P.E.

S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, MANDYA
(An Autonomous Institution under VTU)

DEPARTMENT OF AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING 2011-2012

A Seminar Topic report on

“BLUETEC – Diesel Exhaust Treatment System”
Submitted By, Abhishek. V [4PS08AU002] Under the Guidance of

Dr. B. Jayashankara,
Professor Department of Automobile Engineering

Signature of the Guide

[Dr. B. Jayashankara]

BlueTec – Diesel Exhaust Treatment System

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to convey my gratitude and respect to my resourceful guide, mentor, Dr. B. JAYASHANKARA, Professor, Department of Automobile Engineering, P.E.S.C.E, Mandya for his invaluable guidance and support which was instrumental for the successful completion of the seminar. I would like to express my sense of gratitude to Dr.J.VENKATESH, Professor and Head of the Department, Automobile Engineering Department, and Dr.V.SRIDHAR, Principal, P.E.S.C.E, Mandya. It was their constant encouragement and inspiration that enabled me to successfully complete the seminar work. I would also like to thank the entire teaching faculty, non-teaching staff, my friends and family who continue to support me in all of my endeavours.

-Abhishek.V Date: 28th April, 2012

Dept. of Automobile Engg, PESCE

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BlueTec – Diesel Exhaust Treatment System

Table of Contents

1. Introduction -------------------------------------------------------------- 01 - 03

2. The Diesel Engine ------------------------------------------------------- 04 - 05

3. Diesel Exhaust Emissions ---------------------------------------------- 06 -10

4. Present Day Exhaust Emission Control Technologies ---------- 11 - 23

5.

BlueTec® by Mercedes Benz -------------------------------------------24 - 28

6.

Working Principle of BlueTec® --------------------------------------- 29 - 36

7.

Advantages and Disadvantages of BlueTec® ----------------------- 37 - 38

8. Conclusion ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 39

9. Bibliography and References ----------------------------------------------- 40

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BlueTec – Diesel Exhaust Treatment System

Index

1.

Table 1 - Composition and temperature of diesel exhaust gas ------ 02 Figure 4.1a : Diesel Oxidation Catalyst ---------------------------------- 12 Figure 4.1b : SCR system --------------------------------------------------- 13 Figure 4.1c : Lean NOx Catalyst ------------------------------------------- 14 Figure 4.2a : Flow Through Filters ---------------------------------------- 16 Figure 4.2b : Diesel Particulate Filter ------------------------------------ 18 Figure 4.4a : Low-pressure EGR + DPF --------------------------------- 21

2.

3. 4. 5.

6. 7.

8. Figure 4.5a : Crankcase emission control system ---------------------- 23 9. Figure 5.2a : Market Share of different fuelled Mercedes-Benz vehicles worldwide -----------------------25
10.

Figure 6.1a : Schematic process flow of BlueTec® -------------------- 30 6.1a : Figure 6.1c : Process flow of a Selective Catalytic Reducer ------------------------------ 33

11. Figure

12.

Figure 6.1d : SCR + DeNOx tronic system ------------------------------ 34

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1. Introduction
Nowadays, people’s concern about the environment is raised everywhere, especially about air pollution. Air pollution constitutes an ominous threat to human health and welfare. Its adverse effects are pervasive and may be disaggregated at three levels: (a) local, confined to urban and industrial centers; (b) regional, pertaining to trans boundary transport of pollutants; and (c) global, related to build up of greenhouse gases. These effects have been observed globally but the characteristics and scale of the air pollution problem in developing countries are not known; nor has the problem been researched and evaluated to the same extent as in industrialized countries. Air pollution, however, can no longer be regarded as a local or a regional issue as it has global repercussions in terms of the greenhouse effect and depletion of the ozone layer. There are different scales of air pollution: global (CO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs), continental (SOx, NOx), regional (fly ash, photochemical smog), local (large particulates).

1.1 Exhaust Emissions from Diesel Engines The primary and secondary constituents of the exhaust gases produced by diesel engines are listed together. Table 1 provides information on the composition and temperature of the exhaust gases from diesel engines.

1.2 Mixture Formation The fuel used in diesel engines has a higher boiling point than that used in gasoline engines. In addition, the A/F mixture in diesel engines is formed quickly just before combustion starts and is therefore less homogeneous. Diesel engines operate with excess air across their entire operating range. An insufficient quantity of excess air results in increased particulate emissions (soot), and CO and HC emissions.

1.3 Combustion
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The start of injection marks the initiation of the combustion process. The engine’s efficiency is determined by the start of combustion and by the combustion characteristics. The characteristics (as a function of time) of the injected fuel quantity and the injection pressure can be applied to control the combustion characteristics. These factors also determine the combustion temperature which. In turn, has a significant effect on the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx).

Table 1: Composition and temperature of diesel exhaust gas Exhaust-gas components and temperature Nitrous oxides (NOx) Hydrocarbons (HC) Carbon monoxide (CO) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Water Vapour Oxygen Nitrogen, etc Smoke number, passenger cars Exhaust-gas temperature downstream of exhaust valve 1.4 NOx NOx is a generic term for mono-nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide). They are produced from the reaction of nitrogen and oxygen gases in the air during combustion, especially at high temperatures. In areas of high motor vehicle traffic, such as in large cities, the amount of nitrogen oxides emitted into the atmosphere as air pollution can be significant. NOx gases are formed everywhere where there is combustion – like in an engine. In atmospheric chemistry, the term means the total concentration of NO and NO2. NOx react to form smog and acid rain. NOx are also central to the formation of tropospheric ozone.
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At idle Ppm ppm C1 Ppm Vol% Vol% Vol% Vol% 50…200 50…500 100…450 …3.5 2…4 18 Residual SZ ≈ <0.5 100…200

At maximum output 600…2500 <50 350…2000 12…16 …11 2…11 Residual SZ ≈ 2…3 550…750

°C

BlueTec – Diesel Exhaust Treatment System

NOx should not be confused with nitrous oxide (N2O), which is a greenhouse gas and has many uses as an oxidizer, an anesthetic, and a food additive.

