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A STUDY TO FIND OUT THE ROLE AND RELEVANCE OF TRADE UNION AND ITS IMPACT ON EMPLOYEES

PROJECT REPORT

Submitted to

MAHATMA GANDHI UNIVERSITY, KOTTAYAM

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award Of MASTERS DEGREE IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2010-12) By PRINCY C A Reg No h826

Rajagiri College of Social Sciences Rajagiri P. O. Kochi 683401

DECLARATION

I, Princy C A, student of Rajagiri Centre for Business Studies, Kochi, hereby declare that this report titled A study to find out the role and relevance of trade union and its impact on employees is an original work done by me and submitted to Rajagiri Centre for Business Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Masters in Human Resource Management. I further declare that any part this project itself has not been submitted elsewhere for award of any degree.

Place: Cochin Date:

Princy C A Rajagiri Centre for Business Studies

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The gratification and elation of this project will be incomplete without mentioning all the people who help me to make it possible, whose guidance and encouragement were valuable to me.

Above all I thank the God Almighty for his immense grace and blessings at each and every stage of the project.

I am greatly indebted to Dr. Joseph I. Injodey, the Principal, Rajagiri Centre for Business Studies, for his encouragement, guidance and assistance in availing this opportunity for doing a dissertation project.

I gratefully acknowledge my sincere gratitude to Prof. Anil Kumar for his kind guidance and helpful suggestions at every stage of the preparation of this report.

I would also like to thank all those persons who have spent their valuable time to contribute the required information to me and gave me support while preparing this report.

Last but not least, I would like to record my deepest sense of gratitude to my dearest friends who helped me for making this project a success.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................ 5 INDUSTRY AND COMPANY PROFILE..7

LITERATURE REVIEW.........................................................................................................27

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY...............................................................................................34

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION ......................................................................39 FINDING, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION........................................................ 63

BIBLIOGRAPHY..................................................................................................................... 67

APPENDIX............................................................................................................................. 69

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION 1.1Background of the Study Healthy Industrial Relations between labour and management are essential to achieve industrial peace and higher productivity. It ensures continuity of production, reduces industrial disputes, improves employee morale, and reduces wastage. HRD approach to industrial relation focuses on counseling, mentoring, coaching etc. The study was made on one of the important constituent of Industrial Relations ie, Trade union. As the phase of Industrial Relations is changing, the role of Trade Union is also changing. 1.2 Background of the topic The study was conducted at Kottakal Arya Vaidya Sala(AVS) and it aimed at

understanding the role of Trade Unions on employees. The existence of a strong and recognized trade union is a pre-requisite to industrial peace. The central function of a trade union is to represent people at work, but they also have a wider role in protecting the interests of the people. 1.3 Nature of the Problem There are four Trade Unions (CITU, AITUC, BMS, and INTUC) at AVS. All workers of AVS are the members of any of these Trade Unions. What difference or change does this Trade Union brings in the individuals and organizational roles of workers are what are being studied under this topic 1.4 Objectives of the Study Primary Objective: To analyze the role and relevance of trade union and its impact on employees of AVS Secondary Objective: To find out whether the workers demand is accepted by management through collective bargaining To find out whether workers demand is accepted by the management under the pressure of strike and lockouts
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To check whether the years of experience in Trade Union leads to a good Employer-Employee relations

CHAPTER 2 THE INDUSTRY AND COMPANY PROFILE

INDUSTRY PROFILE Ayurveda is an ancient health system of India, thought to have originated in the Vedic times around 5000 years ago. Ayurvedic formulations use combinations of a selection of around 1200 species, about 500 of which are commercially traded. Ayurveda uses medicinal plants in various forms, some of which can be gathered only by destructive harvesting: in 30 per cent cases only the roots are used, in another 13 per cent only the bark and it is only in about 16 per cent that the whole plant is used. In other cases, medicines use the fruits, leaves, flowers, rhizome, seeds etc. It is commonly thought that medicinal plants are mainly herbs, but in fact about one-third are treesthis has implications for conservation and management of supplies to the industry. The majority of plants used in ayurveda are procured from the wild, though around 10 per cent are cultivated on private lands. Ayurveda has a 70 per cent share in the formal medicine market in the country. There are around 6,000 licensed units and an equal number of unlicensed units manufacturing ayurvedic drugs. The origin of most of these companies can be traced back to a vaidya (a practising ayurvedic expert) who used to prepare some formulations for dispensing. The gradual acceptance of these medicines led to the growth of such units. The presence of a large number of small, unorganised micro-manufacturing units and pharmacies makes it very difficult to estimate the overall turnover of the industry, but rough estimates put it at around Rs. 45 billion for the year 1998. In general, the medicinal plants trade in India may be described as extremely complex, secretive, traditional, badly organised, highly under-estimated and unregulated. There is no macro level information available for assessing the nature and full extent of the trade; there are only guesstimates based on local inventories and micro studies. The supply channel runs from the minor to the medium to the major markets before being exported. There is a long chain between primary collectors and end-users, and the supply channels for each species are different, depending on availability of the individual. The demand for ayurvedic formulations is increasing both in the domestic market as well as internationally. According to some estimates, the domestic sales are growing at an annual rate of 20 per cent
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while the international market for medicinal plant-based products is estimated to be growing at 7 per cent per annum. However, India has a very insignificant share of the international herbal medicine market although it is one of the biggest reservoirs of plant resources. Given the rapidly increasing demand, there is tremendous pressure on the supply base. This has reached crisis point for some species. It is reported that certain species of medicinal plants have already become extinct through over-harvesting, and other species are endangered. Drug manufacturers make use of alternative species when the first choice is no longer available. However, there are reports that even some of the second best alternatives are now facing extinction. Further, there are concerns about maintaining the quality of supplies. There are a number of potential (and some actual) responses to this demand-supply gap. These include substitution of raw material, import of medicinal plants, cultivation of plants by the corporate ayurvedic industry, cultivation of plants by farmers and enhancing production from natural habitats. In addition to these attempts to address the demand-supply crisis, there is a longestablished response, which represents an unofficial, illegal response by sections of the industry, that is the use of adulterants. For 6 out of the 12 species selected for the study, some or the other form of adulteration is known to occur. This poses major challenges to any market-based intervention in the trade, as well as to any attempts to integrate traditional medicine into the mainstream health services. Short-term solutions to the supply crisis appear to be limited: cultivation is appropriate for only certain species and will not, in any case, prevent collection from the wild by those who depend on such activities for their livelihoods. Apart from shortage of supply, the industrys primary concern is the quality of raw material: this presents a major challenge given the prevailing secrecy in the ayurvedic industry and the adulteration of raw material. The potential for organisation at the community/collector level needs to be explored, as also the possibility of ensuring better returns to primary collectors through value addition at the local levels. Organisation and control of production may also be encouraged if consumers or retail buyers express preference for supplies that derive from socially and environmentally sustainable production. While it may be some time before the extent of such preferences encourages largescale changes in production, this paves the way for the introduction of market-based instruments as a mechanism for meeting consumer demand while ensuring sustainable production. In order to move towards a system of sustainable management of medicinal plants, there is a need to address a number of issues.
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COMPANY PROFILE Vaidyaratnam P.S Variers Kottakkal Arya Vaidya Sala (AVS) is a century old Charitable Institution engaged in the practice and propagation of Ayurveda, the ancient health care system of India. The visionary physician and philanthropist, the late Vaidyaratnam P.S. Varier, established AVS at Kottakkal in Kerala State of India on October 12th 1902. In 1944 Sri. P.S. Varier expired and he executed a will prior to his demise, which converted his proprietary concern into Charitable Trust of Public in nature, to be run by a Trust Board consisting of seven members who are related to his family and the institution.

MAJOR POINTS IN THE WILL Earnings from ARYA VAIDYA SALA are spent on charitable causes, in the form of medical aid on both Out Patient and In Patient basis which is about 45%.

