# Partial Fractions

An algebraic fraction such as can be broken down into simpler parts called partial fractions so that it is in the form Once a fraction has been split into its constituents, it can be used in integration and binominal theorem.

Splitting Into Partial Fractions
Partial Fractions can be split up in two ways: substitution or equating coefficients. Substitution: This is used for general algebraic fractions with two or three factors, without a repeated denominator. 1. The first step in this process would be to make the algebraic fraction equal partial fractions with all possible denominators, A and B as constant numerators. 2. Multiply the numerator of A, by the denominator of B. Then make these equal to the numerator of the original expression. It will now be in the form of 3. Substitute in values of x that will make one of the brackets zero. Then use this to work out the value of A and B. Then replace them as the numerators and you have your partial fractions. Equating Coefficients: This follows the same first two steps as substitution, however sometimes, substitution will not work. In this case, you can equate the coefficients of x and the constants to work out A and B. 1. Follow the first two steps of substitution 2. Expand the brackets so that you end up with something in the form 3. Make the coefficient of x equal to (A+B)x. This gives you one simple equation. 4. Do the same thing for the constants (A-3B) and the constant on the end of the original expression. You now have two simple equations that can be solved using simultaneous equations. Both of these techniques can be used when the fraction has more than two factors (ie. use A, B and C) or one that has a repeated linear factor.

 An algebraic fraction is improper when the degree of the numerator is equal to,

or larger than, the degree of the denominator. An improper fraction must be divided first to obtain a number and a proper fraction before it can be expressed as partial fractions

. typically t. You need to be able to recognise these as parametric equations of circles in the exam. θ is the parameter instead of t in the equations. differentiate them separately and divide the differential of y by the differential of x. that is the equation that relates x and y directly. to do so. b) has the parametric equations: You can use the result to derive these. A simple example of a pair of parametric equations: x = 5t + 3 y = t2 + 2t Converting to Cartesian You need to be able to find the Cartesian equation of the curve from parametric equations. ∫ Differentiation To differentiate a set of parametric equations. The easiest way to do this is to rearrange on parametric equation to get the parameter as the subject and then substitute this into the other equation. To do this you need to eliminate the parameter. As before. you integrate y and multiply it by the differential of the x equation. The third variable is known as the parameter.Co-ordinate Geometry A parametric equation of a curve is one which does not give the relationship between x and y directly but rather uses a third variable. Integration To find the area under a parametric curve. A circle with an origin (a.

Example Expand in ascending powers of x. The reason for this is that if the higher powered terms are going to be ignored then the terms (-6x)r must tend to zero very quickly. the bracket must be in the form (1+ax)n. Example Expand We can split this up. the modulus of the ax term in the bracket (1+ax) n must be less than one.Binominal Expansion The previous version of the binomial theorem only works when n is a positive integer. Therefore: | | | | Partial Fractions can be used to give approximations of functions that can be split up into their quotients. this one goes on forever. If it is not in this form. the binomial theorem becomes: PROVIDING |x| < 1 Note that while the previous series stops. Providing |x| < 1. it must be factorised to have 1 as a term in the bracket. using partial fractions. State the set of values for which the expansion is valid. . up to and including the term in x2. into: Now expand (1 + x)-1 and (5x + 2)-1 as described above and add the expansions together. [ ⁄ ⁄ ] For the expansion to be valid. the terms will converge to zero at infinity where xr = 0 For the binomial expansion to work. If n is any fraction.

In order to differentiate both sides of the equation. In general. you then need to rearrange the equation to find on its own. Even so. when differentiating. where a value of y is defined only in terms of x. Effectively this is what you do when differentiating explicitly. This can be implicitly differentiated using the product rule. given a value of x.g. leaving only dy/dx. a value for y can still be found. it is dealing with ‘explicit functions’ of x. you will end up having to differentiate a term in y with respect to x.Differentiation Implicit Differentiation Normally. therefore. you follow the rule Basically this means you differentiate y as it were x. it becomes [ ] After differentiating each term in turn. but the y differentiates to 1. we differentiate both sides of the equation with respect to x. to differentiate an implicit function to find. some functions cannot be rearranged into this form. taking u = 4x and v = y2. nb: the function y=ax differentiates to axln(a). after a bit of work. and we cannot express y solely in terms of x. To do this. . we say y is given implicitly by x. e. However. then add on onto the end of it. Remembering to leave dy/dx after each y term that has been differentiated. and this can be shown through implicit differentiation by taking logs of both sides. Another problem is differentiating something like 4xy2. This allows you differentiate without making y the subject first. x2 + y2 − 6x + 2y = 0 is expressed implicitly. y = 2x2 − 3x + 4 is expressed explicitly in terms of x.

