-Patha body in the rst column of page 26: it is the second entry. .6 The dhatu for each word of the previous exercise of Dictionary Practice (section 14. dhatu is located in the index. na a d na d listed as :Na d na a l na a l. be afraid of (1) .P. a na nd a Dhatu Spelling Changes p a na nd. p p . p .s. Notes: This dhatu has its anubandha syllable placed in front of it: in the index this is enclosed in square brackets so that the dhatu Ba a may be found in alphabetical order.sa d as :Sa d.3 may be used to `remove' the vibhakti from the artha (although this declension should be familiar).1.g. as in in the Dhatu-Patha as a Na a d .g. . . A a na nd na nd listed as f ] na a d mua Nq+. and the remaining word in its pratipadika form is looked up in the dictionary.1. . it may require the insertion of a nasal after the vowel of the dhatu.114 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 15.a may be spelt here with an initial :N. 6.a. p Ba a 1.a. cl.k mua Nq. as mua a q .pa a na Sa d .bh . Index: a Va ] Ba a .g.sUa: a a sa v. information provided in the dictionary. Body: a Va Ba a Ba yea p mw747a Ba ya bhaya n. and nally the artha is examined in the dictionary. dread .5 The spelling of the dhatu may di er from that given in the dictionary: (a) An initial . The class (juhotyadi-gana) and bhasa agree with the . (b) An initial n. which is listed (Those seeking the technical reasons behind these changes should consult the commentaries to Panini 6.P. . (c) When the dhatu has a nal I as an anubandha.58 respectively. p .

lling. . . protecting. '.5): the third rule applies here. n. completing.1 .1. and is given as such in the dictionary translation. both words end in `-na' (with or without sandhi changes) | this is a common neuter su x usually meaning `the act of . . cherish. (4) p k+:}. . nourishing. ca l+. . to tremble. Body: &+. to ll . moving.P. nourish . . cl.P. the act of lling or lling up.a h:=+Nea mw1289a Harana mf(a or )n. Dh.a Bva a o A 20 1 Dh. . The artha palana adds the sense of `nourishing' to the ` lling up' of purana . . n. .sea 39 1 Dh. containing .cit. Index: p a . movable.9 P. and bhasa information from the dictionary is used to select the correct one. Notes: If the dhatu is not found at its expected place in the alphabetical order in the index. mf(a)n. defending . . dhatu: it is not to ll to the point of bloatedness.1.a a :pa .P. . tremulous . carry .Lesson 15 (2) 115 Dh.na pUa:=+Na ya eaH mw623a Palana mf( )n.p.nea mw391b Calana. the act of . . to sate. As nouns (which is the sense here). . . Index: &+. Index: k+:a pa Bva a A a . .P.sea 8 2 Dh. . . nourishing . but the sense is of generous abundance. .a kamp. shaking motion. . . n. Index: :pXa k+. cl. to perceive.A.P.V. guarding. . m. Body: k+:a pa . n.ca ta a Bva a :pa . carrying or bringing or fetching. Notes: The gana and bhasa are used to select the dhatu entry. Body: :pXa :pa a l+. so the class (kryadi-gana) .ca t. (3) p & 1. holding.hri. to take.P. .3). .A.a 4. . . P. . so we can expect to look up two words in the dictionary. mw395b mw252b mw1302a mw648a p :pXa pr . cl. shaking. satisfying . . (which itself derives from the dhatu pr). shake. then check for applicable dhatu spelling changes (see section 15. This gives a bene cial aspect to the . Notes: The index has three entries for dhatu :pXa . . (5a) Dh. `completer' . so beware! The vibhakti ending of the artha is the dvi-vacana form (see section 15. Dh. . mw642a Purana mf( )n.P. the act of guarding. carrying. x the mid upon.V.sea 2 1 . a . . . nor in the Addendum. The dhatu with its artha are in fact at the top of the second column of page 39: there are a number of such errors. bear. trembling. cl. attend to . . . nor is it to ll with rubbish.

k+:V. the gana is used to select the entry in the index.a ta o A 38 2 x Dh. . perceive. right perception Notes: Again.P.=+Nea mw254a Karana mf(a)n.a . Body: ma na :]a a nea and ma nua A va ba ea Da nea mw426a J~ana n. producing harmony . .P Index: . x . .sa V]a a nea mw1133c Sam-j~ana mf( )n. but its artha a hM sa a ya a m. meaning `in the sense of injury' is inappropriate to the original word that led us to the dhatu in the rst place. . A.' and `cl. . understand.qu ] k+:V. . . . to do. the ve entries in the index for dhatu a va d . making. companion . consciousness . . both artha seem applicable: one to the opinion held in the mind. Index: a va d A :pa .P. .2. and in classical Sanskrit)'. p k 1. In fact. P.' as well as `cl. informing. harmony . Body: a . (6) Dh. doing. a helper. m. imagine. accomplish. . unanimity. given the original word that led to the dhatu. it also gives `cl. . hence the return to . knowing. learn .1. cl. cl.vid.8 (this is the usual formation in the Brahmanas. instruction.8. p ma n. In practice the cl. believe.kri . . x The Dhatu-Patha does not list a class 2 dhatu k . the act of making. . and the other to the expression of that opinion in word or deed (thus informing others). becoming acquainted with. . (5c) mw963b Dh. . P. n mw101b Ava-bodhana. P. .a man. n. make. to know. n. knowledge . . n. . . . cl. Observe the aspect of harmony and unity provided by the artha: there is no passion or ulterior motive in the perception or attention of the dhatu cit.P. . and which was to do with pride. mw783a p a va d. perform. P.P. . teaching. . Body: a va d :]a a nea mw426a J~ana n.P. n Notes: The gana and bhasa given in the dictionary are used to choose among . doing. . . .qu+.a k+. Sutras. 1.ca ta a . . Notes: The dictionary entry for this dhatu is quite lengthy: reading through the rst column of page 301. .5 dhatu should also be examined. producing. e ecting.5.sea 25 1 Dh. . . .P. . . Notes: Since the dictionary gives two classes for this dhatu and both are listed in the index. becoming acquainted with.4. knowing. causing . . e ecting. (5b) mw300c x Dh.sea 38 2 Dh.2.116 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Dh. to think. Index: ma na a d A a A 29 2 and ma nua ta A a . knowledge . . Body: . n with . the dictionary for more information. the artha for both need to be examined.

but nonetheless we pursue it through the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha to see what may be discovered. thereby overcoming the limitations that the individual has with particular words and ideas. These sources of error and misunderstanding are minimized by studying the scriptures in the original language.. in relation to the entire Veda: the mind is thus turned towards the spiritual world. It is an extract from Sr Krsna's response to Arjuna's .a a pre x having a negative or privative or contrary sense. . all translations are signi cantly awed by two factors: the rst is the translator's level of understanding of the subject (in respect of the scriptures that means spiritual understanding) and his ability to express that understanding in another language secondly. ca //// Of letters I am the letter A I am the copulative of compound words. .Lesson 15 117 15. letter. a syllable. word.a | sasth . A a:=+a Na a m. in relation to the scripture as a whole. through tracing the etymology of each word to its nest. . the student (the reader of the translation) has his own limited associations with the words in his native tongue./sma d ndH .sa a ma a a sa k+:~ya . ca /// mw3b mw1a A a:= a-kshara mfn. As an illustration of this method of study. section of scripture in which it occurs. most universal source.. we have: A a:=+a Na a m. the passage is considered in relation to the . vowel. At rst glance. this statement does not appear to be at all profound or have any spiritual associations whatsoever. . imperishable .7 Study of the Scriptures Since most scriptures are available in translation. A 3. . After this preparatory work with the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha. let us examine a verse from the Bhagavad G ta: Chapter 10 Verse 33 is selected simply because it has some words and concepts introduced in this course. The translations are helpful in selecting a passage for study. .sa a ma a a sa k+:~ya . asking for details of His Glory and powers the rst line of the verse is: A a:=+a Na a ma k+:a:=+eaY a. sound.//sma d ndH . It does take practice before realising that the scriptural texts can only be understood through contemplation and meditation. it would be a pointless exercise to apply the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha to merely con rm the translation in fact.a A k+:a:=H A a.. n. and to con rm that the correct word is being traced through the dictionary. bahu-vacana of A a:= . and slowly trained to view all of life in terms of that spiritual world. Removing the sandhi from this line. and.