Financial support is also provided for Ayurveda College for conducting Research, holding seminars and training programs for publication of books, etc, which is about 10%.

Remaining funds are pooled back for the development of the institution which is about 45%. Arya Vaidyan P. MADHAVAN VARRIER was managing trustee and he was responsible for the introduction of many modern and scientific improvements and machinery to facilitate large scale production and supply of medicines to cope with ever increasing demands of thousands of patients spread all over world. For the convenience and comfortable stay of large number of patients, he constructed nursing homes for need of the people. Presently Aryavaidyan P.K. Warrier became the Managing Trustee on the demise of his brother P.M. Varier in 1953. He is leading Arya Vaidya Sala for more than half a century. Dr. P.K. Warrier serves also as the Chief Physician ably assisted by other senior and experienced physicians.AVS started essentially as a village clinic, it has now grown into a multi-unit, multi-disciplinary and multi-crore organisation. It has operations in different areas of Ayurvedic practice. AVS offers classical Ayurvedic medicines and authentic Ayurvedic treatments and therapies to patients.
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AVS manages Ayurvedic Hospitals at Kottakkal, Delhi and Kochi. All classical Ayurvedic medicines, therapies and expert medical advice are available there. AVS has two modern medicine manufacturing units, has well equipped quality control labs, has fullfledged research activities, publishes Ayurvedic periodicals and books, cultivates medicinal plants and conducts educational programmes. AVS also runs a Kathakali academy where the classical theatre of Kathakali is taught and performed. Arya Vaidya Sala manufactures more than 500 classical formulations. The manufacturing activity takes place at two centres, one at Kottakkal and the other at Kanjikode near Palakkad. Both Factories operate on manufacturing license issued by the Drugs Controller of the State and both possess GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) certificate issued by the Government. The important feature of the two Factories is the fact that the basic principles and practices of medicine manufacture are still based on the specifications in the classical textbooks. At the same time, extensive mechanisation has taken place as a necessary consequence of adapting industrial methods. This change is essential when scaled up and bulk level production of medicines becomes necessary. All the processing activities are done in pharmaceutical grade stainless steel vessels. There are several electro-mechanical equipments, which are employed for achieving efficiency in production. Major areas where mechanisation has been incorporated are: Fire wood has completely been replaced by boiler generated steam for boiling purpose. There is 8-tons/hr, 4-tons/hr & 3tons/hr and 5-tons/hr & 3-tons/hr steam generating capacity at Kottakkal and Kanjikode respectively. Major functions like disintegration, sifting, filtration, concentration, incineration, compression, filling, blistering, packing, etc. are done with the aid of modern machineries. The introduction of modern dosage presentation forms of tablets and capsules has also necessitated the incorporation of modern pharmaceutical machinery like punching machine, mass mixer, granulator, drier, blender, encapsulation equipment, blister packing machine, etc.

MISSION At Kottakkal Arya Vaidya Sala they fully realize their responsibilities towards their employees and customers. Their strategies and organizational goals, driven by their core values are formulated keeping them in mind. With efficiency and innovation as their benchmarks, they keep pushing the par of excellence in response to their customer needs. For everything that they do is always keep the customers needs in
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the mind so that they can be assured of the product quality and services, which are always the best in the industry.
How they achieve this is though constant innovation and quest for excellence through team work and mutual trust. Thus through thick and thin they continue to stay focused on their primary objective to achieve cutomer value.

BOARD OF TRUST

ARYA VAIDYA SALA is run as a Charitable Trust which is run by a will which includes the Article of Association and Memorandum of Association in the will which was made by its founder of Kottakkal Arya Vaidya Sala, Late Sri P. S. Varrier include excellent provision for the administration and management of ARYA VAIDYA SALA, by appointing a board of Trustees. In the board of Trustees, five members elected from the family and the relatives itself and two are the employee representatives, thus there are seven members in the board of trustees. At present following are the Trustees: Dr. P. K. Warrier Sri. P. R. Raghava Varier Sri. C. A. Varier Dr. P. M. Varier Sri. N. M. Vijayan Dr. N. S. Unnikrishnan Dr. K. Muraleedharan PRODUCTS: There is a variety of Ayurvedic medicines. Arya Vaidya Sala manufactures more than 530 classical formulations which fall in the following nine categories: 1. Arishta / Asava (Fermented formulation) 2. Bhasma (Calicinated drug) 3. Churna (Powdered herb) 4. Ghrita (Ghee based) 5. Gulika (Pill) 6. Kashaya (Decoction) 7. Leha (Electuary)
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Managing Trustee Trustee Trustee Trustee Trustee Trustee Trustee

8. Rasakriya (Collerium) 9. Taila / Kuzhampu (Oil based)

DEPARTMENTS:

Personal department

Finance and Accounts

Production department

Materials department

Marketing department

Administration department

Quality Assurance department

Hospital

Publications

Estates and gardens

Engineering

Product development department

R & D department

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PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT:

Departmental Structure: The main responsibilities of the human resource department are recruitment, selection, training, motivating, retirement the functional chart display Arya Vaidya Sala employees wages, medical aid, security, labour, welfare, labour relation, labour documentation and labour statistics. Functions of personnel department: 1. Manpower planning 2. Recruitment and Training 3. Collective bargaining 4. Disciplinary procedure 5. Grievances handling 6. Time office administration

The personnel department function includes a variety of activities, and key among them is deciding what staffing needs and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Activities also include managing approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. Usually small businesses (for profit or non profit) have to carry out these activities themselves because they cant yet afford part or full time help. However, they should always ensure that employees have an aware of personnel policies which conform to current regulations

MAN POWER PLANNING Here the sales budged prepared by the market department report to production department accordingly product plan is prepared details of the man hours required is send to the personnel department for recruitment. Recruitment Depending upon types of jobs to be done the recruitment takes place; there are mainly six categories of works: Sanitation and housekeeping
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Production workers Canteen boy Attenders Technical Workers Clerical Staff LD clerk, UD clerk, Section Head, Sr. Section Head Executive Category M1 to M6 which includes Executive officer, Asst Manager, Deputy Manager, Manager, Sr. Manager, Chief Manager.

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

After having selected the most suitable person in the organization through the application of scientific techniques, the next important function of the personnel management is to arrange for their training. Every year around 15% of the employees are trained by outside agency . All types of jobs require some type of training for their efficient performance and therefore all employees, new or old should be trained or retrained. Every new employee, regardless of his previous training, education and experience needs to be introduced to the work-environment of his new employer and to be taught how to perform specific tasks.

SALARY AND WAGE ADMINISTRATION It is an administrative procedure of establishing and supervising wage levels and operations in an organization. In most organizations, wage and salary administration is performed in the personnel department, although larger organizations often have payroll or wage and salary administration department. Agreed wage is determined through long term agreement between the collective bargaining agent and the management for matters relating to improvement in service condition like increase in increment, reduction in the time period of promotions, retirement benefits, allowances, transfers, etc. In this concern, four unions are there all affiliated to the Central Labour Union, those are Workers Federation (CITU), Workers Union (AITUC), Mazdoor Sangh (BMS) and Employees Union (INTUC). These are the unions in the organization.

GRIEVANCE HANDLING Any workman having a grievance shall first refer to his immediate supervisor. If the workman is not
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satisfied by the decision, he shall give his complaint in writing to the head of the department. If the head of the department fails to solve the problem, it will be handed over to the general manager and cannot redress the grievance within a week then the matter can be raised as an industrial dispute before the district conciliation officer through his union

DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS Some of the in disciplinary conduct includes disobeying superior officers orders, late comings, habitual absenteeism, and negligence in the work. Misconduct of the employee is reported to the superior who reports to HOD, who issues a showcase notice to the concerned to reply within a specific and after that HOD gives him a warning letter. If he is challenging then a charge sheet will be issued with the domestic enquiry which will be conducted by enquiry officer. Based on the evidence the enquiry officer will submit his finding to management if he is found guilty, punishment is given.