e. you would set up two normal equations. So in answer to the question. To do this. or ideas of proportion.o) is the difference in temperature. and the time be t seconds. Connected Rates of Change can also be used when setting up differential equations. we can deduce Whenever there is a proportional relationship. Differentiate each one seperatly and then connect them to find a third differential equation by using the chain rule/connected rates of change. a constant k can be used to replace the proportionality sign (-k if the relationship decreases). Then you use the chain rule in the rearranged form Differentiating a x This function describes growth and decay. From the law.g. 2. Using implicit This result needs to be learn. and its derivative gives a measure of the rate of change of this growth/decay. the equation that expresses this law is . This means ( . “Newton’s Law of Cooling states that the rate of loss of temperature is proportional to the excess temperature of the body compared to its surroundings. Write an equation that expresses this law” Let the temperature of the body be . . and is not given in the formula sheet.Parametric Differentiation When a curve is described by parametric equations: 1. Setting up Differential Equations You can set up simple differential equations from information given in context. taking logs of both sides gives differentiation to differentiate : . Since . This may involve using connected rates of change. You differentiate x and y with respect to the parameter t.

Connected Rates of Change The gradient function of a curve measures the rate at which the curve increases or decreases. From this. to find a value for the third relationship. These types of questions involve differentiation. Usually they involve differentiating with respect to time. . Many questions in mathematics involve finding rates at which they change. What is the rate of change of area when the ripple is 15cm in radius?’ We are given a relationship between radius and time. The key to doing these problems is to identify three components and write them down mathematically:  What you are given  What is required  What is the connection between the two items above. comparing radius to time is equal to an increase of 3: Using the formula for the area of a circle:  We now have two differential equations that can be used along with the chain rule to find the rate of change of area at 15cm. The radius of this increases by 3cm per minute. (Sometimes the chain rule must be used to establish a connection). and area and radius. we need to find a relationship between area and time. From the second sentence. Example: ‘A pebble is dropped into a pond and forms ripples. These can be connected using the chain rule. input values from the two relationships given.

Integration Much of the integration outlined below relies on the reverse chain rule. they are multiplied by the differential inside the bracket. the reverse chain rule for linear functions is: ∫ Using the reverse of the chain rule. In general. This technique only works for linear transformations such as . the reverse chain rule means that you must divide by the differential inside the bracket (ie perform the inverse operation). the following generalisations can be found: ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ | | . Therefore when integrating. When functions are differentiated using the chain rule.

.Integration By Substitution As the name of the method suggests. the function we need to integrate is: ∫ [ ] * + * + Note that in this example there is no need to convert the answer given in terms of u back into one in terms of x because we had already converted the limits on x into limits on u. and when . express other parts of the function in terms of u Differentiate u to find ⁄ Re-arrange to find dx in terms of du as we need du and dx if we are to integrate an expression in u.e we need to find du/dx  dx = … du Substitute the expression found above for dx. we proceed by making an algebraic substitution.         Let u = part of the expression. Example Suppose we wish to find ∫ We make the substitution . The integral becomes ∫ The limits of integration have been explicitly written the variable given to emphasise that those limits were on the variable x and not u. With the new limits. usually the part in brackets or the denominator If necessary. when . back into the original integral and integrate in terms of du It should now be reasonably easy to integrate u If necessary. use u=f(x) to change the values for the limits of integration Put your x’s back in again at the end and finish up. The aim is to replace every expression involving x in the original problem with an expression involving u. i. Clearly. We can write these as limits on u using the substitution .

. A rule exists for integrating products of functions. Sometimes it needs to be used twice within one expression as the second part of the formula will set up another equation that needs to be integrated by parts. . would have to equal u.Integration By Parts Functions often arise as products of other functions. the reverse of the product rule – integration by parts. if it gives the same answer as the original equation you are trying to integrate. and we may be required to integrate these products. ∫ Care must be taken over the choice of simpler to integrate than easy to integrate. So choose to be easy to differentiate and Generally. The exception to this rule is when integrating . the integrand is the product of the functions and . For example. move it to the other side of the equals sign. Numerical Integration The trapezium rule provides you with a way to estimate the value of an integral you cannot do. The formula is derived by rearranging the product rule and integrating both sides. as there is no standard integral. du/dx and dv/dx Then plug them into the formula. decide which part will be which. and solve using limits where given. It involves splitting the area under the under up into trapeziums which are then totalled to give an estimate for the area. The error can be worked out by finding the difference in the true value and the approximation. the integrate so that you know u. In this case. Alternatively. The trapezium rule is as follows: ∫ [ ] Increasing the number of trapeziums will improve the accuracy of this method. v. and use the fact that When using integration by parts. meaning it has to be differentiated instead as u. and dividing this by the true value. we may be asked to determine ∫ Here. and ∫ ⁄ . The aim is to ensure that it is to be . this means choose u to be the simpler of the two functions.