sa ind. space. Bhag.as cl. . agitation. doing.a 2. .kri . equivalent.sa:*.A). producing.2. .a ta o A 38 2 . doing. eka-vacana uttama-purusa lat (present indicative) of p as = `I am'. m. panion .P.sea 18 2 a:= . n. com. shaking. cl. succinct. . . stream. with.=+Nea mw254a Karana mf( )n. A a sa A A a . e ecting. perish . perishable m.a 1. 1.1. p mw274b k+:a:= 1. . .a k+. ksar.P. doing. . a compound word. cl. the act of becoming or arising the place of being.Bhu mfn. a:=.Asa m. same.a l+. P. brief relating to or belonging to a compound word m.sea 23 1 A a sa o+. . . . . live. working . . . . mw503b dM d n. smooth . .kara mf( )n.2. `similarity'. wane. mw504c a d two. being. seat. melting away. p .sa a ma a a sa k sasth eka-vacana of . abide. concise. to do.sa m. . .P.sa a ma a a sa k .sam ind. p mw159c A a s. `conjunction' . . . `equality' . (connected with 7. a helper. . .sa and 2. comprehensive. p x mw300c k 1. make. (from sam-asa ). . like to or identical or homogeneous with . m. perform.a 2. . A . . . mw1111b . even. e ecting .sa 7. expressing `junction'. . d ndH | prathama eka-vacana of d nd . . x x Dh.kri . mw1152a .//sma | a /// Dh.pa vea Za nea . . a cloud n. altogether.qu+. . equal. A k+:a:=H mw327a Ksara mfn. making. accomplish . trembling. mw503b d original stem of dvi. P. remain. (see beginning of Lesson 3. mw159c 1. `having the same'. action the term used in designating a letter or sound or indeclinable word . a:= Bva a :pa . a copulative compound (or any compound in which the members if uncompounded would be in the same case and connected by the conjunction `and').sa a ma a a sa k+:~ya | mw1206b mf( )n. world or universe. male and female .k+:V. . . to be.sa ma 2. .. making. m. (ifc. causing . exist. . moving about.sama ). . .118 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Dh.sama mf(a)n. the act of making. mw1a A -kara m. .qu ] k+:V. be present. mw1152a . . Dh. | prathama eka-vacana of A k+:a:= . a couple. . mw327a . . . the letter or sound a. similar like. or n. water the body. together with. glide to melt away. . p mw117a A s.nea mw1132a Sam-calana n. f. to ow. P. existing .P. along with.as to sit quietly. A sa A :pa .) an act. becoming.sea 25 1 A sa Bua a va mw760c 2.

which is taken for granted. In all languages the rst letter of the alphabet is A.A. All words are formed from sound. moreover. may change. and here the illustration is being the A of letters. .Lesson 15 mw207a 119 engaged in. how then does one describe their source and support. and. But what of the letters which form the words? Or the ink that forms the letters? And what about the paper that holds the ink in place? The plain white paper. Giving this as the foremost of the samasa | where there is no di erence in importance between the elements | places the emphasis on that which links them together. mw380a . yet allowing the elements to retain their individuality. The sounds of the alphabet are imperishable (aksara): they may be manifest. ca | avyaya . but are not subject to absolute destruction. holding it all together as one. . the act of sitting down. `in this world'). is like Consciousness and all the words. on their signi cance and meaning. . the attention at the moment is on the words on this page. Here the allusion is also to Consciousness as being the underlying Source and Support of p the manifest creation ( asa bhuvi.. and all sounds are derived from A they are all but a modi ed form of that A . ca Upa-vesana n.1).6 summarizes the core role of A in forming all the vowels and from the ve mouth positions of these vowels. ca . In responding to Arjuna's question. . a seat the being devoted to or 2. Re ections: The following personal re ections are o ered as illustrative of this process of study: they are neither right nor wrong. which is their source and support. foremost of several classes. both. they .B. and each retain its individuality (see 11.. In Sanskrit this is easy to demonstrate: the gure given in 1. the ever-present A ? This may be understood as referring to the immutable Consciousness underlying the whole creation. are like creation. The primacy of its position at the head of the alphabet re ects its role as the source of the whole alphabet. as well as . By analogy it is Consciousness that underlies the ever-changing variety of creation. If the sounds of the alphabet are imperishable. By way of illustration. which are deemed important and interesting. neither good nor bad they are simply what were presented to the mind in considering the passage. The mark of the dvandva samasa is that there is an equality between the joined elements. ca ind. they may be unmanifest. are derived all the consonants. also. Krsna gives many examples of being the .

it is not possible to select which of the entries in the Dhatu-Patha index is the correct one: one needs to examine . and examine those words in the dictionary. consider the passage in a universal or spiritual sense. . we have: A h m. There are no right or wrong answers here. and write down what is presented to the mind. k+:a lH |prathama eka-vacana of k+:a l = time.) Da a ta a | prathama eka-vacana of dhatr = dispenser. As with all exercise.120 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 15.a O va A a yaH k+:a lH Da a ta a A h m. indeed. a little performed regularly has the greatest bene t in the long term. There is no rush with this part of the exercise: let the scripture come to mind over a period of a week or so. Note: from the information given in the dictionary.//sma used in the rst line of this verse. together with its grammatical division down to the pratipadika level. a va:( a ta ea mua KaH | prathama eka-vacana of visvatomukha = facing everywhere. a /// . the other half of this verse from the Bhagavad G ta is o ered. .a Note: the verb A . and then write down your understanding in clear readable English. A h m. tracing it to its dhatu where possible. then nd the artha in the Dhatu-Patha. Removing the sandhi from this line. Having done this mechanical work. . O va | avyaya = verily. Examine each word in the dictionary. (The last entry is the most appropriate. A a yaH | prathama eka-vacana of aksaya = inexhaustible.ea Da a ta a hM a va:( a ta ea mua KaH I am verily Time inexhaustible I am the Dispenser facing everywhere. so do not look for clever results: the exercise is one of stretching the mind to larger issues than those that daily life normally o ers.8 Study Practice As a practice in using the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha in studying the scriptures. is implied here.a a va:( a ta ea mua KaH | prathama eka-vacana of personal pronoun `I'. . the artha for the three possibilities and compare that with the meaning given in the dictionary. A h mea va a a yaH k+:a l+.

and verb-endings and verb stems to the paradigm tables. This translation is especially suited to the Sanskrit student.e. paperback. Despite the above quali cations. makes it an ideal work with which to begin. There are a wide range of books on Sanskrit grammar available. As the title implies. the range of grammar needs to be very wide: from the full etymology of each word (including the signi cance of each a x) to the gurative use in the most sublime writings. the next obvious step is further study of the grammar. (b) Sanskrit Manual. A useful tool to determine the pratipadika forms of nouns. ranging from the introductory level to academic tomes: the majority of these approach the subject as they would any other foreign language. as it expresses the grammar of the text as well as giving a word-by-word translation. The G ta is written with simple and straightforward grammar. rather than treating the study as a means to penetrate writings which express ideas and concepts foreign to the Western mind-set.Suggestions for Further Study There are many reasons for studying Sanskrit. tense etc. from poetry to philosophy. together with its magni cent philosophy and wealth of practical advice. and the building of a vocabulary detracts from the penetration of the scriptures (because of the limited worldly associations with familiar words). translated by Winthrop Sargeant. therefore translating from English into Sanskrit is irrelevant. with a view to translation. Whatever the reason. hardcover. A Quick-reference Guide to the Phonology and Grammar of Classical Sanskrit. A personal bias needs to be declared here: my interest in Sanskrit lies in studying the scriptures. from simple chanting to mythology. it is a reference work containing many tables of noun declension and verb conjugation. from comparative linguistics to liberation. SUNY: 739 pages. from in ected words. of verbs. i. which. Bucknell. the general reader will nd the rst ve books in the list useful to further study of the grammar: (a) The Bhagavad-Gita. . Motilal Banarsidass: 254 pages. Furthermore. George S. with indices linking noun.