ADMINISTRATION OF SOCIAL SECURITY SCHEMES Social security is a very comprehensive term which includes schemes of social insurance and social assistance, as well as some schemes of commercial insurance. Following are the employees benefits paid to the workers. Employee Provident Fund Scheme Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, provides for compulsory contributory fund for the future of an employee after his retirement or for his dependents incase of his early death. Total PF = 24% (Which is 12% employer and 12% employee) Employee pension fund Employees will get back along with interest approved; Advanced payment in case of marriage, house construction, treatment for critical illness, higher education, etc Payment of gratuity According to payment of gratuity act those employee who completed 5 years of service on final succession of employment will be pay gratuity at the rate of 15 days for every complete year of service Employees State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) ARYA VAIDYA SALA is exempted from this because they have a better medical treatment than ESIS, 16.66% of salary towards medical benefits

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EMPLOYEE WELFARE ACTIVITIES

The Factories Act is a social legislation which has been enacted for occupational safety, health and welfare of work place. This legislation is being enforced by technical officers i.e. Inspectors of Factories, Dy. Chief Inspectors of Factories who work under the control of the Chief Inspector of Factories and overall control of the Labour Commissioner, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. ARYA VAIDYA SALA does provide their employee with all these facilities like rest rooms, canteen, washing place, drinking water, etc which are statutory welfare measures ARYA VAIDYA SALA also provide them with voluntary welfare measures such as proving the workman with uniforms, running of employee welfare co-operative society was there which provides provisions for employees which will be reduced from the salary but due to some problems management is not involved in its functioning. There is also a higher purchase household item scheme for the employees Over and above the statutory welfare that is given to the employees, they have a Employee Welfare Society which is started 10years before. Vaidyaratnam P.S Variers Arya Vaidya Sala Employee Welfare Society is registered as per Kerala Societies Act in 1999. This society is managed by a committee constituting 5 members from the management side and 4 union leaders or employees. Every month meeting is conducted and also every employee should contribute Rs.25 and Rs.5 from the management every month. Various schemes that are provided for employees under this society: Medical & Special Medical Benefit Educational Benefit Funeral Benefit Death Relief Fund Retirement Benefit Marriage Benefit Scheme Composite Medical Assistance Special Medical Benefit to Family Members To felicitate talented children in arts and sports
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FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT

The finance and accounting departments performs all the accounting and financial activities of organization. Functions of financial department include the finance and accounting matters like target preparation, taxation, audit, cash disbursements, payroll etc. Finance is the base of every concern, without it they have no stability. The main aim of this department is maximizing the profit of the firm. They see that funds are used properly and proper accounts are kept, which is the basic principle of accounting. The routine functions of the department are as follows: 1) Financial Planning The main responsibility of the chief financial officer in a large concern is to forecast the needs and sources of finance and ensure the adequate supply cash at proper time for the smooth running of the business. He is to see that cash inflow and outflow must be uninterrupted and continuous. For this purpose, financial planning is necessary, i.e. he must decide the time when he needs money, the sources of supply of money and the investment patterns so that the institution may meet its obligations properly and maintains its goodwill in the market. The finance manager is also to see that there is no surplus money in the business which earns nothing. 2) Raising of Necessary Funds The second main responsibility of the finance officer is to see the nature of the need, i.e. whether finances are required for long term or for short term. He must assess the alternative sources of supply of finance taking into view the cost of raising funds, its effect on various concerned parties. 3) Controlling the Use of Funds The finance manager is also responsible for the proper utilization of funds. Assets must be used effectively so as to earn higher profits inflow and outflow of cash must be controlled in a manner so as to meet the current as well as future obligations; unnecessary expenditure should be curtailed and there should be left no possibility for misappropriation of money. 4) Disposition of Profits Appropriation of profits is one of the main responsibilities of the finance manager. He is to advise to the top executive as how much of the profits should be retained in the business as reserves for future expansion; how much to be used in repaying the debts; and how much to be distributed to the shareholders as dividend. On the basis of the advice given by the finance manager, the resolutions
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regarding depreciations, reserves, general reserves and distribution of dividends are carried out in the meeting of the board of directors of the institution. 5) Other responsibilities Over and above, the responsibilities stated above, there are certain other responsibilities of the finance manager. These are:

a. Legal Obligation: Finance Manager is also under an obligation to consider the enterprise in the light
of its legal obligations. A host of laws, taxes and rules and regulations cover nearly every move and policy. Good financial management helps to develop a sound legal framework

b. Responsibilities of Employees: The financial management must try to produce a healthy going
concern capable of maintaining regular employment at satisfactory rate of pay under favourable working conditions. The long term financial interest of management, employees and owners are common

c. Responsibilities to Customers: In order to make the payments of its customers bill, the effective
financial management is necessary. Sound financial management ensures the creditors continued supply of raw material

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT

The manufacturing activity takes place at three factories. These factories operate on manufacturing license issued by the Drugs Controller of the state and both possess GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) certificate issued by the government. The important feature of the three factories is the fact that the basic principles and practices of medicine manufacture are still based on the specifications in the classical text books. At the same time, extensive mechanization has taken place as a necessary consequence of adapting industrial methods. This change is essential when scaled up and bulk level production of medicines becomes necessary. All the processing activities are done in pharmaceutical grade stainless steel vessels. There are several electro mechanical equipments which are employed for achieving efficiency in production. Major areas where mechanization has been incorporated are: Fire wood has completely been replaced by boiler generated steam for boiling purpose.Major functions like disintegration, sifting,
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filtration, concentration, incineration, compression, filling, blistering, packing, etc are done with the aid of heavy equipments. The introduction of modern dosage presentation forms of tablets and capsules has also necessitated the incorporation of modern pharmaceutical machinery like punching machine, mass mixer, granulator, drier, blender, encapsulation equipment, blister packing machine, etc. The factories work round the clock in three shifts. More than 600 people are engaged in manufacturing activity including workmen, supervisors, clerical and support staffs. Every section of the two factories is managed by qualified and trained physicians under the overall control of a Factory Manager and Production Manager The production activity is scheduled by the Production Planning Unit. It draws up annual / monthly / weekly / daily production schedule by taking into account the requirement of the Factory managers and Finance department. Arya Vaidya Sala manufactures more than 530 classical formulations which fall in the following nine categories:

1. Arishta / Asava (Fermented formulation) 2. 2.Bhasma (Calicinated drug 3. 3.Churna (Powdered herb) 4. 4.Ghrita (Ghee based) 5. Gulika (Pill) 6. Kashaya (Decoction) 7. Leha (Electuary) 8. Rasakriya (Collerium) 9. Taila / Kuzhampu (Oil based)
These formulations are adapted from several classical text books. Their manufacture and marketing are licensed by the Drug Controlling Authority of the State Government. The manufacturing activity is also granted GMP certification by the government. The principles and methodology of medicine preparation are based on classical tenets. However modern technological and industrial methods are adapted to possible extent. For example, basic cooking is now done in pharmaceutical grade stainless steel vessels by using steam as the source of heat. Vacuum evaporation is employed for concentration step. Several electro mechanical equipments are used for size reduction of herbs, pulverization, sifting, grinding, filling and packing,
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etc. Similarly, Quality assurance procedures have also been adapted considerably from the methods of modern chemistry and physics. On an average, 20-30 herbs are used in the preparation of a medicine. There are rare instances when more than a hundred herbs go into the making of a medicine. There are others which take months to get prepared as a lot. Ayurvedic medicine manufacture the material intensive, time intensive, labour intensive and also water intensive. They form the main cost factors.