the +C is often denoted by . but convention has it that these are combined into one. When integrating gives an equation in the form of logs. The curve would then map out the surface of a solid as it rotated. but if the equation is of a certain form . This would leave us with Both sides of the equation can now be integrated ∫ ∫ Technically is not a fraction. Differential Equations In general a differential equation may have x and y terms on both sides. using integration. called the starting conditions. and x = b. This is called separation of variables. There is a straightforward technique which enables this to be done. we can rearrange to have all terms including x on the right hand side and all terms including y on the left hand side. the equation of the curve may be given parametrically. and the constant of integration can be calculated. A particular solution is found when certain conditions are assumed. Imagine that the part of a curve between the coordinates x = a. The formula to work out the volume of these solid is: ∫ Sometimes. Integrating both sides would normally give rise to a constant of integration on both sides. Such solids are called solids of revolution. . but can often be handled as if it were one. is rotated about the x-axis through 360◦. which can then be manipulated algebraically like the other terms. You can integrate in terms of the parameter by changing the variable in a similar way to that used when integrating by substitution.Volumes of Revolution We sometimes need to calculate the volume of a solid which can be obtained by rotating a curve about the x-axis.

length or distance. The vector −2b is 2 times the magnitude of b and in the opposite direction. the vector 3b is parallel to the vector b.g. speed. velocity. The length of the line in the diagram represents the magnitude of the vector and vectors are equal if the magnitude and direction are the same. A vector has magnitude AND direction. momentum. ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗ c = a + b If ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ( ). e. and the vector a translation vector. e. acceleration. Vectors are parallel if they have the same direction and are scalar multiples of the original vector. area. then ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ( ) The modulus of a vector is another name for its magnitude. This is the same as making one translation followed by another. e. volumes. Moving from point A to B is called a translation.g. Adding two vectors means finding the shortcut of their journeys.g.Vectors A scalar has magnitude only.  The modulus of vector a is written | | |  The modulus for vector ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ is written as ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗| You can calculate the length using Pythagoras’s theorem: |⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ | |( )| √ |⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ | .

2) ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ( ) ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ Scalar Multiplication of Vectors If ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ( ). 2). If ( ). . ∴ position vector of (5. with co-ordinates (5. So the co-ordinates of point A are the same as the translation vector from point O to A. then ( ) ( ) The constant k is called a scalar because it ‘scales up’ the length of the vector. 2). using the origin as its fixed reference point. then the two vectors will look like this: Vectors are parallel if one is a scalar multiple of the other. is the vector which takes you from the origin to the point (5. and is a constant number. If .Position Vectors Position vectors are the vector equivalent of a set of co-ordinates. where λ is a nonzero scalar. The position vector allows a translation vector to be fixed in space. The position vectors of a point A. and ( ). then a and c are parallel because ( )  Any vector parallel to the vector a may be written as λa.

Cartesian coordinate axis in three dimensions are usually called the x. j and k. They are parallel to the x-axis and the y-axis. and in the direction of x increasing and y increasing respectively.The Unit Vectors A unit vector is a vector with magnitude (or modulus) of 1. ( ) The modulus (or magnitude) of The distance between two points is √ is √ . where: ( ) and ( ) You can write a vector with Cartesian components as a column matrix: ( ) The modulus (or magnitude) of The distance between two points is √ is √ In 3-D the unit vectors are i. y and z axes. Any vector can be given as a multiple of ( ) or ( ) In 2-D the unit vectors are i and j. ( ) ( ) ( ) Any vector can be written in terms of i. each being at right angles to each other. j and k.

and the two vectors are pointing away from their intersection. | || | Where is the angle between a and b. This is also known as the ‘DOT’ product. This means that The non-zero vectors a and b are perpendicular if and only if Also. ∴ and and | || |  If p · q = 0. because . which is a scalar.Scalar (Dot) Product This is where two vectors are multiplied together. f two vectors are perpendicular. where a dot is used instead of a multiplication sign. One form of multiplication is the scalar product. . The scalar product between two vectors a and b is defined as the size of a multiplied by the size of b and the cosine of the angle between them. | q | = 0 or p and q are perpendicular . and in particular | | If a and b are parallel. then  If p and q are parallel then q = 0. then either | p | = 0. There are two methods that can be used to calculate the scalar product: 1. | || |. If and ( ) ( ) . ∴  If p and q are perpendicular then q = 90. The answer is interpreted as a single number. 2. the angle between them is | || | .

For this to work. with a position vector a. . A vector equation of a straight line passing through the point A with position vector a . Also. Here. Vectors an be used to describe straight lines. then another to show its gradient and the direction. they should have different parameters. by giving one vector to show a point on the line. The vector equation of a line that passes through two points A & B can be found. y and z components. and the vector ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ as the direction vector. This can be denoted by – . and use simultaneous equations to check that they are all equal. This means that the equation of the vector is . if a line meets in 2-D. is An alternative form of the vector equation of a straight line is if and then ( ) ( ) ( ) Lines do not often intersect in 3-D. Only one such line is possible. y and z will show the coordinates at which they intersect. we have two possible vectors that could be used as position vectors (a and b). A vector equation of a straight line passing through the points A and B with position vectors a and b respectively. you need to equate the x. you can find the position vectors of points that lie on the straight line. and is parallel to the given vector b. it is called skew. and be in the 3 rd form shown above. but not in 3-D. but if they do. The values of x.Vector Equations of Straight Lines Suppose a traight likne passes through a given point A. and parallel to vector b is where t is a scalar parameter By taking different values of the paramater t.