The oxygen and nitrogen do not react at ambient temperatures. But at high temperatures, they have an endothermic reaction producing various oxides of nitrogen. Such temperatures arise inside an internal combustion engine or a power station boiler, during the combustion of a mixture of air and fuel. When NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the presence of sunlight, they form photochemical smog, a significant form of air pollution, especially in the summer. Children, people with lung diseases such as asthma, and people who work or exercise outside are particularly susceptible to adverse effects of smog such as damage to lung tissue and reduction in lung function. The three principal reactions (the extended Zeldovich mechanism) producing thermal NOx are:
• •

N2 + O → NO + N N + O2 → NO + O

• N + OH → NO + H

2. The Diesel Engine
2.1

Invention
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BlueTec – Diesel Exhaust Treatment System

Rudolf Diesel is credited with the invention of the diesel engine, which operates on a no-external-ignition cycle which bears his name. Rudolf Diesel was born in Paris in 1858 into a family of German expatriates. He was educated at Munich Polytechnic. After graduation he was employed as a refrigerator engineer, but his true love lay in engine design. Diesel designed many heat engines, including a solar-powered air engine. In 1892 he received patents in Germany, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and filed in the United States for "Method of and Apparatus for Converting Heat into Work". In 1893 he described a "slow-combustion engine" that first compressed air thereby raising its temperature above the igniting-point of the fuel, then gradually introducing fuel while letting the mixture expand "against resistance sufficiently to prevent an essential increase of temperature and pressure", then cutting off fuel and "expanding without transfer of heat". He operated his first successful engine in 1897. His engine was the first to prove that fuel could be ignited solely with high compression. At Augsburg, on August 10, 1893, Rudolf Diesel’s prime model, a single 10-foot (3.0 m) iron cylinder with a flywheel at its base, ran on its own power for the first time. Diesel spent two more years making improvements and in 1896 demonstrated another model with a theoretical efficiency of 75 percent, in contrast to the 10 percent efficiency of the steam engine.

2.2

Working The diesel internal combustion engine differs from the gasoline powered Otto cycle by using highly compressed hot air to ignite the fuel rather than using a spark plug (compression ignition rather than spark ignition).

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In the true diesel engine, only air is initially introduced into the combustion chamber. The air is then compressed with a compression ratio typically between 15:1 and 22:1 resulting in 40-bar (4.0 MPa; 580 psi) pressure compared to 8 to 14 bars (0.80 to 1.4 MPa) (about 200 psi) in the petrol engine. This high compression heats the air to 550 °C (1,022 °F). At about the top of the compression stroke, fuel is injected directly into the compressed air in the combustion chamber. This may be into a (typically toroidal) void in the top of the piston or a prechamber depending upon the design of the engine. The fuel injector ensures that the fuel is broken down into small droplets, and that the fuel is distributed evenly. The heat of the compressed air vaporizes fuel from the surface of the droplets. The vapour is then ignited by the heat from the compressed air in the combustion chamber, the droplets continue to vaporise from their surfaces and burn, getting smaller, until all the fuel in the droplets has been burnt. The start of vaporisation causes a delay period during ignition and the characteristic diesel knocking sound as the vapour reaches ignition temperature and causes an abrupt increase in pressure above the piston. The rapid expansion of combustion gases then drives the piston downward, supplying power to the crankshaft.

3.

Diesel Exhaust Emissions

In diesel engines, conditions in the engine differ from the spark-ignition engine, since power is directly controlled by the fuel supply, rather than by controlling the air supply. Thus when the engine runs at low power,
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BlueTec – Diesel Exhaust Treatment System

there is enough oxygen present to burn the fuel, and diesel engines only make significant amounts of CO when running under a load. Diesel exhaust is well known for its characteristic smell; but in recent years it has become much less because the sulfur is now removed from the fuel in the oil refinery. Diesel exhaust has been found to contain a long list of toxic air contaminants. Among these pollutants, NOx, Sox, and fine particle pollution is perhaps the most important as a cause of diesel's harmful health effects.
3.1 Adverse Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions

High lead levels and NOx emissions from automobiles cause Respiratory tract irritation. • Vehicle emissions of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide cause or contribute to adverse health effects in humans; in addition these emissions are harmful to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and contribute to crop damage and other welfare losses. • Photochemical pollutants inflict damage on forest ecosystems and seriously impact the growth of certain crops such as corn, wheat and soybeans. • Photochemical oxidants accelerate the deterioration processes of plastics and rubber and significantly contribute to visibility degradation due to the formulation of aerosols in the light. • Because the affinity of hemoglobin in the blood is 200 times greater for carbon monoxide than for oxygen, carbon monoxide hinders oxygen transport from blood into the tissues. Therefore, more blood must be pumped to deliver the same amount of oxygen. Causing excessive heart-strain, cell anemia, carcinogenic tumor growths, etc. 3.2 Diesel Exhaust Emission Control Exhaust emissions from diesel engines depend on various factors, and the control and optimization of which will lead to a better control of combustion characteristics and in turn affect the exhaust emissions.

3.2.1 Measures at the engine
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Following are few engine parameters which can be manipulated to control diesel exhaust emissions: 3.2.1.1 Combustion chamber

Exhaust-gas emission is affected by the design of the combustion chamber. Engines which have a divided combustion chamber (prechamber, swirl (turbulence) chamber) produce fewer nitrogen oxides than direct –injection engines, although these feature better fuel economy. Careful adaptation of the air flow characteristics inside the combustion chamber to the fuel-jet pattern promotes better mixing of fuel and air, and thus more complete combustion. Reliable ignition requires a sufficiently high compression temperature. 3.2.1.2 Fuel injection