MATERIAL DEPARTMENT

Material department occupies a crucial place at Kottakkal Arya Vaidya Sala. Kottakkal Arya Vaidya Sala consumes 70% of the raw materials from vegetables, 20% from animals, 5% from metals and other 5% from minerals. The Indian System of Medicine and also the Homoeopathy system predominantly use raw materials in most of their preparations and formulation. The credibility of these systems, thus mainly depends upon the use of genuine raw materials in the manufacture of drugs of these systems. In all, about 1100 medicinal plants are estimated to find regular use in the Indian System of Medicine (ISM). As a result of continuous exploitation of these plants in forests and absence of regular developmental programs in the forestry sector, a number of species have become vulnerable to extinction due to loss of population and also unscrupulous collection. This also leads to a gradual erosion and ultimate loss of vulnerable genetic diversities of these economic plants in India. The major functions of material / purchase department is as follows: Procurement of raw materials and packing It means the collection and store of raw materials from various sources after that it will be needed to the production process at that time, to allow suitable quantity of items to production. Supplier or vendor development The purchase field of ARYA VAIDYA SALA is very wide, so there is a focus to supplier or vendor development programs in the institution. They provide better chance for the vendor to make their products and to evaluate the availability of raw materials to the institution. It clearly helps the institution availability or chances of getting the materials. Storage For storage of all resource such as raw materials and finished goods in the organization, ARYA
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VAIDYA SALA has got a large and high storage area. Finished goods have to be stored fully secure all these are important function of this department. Printing and Stationary This department handles the purchase of printing and stationary items. These items are kept to the suitable stores and when needed, it will be handed over to the proper departments. Packing Materials It does the purchase of all the packing materials from suitable source and is kept to stores and whenever it is needed then to forward the materials to marketing department. All these activities are clearly and carefully done by the materials or purchase department of the institution. In Ayurveda 70% of input materials is from the plant kingdom, 20% is from the animal kingdom and 5 % of metals such as gold, silver, iron, etc and 5% of minerals such as Sulphur, Calcium Carbonate, etc. Arya Vaidya Sala uses more than 4000 tons of raw materials (about 600 items) in a year to produce 530 formulations for the market.

QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT QA Department has a well-equipped laboratory and trained chemists. They carry out regular analytical tests to ensure the quality of raw materials as well as that of finished products. Issue of a Quality Certificate is a necessary step for accepting every item of raw materials. Standards specified by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) are generally followed in the QC Laboratory. The QC Certificate issued by the QA Department forms an integral part of the Batch Manufacturing Record (BMR) of every product. In the case of finished products, the Pharmacopoeial Standards specified by the Government of India are followed. A high level Quality Control Cell comprising senior physicians examines samples from every batch of products

MARKETING DEPARTMENT

Arya Vaidya Sala products are marketed throughout India and to foreign countries like Malaysia and Singapore etc. QUALITY MEDICINES AFFORDABLE PRICE is the policy which Arya Vaidya Sala is following, cooperate media advertisements are done to project the institution and no product advertisement are done so far.
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Marketing is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they want through creating, offering and exchanging products of value with others. Marketing plays a critical role in the organizational program. The marketing section of ARYA VAIDYA SALA is in Kottakkal itself. The finished goods, both the manufacturing unit are stored and distributed from here. This department is mainly done in Kottakkal store department and coordinates all the products from both the factory and in the warehouse. There is no separate segment for the firms products, as the products are Ayurvedic medicines and all who needs them are the users. The product attracts more customers due to less chance of side effects when compared to Allopathic medicines. There are more than 1250 authorized agencies all over India and in foreign countries like Malaysia, Singapore, etc where medical facilities are available to a very large number of ailing patients.

ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENT

Administration is concerned with determination of policies and objectives. It is more popular in government, military education and religious organizations. It co-ordinates finance, production and distribution, it takes major decisions Administration department is one of the important departments in the Arya Vaidya Sala. Senior manager heads the department. They manage all the general activities which are helpful to smooth flow of other department. 1) Inward and outward movement of mail It is one of the important duties to the Administration department. They manage all the mails, which may be inward or outward. They make a register for inward letter and one more register made for outward letters. This register contains inward and outward number of mail, date and client name. The industry got the permission of a Franking (Stamp with a postmark to indicate date and time of mailing) from the postal department for government. Then the departments are using the power of stamp press. In addition, after that they send to the mail for proper client. It is one of the major functions done by Administration department. 2) Subscription of journals, newspaper to all departments The institution provides journals and newspaper to each department in Arya Vaidya Sala. 3) Renewal of license
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The institution provides the license to the public for the subscription of a materials and the sale of a finished product. It is normally given for one year or any other fixed period. When the period is finished at that time, it will be renewed to the accurate client with a desired fee. It is another function of this authority. 4) Corporate advertisement In Arya Vaidya Sala, advertisements are published in journals, newspapers, TV, internet etc. These duties are managed by administrative department

AYURVEDA HOSPITAL

The Arya Vaidya Chikitsa Sala was constructed and established in 1924 at Kottakkal. It is a charitable hospital where poor people are given medical treatment and food, free of cost. The hospital is manned by qualified Ayurvedic physicians. A maternity ward with the services of qualified nurse is also attached to the hospital and maternity cases are attended free here. The Ayurvedic Hospital & Research Centre at Kottakkal is the main in-patient institution of Arya Vaidya Sala. Patients from all over the world come here for getting treated for conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, spondylitis (Inflammation of a spinal joint) and diabetes, digestive problems, many more, or for gaining relief from diseases like cancer, AIDS and Parkinsons or even for general rejuvenation-detoxification programs. The patients are accommodated in three multi-storied blocks. The treatment rooms are attached to the staying quarters. One can get up to five treatment timings are 7 8 am, 8.30 9.30 am, 10 11 am, 2 3 pm and 3.30 4.30 pm. A team of physicians looks after each patient. The reputation of the centre has increased immensely in the last two decades and advance booking of up to four to five months is usual. The primary feature of hospital includes the following: 160 beds for treatment of residential patients A modern laboratory, X-ray facility and a minor surgical ward A maternity ward attached to the hospital, providing free services to women A Pachakarma ward that offers special and expensive treatment such as Navarakkizhi, Pizhichil, Dhara and so on free of cost to poor patients A clinical research ward that offers treatment to patients suffering from the peptic ulcer diseases, the ward run under the Central Council for research in Ayurveda and expenses of the patients are met by
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ARYA VAIDYA SALA A clinical research unit that aims to develop new method and procedures for dealing with debilitating ailments, such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis A special and separate ward to treat snake bite victims and patients suffering from other poison related maladies

ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Engineering department helps to new project development, construction, building and maintenance. Engineering Department looks after procurement, installation and maintenance of the plant and machinery of the Factories. Under the control of Sr. Manager (Engg.), there are electrical / mechanical / classical Engineers and a Maintenance Engineer looking after the functions of the Department, which are manned by about 70 skilled and professionally qualified workmen. Additionally, there is Civil Engineering Department under the control of an Executive Engineer, which looks after the civil construction and maintenance requirements.

AYURVEDIC BOOKS AND PUBLICATION

Arya Vaidya Sala, from the very beginning was engaged in scientific publication. The publications department brings out a number of books and other publications for professional reading as well as medical literacy among the people. Some of the books and publications are Ayurvedic, a quarterly journal. Ashtanga Sareeram, Catalogues, Ayurveda charithram and tenets for a total life of nursing home with all modern equipments and amenities and inaugurated the nursing home on the historic occasion of golden jubilee celebration of the Arya Vaidya Sala. Aryavaidyan P. Madhava Varier lost his life in an accident at Nagpur on 12th December 1953. On behalf of him his younger brother Dr. P.K Warier took charge of the institution, and is the managing trustee from the past five decades.