but answers are not provided. by Swam Gambh rananda Brhadaranyaka . . are published with word-by-word translations of Swam Sarvananda etc.tadhyay . Divided into twenty-two lessons. gathered together thematically to exhaustively explain word formations in Classical Sanskrit the text and commentary are in devanagar with English translation. hardcover or paperback. the Bhagavad G ta with Samkara's commentary in . As a `part-time' student studying alone. Ballantyne. . 460 pages. . Each lesson has translation exercises. paperback. by Sri Ramakrishna Math or with Samkara's commentary by Advaita Ashrama (Eight . A Sanskrit Primer. with answers given at the back of the book. This is an exacting work and not to be tackled lightly. . Sutherland. Robert P. translation by A. Motilal Banarsidass: 451 pages. and Chhandogya. each subdivided into several topics. Each chapter has translation exercises into and out of Sanskrit. . An Introduction to the Sanskrit Languge. (e) Samskrtasubodhini .. . (d) Devavan pravesika. by Swam Madhavananda). but is essential study to penetrate to the full spiritual signi cance of words. and large vocabulary. translated by James R. to the self-motivated student they can provide a wide grasp of Sanskrit as a language. this university entry-level textbook gives a broad understanding of the language without getting bogged down in details and exceptions. A university textbook similar in level and structure to the previous one while neither of these books are designed for self-study. in both directions. paperback.Sastry is published by Samata Books the major Upanisads . Goldman and Sally J. This covers the grammar of Classical Sanskrit in some detail. depth. 460 pages. It is useful as a semi-reference book when examining a particular concept in depth: the next two books are a lot easier for general study. For further scriptural study.122 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory (c) Teach Yourself Sanskrit. paperback. Principal Upanisads. Hodder and Stoughton: 493 pages. This contains approximately one third of the sutra s of Panini 's As. Deshpande. (f) Laghukaumud of Varadaraja. this is a `hard' book because of its style. Michael Coulson. Madhav M.M.

. vadathah tisthanti ca . . 5. 4.B. 2. 5. 6. .2. tisthanti vadami ca ...d.e. 5. . We (pl..) speak. He stands and they (pl. .B. 4. vadami tisthasi ca . tisthasi vadati ca ..B.) speak and they (two) stand. tisthamah vadathah ca . 2.d. 6.3. 3. They (two) speak and we (pl. tisthavah vadatha ca . 5.. 6. tisthathah vadathah ca . vadatha tisthasi ca . . 4.3.) stand and they (two) speak.) stand and we (two) speak... 7. . vadatah tisthati ca .1. 2. . You (s.. Answers: Lesson 2 2. You speak and I stand. 8. tisthati vadami ca . 3. I speak and you stand.1.c. 2. 6. 1. vadasi tisthati ca . 2. You (two) stand and we (two) speak. tisthami vadati ca . He stands and you speak. vadasi tisthami ca . tisthati vadatha ca .1. I stand and he speaks.2.. 7.. 3.. 4. They (pl.B.Answers to Exercises Answers: Lesson 1 1. 3. You (s.1. You (pl. 8.. You stand and I speak..) stand and you (two) speak.. I stand and speak.) stand.) stand and you (two) speak.

asvah naram vrksebhyah vahanti .). 4. vrksah asvah ca tisthatah .c. 3. 5. 3.3. 2.124 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Answers: Lesson 3 3. The man and the horse are leading.) from the horse. 6.3. The horse carries the tree for the man. The horse stands and the man speaks.B. 4.B. The man goes to the tree by horse. . asvena gacchati 2. . . The horses (two) lead the man to the trees (pl.. vrksan asvaih vahanti . . narah asvam nayate . vrksam narat asvena labhavahe . 6. asvau naram nayete 3.d. 6. .) take the trees (pl. asvan vrksat gacchamah . . 2. We (pl. 2. narah vadanti nayante ca .e.B. Answers: Lesson 4 4. . .). .3. 4.1. . The man and the horse go from the tree. 4. 5. The man and horses (two) are standing.1. . 5. 6.B. . You (pl.3.1. 4. The horse leads the man.1. . 5.d. . 3. He leads the horse from the tree for the man. asvah naram vrksam nayate . The horse carries the man to the tree. asvam naraya nayethe 3.) lead the men (two) to the trees (pl. narah asvan nayante .

) to the horse. 8. . The horse carries the man and the girl to the tree. you are standing on the horse.) from the man's tree.) lead the men (pl.1. The girls (two) stand among the trees and speak. . 10. naram asvam vrksat vahathah . 6.B. The man carries the fruit (two) from the tree for the girl. .1. . He stands on the horse and speaks. 4. 5. 2.) of the trees (pl. asvau naram vrksam vahatah . The man's horses (pl.) of the men (pl. 8.. . The girl leads the horse to the tree for fruit. . 7. 2.) by horse. . .. The horse goes to the man from the tree.d.) are standing among the trees (pl. I go to the trees (two) and take the fruit (pl. The man takes the tree from the horse.2. narayoh vrksah tisthanti .) to the fruit (pl. The men (two) take the fruit (pl. 3. . .e. O man. The horses (two) carry the trees (pl.3. 6. He takes the man from the tree by horse. narasya asvan vrksat labhate . (he) asva vrksam naraya vahasi . 3. 5. 5. . 2. . 3. 8.Answers to Exercises 125 Answers: Lesson 5 5. narasya asvah naram vrksebhyah vahati . The girl and the man carry the tree to the horse. 4. The girls (two) take the fruit (pl. . 9. The man's horse takes the fruit from the girl. . . . asvayoh tisthati . 7. 7.). vrksesu narah asvah ca tisthatah . Answers: Lesson 6 6.B. 4..1. The horses (pl. 5.) for the man. The girls (pl.). 6.2.B.. .c. . . .) are standing.

. 4. The man takes the fruit (s. .e.1. . . . 4.B.1.. .). 5. 9. narasya bala asvan vrksan nayate . 2. .. 7. . We (two) carry the girl from the tree to the man's horse. balayah asvau phalani naram labhete . asvam vrksasya phalani nayethe . . . phalani vrksat asvena vahatha .2.3. 10. bala asvah ca vrksesu phalebhyah gacchatah . 2. . . balam vrksat narasya asvam vahavah .).) for the man. The horse takes the tree's fruit (two) from/for the girls (pl. asvah vrksasya phale balabhyah labhate . . 3.1. . 7.f. balayah asvah phalani naraya vahati . 5. asvam nayethe ca phalam labhe 3. bale asve tisthatah ca phalam vrksat labhete .2. . The man's girl leads the horses (pl. . .. . 8. Answers: Lesson 7 7. . 6. . .. asvah vrksan narebhyah vahanti . narah vrksan asvena phalebhyah gacchati . naram balam ca asvam vrksat labhavahe . . . 3. . . bala phale vrksat asvebhyah labhate .1. The man and the girl stand and talk. . narah vrksasya phalam balayai labhante . 7.B. narah tisthati ca bala vadati .126 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 6. asvah phalani balah naraya vahati .B. asvah vrksam balam naraya vahati . .B. . . . narah bala ca vrksesu asvabhyam gacchatah (assume two horses). . 4. 6. 6. 5. . . . narah asvam phalena nayate . . 6.d. 5. narah bala ca tisthatah vadatah ca . The girl's horse carries the fruit (pl. 2. .g.) of the tree for the girl. narah vrksam asvat balayai labhate . 2.) to the trees (pl. .2. 4. . 3. . . ..