The start of injection, the rate-of-discharge curve, and the atomization of the fuel all have an effect on pollutant emissions. The point at which combustion starts is essentially a function of start of injection (injection timing). Delayed injection reduces NOx emissions, whereas excessive delay results in increased fuel consumption and HC emissions. With regard to the start of injection, a deviation of 1 degree (crankshaft) from the setpoint can increase NOx emissions or HC emissions by as much as 15%. This high degree of sensitivity means that precise injection timing is essential. Electronic control systems are capable of maintaining optimum injection timing with a high degree of precision. Such devices control the timing-device setting, or the actuation of the injection-system solenoid valve relative to a crankshaft-angle mark (start-of-delivery control). Greater precision can be achieved by measuring the start of injection directly at the fuel injector by using a needle-motion sensor to detect the movement of the needle valve (start-of-injection control). In systems with solenoid valves, the start of injection can be controlled by means of the current applied to the valve coil. Any fuel entering the combustion chamber after combustion has terminated could be discharged directly into the exhaust system in unburned form, thus raising hydrocarbon emissions. To prevent this , the
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fuel volume between the injection nozzle seat and its injection orifices is held to a minimum. Sac-less (VCO) nozzles completely seal off the injection office. In addition, “post-injection” must be avoided at all costs. Finely atomized fuel promotes formation of a good A/F mixture which helps to reduce hydrocarbon and particulate emission. Fine atomization is achieved with high injection pressures and optimum injection-orifice geometry. The maximum injected fuel quantity for a given intake air mass must be limited such that the engine does not produce visible soot emissions. This requires an excess-air factor of at least 10…20%. 3.2.1.3 Intake-air temperature

As the temperature of the intake air increases the combustion temperature increases along with it, which in turn leads to an increase in NOx emissions. Charge-air cooling is an effective means of reducing NOx formation in turbocharged engines. 3.2.1.4 Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR)

The exhaust gases mixed with the intake air reduce the amount of oxygen in the fresh intake charge while increasing its specific heat. Both factors result in a lower combustion temperature and thus decreased NOx production, and also reduce exhaust emissions. However, too much recirculated exhaust gas results in increased particulate and carbonmonoxide emissions due to air deficiency. The quantity of recirculated exhaust gases must therefore be limited to ensure that the combustion chamber receives sufficient oxygen to support combustion.
3.3 Diesel Exhaust Emission Control Legislation

Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, various federal, state and local governments in the United States conducted studies into the numerous sources of air pollution. These studies ultimately attributed a significant portion of air pollution to the automobile, and concluded air pollution is not bounded by local political boundaries. At that time, such minimal emission control regulations as existed in the U.S. were promulgated at the municipal or, occasionally, the state level. The ineffective local
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regulations were gradually supplanted by more comprehensive state and federal regulations.

By 1967 the State of California created the California Air Resources Board, and in 1970, the federal United States Environmental Protection Agency was established. Both agencies, as well as other state agencies, now create and enforce emission regulations for automobiles in the United States. Similar agencies and regulations were contemporaneously developed and implemented in Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan. The first effort at controlling pollution from automobiles was the PCV (positive crankcase ventilation) system. This draws crankcase fumes heavy in unburned hydrocarbons — a precursor to photochemical smog — into the engine's intake tract so they are burned rather than released unburned from the crankcase into the atmosphere. Positive crankcase ventilation was first installed on a widespread basis by law on all new 1961-model cars first sold in California. The following year, New York required it. By 1964, most new cars sold in the U.S. were so equipped, and PCV quickly became standard equipment on all vehicles worldwide. The first legislated exhaust (tailpipe) emission standards were promulgated by the State of California for 1966 model year for cars sold in that state, followed by the United States as a whole in model year 1968. The standards were progressively tightened year by year, as mandated by the EPA. By the 1974 model year, the emission standards had tightened such that the de-tuning techniques used to meet them were seriously reducing engine efficiency and thus increasing fuel usage. The new emission standards for 1975 model year, as well as the increase in fuel usage, forced the invention of the catalytic converter for aftertreatment of the exhaust gas. This was not possible with existing leaded gasoline, because the lead residue contaminated the platinum catalyst.

• •

• •

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In 1972, General Motors proposed to the American Petroleum Institute the elimination of leaded fuels for 1975 and later model year cars. The production and distribution of unleaded fuel was a major challenge, but it was completed successfully in time for the 1975 model year cars. All modern cars are now equipped with catalytic converters and leaded fuel is nearly impossible to buy in most First World countries.

4.

Present Day Exhaust emission control technologies

Technologies such as flameless oxidation (FLOX) and staged combustion significantly reduce thermal NOx in industrial processes. Bowin low NOx technology is a hybrid of staged-premixed-radiant combustion technology with a major surface combustion preceded by a minor radiant combustion. In the Bowin burner, air and fuel gas are premixed at a ratio greater than or equal to the stoichiometric combustion requirement.
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Water Injection technology, whereby water is introduced into the combustion chamber, is also becoming an important means of NOx reduction through increased efficiency in the overall combustion process. Alternatively, the water (e.g. 10 to 50%) is emulsified into the fuel oil prior to the injection and combustion. This emulsification can either be made in-line (unstabilized) just before the injection or as a dropin fuel with chemical additives for long term emulsion stability (stabilized). Inline emulsified fuel/water mixtures show NOx reductions between 4 and 83%. Other technologies, such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) reduce post combustion NOx. The use of exhaust gas recirculation and catalytic converters in motor vehicle engines have significantly reduced emissions.

4.1

Catalytic Converters Diesel Oxidation Catalysts: In most applications, a diesel oxidation catalyst consists of a stainless steel canister that contains a honeycomb structure called a substrate or catalyst support. There are no moving parts, just large amounts of interior surface area. The interior surfaces are coated with catalytic metals such as platinum or palladium. It is called an oxidation catalyst because the device converts exhaust gas pollutants into harmless gases by means of chemical oxidation. In the case of diesel exhaust, the catalyst oxidizes CO, HCs, and the liquid hydrocarbons adsorbed on carbon particles. In the field of mobile source emission control, liquid hydrocarbons adsorbed on the carbon particles in engine exhaust are referred to as the soluble organic fraction (SOF) -- the soluble
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part of the particulate matter in the exhaust. Diesel oxidation catalysts are efficient at converting the soluble organic fraction of diesel particulate matter into carbon dioxide and water. Oxidation catalyst retrofits have proven effective at reducing particulate and smoke emissions on older vehicles. Under the U.S. EPA's urban bus rebuild/retrofit program, five manufacturers certified diesel oxidation catalysts as providing at least a 25 percent reduction in PM emissions for in-use urban buses. Certification data also indicates that oxidation catalysts achieve substantial reductions in CO and HC emissions. Currently, under the ARB and EPA retrofit technology verification processes, several technology manufacturers have verified diesel oxidation catalysts as providing at least a 25 percent reduction in PM emissions.