HERBAL GARDEN Arya Vaidya Sala is cultivating medicinal plants and herbs at Kanhirapuzha in Palakkad district, different varieties of medicinal plants have been identified and herbarium is maintained in this herbal garden.
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NATYA SANGHAM

There is renowned Kathakali Academy, flourishing under the protective patronage of Arya Vaidya Sala. Kathakali is a unique classical theatre where by PSV Natysangham has given birth to many talented Kathakali artists and it has come to be recognized as one of the leading performing and training centers for Kathakali

WORKERS UNION The union began functioning in 1949. Presently there are four recognized unions generally cordial relations exist between the management and work force, with very rare occasions for friction. In fact, the employees play a big role in maintaining high standards, so the union has its own role in the organization

The four recognized unions now prevailing in the organization are: 1. ARYA VAIDYA SALA Workers Federation affiliated to CITU 2. ARYA VAIDYA SALA Workers Union affiliated to AITUC 3. ARYA VAIDYA SALA Mazdoor Sangh affiliated to BMS 4. ARYA VAIDYA SALA Employees Union affiliated to INTUC

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CHAPTER 3 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

27

Arya Vaidya Sala is at Kottakal. There are about 2500 employees working in the company. The study on the role and relevance of trade union and its impact on employees is carried out in AVS. This study is mainly concentrated on impact of trade union on employees. Trade union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals. For collecting the data a random sample size of 100 employees was selected. Data collected with the help of questionnaire through formal interview and observation. TRADE UNION The trade union Act, 1926 defines a trade union as a combination, whether temporary or permanent, formed (i) primarily for the purpose of regulating the relation between (a) workmen and employees or (b) between workmen and workmen, or (c) between employers and employers or (ii) for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business, and includes any federation of two or more trade union. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labor contracts with employers. This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, and rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies. The main objective of the trade union is to attain collective actions through group effort. So for in every company trade unions are necessary to safe guard the interest of workers and also help in maintaining good industrial relations. This study helps me to observe and learn the real atmosphere in an organization. It helps me to gain knowledge about trade union and its impact on organization. This study also helps me to understand the needs and wants of employees. Definitions: Section 2(h) of the Trade Unions Act, 1926 has defined a trade union as Any combination, whether temporary or permanent, formed primarily for the purpose of regulating the relations between workmen and employers, or between workmen and workmen, or between employers and employers, or for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business, and includes any federation of two or more trade unions.

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According to Webbs, a trade union is a continuous association of wage earners for the purpose of maintaining and improving the conditions of their working lives. (Webb and Webb, 1894) According to Flippo "A labour union or trade union is an organization of workers formed to promote, protect, and improve, through collective action, the social, economic, and political interests of its members. (Flippo) According to British Columbia, the labour relations statute defines a Trade Union means a local or Provincial organization or association of employees, or a local or Provincial branch of a national or international organization or association of employees in British Columbia, that has as one of its purposes the regulation in British Columbia of relations between employers and employees through collective bargaining, and includes an association or council of trade unions, but not an organization or association of employees that is dominated or influenced by an employer. (British Columbia) "Trade union means an organization (whether permanent or temporary) which consists wholly or mainly of workers of one or more descriptions and is an organization whose principal purposes include the regulation of relations between workers of that description or those descriptions and employers or employers associations. (The Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1974 (UK)) (Ontario Labour Relations Act) Dale Yoder has defined trade union as a continuing long - term association of employees formed and maintained for the specific purpose of advancing and protecting the interests of members in their working relationships. He quotes a trade union is a continuous association of workers which is formed with the purpose of protecting the interests of workers."

(Dale Yoder)
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REGISTRATION OF TRADE UNION Any 7 or more members of the trade union can by their names to the roles of the trade union and by compelling with the provision in the Act (Trade Union Act, 1926) can apply for registrar under the Act. The application has to be made to the registrar of trade union. This application must be accompanied by a copy of rules of the trade union and statement of the following particulars Name, occupation and address of members making the application The name of the trade union and the address of its head office. The title name, age, address and occupations of the office bearers of the trade unions WHY DO WORKERS JOIN TRADE UNION Workers join trade unions because they are constrained by circumstances to do so; and because they want: To get economic security; that is they want steady employment with adequate income; To restrain the management from taking any action this is irrational, illogical, discriminatory or prejudicial to the interest of labor. Workers desire that assignment of jobs, transfers promotions, maintains of discipline, lay offs, retirement, reward and punishment should be on the basis of predetermined policy and on the basis of what is fair and just. To communicate their views, aims, ideas, feelings and frustrations to the management that is they want to have an effective voice in discussions which is welfare. To secure protection from economic hazards beyond their control; accident, death, disability, unemployment and old age; To get along with their fellow workers in , a better way to gain respect in the eyes of their peers; and to get job through the good officers of a trade union. OBJECTIVES OF TRADE UNION The Main objective of any trade union is to protect the interest of workers/employees in the organization. However the workers interest or welfare is a broad term in which various subjects wages and salaries, working conditions, working hours, transfers, promotions, recruitment and
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for example, illness,

classifications, training, discipline, leave and holidays, dearness allowance, bonus, incentives, quarters, sanitation, employee relations, mechanization, facilities to union, welfare and the like are included. Thus, a trade union is meant to conduct negotiations on behalf of the individual workers in respect of various items. Trade unions specifically concentrate their attention to achieve the following objective: Wages and salaries: The subject which drew the major attention of the trade unions is wages and salaries. These items may be related to policy matters. However, differences may arise in the process of their implementations. In case of unorganized sector the trade unions plays a crucial role in bargaining the pay scales. Working conditions: Trade unions with a view to safeguard the health of workers demands the management to provide all basic facilities such as, lighting and ventilation , sanitation, rooms, safety equipments while discharging hazardous duties, drinking water, refreshment, minimum working hours, leave and rest, holidays with pay, job satisfaction, social security benefits and other welfare measures. Discipline: Trade unions not only conduct negotiations in respect of the items with which their working conditions may be improved but also protect workers from clutches of management. This victimization may take the form of penal transfer, suspensions dismissals, etc. In such a situation the separated workers who left in a helpless condition may approach the trade union. Ultimately the problem may be brought to notice of management by the trade union and it explains about the injustice method out to individual workers and fights the management for justice. Thus, victimized workers may be protected by the trade union. Personal policies: Trade unions may fight against improper implementation of personnel policies in respect of recruitment, selection, promotion, transfers, training etc. Welfare: Trade unions are meant for welfare of the workers. Trade unions work as a guide, consulting authority and cooperate in overcoming the personnel problems of workers. It may bring to the notice of management, through collective bargaining meetings, the difficulties of workers in respect of sanitation, hospitals, quarters, schools and collages of their children's cultural and social problem.
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Employee- employer relation: Harmonious relation between the employee and employer is very essential for industrial peace. A trade union always strives for achieving this objective. However the bureaucratize attitude and unilateral thinking of management may lead to conflicts in the organization which ultimately disrupt the relation between workers and management. Trades ultimately disrupt the relation between the workers and management. ROLE OF TRADE UNIONS

The important role which are performed by trade unions are: 1. Negotiating machinery: Negotiations include the proposals made by one party and counter proposals of the other party. This Process continues until the parties reach an agreement. Trade unions being a party for negotiations protect the interest of workers through collective bargaining. Thus the trade union works as negotiating machinery. 2. Safeguarding organizational health and the interest of the industry: Trade unions by their effective working may be achieving employees satisfaction. Thus, trade unions help in reducing the rate of absenteesm, labour turnover and developing systematic grievance settlement procedures leading to harmonious industrial relations. Trade unions can thus contribute to improvements in level of production and productivity, discipline and improve the quality of work 3. Communication: The trade union should pass more varied information to the workers about the union and its activities. 4. Education and training: Education and training enhance the knowledge of employees working environment and to add information regarding the right and responsibilities, worker participation etc. 5. Welfare: The union should help the management in developing innovative welfare schemes for employee such as cooperatives, banks, nursery school etc. The trade union should undertake various welfare activities for welfare and development of its members. 6. Counseling: Unions can play a very positive role in providing counseling service to employees. Counseling will help the workers to learn new attitude towards work. In this case any misconduct from the part of members, the union should give proper counseling to them. 7. Team building: Union can play a vital role in building effective working teams shaping the work organization in direct consistent with the work place. 8. Research: Unions play a very significant role in generating data on various dimensions according to the workers needs, aspirations and either independently or in collaboration with its
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organization. 9. Family and vocational guidance:Unions can help workers by providing various facilities. For example, they can provide guidance in respect of the education and careers of workers children. 10. Family and vocational guidance: Unions can help workers by providing various facilities. For example, they can provide guidance in respect of the education and careers of workers children.