. 4.B. .. 8. guroh bala sundare asve tisthati .a a na vxa a a t. 4.5. guravah alpam sundaram asvam nadyau nayante .B.. .a ya aH A:( a Ea :P+. sundar bala naram alpam gurum s ghram nayate 6.a yEa l+. ca vax ea Sua :P+. .) lead the small beautiful horse to the rivers (two).a ba a l+. .1. .a a na na yea Tea 3 na:=H vax a m. :P+. 2. .c.Bea tea 2 A:( a m. narau sundarani phalani alpat vrksat labhete .l+. . sundar bala alpam asvam nad m nayate 4. 3. balayah guruh alpayam nadyam tisthati .5.2.a a na na:=+m.5. . . guruh alpasya vrksasya sundaresu phalesu tisthati .a A:( aH .l+. 8. The man quickly takes the small tree to the girl for re.1. bala alpam phalam narasya gurum vahati 3.a l+. 5. The men (two) take the beautiful fruit from the small tree. .taH 5 e A:( aH vax a a n.a na:=e +ByaH va h a. . . bala agnim sundarat narat gacchati 2.//nta 6 / 127 Answers: Lesson 8 8. 2.B. The small tree stands in the beautiful re. 5. alpah vrksah sundare agnau tisthati . . . . 3.l+..d.Answers to Exercises 7. The beautiful girl leads the small horse to the river.B.l+. The teachers (pl.a A:( ea na va h Ta 1 ba a l+.e.a A:( a a t. narasya guruh nad m asvena gacchati . .cC+. narah alpam vrksam balam agnaye s ghram labhate . 5.ByaH ga . 6. 6. The girl goes to the re from the handsome man.h.Ba tea 4 ba a l+.a vxa a ~ya :P+.1..

phalam vrksayat asvena naraya vahatah . \O teacher. . narah phalani labhate iti bale vadatah . 5. 6.c.) from the tree by horse for the man.m. 5.5.Sua a ta +a ta 6 e Answers: Lesson 9 9. .B. balayah phale naram s ghram labhadhve . 4.1. I quickly carry the tree to the small res (two) by horse (pl. The horse carries the fruit (pl.3.a gua: +:m.B.128 8. vrksam nad m vahami iti narah balam vadati . narah bala ca sundaram gurum nadya gacchatah . The river carries the small tree to the beautiful girl. na:=+~ya gua: H na d a m. 2.sua nd:=e A:( ea a ta +a ta 4 .a na:=+m.B." the small man says.3. .B. phalani asvam labhe iti bala gurum vadati 2. They (two) carry the fruit (s. vrksam alpau agn asvaih s ghram vahami . 3. 2. phalani balayah vrksat labhavahe .3.a A pa m. . .a va h a ta 2 ba a l+. \The man is taking the fruit (pl.l+.sua nd:=+a ba a l+.a na ya tea 5 gua: H A pa ~ya vxa a ~ya .1. . 5.a na d a a m. .a A pa m. sundar bala asvam alpan vrksan phalebhyah nayate .1. 4. . asvah vrksasya phalani balayai vahati . . 9." the girls (two) say. .a A:( ea na ga .a ta 1 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ba a l+. nad alpam vrksam sundar m balam vahati . . .l+. 9.). .a .e.a :P+. he guro bale nayase iti alpah narah vadati .). 4.sua nd:=e +Sua :P+.a Za a Gra m. .a na:=+~ya gua: +:m.a ya aH gua: H A pa a ya a m.) of the tree for the girl. 3. 6.d.f. . . you are leading the (two) girls.a a ta +a ta 3 gua:=+eaH ba a l+. . 6. 3.cC+.

a gua: +:m. :P+. a Ra na nd 25. gua veRa k+:tva m.a va d a ta 1 vxa a m. a va SNa A a ~ya 18.nEa va 27.a na d a m. ma Dva a .l na:=+m.//~ta a/ +. a pa: a a na nd 21.Bea I+.a m.a vax a a n.ya a na nd 17. v.a Za a Gra m.a na d a a ga . :pra tyea k+:m.a 28. h ~teaY . A a na ndE ta d .taH 5 .ca a yRa 23. Za a ntya mxa ta m.a a na ba a l+.a ya aH vxa a a t.a l+.ByaH na ya tea 6 e Answers: Lesson 10 1.Ba Dvea 3 e :P+. 8.l+.l+.a e 26. k+:pa a nd 9. .a .a A pa a n.l+.Ba a va he 4 129 na:=H ba a l+.a Sa 16. Bva a a d 7. nea a ta 20. :k+:ya m. :pa:=+ma a tma n. h:=e Y Ta 11. k+. k+:tRXa k+:a:= 5.a ya aH :P+. ma h a SRa or ma h 10.B. ca .a 29.a A:( a m. :pa:=+mea:( a:= 30.a . ma a yEa va 15.Answers to Exercises 9. A: Ea va 6. :pa a va kH 22.ya:*+ na 2.a ta na:=H ba a l+.a a na A:( a m.sa tya a na nd 3.3.a 12. a Za va Ea d na m.a va h a a ma I+.a l+.a 19.sua nd:=+a ba a l+. . .sua nd:=+m.cC+.a va d a ta 2 ba a l+.f.a l+. ma he :( a:= 14.a :P+.sa a Dva a Za 4. :de v. na d a Za 13. ma he nd 24.a gua: +:m.a ta ba a l+.

2. 3. Rajas 863b 11.A.//gnMa na:=+a +. 5.a nya:( Ma va h ta a a ta gua: +:ba Ra l+.l+. 856b 8." the small girl says.).cC+.a Sa 226c 13.//gna ma:( a a d h taH a/ The men (two) carry the small tree to the re from the horse.a ta The man goes to the trees (pl.cC+.taH a/ The girl and the small horse go to the re from the man. Bhakti 743a 19.) for fruit (pl. na:=+ea vxa a a nP+. b. 7.a:( Ma na:=M .le+. 15. J~ana 426a n A-nanda 139c Vy-akarana 1035c . 4.) to the horse. ba a l+.a 737c 9. 5. 7.). 6. gua: A pMa na:=M vxa a a ya a .=+.a ya a A:( ea na va h a ta / The man carries the tree to the re for the girl by horse. hridaya 1302c .a va d a ta \I carry the fruit (pl. .//gnMa ba a l+. 9.a pa eaY:( a (a a . 4. Citta 395c 12. 6. A na nta 25a x 20.Bya eaY:( ea na ga . ba a l+. . 2. Answers: Lesson 12 The words are given in the form found in the dictionary: 1.a vaH (no sandhi) We (two) are going among the beautiful trees for small fruit (pl.cC+.//gnMa na:=+a +.a 135a Hetu 1303c ya ea ga Pra-kriti 654a . :pua: +:Sa 637a 16.130 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Answers: Lesson 11 1.) by horse. Za:=+a:= 1057c 18. ca vxa a a +:Ba tea The girl takes the horse and the man from the tree." the teacher says to the girls (pl. na:=+a va pMa vxa a ma . A a tma n. gua: 359b 10. +.cC+.a va d a ta a/ \The teacher is going to the re from the man. k+:SNa 306b or Krishna 308a . ba a l+.a:( a ma pa Ma na d Ma vxa a a a ya tea The girl leads the horse to the small river from the tree.ByaH .4.le+. na:=+ea vxa a ma a. Manas 783c 17.b) The teachers (two) go quickly to the small man from the tree. 3. gua: +. A pea ByaH :P+.sua nd:=e +Sua vxa ea Sua ga .a GrMa ga .cC+.cC+.ta a tya pa a ba a l+.ra n. :P+. 8.taH (see 10. 10. a va SNua 999a 14.

be afraid of . A nva ya 11. . nourish . near. . . alarm. . dread . . mw1302a & 1. harati .( bh ) fear. cl. . P. bear. carry.a (as a pre x . . to ll .) . . having a negative or privative or contrary sense p mw747a Ba ya bhaya n. back . . . ind. . k+:a l -yuga 262a 6. . Dhyana -yoga 521a 15. . cherish. mfn. P. mw648a :pXa pr . cl. before vowels for prati above mw661b :pra a ta 1. Vi-vaha -kala 987b 4. Answers: Lesson 14 1. -harati to withdraw . drawing back . .Gua -sattva -ta 894b 3.hri. mw1a A 3.A. . to fear. 8. . Sam-skrita 1120c . to sate. near to. plenty. . towards. . 2. to take. cl. . . :pUa vRa -paksha -pada 643c 19. Note: It is not the second dhatu & because of its meaning in translation this is con rmed by the conjugational form harati given at 677b. 3. 10. . 18. p mw641a :pUa:= pura. mw642a Purna. . mw663c Praty. . Caus. . Hiranya -garbha 1299c . 14. . Vi-veka 987c 13.prati. towards . Mudha 825b . .hri P. . . in comp. A-grih ta 1309a . n. Mleccha -jati 837c 20. . 17. Kshatriya -dharma 325b 9.3. . . mw60c A Ba ya a-bhaya. mw758a Ba a 1. . . absence or removal of fear. ba a l -rupa -dhrik 729b . . mw126a A a 4. ( pr . mw677b Praty-ahara m. Bhagavad -g ta 744a 1. 7. . (as a pre x .a . .1. . fulness. . abundance . mf(a)n. abstraction p mw677b :pra ya a & praty-a. Sam-yoga 1112b . 5. l+. . . . . . Mano -bhava -_ asana 785b s 12.Answers to Exercises 131 Answers: Lesson 13 -vyatireka 46b 2. n. . Sam-gama -mani 1128c . Sraddhatri 1095c . P. Adhy-aropa 23b _ 16. .9.bh .