Figure 4.1a : Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

SCR Systems: A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system uses a metallic or ceramic wash-coated catalyzed substrate, or a homogeneously extruded catalyst and a chemical reductant to convert nitrogen oxides to molecular nitrogen and oxygen in oxygen-rich exhaust streams like those encountered with diesel engines. In mobile source applications, an aqueous urea solution is usually the preferred reductant. Upon thermal decomposition in the exhaust, urea decomposes to ammonia which serves as the reductant. In some cases ammonia has been used as the reductant in mobile source retrofit applications. As exhaust and reductant pass over the SCR catalyst, chemical reactions occur that reduce NOx emissions to nitrogen and water. SCR catalysts can be combined with a particulate filter for combined reductions of both PM and NOx.
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BlueTec – Diesel Exhaust Treatment System

Open loop SCR systems can reduce NOx emissions by 75 to 90 percent. Closed loop systems on stationary engines can achieve NOx reductions of greater than 95 percent. SCR systems are also effective in reducing HC emissions up to 80 percent and PM emissions 20 to 30 percent. Like all catalyst-based emission control technologies, SCR performance is enhanced by the use of low sulfur fuel.

Figure 4.1b : SCR system

Lean NOx Catalysts: Controlling NOx emissions from a diesel engine is inherently difficult because diesel engines are designed to run lean. In the oxygen-rich environment of diesel exhaust, it is difficult to chemically reduce NOx to molecular nitrogen. The conversion of NOx to molecular nitrogen in the exhaust stream requires a reductant (HC, CO or H2) and under typical engine operating conditions, sufficient quantities of reductant are not present to facilitate the conversion of NOx to nitrogen. Some lean NOx catalyst (LNC) systems inject a small amount of diesel fuel or other reductant into the exhaust upstream of the catalyst. The fuel or other hydrocarbon reductant serves as a reducing agent for the catalytic conversion of NOx to N2. Other systems operate passively without any

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added reductant at reduced NOx conversion rates. A lean NOx catalyst often includes a porous material made of zeolite (a micro-porous material with a highly ordered channel structure), along with either a precious metal or base metal catalyst. The zeolites provide microscopic sites that are fuel/hydrocarbon rich where reduction reactions can take place. Without the added fuel and catalyst, reduction reactions that convert NOx to N2 would not take place because of excess oxygen present in the exhaust. Currently, peak NOx conversion efficiencies typically are around 10 to 30 percent (at reasonable levels of diesel fuel reductant consumption).

Figure 4.1c : Lean NOx Catalyst

Lean NOx Traps: Another type of catalyst being developed for diesel engines are known as lean NOx traps (LNT) because they function by trapping the NOx in the form of a metal nitrate during lean operation of the engine. The most common compound used to capture NOx is Barium Hydroxide or Barium Carbonate. Under lean air to fuel operation, NOx reacts to form NO2 over a platinum catalyst followed by reaction with the Barium compound to form BaNO3. Following a certain amount of lean operation, the trapping function will become saturated and must be regenerated. This is commonly done by operating the engine in a fuel rich mode for a brief period of time to facilitate the conversion of the barium compound back to a hydrated or carbonated form and giving up NOx in the form of N2 or NH3. LNT catalyst can be combined with a zeolite
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BlueTec – Diesel Exhaust Treatment System

based SCR catalyst to trap ammonia and further reduce NOx via a selective catalytic reduction reaction to nitrogen.
4.2

Particulate Filters Diesel particulate filters remove particulate matter found in diesel exhaust by filtering exhaust from the engine. Diesel particulate filters or (DPF) can come in a variety of types depending on the level of filtration required. The simplest form of particulate removal can be achieved using a DOC as discussed as part of the diesel catalyst section. Diesel particulate filters can be either partial, flow through devices or wall flow designs which achieve the highest filtration efficiency.

Partial or Flow Through Filters: The first level of filtration can be achieved using a partial or flow through particulate filter. In this type of device, the filter element can be made up of a variety of materials and designs such as, sintered metal, metal mesh or wire, or a reticulated metal or ceramic foam structure. In this type of device the exhaust gasses and PM follow a tortuous path through a relatively open network. The partial filtration occurs as particles impinge on the rough surface of the mesh or wire network of the filter element. Partial filters can be catalyzed or uncatalyzed and are less prone to plugging than the more commonly used wall flow filters discussed below.

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BlueTec – Diesel Exhaust Treatment System