TRADE UNIONS IN AVS CITU AITUC BMS INTUC

All the above four unions are recognized were AVS requires 15% of vote for each union to become recognized.

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CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

34

Background of the Study Healthy Industrial Relations between labour and management are essential to achieve industrial peace and higher productivity. It ensure continuity of production, reduces industrial disputes, improves employee morale, and reduces wastage. HRD approach to industrial relation focuses on counseling, mentoring, coaching etc. The study was made on one of the important constituent of Industrial Relations ie, Trade union. As the phase of Industrial Relations is changing, the role of Trade Union is also changing. Background of the topic
The study was conducted at Kottakal Arya Vaidya Sala(AVS) and it aimed at understanding the role of Trade Unions on employees. The existence of a strong and recognized trade union is a prerequisite to industrial peace. The central function of a trade union is to represent people at work, but they also have a wider role in protecting the interests of the people.

Nature of the Problem There are four Trade Unions at AVS. All workers of AVS are the members of any of these Trade Unions. What difference or change does this Trade Union brings in the individuals and organizational roles of workers are what are being studied under this topic Objectives of the Study Primary Objective: To analyze the role and relevance of trade union and its impact on employees of AVS Secondary Objective: To find out whether the workers demand is accepted by management through collective bargaining To find out whether workers demand is accepted by the management under the pressure of strike and lockouts To check whether the years of experience in Trade Union leads to a good Employer-Employee relations Research Methodology Research is a systematic method of finding a solution to a problem. The chapter briefly describes the methodology employed for the research.

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Research Process: The survey was conducted by using questionnaire method. A structured questionnaire which included all the relevant questions was prepared and distributed to 100 employees at AVS Data Collection methodology The respondents were selected using random sampling. The study covers 100 employees at TCC Limited. The data collected from primary and secondary sources: Primary data- from questionnaire and personal interview Secondary data - websites, journals, books, research reports. Tools Used: The responses obtained from questionnaire were analyzed using simple percentage Limitations of Study: Reluctance from respondents. No direct contacts with managerial heads. As there are three shifts getting the feedback from all the employees was not possible. Time constrain.

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CHAPTER 5 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

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TABLE SHOWING AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS

AGE Below 20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51 above Total

NO:OF RESPONDENTS 0 3 7 34 56 100

PERCENTAGE 0 3 7 34 56 100

AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS


60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Below 20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51 above

INFERENCE The above table and figure shows that 56% of the respondents are above 50 years age group.34% of respondents are in the age group of 41-50 years and 7% of respondents are in the age group of 31-40 and 3% are in age group of 21-30 and none of the respondents are under below 20. From the analysis it is found that majority of respondents are in the age group above 50

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TABLE SHOWING THE EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF EMPLOYEES

NO. OF RESPONDENTS SSLC HSE Diploma Degree P.G Others TOTAL 30 2 2 0 0 66 100

PERCENTAGE 30 2 2 0 0 66 100

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS

SSLC HSE Diploma Degree P.G Others

INFERENCE The above table and figure shows that 30% of respondents are qualified with a SSLC, 2% are qualified with higher secondary, 2% are in high school level, 0% are in UG and 66% are P.G holders.

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TABLE SHOWING THE CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF THEIR MEMBERSHIP IN TRADE UNION

PARTICULARS

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE

CITU AITUC BMS INTUC TOTAL

53 24 15 8 100

53 24 15 8 100

NO.OF RESPONDENTS FROM EACH TRADE UNION

60 40 20 0 CITU AITUC BMS

INTUC

INFERENCE The above table show 53% respondents are members of CITU, 24% are in AITUC, 15%are in BMS, and 8% are from INTUC.

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TABLE SHOWING YEARS OF EXPERIENCE IN THE ORGANIZATION PARTICULARS Below5 5-10 11-15 16-20 Above 20 Total NO:OF RESPONDENTS 2 12 10 23 53 100 PERCENTAGE 2 12 10 23 53 100

CHART SHOWING YEAR OF EXPERIENCE IN THE AVS

Below5 5 to 10 11 to 15 16-20 Above 20

INFERENCE From the table it is clear that 53%respondents have above 20 year of experience in the organization, 23% have 16-20 years, 10 % of respondents have 11-15 years, 12 % have 5-10 years and 2 % below 5 years.

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TABLE SHOWING YEARS OF MEMBERSHIP IN TRADE UNION PARTICULARS Below5 5-10 11-15 16-20 Above 20 Total NO:OF RESPONDENTS 3 12 17 20 48 100 PERCENTAGE 3 12 17 20 48 100

CHART SHOWING YEARS OF MEMBERSHIP IN THE TRADE UNION


60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Below5 5 to 10 11 to 15 16-20 Above 20

INFERENCE From the table it is clear that 3%respondents have below 5year membership, 12%have 510years, 17% of respondents have a membership of 11-15 years, 20% have 16-20 years and 48% have more than 20 years membership in trade union

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TABLE SHOWING REASON FOR JOINING A TRADE UNION NO.OF RESPONDENTS Ensure Security Get Employment Participation in trade union activity Economic Benefit Sense of Belongingness TOTAL 26 10 23 28 13 100 PERCENTAGE 26 10 23 28 13 100

CHART SHOWING REASON FOR JOINING TRADE UNION


Ensure Security Participation in trade union activity Sense of Belongingness 26% Get Employment Economic Benefit

13%

28% 10% 23%

INFERENCE The above table shows that 26% of respondents joined trade union to ensure security, 28% for economic benefits, 23% to participate in trade union activity, 10% to get employment, and 13% of respondents joined because it gives them a sense of belongingness.

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TABLE SHOWING THE TRADE UNION IN GETTING MEMBERS DEMAND ACCEPTENCE PARTICULARS Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total NO:OF RESPONDENTS 2 6 30 28 34 100 PERCENTAGE 2 6 30 28 34 100

CHART SHOWING THE TRADE UNION IN GETTING MEMBERS DEMAND ACCEPTENCE


40 20 0 Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral

Agree

Strongly agree

INFERENCE The table shows that 34% of respondents strongly agree with the above statement, 28% agree to it, 30% have a neutral stand, 6% disagree and 2% strongly disagree with the above statement.

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TABLE SHOWING THE FACED BY TRADE UNIONS PROBLEMS

PARTICULARS FINANCIAL PROBLEM POLITICAL PROBLEM MULTIPLICITY OF UNIONS ILLITERACY OUTSIDE LEADERSHIP Total

NO:OF RESPONDENTS 28 13 12 35 12 100

PERCENTAGE 28 13 12 35 12 100

CHART SHOWING THE PROBLEMS FACED BY THE TRADE UNION


OUTSIDE LEADERSHIP 12% FINANCIAL PROBLEM 28%

ILLITERACY 35%

POLITICAL PROBLEM 13% MULTIPLICITY OF UNIONS 12%

INFERENCE The graph shows that 35% respondents are illiterate, 28% face financial problems, and rest of the percentage belongs to outside leadership, political problem, multiplicity of unions.

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TABLE SHOWING THE INFLUENCE OF POLITICAL PARTIES ON TRADE UNION PARTICULARS Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total NO:OF RESPONDENTS 20 28 34 12 6 100 PERCENTAGE 20 28 34 12 6 100

CHART SHOWING THE INFLUENCE OF POLITICAL PARTIES ON TRADE UNION


35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

INFERENCE The above table shows that , 34% of respondents are neutral, 28% of them disagree and 20% of respondents strongly disagree ,6% of respondents strongly agree, 12% of respondents agree the influence of political parties on trade union.