6. mfn. . mw396a Citra.vid. . ca a pa l capala. mfn. painting . nor. imagine. .mana. to know.P. p mw809c 1. . n. .2. . . for 1.Vid. learn . . p mw809a ma a na 1. pre x .. f. mfn. . . 1. to think. . (oni-ta.manin. mw393a Capalya. understanding. . not too. in comp.1. . mw783a ma n.) fancying that one possesses. mf(a)n. not. p mw388b . . believe. . mw395b a .1 on page 83: . performance . mw396b Citra-karman n. . (ifc. ( kamp . . .a . . pride . too . am. agitation. . . . . excellent. imaginary . kri .vid on 964c. . skilled in the art of painting .8. . . shake 5. . a mw523a na 2. . proud . .132 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 4. attend to . mw12b Ati . . . orma-vid. x Note: It is not the second dhatu k on 304a because its meaning given in translation is not appropriate to that given for karman. .manin.cit. neither .) a Nati . . mw810b ma a a na k manika. accomplish . having a negative or privative or contrary sense. A. n. act. . .2. ckleness mw393a . ca pa l capala. . (from capo ) mobility . man or fr. Bhag. Mani. . . . a Nati (for na + ati . . any extraordinary act . . See p 809.B.1. . cl. .a kamp. a. Note: See 10. m. cl. -manin. .a 4. . . cl. mw809b Mani -ta f. A. . . . . n. to tremble. perform. ( man ) opinion . mf(a)n. n. mw1a A 3.a man.Manin mfn (fr. distinguished .a karman. mw8c A-capalya. then the n is dropped .ca t. P. . .kri .mana ) . . .na ind. freedom from unsteadiness. ). . manita. extraordinary. . to perceive. x the mind upon. .4. mw396b Citra-karman . unsteadiness. . . cl. . no. . or its dhatu a va d 3. . . 2 and 3. . cols. . . x mw300c k 1. conspicuous. . . . knowing. . p mw258b k+:mRa n. .2. .p. unsteadiness. . perceive. a knower mw963b a va d 1. if the pratipadika ends in -an. ) shaking. . self-conceit. . . Note: This has a more appropriate meaning than 4. 1. mw523b Nati . not very much. action. . haughty. intense. . . trembling mw252b k+:}.Vid on page 965a. . understand. . not too proud or arrogant. mw963c 2. . to do. make. excessive. cl. . -manin . .

pervade. entire. . mw328a 3. place.P. .kshi cl. to impel. procrastination . waste. having a negative or privative or contrary sense. (rarely A) . cua o .sa *+ a a nea . . to put. . . . . . n.P. appearance. P.sea 42 2 k+:l ea pea Dh. The last is selected as being most suited to the dhatu meaning given in the original word k+:a l . moving.kal to calculate or enumerate) . really.kala m.Da a V. Note: Of the four entries for k+:l .sea 48 1 k+:l ga ta Ea . k+:l .a O va nom. injure. . `I'. moving to and fro.3. P. truly.6. cua o . delay. kill. mw513b Da a 1. s p s mw992b a va:( a mf(a)n. establish.P. p mw260a k+:l.A. keeping. everyone whole. everywhere.a 1. time (in general). the act of nourishing. all-pervading. mw1a A 3. abuse. face is turned everywhere. Dh. k+:l . set . . enumeration.qu ] Da a V.a . universally . the act of holding. enjoying. facing all sides. . create. wane. 3. sending. mw1128b Sam-khyana n. from or on all sides. universal.qu+. (probably from 1. urge on . mw650b :pa ea Sa -na mfn. upon . insult. a throw. and for the others the artha must be examined. . incite. exempt from decay. going. mw994c Vi_ va-tas ind. just so. .P. measurement. direct or x the mind or attention atmane-pada. maintaining .kal . a a Bva a :pa A 5 2 mw278a k+:a l 2. dimunition. supporter. . every. dismissing . omni-present.P.jua o A 26 2 .P. mw162a A-svadana n. . all round. calculation . invective. . reckoning. to be absorbed in . immovable concentration of the mind upon. . a va Za tua :pa A 36 1 a va Za :pra vea Za nea mw994c Vi_ va-to-mukha in comp.1. gait .Answers to Exercises 133 Answers: Lesson 15 mw124b mw232b A h m.sea 45 1 k+:l A a ~va a d nea Dh. loss. p mw989a a va Z. P. ind. . . . sg. .a Da a:=+Na pa ea Sa Na ya eaH mw515a Dharana mf( )n. bearer. holding. . for vi_ va-tas. creator. one whose s s .dha cl. mw3b A a ya a-kshaya mf(a)n. . . establisher. corrupt. . preserving. tasting. the rst may be eliminated because it is p a a a yea Dh. cast . p mw328a a a 4. mw514a Dhatri m. constitute to make. decay. cua :pa . founder. bearing . p . to destroy. kshaya m. s Dh. generate. .a . k+:l . arranger. supporting. to enter. . . . nourishing n. keeping.vi_ to pervade) all. Dh. appoint. ( 3. .vi_ cl. . movement in general. cause. P. ca mw329a Kshepe m. produce. . all-containing. . . becoming seen. the act of eating. destruction. bearing. . mw347a Gati f. . indeed. undecaying. mfn. ruin.

Or again. and speech exits taking it in the sense of `face'. time is viewed cyclically: the cycle of day and night. . . Taking mukha in the sense of `mouth'. face. This is more in keeping with the artha of the dhatu as `nourishing. relative to which movement takes place. The all-pervading Consciousness thus provides the space. In one sense time can be viewed as an e ect of movement. and dhatr . both active and receptive. or as a multiple of cycles (e. it represents a two-way opening through which food enters.134 mw819c A Practical Sanskrit Introductory mw692c Pra-ve_ a-na n. rather than the active role of `creator. entering. the mouth.. countenance . That Time is indestructible is simply an acknowledgement of the fact that these cycles keep on tirelessly repeating. the phases of the moon. entrance into or egress out of. In the second half of the line. entrance or penetration into . . s mukha n. sarvatomukha could refer to Consciousness as the Witness. through which all creation is nourished and through which Consciousness Itself is nourished. the latter view would be more appropriate: thus here Krsna . however. . as a measure of the movement in another sense time can be viewed as the cause of movement. .. the cycle of birth and death. In the light of the Vedic teaching. as beginning in some remote past and continuing to some unimaginable future in the East. mua Ka Re ections: In the West. the rotation of the seasons. to the manifest appearance of that Consciousness. it may be interpreted as symbolizing all senses. time of day).g. aperture. In daily life. as the underlying constant. opening.e. for time is a measure of the change of position or state relative to some more durable `constant'. seeking a result). supporting'.g. time is viewed as a subdivision of some convenient cycle (e. even their very existence. arranger' given for dhatr. intelligence. Thus sarvatomukha could be viewed as the sum total of all senses. and so on up to cycles lasting billions of years. Time is inextricably linked with movement: if there was no movement there would be no time. in visvatomukha. `Providence' may be a better word to use than `Dispenser': the latter has a sense of purposive action (i. and food for all beings: indeed It provides for their total sustenance and nourishment. and more appropriate to the universal aspect implicit . years): this is the measurement or reckoning aspect. represents the Absolute Unmoving Consciousness within which all movement takes place. whilst the former is more an impersonal principle. time is viewed linearly.