Figure 4.2a : Flow Through Filters

High Efficiency Wall Flow Filters: In order to meet the stringent particulate emissions that are required for diesel light duty vehicles starting with the 2007 model year, the highest efficiency particulate filter is required. These are commonly made from ceramic materials such as cordierite, aluminum titanate, mullite or silicon carbide. The basis for the design of wall flow filters is a honeycomb structure with alternate channels plugged at opposite ends. As the gasses passes into the open end of a channel, the plug at the opposite end forces the gasses through the porous wall of the honeycomb channel and out through the neighboring channel. The ultrafine porous structure of the channel walls results in greater than 85% percent collection efficiencies of these filters. Wall flow filters capture particulate matter by interception and impaction of the solid particles across the porous wall. The exhaust gas is allowed to pass through in order to maintain low pressure drop.
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Since a filter can fill up over time by developing a layer of retained particles on the inside surface of the porous wall, engineers that design engines and filter systems must provide a means of burning off or removing accumulated particulate matter and thus regenerating the filter. A convenient means of disposing of accumulated particulate matter is to burn or oxidize it on the filter when exhaust temperatures are adequate. By burning off trapped material, the filter is cleaned or "regenerated" to its original state. The frequency of regeneration is determined by the amount of soot build-up resulting in an increase in back pressure. To facilitate decomposition of the soot, a catalyst is used either in the form of a coating on the filter or a catalyst added to the fuel. Filters that regenerate in this so-called "passive" fashion cannot be used in all situations. The experience with catalyzed filters indicates that there is a virtually complete reduction in odor and in the soluble organic fraction of the particulate. Despite the high efficiency of the catalyst, a layer of ash may build up on the filter requiring replacement or servicing. The ash is made up of inorganic oxides from the fuel or lubricants used in the engine and will not decompose during the regular soot regeneration process. In some applications or operating cycles, the exhaust never achieves a high enough temperature to completely oxidize the soot even in the presence of a catalyst. In these instances, an "active" regeneration system must be employed. Active regeneration utilizes a fuel burner or a resistively heated electric element to heat the filter and oxidize the soot. Active regeneration can be employed either in-place on the vehicle or externally. During external regeneration, the filter is removed from the vehicle and heated in a controlled chamber.

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Figure 4.2b : Diesel Particulate Filter

4.3

Sensor Technologies Temperature Sensor: Temperature sensors are used for two purposes: The first is as a warning system, typically on obsolete oxidation-only catalytic converters. The function of the sensor is to warn of temperature excursions above the safe operating temperature of the catalytic converter. However, modern catalytic converters are not as susceptible to temperature damage. Many modern three-way Platinum-based converters are able to handle temperatures of 900 degrees C sustained, while many modern three-way Palladium-based converters are able to handle temperatures of 925 degrees C sustained. Temperature sensors are also used to monitor the temperature rise over the catalytic converter core.

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Oxygen Sensor: Oxygen sensors are part of the closed loop fuel feedback control system, associated with modern three-way catalyst emission control systems on gasoline engines. The closed loop fuel feedback control system is responsible for controlling the air/fuel ratio of the catalytic converter feed gas. During the closed loop operation, the electronic control module (ECM) keeps the air/fuel ratio adjusted to around the ideal 14.7 to 1 ratio. Signal from the oxygen sensor is used to determine the exact concentration of oxygen in the exhaust stream. From this signal, the ECM determines whether the mixture is richer or leaner than the ideal 14.7 to 1 air/fuel ratio. If the air/fuel ratio deviates from its preprogrammed swings, catalyst efficiency decreases dramatically, especially for NOx reduction. The oxygen sensor informs the ECM of needed adjustments to injector duration based on exhaust conditions. After adjustments are made, the oxygen sensor monitors the correction accuracy and informs the ECM of additional adjustments. The oxygen sensor is also an integral part of the onboard diagnostic (OBD) system which monitors the proper functioning of the emission control system of the vehicle. If the sensor detects oxygen content of the exhaust that is outside the specified range of the engine calibration, it will trigger the engine light to come on in the instrument cluster.

NOx Sensor: NOx sensors represent state of the art technology that can be applied to gasoline lean burn engines as part of a broader engine control or diagnostic system used to insure proper operation of the NOx emission control system. Their function is primarily to monitor the NOx conversion efficiency of the catalyst. The sensors can work as part of a feedback loop to the control unit on the emissions system to make real time adjustments and optimize NOx conversion. The principle of operation of one type of NOx sensor is based on proven solid electrolyte technology developed for oxygen sensors. The dual chamber zirconia sensing element and electro-chemical pumps work in conjunction with precious metal catalyst electrodes to control the oxygen concentration within the sensor and convert the NOx to nitrogen. The sensor sends output signals in volts that are directly proportional to ppm NOx concentration. The sensors can be incorporated upstream and downstream
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BlueTec – Diesel Exhaust Treatment System

of the catalyst, for example, to provide a feedback control loop to the ECU of the emissions system. The ECU can than make adjustments to optimize NOx conversion performance. The ECU can than make adjustments to optimize NOx conversion performance. In the case of SCR technology, feedback can also be provided to the urea dosing system whereas in the case of lean NOx trap technology a feedback loop could signal the regeneration of the trap.

4.4

Engine/Fuel Management Achieving near-zero exhaust emission targets requires a systems approach. Engine manufacturers are focusing on ways to control engine operation to reduce engine out emissions as low as possible and reduce the burden on the catalysts. Approaches aimed at reducing cold start emissions involve retarding the ignition timing so as to allow some hydrocarbons to pass through in the exhaust and light off the catalyst sooner. Variable valve timing (VVT) is being used to introduce some fraction of exhaust gas into the combustion process and reduce HC and NOx emissions. On clean diesel engines, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is used to dilute intake air with some fraction of exhaust gas to lower the combustion temperatures resulting in lower engine out NOx emissions. Direct injection of fuel into the cylinders rather than port injection has allowed better control of the air fuel ratio during combustion and resulted in better fuel utilization. Improved turbulence and mixing in the intake port of some low emission engines have resulted in a 24% fuel savings. Clean diesel engines have benefited significantly from common rail fuel injection which allows for electronically controlled injection at very high pressures. Through the use of pilot and retarded injection strategies or in combination with injection rate shaping clean diesels have achieved significant reduction in NOx over conventional diesel injection such as pipe-line or unit injection.

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Common rail and electronic injection control is very effective in carefully controlling post injection of fuel making it suitable for use with emission control devices such as particulate filters, NOx adsorbers and lean NOx catalysts requiring brief periods of fuel rich exhaust to facilitate regeneration of the catalyst or filter.