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TABLE SHOWING THE AGREEABLENESS OF RESPONDENTS REGARDING THEIR PROTECTION FROM EXPLOITATION, BY THE TRADE UNIONS PARTICULARS Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total NO:OF RESPONDENTS 0 10 37 33 20 100 PERCENTAGE 0 10 37 33 20 100

Strongly disagree

Disagree

Neutral 0%

Agree 10%

Strongly agree

20%

37% 33%

INFERENCE 37% of the respondents feel protection of trade unions from exploitation.

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TABLE SHOWING WHETHER COMPETITION BETWEEN TRADE UNIONS IS BENEFICIAL TO THE ORGANISATION PARTICULARS Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total NO:OF RESPONDENTS 8 13 34 32 13 100 PERCENTAGE 8 13 34 32 13 100

CHART SHOWING WHETHER COMPETION BETWEEN TRADE UNIONS IS BENEFICIAL TO THE ORGANISATION
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

INFERENCE The above table shows that 13% of respondents strongly agree,32% of respondents agree, 34% of respondents are neutral, 13% of respondents disagree and 8% of respondents strongly disagree with the trade unions maintaining good working condition

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TABLE SHOWING WHETHER THE TRADE UNIONS HELP IN IMPROVING EMPLOYER EMPLOYEE RELATIONSHIP

PARTICULARS Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total

NO:OF RESPONDENTS 0 5 18 34 43 100

PERCENTAGE 0 5 18 34 43 100

CHART SHOWING WHETHER THE TRADE UNIONS HELP IN IMPROVING EMPLOYER EMPLOYEE RELATIONSHIP

Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

INFERENCE The above table shows that 43% of respondents strongly agree and 34% of respondents agree, 18% of respondents are neutral, 5% of respondents disagree that competition among trade unions is beneficial for the organization

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TABLE SHOWING WHETHER THE TRADE UNIONS PROTECTS THE INTEREST OF WORKERS THROUGH COLLECTIVE BARGAINING PARTICULARS Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total NO:OF RESPONDENTS 2 2 37 29 30 100 PERCENTAGE 2 2 37 29 30 100

CHART SHOWING WHETHER THE TRADE UNIONS THE INTEREST OF WORKERS THROUGH COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
40 30 20 10 0 Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

INFERENCE The above table shows that 30% of respondents strongly agree and 29% of respondents agree, 37% of respondents are neutral, 2% of respondents disagree and 2% of respondents strongly disagree with the trade union helps in employer employee relation.

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TABLE SHOWING THE OVERALL PERFORMANCE OF TRADE UNION PARTICULARS Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total NO:OF RESPONDENTS 8 13 38 34 7 100 PERCENTAGE 8 13 38 34 7 100

CHART SHOWING THE OVERALL PERFORMANCE OF TRADE UNION


40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

INFERENCE The above table shows that 7% of respondents strongly agree and 34% of respondents agree, 38% of respondents are neutral, 13% of respondents disagree and 8% of respondents strongly disagree with the overall performance of the trade unions

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TAB LE SHOWING WHETHER THE TRADE UNIONS HELP IN DEVOLOPING INNOVATIVE WELFARE SCHEMES.

PARTICULARS Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total

NO:OF RESPONDENTS 5 11 33 40 11 100

PERCENTAGE 5 11 33 40 11 100

CHART SHOWING WHETHER THE TRADE UNIONS HELPS IN DEVOLOPING INNOVATIVE WELFARE SCHEMES
Strongly disagree 11% Disagree Neutral 5% Agree 11% Strongly agree

33% 40%

INFERENCE The above table shows that 11% of respondents strongly agree and 40% of respondents agree, 33% of respondents are neutral, 11% of respondents disagree and 5% of respondents strongly disagree that the trade unions help in developing innovative welfare schemes.

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TABLE SHOWING WHETHER TRADE UNIONS PLAY A VITAL ROLE IN BUILDING EFFECTIVE WORK TEAMS PARTICULARS Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total NO:OF RESPONDENTS 7 14 58 15 6 100 PERCENTAGE 7 14 58 15 6 100

CHART SHOWING WHETHER TRADE UNIONS PLAY A VITAL ROLE IN BUILDING EFFECTIVE WORK TEAMS
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

INFERENCE The above table shows that 6% of respondents strongly agree and 15% of respondents agree, 58% of respondents are neutral, 14% of respondents disagree and 7% of respondents strongly disagree that trade unions plays a vital role in building effective working teams

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TABLE SHOWING WHETHER THE TRADE UNIONS HELPS IN MAINTAINING JOB SECURITY OF ITS MEMBERS PARTICULARS Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total NO:OF RESPONDENTS 18 26 39 10 7 100 PERCENTAGE 18 26 39 10 7 100

CHART SHOWING THE JOB SECURITY


Strongly disagree 10% Disagree 7% Neutral Agree Strongly agree 18%

26%

39%

INFERENCE The above table shows that 7% of respondents strongly agree and 10% of respondents agree, 39% of respondents are neutral, 26% of respondents disagree and 18% of respondents strongly disagree that trade unions plays a vital role in building effective working teams

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TABLE SHOWING WHETHER STRIKES, LOCK OUTS, ETC ARE NECESSARY FOR GETTING DEMANDS ACCEPTED PARTICULARS Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total NO:OF RESPONDENTS 68 27 5 0 0 100 PERCENTAGE 68 27 5 0 0 100

CHART SHOWING WHETHER STRIKES, LOCKOUTS ARE NECESSARY FOR GETTINGDEMANDS ACCEPTED
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

INFERENCE The above table shows that 5% of respondents are neutral, 27% of respondents disagree and 68% of respondents strongly disagree that trade unions plays a vital role in building effective working teams

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TABLE SHOWING WHETHER JOINING IN NATIONAL TRADE UNION IS MORE BENIFICIAL THAN LOCAL TRADE UNION PARTICULARS Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total NO:OF RESPONDENTS 7 13 40 24 16 100 PERCENTAGE 7 13 40 24 16 100

INFERENCE The above table shows that 16% of respondents strongly agree and 24% of respondents agree, 40% of respondents are neutral, 13% of respondents disagree and 7% of respondents strongly disagree that trade unions plays a vital role in building effective working teams

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TABLE SHOWING WHETHER TRADE UNION ACTIVITIES ENHANCE THE KNOWLEDGE PARTICULARS Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total NO:OF RESPONDENTS 48 29 15 5 3 100 PERCENTAGE 48 29 15 5 3 100

CHART OF EMPLOYEES SHOWING WHETHER TRADE UNION ACTIVITES ENHANCE THE KNOWLEDGE
Strongly disagree Disagree 5% 3% 15% 48% Neutral Agree Strongly agree

29%

INFERENCE The above table shows that 3% of respondents strongly agree and 5% of respondents agree, 15% of respondents are neutral, 29% of respondents disagree and 48% of respondents strongly disagree that trade unions plays a vital role in building effective working teams

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TABLE SHOWING WHETHER SELECTION FOR THE EXECUTIVE MEMBERS OF TRADE UNIONS IS CONDUCTED IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY. PARTICULARS Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total NO:OF RESPONDENTS 12 31 17 35 5 100 PERCENTAGE 12 31 17 35 5 100

CHART SHOWING WHETHER SELECTION FOR THE EXECUTIVE MEMBERS OF TRADE UNION IS CONDUCTING IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

INFERENCE The above table shows that 5% of respondents strongly agree and 35% of respondents agree, 17% of respondents are neutral, 31% of respondents disagree and 12% of respondents strongly disagree that trade unions plays a vital role in building effective working teams

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TABLE SHOWING WHETHER THE TRADE UNIONS ARE SUCCESSFUL IN DISPUTE SETTLEMENT PARTICULARS Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total NO:OF RESPONDENTS 9 13 47 29 2 100 PERCENTAGE 9 13 47 29 2 100