It is the most essential word. She (S) gave (V) the food (Od ) to the dog (Oi ). etc. For example: Jack and Jill (S) went up the hill (predicate). They (S) elected (V) him (Od) chairman (Co ). Again (A) it (S) rained (V) steadily (A) all day (A). place. (b) Verb: (V) this expresses the activity of the sentence it agrees with the subject in person and number. 1. there may be several of these in one simple sentence. He (S) built (V) the dog (Oi ) a kennel (Od). Sentence Elements . These terms are gathered together thematically under three headings | Sentence Elements. He (S) became (V) a doctor (Cs). expressing an attribute of the subject (ii) Object Complement: (Co) used with transitive verbs in the active voice and expressing an attribute of the direct object of the sentence. or transitive verbs in the passive voice. (e) Adverbial: (A) these express a wide range of meaning (time. Love (S) is (V) blind (Cs ). The purpose of these notes is to brie y illustrate the technical terms and concepts of English grammar. manner. as in the command `Run!'. (c) Object: There are two types: (i) Direct Object: (Od ) expresses that which is directly acted upon by the verb (ii) Indirect Object: (Oi ) is the recipient or bene ciary of the activity. the technical terms will not be strictly de ned but brie y described and followed by illustrative examples where appropriate. NB: These notes are about English Grammar: the grammar of Sanskrit is rather di erent | do not confuse the two. It expresses the agent of an active verb. There are two types: (i) Subject Complement: (Cs) used with intransitive verbs. each of which may comprise one or more words: (a) Subject: (S) in English grammar this is considered the main element or focus of the sentence. (d) Complement: This completes the sense expressed by the verb. Unlike the other elements. and Finite Verb Forms| and then followed by an alphabetical list of other common terms that do not t under these headings. which may be used to demonstrate similar or contrasting concepts in Sanskrit grammar. and every grammatically complete sentence must have one explicitly stated: even the subject may be implied. For example: The children (S) are playing (V). Parts of Speech.English Grammatical Terms On the assumption that the reader can speak correct English but is unfamiliar with formal grammar. and the rest of the sentence (the predicate) is considered to be a statement about the subject. The judge (S) set (V) the prisoner (Od) free (Co ). A sentence comprises one or more of ve elements.) related to the activity of the sentence as a whole.

There are three types: transitive. She was here. (a) A verb taking an object is called transitive (the `energy' of the activity is transferred to the object. gender and case. but some may be used either way: He beat the drum. There are two types: (i) Proper nouns name a person. etc. place. (g) Interjection: an exclamation expressing emotion: Alas ! Oh ! Ah ! Ahoy ! (h) Adverb: quali es a verb or adjective or another adverb: The very tall man spoke quite softly. I will sleep. (c) Adjective: quali es a noun or pronoun: The happy dog wagged its long tail at the familiar gure. (ii) Common nouns name general things. `the': A boy gave an apple to the teacher. both concrete and abstract: The love of money is the root of all evil. and one that doesn't is called intransitive. I live. Note: nouns and pronouns are categorized according to number. Verbs are typically one or the other. (c) The verb is the dynamic part of the sentence. as it were). with another: Jack and Jill wanted to go. Finite Verb Forms The activity of the sentence is expressed by the verb. These are: (a) Noun: used to name a person or thing. and auxiliary. The children are playing a game]. but were detained. (b) Pronoun: used instead of a noun to designate a person or thing without naming it: He kissed her when they met she enjoyed it. (e) Preposition: `governs' a following noun or pronoun. Among these are: . animating the relatively static nouns etc. the girl stepped from the house into the garden. intransitive. (f) Conjunction: connects one word or phrase or sentence. (i) Verb: expresses the activity of the sentence: He built a house. Parts of Speech 3. (d) Article: a name for the three adjectives `a'. As such it is the most exible of the parts and appears in a wide variety of forms to express its manifold potential. They dig a hole.. expressing its relation to another noun or pronoun or to the verb: As the sun rose in the East. `an'. 2.136 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory There are nine types of word called Parts of Speech. and are usually written with an initial capital letter: John and Mary went to London on Tuesday. (b) The main verb may be accompanied by one or more auxiliary verbs used to express tense or mood: I had slept. I must have been sleeping.

second. or entreaty: Go ! Follow the instruction of your teacher. (iii) Tense: the verb form indicating various times (past. He has stood. May you live long. These four are shown in order. He will have stood. Note: the verb agrees with the grammatical subject in person and number. . He opened the door. Did he stand ? (b) Imperative: expresses a command. He will be standing.g. or purpose: Were he here . . future) at which the action is perceived as taking place: He stood. He will stand. (v) Mood: the verb form indicating an (emotional) quality or manner of the activity. and future respectively: He stood. Help me! (c) Subjunctive: expresses an action. He stands. Continued overleaf . (ii) Number: the verb form indicating the grammatical number (singular. not as a fact. The door was opened by him. plural) of the subject of the sentence: He stands here. advice. He was standing. (b) Continuous: the action is not yet complete but still continuing. He stands.English Grammatical Terms 137 (i) Person: the verb form indicating the grammatical person ( rst. He is standing. (d) Perfect Continuous: combining the force of the previous two. He will stand. desire.g. He had been standing. He eats that he may live. They stand there. (vi) Voice: the verb form indicating the relation of the subject to the activity as: (a) Active: e. . present. but as a condition. You are there. . third) of the subject of the sentence: I am here. (iv) Aspect: the verb form expressing the activity as: (a) Inde nite: the degree of completeness of the action is not speci ed. There are three basic moods: (a) Indicative: asserts a statement as a fact it may also express a condition or question: He stands. He will have been standing. He has been standing. (b) Passive: e. If he stands . in the past. present. He is everywhere. He had stood. (c) Perfect: the action is in a completed or perfect state.

one larger complex sentence.g. nouns and pronouns express natural (as opposed to grammatical) who/whom.ii] Agreement { see Concord Conjugation { the change of form of verbs Apposition { a noun or pronoun is in to express tense. the author's book. A x { a verbal element joined to a word I opened the door when John rang the bell.g. gender. possessor. 2. expressing its relation to another clause(s) which form sentence element(s) of word as source. and Gender { in English. and (loosely) the relation Exclamation { See Interjection 2. i. i.e. etc.138 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory to form a new word. 3. and common denotes See also Compound and Complex Sentence. 3] split into subjective and objective: I/me. with Compound Sentence. either or both.g. Complex Sentence { a construction doctor. I Etymology { the facts relating to the spoke to my neighbour. author.g. For Finite Verb { expresses the activity of a just six pronouns the common case is clause or sentence. gender. they/them. Examples of this last are: I. and in performs the activity of the verb the role particular between the grammatical subject and the verb. formation and derivation of words the Case { one of the forms of a noun or expounding of the elements of a word with pronoun. what (Od ) you (S) did (V)](Od). number. which expresses its relation to their modi cations of form and sense. The windows are open. 4. itself.: E. John. It may generally be rephrased with the e. English uses two cases: the unmarked common case. having more than one clause. mood. two or more simple sentences Gerund { a non. E.: The window is open. Compare e. he/him.: grammatical relations. for example: heroine. author of the book. 3] apposition with another when it refers to the same person or thing and is Declension { the change of form of mentioned immediately after it (often o set nouns and pronouns to express di erent by commas) to identify or describe it. Su x. It usually ends in `-ing'. neuter subject (stated or implied) and a predicate.: Show (S) me (Oi ) usually manifests with an `apostrophe-s'. some other word.e. Compare with Complex Sentence. she/her.g].g. one being the Genitive { a grammatical form of a noun or main clause and the other(s) subordinate pronoun. called to see me. the book of the having more than one clause which are coordinate.nite verb form that linked together with conjunction(s) to form functions as a noun. E. of the semantic subject of the sentence. than teaching orally. E.g. my neighbour. denotes neither sex.i.g. Concord { the agreement between words Agent { one who instigates or causes or in case. See Case. The form the main clause. etc. un happy. we/us.b. and the genitive case. and person. John.: Writing a textbook is more di cult John rang the bell. 1. E. the book's author.. the Compound Sentence { a construction preposition `of'. the masculine gender denotes Clause { a combination of words having a a male. feminine denotes a female. See Pre x. committee.c. I opened the door. More Grammatical Terms .