Figure 4.4a : Low-pressure EGR + DPF

4.5

Enhanced Combustion Technologies
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Understanding and controlling the combustion process is the first step in reducing engine emissions and reducing the burden on the emission control systems within the exhaust. Engine design is an important part of controlling and facilitating the combustion process. In diesel engines, controlling combustion is the key approach to reducing engine out particulate emissions by optimizing the mixing between the fuel and air. Some common ways to increase mixing is through combustion chamber modifications to facilitate turbulent flow as well as fuel injector design to modify the spray pattern. Variable geometry turbocharging (VGT), which delivers variable quantities of pressurized air based on driving conditions, has been effective in reducing PM emissions by maintaining lean combustion in the engine. Reducing compression ratios have been shown effective in reducing combustion temperatures and in turn NOx emissions. Some common approaches to enhance air turbulence and improve fuel distribution within the cylinders include improvements to the design of fuel injectors, combustion chambers and injection ports. Some engine manufacturers have been able to achieve improvements to the combustion during cold start by making modifications to the design of intake air control valves resulting in a 40-50% reduction in HC emissions and injection ports among others.

4.6

Crankcase Emission Control Technologies Today, in most turbocharged aftercooled diesel engines, the crankcase breather is vented to the atmosphere often using a downward directed draft tube. While a rudimentary filter is often installed on the crankcase breather, substantial amount of particulate matter is released to the atmosphere. Emissions through the breather may exceed 0.7 g/bhp-hr during idle conditions on recent model year engines. For MY 1994 to 2006 heavy-duty diesel engines, crankcase PM emissions reductions provided by crankcase emission control technologies range from 0.01 g/bhp-hr to 0.04 g/bhp-hr or up to 25 percent of the tailpipe emission standards.

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One solution to this emissions problem is the use of a multi-stage filter designed to collect, coalesce, and return the emitted lube oil to the engine's sump. Filtered gases are returned to the intake system, balancing the differential pressures involved. Typical systems consist of a filter housing, a pressure regulator, a pressure relief valve and an oil check valve. These systems greatly reduce crankcase emissions. Crankcase emission controls are available as a retrofit technology for existing diesel engines or as an original equipment component of a new diesel engine.

Figure 4.5a : Crankcase emission control system

5.

BlueTec® by Mercedes Benz

5.1 Introduction
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Mercedes-Benz launched this unique initiative at the NAIAS 2006 in Detroit. The Stuttgart-based manufacturer with the world's longest diesel tradition unveiled two vehicles that paved the way for an all-new diesel vehicle generation: the E 320 BLUETEC and the Vision GL 320 BLUETEC. Mercedes-Benz has modified specific aspects of the economical, powerful and robust 320 CDI engine, adding state-of-the-art emission-control technology to make it the cleanest diesel in the world. Mercedes-Benz has thus transformed the diesel engine into a clean and future-compatible system. That system is called BLUETEC. The objectives are clear: innovative exhaust gas after-treatment methods give Mercedes Benz diesel engines the potential to comply with the world's most stringent emission standards and to be available in all 50 US states. In other words, Mercedes Benz will be able to offer the cleanest diesel in the world in every vehicle category. BLUETEC® is the name for this new generation of high-tech diesel drives that will initially be launched in the US. 5.2 Outline

BLUETEC® is the latest innovation for low emission levels and is going to further advance the powerful but low-emission drive towards the future. These high-tech vehicles, which make good ecological sense and are blessed with attractive driving qualities, provide an answer to the questions of the vehicle concepts of tomorrow. In the modular BLUETEC® system, Mercedes-Benz has put together a technology package for coming vehicle generations.

Its foundation is the diesel history of the brand. Over decades, the diesel increasingly has become a clean, powerful, high-speed drive unit, yet has retained its economical nature. Originally it was this economic efficiency and robustness which impressed contemporaries; today the diesel engine is an extremely low-emission power plant with sporty characteristics. Consequently, in the face of increasingly stringent emissions standards,
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the current compression-ignition engines constitute an alternative to gasoline engines more than they ever did. The market reflects this development: in the meantime every second car sold in Western Europe is a diesel car. Mercedes-Benz even sells 54 percent of its cars with a compression-ignition engine under the hood.

Figure 5.2a : Market Share of different fuelled Mercedes-Benz vehicles worldwide.

BlueTec® is a trademark name used by Mercedes-Benz to describe its diesel engine exhaust treatment system. In order to keep up with the steadily evolving and increasingly demanding emissions laws of North America and Europe, the company has designed and released two versions of this system. Version one was released for the U.S. market in the form of the 2007 E320 BlueTec® sedan and was designed to utilize, the then newly introduced, Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD). As a next step, Mercedes-Benz has released the more sophisticated R, ML and GL
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320 series BlueTec®s with AdBlue injection diesels that meet America's demanding BIN 5 emissions standards and are on-track to qualify for Europe's EU6 parameters. Thus we can say BlueTec® is DaimlerChrysler's name for its two nitrogen oxide (NOx) reducing systems, for use in their Diesel automobile engines. This system makes these vehicles 45-state and 50state legal respectively in the United States, and is expected to meet all emissions regulations through 2009. It also makes DaimlerChrysler the only car manufacturer in the the US committed to selling diesel models in the 2007 model year. There are two variants of this technology:
 

BlueTec® with DeNOx catalytic converter BlueTec® with AdBlue injection

Innovations like this from Mercedes-Benz for the diesel drive not only conserve resources, but also reduce the burden on the environment, for as fuel consumption decreases, so too do exhaust-gas emissions – a tendency which has been amplified since 2005 mainly by innovative technologies like the BlueTec® emission control system and comprehensive concepts for environment-friendly vehicles such as BlueEFFICIENCY. Mercedes-Benz introduced BlueTec® for passenger cars in October 2006. In the commercial vehicle sector this technology, spelled “BlueTec”, and has been employed since 2005. After the successful introduction of the long-distance Actros truck with BlueTec® technology in early 2005, the company launched the models from the Atego and Axor truck series as well as Actros construction-site vehicles with BlueTec® diesel technology onto the market in 2006. To ensure that the stringent limits of forthcoming emission norms are safely undercut and to achieve clear advantages in terms of fuel economy at the same time, since 2007 the company is consistently using SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology in all its commercial vehicles for the European market. SCR reduces pollutants in the exhaust gas by up to 80
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percent and at the same time lowers the fuel consumption to a measurable extent. SCR is based on the injection of an aqueous urea solution (AdBlue®) into the exhaust flow which together with the catalytic converter reduces nitrogen oxides (NOx) by around 80 percent. This is the most effective method in existence for reducing nitrogen oxides in diesel engines. In 2005 trucks and buses with BlueTec® already met the particularly stringent Euro 4 and Euro 5 emission standards that would apply to the production of all engines beginning in the autumn of 2006 and 2009, respectively. 5.3 Tried and tested diesel engines as the basis

