Variable Valve Timing

Investigation by Katie James Advised by Professor Bruno & Professor Krouglicof

Variable Valve Timing (VVT) Use In Internal Combustion Engines Arising Constraints Impose New Standards The Evolving IC Engine Current Advancements and Developments Future Applications Progressive Intellectual Capital at Union .

Spark-Ignition Focus Many factors have steered commercial market away from standard IC-engine with spark-ignition – Growing competition from alternative power sources – More efficient fuel consumption due to heightened emission restrictions – Individual company commitments toward higher performance demands and safety regulations without compromising comfort level or retail value .

Effects of Reduced Fuel Consumption • • • • • Pumping losses Combustion efficiency Minimal friction from Direct Injection Downsizing Higher pressure charging .

Thermodynamic Solutions Thermodynamic conditions must operate at higher loads Or reduce gas exchange/heat loss at part load Supercharging Turbo-charging Fully Variable Valve Timing Direct-Injection .

Current Design: Delphi Automotive Systems Cylinder Deactivation System Enables cut-out of half cylinder count to boost fuel economy.  Intake stroke of exhaust valves are disabled with    target cylinders using oil pressure or electric solenoids Simultaneously FI is cut off to target cylinders “Forward-tumble Direct-Injection”.A/F mixture stabilized near ignition source zone Produces 8 to 10% decrease in emission levels. .

6L Direct-Injection SI Engine Generates pressure in full rail that supplies electromagnetically controlled injector with gasoline. .Current Design: Motronic D-I System VW Golf 1. Fuel quantity is controlled and adjusted to intake-air mass using information from wide-band oxygen sensor.

.Variable Valve Timing VVT avoids exchange losses due to charging. Electromechanical valve train surpasses improvements made by port-fuel-injected gasoline engines because variability allows for precise air/fuel intake.

Current VVT Design: Siemens VDO Variable Valve Lift Control (LVC) Elimination of throttle valve Able to restore energy lost due to gas exchange work normally performed by throttle valve Gas exchange directly controlled by intake valve Variability provided using electromagnets Allowing valve timing to be infinitely (fully) adjustable ** Reducing fuel consumption up to 10% .

Current VVT Design: i-VTEC by Honda New “intelligent” valve control adding Variable Timing Control (VTC)  Continuously adjusts camshaft phase to both VVT and lift electronic control on intake valves  Varies lift and actuation time of intake opening: Adjusts optimal cylinder filling in low rpm settings. exhaust and throttle position . ignition. staggered valve timing and asymmetrical lift Impressive high rpm power output  Performs continuously variable camshaft “phasing” across entire engine band  VTC actuation controlled by cam position.

Additional VVT Design Highlights BMW goes throttleless with Valvetronic Infinitely adjusts intake valve lift First production gasoline unit without throttle butterfly 85kW engine consumes 1.8gal in 62mi (0. from two to four valve technology. and mechanical to electrical engine management .2gal reduction) Transition from carburetors to fuel injection.

Additional VVT Design Highlights  Bugatti incorporates VVT into two V8 cylinder blocks 64 valves operated by overhead camshafts cia electrohydraulic continuously variable control system Coordination of engine handled by two interdependent computers per cylinder bank* Quad-turbo 16 cylinder power plant yielding highest peak torque in production passenger car .

Movement towards Efficiency Many companies have shifted away from throttle to improve efficiency Hydraulic actuation and electronic control is incorporated All available VVT advancements still involve camshaft or rocker arm .

One Step Ahead: Progressive Engine Research Research Test Bed Take throttleless design Integrate camless actuation device replace with electrohydraulic servomechanism Hydraulic Power Unit LVDT: Linear Displacement Transducer .

Any Questions? .

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