shortly.: Having heard this he went away. See Gerund. E. Grammar { the rules describing the best Phrase { a group of words which operate Pre x { a verbal element joined to the beginning of a word to qualify its meaning. Participle { a non. In nitive. hyper sensitive. `turning left' (participial phrase). . English makes little use of this to express grammatical meaning. 3. Simple Sentence { a series of words in connected speech or writing.g. primarily a xes and in ection. relation. See also Complex Sentence. and the comparison of adjectives and adverbs. with a passive verb. The two primary areas of study are morphology and syntax. Syntax { the study of sentence structure. You need not read this.nite Verb { A verb which has been turned into another Part of Speech it may express aspect and voice. Semantic { relating to signi cance or meaning. `because of' (prepositional phrase). im possible. primarily the conventions of arrangement by which the connection and relationship of words are shown. In ection { the change of word form to express di erent grammatical relations. For example.g. the grammatical subject expresses the semantic object. A combination of words forming only one clause. etc.c.English Grammatical Terms use of language.i] Phonetics { the science of vocal sounds (especially of a particular language) that deals with their production and representation. By itself it expresses a universal concept in a sentence it denotes a speci c thing.g. friendship.b. Person { The three classes of pronouns and corresponding verb forms denoting the person speaking ( rst person). `on a hill' (adverbial phrase). Non. Re exive { describes transitive verbs where the subject and direct object refer to the same thing or person also pronouns so used (usually ending in `-self'). Verb { See Finite Verb and Non.g. anti septic. e. It is usually preceded by `to'. careful.nite verb form that functions as a noun or adjective or adverb it names the activity in the most general sense. or more than one (plural) person or thing is spoken of. See also Complex Sentence. In nitive { A non. Su x { a verbal element joined to the end of a word to form a new word. He considered the matter to have been settled.g. Sentence { a combination of words forming at least one clause. Word { a minimal element of speech having meaning as such. He saw himself in the mirror. and in the nature of an adjective in qualifying a noun. faultless. including the declension of nouns and pronouns.nite Verb. the conjugation of verbs. Participle. and the rest of the world (third person). 2. It participates in the nature of a verb expressing aspect and voice. It is meaningful by itself. E. e.nite verb form that functions as an adjective. Number { the property in words of expressing that one (singular). and may take take an object. E. E. forming the grammatically complete expression of a single thought.g. Morphology { the study of word structure. the audience addressed (second person).: he likes to read. 139 together as an element of a sentence. attribute.

140 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

for the semi-vowels ya ra la va. e. indeclinable: that class of words that do not have vibhakti endings. 25. synonymous with atmanepada. 88.73] Itaretara Dvandva Samasa: the basic copulative compound whose number is the sum of its members. .73] Avagraha. 110] Anusvara.Sanskrit Glossary and Index Each entry word is given a simple translation (in single quotes where it is literal) followed by a brief description. . a sa and ha. A-luk Samasa: a samasa wherein the rst word does not lose its vibhakti. 14.104. and page reference(s) to where the word may be more fully described or applied. 6] (2) sandhi substitute for an m before a consonant. verbal voice. eight: the cardinal number the .73] Anubandha. 13. nasal: characteristic of those sounds uttered through both nose and mouth. e ort' applicable to the usman consonants . . 14{15. .80] A-kara: the sound or letter a. 83] Alpa-prana. `meaning': the word(s) provided in the Dhatu-Patha as the sense of the meaning . 9] An-udatta. 22. 83.91] .g. 21. 86] Antahstha. 113] Abhyantara-prayatna. 9. of a dhatu. the rst word of which is the more important. 63. Y : symbol for the elision of A at the beginning of a word due to sandhi.89] Astan.. 75] Isat-sprsta. `inner e ort': the method (within the mouth) of articulating sounds. consonants that are uttered with the vocal Avyaya. 109{112] Ardha-sprsta. ical person.73] s Uttama-Purusa.111] Iti. gure eight. `half-contact': the `inner . 85.113] Atmane-bhasa. at the A-ghosa. 14. 75] Avyay bhava Samasa: an adverbial compound. stem: that part of an in ected word n that remains unchanged (except for sandhi ) in the process of in ection. e ort' applicable to the usman consonants . `last person': grammat. 64.73] A_ ga. e ort' applicable to the semi-vowels ya ra la and va. sa sa sa and ha. 9] Udatta. 71] Anunasika. `expression for oneself': . `stand between': general name . 71. cords not vibrating.. `slightly open': the `inner .87] .73] Isad-vivrta.79] Artha. or separating a word from its de nition. `expression for oneself': verbal voice. sa . 22] . 21. distinction in verb endings denoting the agent of the verb ( = English rst person). unvoiced: characteristic of those end of a line of verse. of those consonants uttered with minimal breath. 64] Atmane-pada. `not raised': one of the three pitches or tones (svara ) of the vowel accent system of Vedic Sanskrit. `thus': used as inverted commas. `little breath': characteristic .. `slight contact': the `inner . `after sound': (1) a nasal sound following a svara. `bound along with': a letter or syllable attached to a dhatu and marking some peculiarity in its in ection. `raised': one of the three pitches or tones (svara ) of the vowel accent system in Vedic Sanskrit. 21] Avasana: cessation of sound.

13. i. 9] (2) one of the four types of word. 49] Karmadharaya Tatpurusa Samasa: de. 63] Ca-varga.73] Catur. kakara. pa-varga. `class': there are ten classes of .e. 13. . `single hearing': the neutral sound of Classical Sanskrit. and au. 13. 60] (2) one of the four types of words. associated with the pronunciation of a. group of four consonants sa. na. i. `one-speaking': grammatical singular number the word su x denoting that one person or thing is referred to. Gana.26] Eka-sruti. guttural and palatal: . ka kha ga gha na. 57] n Ta-varga.23. one: the cardinal number the gure one. 13.63] J~a: pronunciation. ^: the rare half visarga the members would have the same case native compound having a dhatu derivative as its nal member.113] Guna. 88] Karman: the immediate object of the agent. labial: the mouth position used ..g.109.73] Kanthosthya. sa and s ha.ta . 17. voiced: a characteristic of those . 67. adverb: an indeclinable . `expression for both': . `heated': general name for the . 17. `quality': the secondary form of . the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of e. consonants that are uttered with the vocal cords vibrating. 73] Eka. 14. 22. beginning with .101] Ghosa. a. 13. . guttural: the mouth position .e. if dissolved. mouth position associated with the pronunciation of o. ca-group: the group of stops beginning with ca. `action': su x appended to a Sanskrit letter/sound to name it. verbal voice. as contrasted with the tonal accent (svara ) system of Vedic Sanskrit. verbal pre x: (1) a pre x to verbs to qualify or change its meaning. four: the cardinal number the gure four. or trt ya with . . kavarga and ha.63] ~ Jihvamul ya. 64] Eka-vacana.. See also dvi-. 75] Ubhayato-bhasa.63] A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ending. 21] Kriya. .e. guttural and labial: the . 71] Osthya. 22. dhatu.ta-group: the group of stops . Usman. verb: (1) fully in ected form of the verb. . terminative compound which. or prathama with a passive verb. e. .. 33. ^: a rare half-visarga before ka or kha. i. 73] Kanthatalavya.63] . 78.tha da dha . ka-group: the group of stops beginning with ka.. < `moon-dot': the symbol placed above a vowel or ya la or va to indicate that the sound is nasalized. 22. .75] Ksa: pronunciation. a passive verb.142 before pa or pha. with the pronunciation of u. ca cha ja jha na.23. dhatu conjugation in parasmaibhasa or atmane-bhasa. 13. 113] . Upapada Tatpurusa Samasa: determi. 13. vowels.ta. and va. prathama with an active verb. fourth case: dative a x of nouns and adjectives. 64] Caturth Vibhakti. that quali es a verb. bahu-vacana. 49] Ka-varga. expressed in dvit ya with an active verb. expressed in . 56] . 75] Kriya-visesana. . and ai.73] Kanthya. 89] Upasarga. Upadhman ya. .63] _ -kara. 51] Candrabindu. 73] Kartr: the agent of the verb.