The basis of the first revolutionarily clean BlueTec® diesels is the tried and tested 500- and 900-series engines. In the Actros the V6 power plant OM 501 LA in its weakest version develops 235 kW (320 hp) at 1800 rpm. The engine achieves its maximum torque of 1650 Newton metres at 1080 rpm. In addition to turbocharger and intercooler, the engine has a central, high-set camshaft, fully electronic engine management with single-cylinder injection pumps, and centrally arranged eight-hole nozzles providing an injection pressure of up to 1800 bar. The most powerful unit of the 500 series is the OM 502 LA with 16 litres displacement, an output of 440 kW (598 hp) at 1800 rpm and torque of 2800 Newton metres at 1080 rpm. Injection is based on the same principle as in the V6 unit, except that seven-hole nozzles are used. Both V-engines have a fourvalve-per-cylinder design. Whereas in the V6 version the rated output remain largely the same and a new top V6 variant with 350 kW (476 hp) and maximum torque of 2300 Newton metre has been added, BlueTec® generally gives the existing V8 engines a higher output. The most powerful OM 502 LA now develops 440 kW (598 hp) at 1800 rpm and has maximum torque of 2800 Newton metre. The most powerful BlueTec® engine of the Atego is the OM 906 LA, a water-cooled in-line six-cylinder with three valves per cylinder. The technical details are similar to those of the four-cylinder unit; however, this engine gets 210 kW (286 hp) at 2200 rpm with 6.4 litres displacement. This is good for torque of 1120 Newton metre at 1200 to 1600 rpm.
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6. Working Principle of BlueTec®

6.1 Various Stages in operation of BlueTec®

Stage 1 - Removing Carbon Monoxide and Unburned Fuel

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Exhaust emissions from the engine enter the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) to reduce the amount of carbon monoxide and unburned fuel (hydrocarbons).

Stage 2 - Removing Particulate Matter A diesel particulate filter traps the diesel particulate matter.

Stage 3 - AdBlue® Injection As the exhaust gases exit the diesel particulate filter, it mixes with the AdBlue® diesel exhaust fluid.

Stage 4 - Removing Nitrogen Oxide In the final stage, the exhaust enters the SCR converter, which also consists of a deNOx Converter to form harmless nitrogen and water vapour.

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Figure 6.1a : Schematic process flow of BlueTec®

STAGE- I The first stage consists of a basic catalytic converter which consists of honeycomb monolithic ceramic structure, coated with platinum and enclosed in a steel packing. In this stage, the unburnt fuel (HC) and Carbon monoxide (CO) are oxidized to CO2 and Water.

STAGE – II
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This stage consists of a Diesel Particulate Filter which has pressure sensors at the inlet and outlet of the filter monitor the status of the filter. When it is full, the system triggers an increase in the exhaust temperature. The hot exhaust then purges the filter in pulses lasting approximately 2 to 4 seconds, burning off the particular matter and soot. These pulses last for several minutes.

STAGE – III

Third Stage consists of injection of AdBlue solution to the downstream exhaust gases which are coming out of the Diesel particulate trap. AdBlue is an aqueous urea solution that is carried in a separate tank. When AdBlue is injected into the pre-cleaned exhaust gas, ammonia (NH3) is released, causing the nitrogen oxides to react and be converted into harmless nitrogen (and water) in a downstream catalytic converter.

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Figure 6.1b : Typical Ad Blue Process in a Mercedes Benz Engine.

STAGE – IV In the final stage, the exhaust enters the SCR converter, where the ammonia reacts with the nitrogen oxide and the catalyst in the SCR which consists of a deNOx Converter to form harmless nitrogen and water vapour – both of which occur naturally in the air we breathe. SCR Systems: A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system uses a metallic or ceramic wash-coated catalyzed substrate, or a homogeneously extruded catalyst and a chemical reductant to convert nitrogen oxides to molecular nitrogen and oxygen in oxygen-rich exhaust streams like those encountered with diesel engines. In mobile source applications, an aqueous urea solution is usually the preferred reductant. Upon thermal decomposition in the exhaust, urea decomposes to ammonia which serves as the reductant. In some cases ammonia has been used as the reductant in mobile source retrofit applications. As exhaust and reductant pass over the SCR catalyst, chemical reactions occur that reduce NOx emissions to nitrogen and water. SCR catalysts can be combined with a particulate filter for combined reductions of both PM and NOx.
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Figure 6.1c : Process flow of a Selective Catalytic Reducer

De NOx Converter: It is positioned downstream of the oxidation catalytic converter and the particulate filter and has a special coating which captures the nitrous oxides in the stream of exhaust gas. The NOX storage catalytic converter has two different operating modes: in normal lean operation (Lambda > 1), NO is first oxidized to form NO2 and then, via nitrate formation (NO3) stored in the catalytic converter on an alkaline metal oxide (e.g. barium oxide). The real challenge with the NOX storage catalytic converter is regeneration, i.e. the periodic emptying of the accumulator.

To regenerate the accumulator, rich exhaust-gas conditions (Lambda < 1) must be set. Under these operating conditions, the exhaust gas contains so much reduction agent (carbon monoxide, hydrogen and various hydrocarbons) that the nitrate bond is suddenly dissolved and reduced to non-toxic nitrogen (N2) directly on the noble-metal-coated catalytic converter.