CHART SHOWING WHETHER THE TRADE UNIONS ARE SUCCESSFUL IN DISPUTE SETTLEMENT
Strongly disagree Disagree 2% Neutral Agree 9% 13% 29% Strongly agree

47%

INFERENCE The above table shows that 2% of respondents strongly agree and 29% of respondents agree, 47% of respondents are neutral, 13% of respondents disagree and 9% of respondents strongly disagree that trade unions plays a vital role in building effective working teams

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TABLE SHOWING WHETHER THE TRADE UNIONS FIGHT AGAINST IMPROPER IMPLIMENTATION OF POLICIES

PARTICULARS Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total

NO:OF RESPONDENTS 3 12 8 54 23 100

PERCENTAGE 3 12 8 54 23 100

CHART SHOWING WHETHER THE TRADE UNIONS FIGHT AGAINST IMPROPER IMPLIMENTATION OF POLICIES
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

INFERENCE The above table shows that 23% of respondents strongly agree and 54% of respondents agree, 8% of respondents are neutral, 12% of respondents disagree and 3% of respondents strongly disagree that trade unions plays a vital role in building effective working teams

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TABLE SHOWING WHETHER THE EMPLOYEE DEVOLOPMENT PROGRAM OF TRADE UNION ARE GOOD FOR EMPLOYEE EFFECTIVENESS

PARTICULARS Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total

NO:OF RESPONDENTS 10 24 36 27 2 100

PERCENTAGE 10 24 36 27 2 100

CHART SHOWING WHETHER THE EMPLOYEE DEVOLOPMENT PROGRAM OF TRADE UNION ARE GOOD FOR EMPLOYEE
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

INFERENCE The above table shows that 2% of respondents strongly agree and 27% of respondents agree, 36% of respondents are neutral, 24% of respondents disagree and 10% of respondents strongly disagree that trade unions plays a vital role in building effective working teams

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TABLE SHOWING WHETHER TRADE UNIONS HELP IN REDUCTION OF ABSENTEEISM AND TURN OVER PARTICULARS Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total NO:OF RESPONDENTS 9 12 32 34 13 100 PERCENTAGE 9 12 32 34 13 100

CHART SHOWING WHETHER UNIONS HELP IN REDUCTION OF ABSENTEEISM AND TURN OVER
Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree 9% 13% 12% Strongly agree

32% 34%

INFERENCE The above table shows that 13% of respondents strongly agree and 34% of respondents agree, 32% of respondents are neutral, 12% of respondents disagree and 9% of respondents strongly disagree that trade unions plays a vital role in building effective working teams

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CHAPTER 6 FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION

63

FINDINGS About 53% of the respondents are the members of INTUC. About 48%of the respondents have above 20 years of membership in the union The majority of the respondents are joined in the trade union because to ensure security. By the various activities trade union have been able to achieve employee effectiveness to a great extent and there by contributing to the success of the organization. About 62% of the respondents feel good with the demand acceptance of the trade union. Majority of the respondents feel that the problems faced by the trade union are mainly due to the illiteracy. More than half of the respondents say that the trade union protects its members from exploitation and provide job security to its members. Most of the respondents feel that the competition among trade union is not beneficial to the organization. Half of the respondents agree that the trade union help in enhancing employer-employee relationship and protects the interest of the workers through collective bargaining. Majority of the respondents are satisfied with the activities provided by the trade union. About 32% of the respondents feel that there is a positive effect of trade union on organizational climate. Half of the respondents agree that the trade union helps in developing innovative welfare schemes. About 68% of the respondent's opinion is that the strikes, lock outs, etc. are not necessary for getting demands accepted and thereby getting proper benefits. Most of the employees agree that the joining national trade union is more beneficial than joining local trade union. Respondents feel that trade union activities do not enhance the knowledge of the employees.
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About 37% of the respondents disagree with the selection criteria for the executive members of trade union, since it is not conducting in a democratic way. Majority of the respondents agree that the trade unions are successful in dispute settlement. About 54% of the respondents agree that the trade union fight against improper implementation of policies. About 29% of the employees agree that the employee development programs of trade union are good for employee effectiveness. About 47% of the respondent agree that the trade union helps in reduction of absenteeism and turn over.

6.2 RECOMMENDATIONS/SUGGESTIONS The trade union must protect and promote the economic and social interest of the workers. Trade union should also provide up to date information regarding its various activities to the employees. They should give employees the right to participate in the decision making process of trade union activities. In democracy, political influence of trade union cannot be avoided. But it can be reduced to a great extent. Since the main objective of trade union is employee welfare, it should give more focus on that. Trade union must perform their activities in such a way that it gets maximum support from the employees. The main focus behind each of their activity should be employee welfare.

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CONCLUSION: The research study entitled "A study to find out the role and relevance of trade union and its impact on employees" has given

many insights. For the purpose of the study a well defined questionnaire was used among the respondents. There are four trade unions in AVS and all are recognized by the company. Since all the unions are recognised there is a tight competition between the unions. The main drawback of the unions is the

members are not properly educated and are unaware of their rights and duties. If the trade unions in AVS become successful in getting maximum support from the part of management and should avoid union rivalries and excess political influence,

there is no doubt that it can lead to employee effectiveness and there by achieving organizational growth. And the union is also able to maintain a good employeremployee relation in AVS. From the study we can conclude that the

trade union are must for every company for safeguarding the interest of the workers and also help in maintaining good industrial relations.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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REFERENCE BOOKS - Micheal Armstrong - V.S.P.Rao - Lauire Mullins - Human Resource Management - Human Resource and Organisation Behaviour - Human Resource Management in Practice

WEBSITE

www.google.com www.hrworld.com

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APPENDIX

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QUESTIONNAIRE I, Princy C A, MHRM student of Rajagiri Centre for Business Studies,Ernakulam,is carrying out a project in IR on the topic A Study to find out the role and relevance of trade union and its impact on employees. I kindly request you to fillin the questionnaire given below. The data will be kept strictly confidential and will be used purely for academic purpose only. Age: Below 20 SSLC 21-30 HSE Below-5 31-40 41-50 above51 Graduate 11-15 AITUC 11-15 Others 16-20 BMS 16-20 above20 INTUC above20

Education:

Diploma 5-10 CITU 6-10

Organizational Experience:

Name of the trade union in which you are in: Year of experience in trade union: Reason for joining a trade union: Economic benefits Below-5

To ensure security

sense of belongingness

To get employment

To participate in trade union activity Financial problem Illiteracy Multiplicity of unions

Major problems faced by your trade union: Outside leadership Political problem

Lack of good leaders

Instructions: Please indicate your level of agreement with the following statements. Mark a number for each statement 1. Strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.Neutral 4.Agree 5.Strongly Agree

Sl no 1 2 3 4 5 Is trade union good in getting your demands accepted? Trade unions are highly influenced by the political parties. Trade Union protects its members from exploitation. Helps in maintaining good working condition for the employees. Competition between trade unions is beneficial for the organization 6 Helps in maintaining good employer-employee relations.
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Protects the interest of workers through their collective bargaining.

8 9 10 11 12 13

Satisfied with the overall performance of trade union. Trade Unions have a positive effect on organizational climate. Helps in developing innovative welfare schemes for employees. Plays a vital role in building effective working teams. Provides job security Activities like strike, lock outs etc. is necessary for getting proper benefits.

14

Joining in a national trade union is more beneficial than a local trade union.

15 16

Initiates activities to enhance the knowledge of employees. The selection of executive members for trade union is conducted in a democratic way? As per the by laws and rules prescribed

17 18

Trade union successful in settling disputes. Fight against improper implementation of personal policies like recruitment, selection, promotion, transfer, training and for getting reasonable wages, salaries.

19 20

Trade union contributes to employee effectiveness. Trade union activities help in reducing the rate of absenteeism and labour turn-over.

. Thank you ..

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