64] Nama-dhatu. i. or vowels having this measure. one of the four types of word in Sanskrit. particle: one of the four types of word in Sanskrit.50] Navan. . root: rudimentary meaningful verbal element from which words are derived. verbal su x: the su x n of the kriya indicating purusa and va. la and sa. 88] Dvit ya Vibhakti. palatal: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of i.113] Parasmai-pada. 64] Pa~cam Vibhakti. ve: the cardinal number the n gure ve. 89] Napumsaka-li_ ga. pa-group: the group of stops beginning with pa. 13.32] Trt ya Vibhakti. su x to nouns and adjectives. i. 13. 103. fth case: ablative n su x to nouns and adjectives. 73] Ti_ -Vibhakti. 26. dental and labial: the mouth . pa pha ba bha ma. 51] Tri.63] Talavya. `recitation of roots': name . determinative com. 83. 71] (3) used in dictionary. nominal verb: a verb derived from a noun. 25. expression for another: verbal voice. 8. word: (1) traditionally divided into four types. 13. position associated with the pronunciation of the English `f' and `v'.51] 143 dual number the word su x denoting that two persons or things are referred to. ya and sa.63] Tatpurusa Samasa. 25. 64] D rgha. 1] (2) variations in symbols. synonymous with parasmaipada. 33. third case: instrumental . 75] (2) general name for a fully in ected word. 75] Naman. 113] Pa-varga. 26.113] Parasmai-bhasa.23. second case: accusative a x to nouns and adjectives. nine: the cardinal number the gure nine.Sanskrit Glossary and Index pound: in which the rst word quali es the second. 64] Dantosthya.Dvi-vacana. tive compound having a numeral or word denoting direction as its rst member.113] Dhatu-Patha. 9. of a book giving the sense of meaning and grammatical information about each dhatu. see atmane-pada and parasmaipada. 73] Dasan. cavarga.bahu-vacana. 75] Nipata. compound with a negative particle as its rst member. 83] Ta-varga.. 104. ta tha da dha na. `two-speaking': grammatical . 33. `city of immortals': (1) the name of the Sanskrit script. dental: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of . 86] (3) verbal voice. three: the cardinal number the gure three. cana. 88] Dvigu Tatpurusa Samasa: a determina. 17. tavarga. 5] Devanagar . three grammatical genders.104. ta-group: the group of stops beginning with ta. neuter: one of the n .26] Dhatu. copulative compound: a type of compound in which the words are of equal importance.l.23. two: the cardinal number the gure two.92. 92] Dva. verbal voice.51] Pada. 109. 15.e. 75] Pa~can. `long': the long measure. See also eka.e. 64] Dvandva Samasa.21] Dantya. ten: the cardinal number the gure ten. expression for another: .104. 1. 109{116] Na~-Tatpurusa Samasa: determinative n . `name': a noun. 13.

prana. 9] Maha-prana. Vacana. 14. `many-speaking': the grammatical plural number the word su x indicating that many (more than two) persons or things are referred to. or vowels having this measure. 63] Pragrhya. 9] . cerebral: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of .dvi-vacana. . . 26. 13. mystical symbol ?. 1. `breath': see alpa-prana and maha. grammatical gender: there are three n genders. 13. . `measure': the length or duration for which a vowel is sounded these may be hrasva d rgha or pluta. n grammatical genders. 63] Bhasa. Madhyama-Purusa. fully describes the .51] (2) and vocative. 17.napumsaka-li_ ga. 65] Purusa. `person': grammatical person. 38] Prayatna. 78. 73] . 'speaking': grammatical number the word su x that one. 81] Pranava Sabda: a name applied to the . speech: verbal voice. `to be taken separately': excep. does not use the -kara su x. 14] . ` rst person': gram. 17. see atmane-.144 work.str . `great breath': a character. 26] A Practical Sanskrit Introductory pound: a compound forming an adjective qualifying an external noun. 89] Bahya-prayatna. tions to sandhi rules. 113] .e. sounds of the Sanskrit alphabetical order. . 81] Bahu-vacana. 26] Panini: a grammarian (circa 350 bc) whose Bahuvr hi Samasa. second grammatical person distinction in verbal su x denoting the person spoken to ( = English second person). two. `prolonged': the prolonged measure. pum. parasmai-. 6] Matra. outer e ort: the method (external to the mouth. su x: general name for any type of su x.bahu-vacana. Purna-virama. 17. end of a verse or end of a paragraph. 13] Prana.104] Li_ ga. person speaking (uttama-purus a ). 26. or more persons or things are referred to. 9] Prathama Vibhakti. istic of those consonants uttered with extra breath. the throat) of articulating sounds. ( ) full stop: indicates the . 83. ra and sa. the As. grammar of Sanskrit in minute detail. 63] Pratyaya. masculine: one of the three . unlike other sounds. has been so perfectly described. Repha: traditional name for ra which. . No other language. `dot': the anusvara mark above a vowel.73] Bindu. 1. 26. e ort: the method of articulating sounds: divided into abhyantara. 26] n . See ekadvi. 2] Murdhanya. 73] Matrka: name applied to the rst sixteen . and the .e.tadhyay .50. as found in the dictionary. matical person.91] Pluta.tavarga. 17] Lat: a technical term for the present . 82] Prathama-Purusa. Pratipadika. . indicative (simple present tense) one of the la-kara. distinction in verbal su x denoting the person or thing spoken of ( = English third person). .114] Pum-li_ ga. spoken to (madhyama-purus a ). word stem: the stem form (i. 5. to this day. distinction in verbal su x denoting the person or thing spoken of (prathama-purus a ). l-a xes: a common term for the ten primary tenses and moods of Sanskrit verbs. rst case: (1) nominative su x of nouns and adjectives. without any case ending) of a noun or adjective.and bahya-prayatna.23. i. a descriptive com.r. `middle person': the . 21] La-kara. See also eka. ubhayato-bhasa.

51] Samyoga. 88] Samasa. 63] Visesana. . . six: the cardinal number the gure .73] Visarga Sandhi: euphonic changes arising with the visarga. 38. 63] Sup-vibhakti: case endings used for nouns and adjectives. stop: (1) symbol ` . 81] . six.14] Vibhakti: common term for the case endings used for nouns and adjectives (supvibhakti ). 32] n Virama. number. pa-varga. 64] Sasth Vibhakti. name for e ai o au. 22. `embellishment': general name n for any consonant. consonant consonants not having a separating vowel or pause. `emitted': unvoiced breath after a vowel synonymous with visarga. 26] Str -li_ ga. to nouns and adjectives. 26. the members would have di erent case endings. 88] Sakti: name applied to the rst sixteen sounds of the Sanskrit alphabetical order. 83. 78. `increase': strengthened form of . `placed together': a compound word. 51] Sarva-naman. 75] Savarna. seventh case: locative su x to nouns and adjectives. 86] Sandhyaksara. if dissolved. ' indicates a consonant without a following vowel. 75] 145 euphonic changes that arise when sounds are uttered in proximity it is the tendency to ease of pronunciation. and gender as the noun that it quali es. e. calling. 6. 4] Saptan. 77{81. 38. 38. as well as the personal endings for verbs (ti_ -vibhakti ).n name. `separation of sandhi': removal of the sandhi between words in a sentence so that the words stand separately. 65. antahstha is replaced by a simple vowel. 13. 65] Sthana. 64] Saptam Vibhakti.85{87] Sandhi Vigraha. vowels. having the same mouth position and `inner e ort'. proper noun: personal or place . seven: the cardinal number the gure seven. . Sambodhana. 6] Sas.. group: grouping of consonants Sandhi.101] Vya~jana.Sanskrit Glossary and Index according to some common quality. determinative compound which. `bound together': a conjunct . 63] Vrddhi.g. `position': the various mouth positions used in uttering vowels and consonants. compound vowel: general . 53] (2) symbol ` ' indicates the end of a halfverse or end of a sentence. feminine: one of the three n grammatical genders. `name of all': pronoun. if dissolved. technical terms whose meanings cannot be etymologically derived.94] Samahara Dvandva Samasa: copulative compound whose members are taken collectively as a unit the compound is treated as a neuter singular noun. variation of prathama-vibhakti. 53] Samj~a. 1. `emission': unvoiced breath after a vowel. . sixth case: genitive a x . 13] Varga. adjective: it has the same case.50. 103] Vyadhikarana Tatpurusa Samasa: de. addressing: case ending of nouns and adjectives. terminative compound which. `placed together': the system of . . homophonic: categories of sounds . the members would have di erent case endings.75] Visarga. kavarga. 6. 88] Samprasarana: the process whereby an .51] Samanadhikarana Tatpurusa Samasa: . . 85] Visarjan ya.

13. 25 sparsa ka through ma. mixed tone: one of the three A Practical Sanskrit Introductory system of Vedic Sanskrit. 71] Svarita.146 group of 25 stops ka through ma. 13. 53] vowels having this measure. 71. 1] Hrasva. or . 73] Sprsta.91] consonant. 1] (2) a term for the tonal accents (udatta an-udatta svarita ) of Vedic Sanskrit. . `contact': the `inner e ort' for the . `short': the short measure.. `consonant.73] Svara. `sound' or `tone': (1) a general term for the vowels. `contact': the general name for the pitches or tones (svara ) of the vowel accent Hal: technical term referring to any Halanta. 53] Sparsa.nal': ending in a consonant without a following vowel.

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