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1. Denoxtronic delivery module, 2. AdBlue tank, 3. Filter, 4. Temperature sensor, 5. ADBlue level sensor, 6. Dosing sontrol unit DCU, 7. Actuators, 8. Sensors, 9. Engine CAN, 10. Diagnosis CAN, 11. AdBlue dosing module, 12. Exhaust sensor, 13. Oxidation catalytic converter, 14. SCR catalytic converter, 15. Slip catalytic converter

6.2 Difference between BlueTec® with DeNOX Converter and BlueTec® with AdBlue The Mercedes-Benz BlueTec® system begins at the engine's combustion chamber with improved fuel burn characteristics that enhance efficiency, as well as minimize unburned fuel particles that would ordinarily have to be treated downstream. The BlueTec® engine architecture is built on CRD technology. While both systems use an oxidation catalyst (OxyCat) and a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) to banish unburned hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulates (soot), they differ in how they treat oxides of nitrogen (NOx). 6.2.1 BlueTec® with storage type catalytic reduction This system uses a storage-type NOx catalytic converter to control oxides of nitrogen. With this design, NOx gases produced under normal operation are trapped and temporarily held in the converter. At prescribed intervals, under direction of the onboard computer, the fuel system delivers intermittent rich combustion phases. The entrained excess hydrocarbons from this dense mixture recombine with the trapped oxides
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of nitrogen inside the hot housing and break-up the NOx molecules. The resulting clean nitrogen gases and water vapor are purged, leaving behind a clean converter with regenerated catalysts that are ready to accept the next wave of nitrogen oxides.

6.2.2 BlueTec® with AdBlue injection Mercedes-Benz designed this process for their larger and heavier line of SUVs and their R-series crossover, following the logic that these vehicles already have a higher rate of fuel consumption and that they would be more economical using a system that does not rely on frequent fuelconsuming rich mixture events for NOx abatement. While the storagetype system does allow Mercedes to use a more-or-less out-of-thebox CRD engine, this Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) arrangement did require some changes to the engine design. Among those
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modifications: revised piston crowns for better fuel distribution and atomization, slightly reduced compression ratio and a more adaptive Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT) to a give smoother and flatter torque curve. Whereas the storage device uses excess shots of rich fuel mixture to "burn-off" accumulated nitrogen oxides, this injection process relies on chemical conversion via a reaction between the AdBlue urea solution and the accumulated NOx molecules within the SCR converter. When AdBlue is injected into the hot exhaust steam, it is reduced to water and urea. At a temperature of about 400 degrees Fahrenheit (170 Celsius), the urea reforms into ammonia (NH3) which then reacts with NOx gases in the converter to produce benign nitrogen gas and water vapour.

7. Advantages and Disadvantages of BlueTec®

7.1

Advantages of BlueTec®: Latest generation of efficient clean diesel technologies Reduces harmful exhaust levels of nitrogen oxide (NOx) Allows diesel engines to meet Canadian emission standards Eliminates virtually all diesel particulate matter larger than 2.5 microns. DeNOx Converter or AdBlue injection combined with Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) creates the most effective method of exhaust
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• •

gas after treatment currently available. This enables nitrogen oxide levels to be reduced by up to 80 percent. The particulate filter reduces particulate emissions by as much as 98 percent, thus easily undercutting even the current EU 4 particulate limits (0.025 g/km). This technology also ensures compliance with the US limits currently in force. With more efficient diesel vehicles on road, we can reduce the dependency on oil imports. In a long-distance coast-to-coast fuel consumption test involving a Mercedes-Benz ML 320 CDI carried out in the US by a German car magazine on the route from New York to San Francisco, the all-wheel drive SUV consumed an average of just 9.2 liters per 100 km (equivalent to 25.6 mpg). The AdBlue fluid is injected into the exhaust stream by a metering system at a rate of 3–5% of diesel consumption volume. This low dosing rate ensures long fluid refill intervals and minimizes the tank's obtrusion into vehicle packaging space.

7.2

Disadvantages of BlueTec®: Requires low sulfur diesel (ULSD) less than 15 ppm. • The SCR-technology costs are negatively influenced by the AdBlue tank and dosing system. • The SCR-technology requires replenishment of AdBlue at regular intervals. • The low freezing point of urea needs adequate measures for winter functioning. • NOx storage exhaust-gas aftertreatment processes, will also lead to increased HC emissions.

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8. Conclusion

Thus we can conclude that, BlueTec® is one of the major milestones in achieving cleaner diesel emissions, helping to cope up with increasingly stringent emission norms. It helps reduce NOx emissions by upto 80%. We can achieve better fuel economy which in turn reduces the dependency on oil imports, thereby saving valuable foreign exchange. Also by introduction and usage of Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel (ULSD) SOx emissions can be cut down, thereby reducing the foul smell of diesel exhaust fumes. Thus, we can say that BlueTec® is definitely the Diesel Technology for future.

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9. Bibliography and References
Bosch Automotive Handbook, 5th Edition, Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart. 2. Internal Combustion Engines, Mathur and Sharma 3. Overdrive Magazine. 4. SAE Paper 2004-01-1791: Progress in the Development of Tier 2 LightDuty Diesel Vehicles 5. EPA: Urea SCR Certification & Compliance Considerations 6. "NOx Removal". Branch Environmental Corp. Archived fromthe original on 2007-10-08. Retrieved 2007-12-26. 7. "Health and Environmental Impacts of NOx". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2007-12-26. 8. SAE Technical paper - BLUETEC Diesel Technology  C. Enderle, G. Vent and M. Paule, Daimler AG
1.

Internet References: http://www.mercedesbenz.com/content/mbcom/international/ international_website/en/com/Mercedes-Benz_Brand_Galery _BLUETEC.html 2. http://rbkwin.bosch.com/us/en/powerconsumptionemissions/ exhaustgastreatment/dieselengines/exhaust-gas_management/ storagecatalyticconverter.html 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BlueTec 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EGR#EGR_in_diesel_engines 5. http://www.worldcarfans.com/10601108065/mercedesbenz-bluetec-technology 6. http://alternativefuels.about.com/od/researchdevelopment/a /bluetec.htm 7. http://cars.about.com/od/mercedesbenz/fr/ag_07MercE320 B.htm 8. http://www.benzworld.org/forums/w211-e-class/160848807-bluetec-problems-2.html
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