START

st«ut ¬¬-tal ¬·uut

st« ¤»u ¬·uu dut-tut ¬·uut
(-} + ¬tst da”¤tust« ¬tu e e, el-, et,
¬to da”¤tust«
- ¬tst +¸ast« ¬ut ut, (sut-s} u , ut, ul, ut
s ¬¸j” da”¤tust« ¬ut e u¤¬·
: ¬¸j” +¸ast« ¬ut (at ut (at
¬ ¬¸j” +ld·ust« ¬ut (u (tou, (u , (ut
¤ ¬to ¬¸j” da”¤tust« -(ut e u.¤¬·
c ¬to ¬¸j” +¸ast« -(ut (at u.¤¬·
¿ ¬to ¬¸j” +ld·ust« -(ut (u u.¤¬·
; ¬to +¸ast« ¬at (at at, al, a , at
+· ¬to +ld·ust« ¬at (u at, al, a , at
++ ¬ts +ld·ust« ¬ou u, ut, u

(·} st«ut s¤”lj ¬ut¬ aat ¬-sut ¬·uut ¬to-.
+. s¤”lj¬ut¬ut ¬·uu '-tu' e.
sa”-l ¬ut¬ · o» e . s¤”lj ¬ut¬ o»tu e.
-. ¬-s lsutut ¬·uu '-tu' u ·so '-td' e .
'o» e' u ¬-s;¬ o»td e

(s} s’s-aut ¬·uut ¬to-.
+ da”¤tu s’s-aut ¬·uut ou -adt at e.
»tou, -¤lu, ¬ou -adt -¤at, (¬at o.
l¬( ¬tou a +t-ut.
a ·t«st (¬at (¬at u- ¬tu e.
- +¸as’s-aut ¬·uut
-ot, -ol, -o
¬uot, -tdot
s ¬·us +¸as’s-aut ¬·uut · ou
: Infinitive (utau ¤¸«;¬} ut ¬·uu d
dt¬d , s-d · -t¬ dt¬d (tlust-s e.
utaut s-s ¤«;¬u d ¬·uu ot¬ e.
¬ ld·ua” · ¬to-



[ 2]

-¬_¤t ul¬ ¤¬· st« e.

Active Tenses (sa-l ¬ut¬¤t}

Present
1. Simple He writes (a letter)
o» e.
2. Continuous He is writing '' ''
o» e. (-·ut-}
3. Perfect He has written '' ''
o»ut e.
4. Perfect
Continuous
He has been writing '' ''
o»l -(ut e.
Past
5. Simple He write '' ''
o»ut
6. Continuous He was writing '' ''
o»at (at
7. Perfect He had written '' ''
o»ut (at
8. Perfect
Continuous
He had been
Writing '' ''
o»l -(ut (at
Future
9. Simple He will write '' ''
o»u
10. Continuous He will be writing '' ''
o»at (u
11. Perfect He will have '' ''
Written
o»ut (u
12. Perfect
Continuous
He will have
Been writing '' ''
o»l -(ut (u
13. Present conditional He would write

14. Conditional continuous He would be writing
o»at (tu
15. Perfect conditional He would have written
o»ut (tu s (ta
16. Conditional continuous He would have been writing
o»l -(ut (tu


(d -t st«u ¬¤¬dt stst¤t (Tabular form) ¤¸sl-


Passive Tenses (s¤lj ¬ut¬¤t}

[ 3]

1 (A letter) is written
o»tu e.
2
'' ''
is being written
o»tu e. (-·ut-}
3
'' ''
has been written
o»tut e.
4 x x x

o»tut
5
'' ''
was written
o»tat (at
6
'' ''
was being written
o»tut (at
7
'' ''
had been written

8 x x X


9
'' ''
will be written
o»tu
10 x x x
11
'' ''
will have been written
o»tut (u
12 x x x
13
'' ''
would be written
o»tu
14 x x x
15
'' ''
would have been written
o»tut (tu s (ta
16 x x x







-¬_¤t st«
¬. ¬tst da”¤tust«
(u + e }
¬to da”¤tust«
(u + e }
[ 4]


-. d. ·. d. -. d. ·. d.
1 I go We go I am going We are going

( ¬tu e . -¤ ¬o- el- ( (-·ut- } ¬tu e -¤ -·ut- ¬o- el-
2 You go You go You are going You are going

a ¬tu e. a¤ ¬td e a (-·ut- } ¬tu e a¤ (-·ut- } ¬td et
3 He goes They go He is going They are going
a ¬tu e. a-t ¬tu e . a (-·ut- }¬tu e . a-t (-·ut-} ¬tu e.
¬tst +¸ast« (ut} ¬to +¸ast«
(at + (at}
1 I went We went I was going We were going

( ¬ut -¤ ¬ut ( ¬at (at -¤ ¬at (at
2 You went You went You were going You were going

a ¬ut a¤ ¬ut a ¬at (at a¤ ¬at (at
3 He went They went He was going They were going

¬tst +ld·ust« (ou} ¬to +ld·ust«
(at + (u}
1 I shall go We shall go I shall be going We shall be going

( ¬ou -¤ ¬u ( ¬at (tou -¤ ¬at (u
2 You will go You will go You will be going You will be going

a ¬ou a¤ ¬ut a ¬at (tou a¤ ¬at (u
3 He will go They shall go He will be going They will be going
a ¬u a-t ¬u a ¬at (u a-t ¬at (u






TENSES IN ENGLISH

¬¸j” da”¤tu st«
(ut + e}
¬to ¬¸j” da”¤tust« (-(ut e}

-. d. ·. d. -. d. ·. d.
[ 5]

1 I have gone We have gone I have been going We have been going

( ¬ut e. -¤ ¬ut el- ( ¬o -(ut e -¤ ¬o -(ut el-
2 You have gone You have gone You have been going You have been going

a ¬ut e. a¤ ¬ut et a ¬o -(ut et a¤ ¬o -(ut et
3 He has gone They have gone He has been going They have been going
a ¬ut e. a-t ¬ut e. a ¬o -(ut e. a-t ¬o -(ut e.
¬¸j” +¸ast«
(ut + (at}
¬to ¬¸j” +¸ast« (-(ut (at}
1 I had gone We had gone I had been going We had been going

( ¬ut (at -¤ ¬ut ¬ut ( ¬o -(ut (at -¤ ¬o -(ut (at
2 You had gone You had gone You had been going You had been going

a ¬ut (at a¤ ¬ut (at a ¬o -(tu (at a¤ ¬o -(ut (at
3 He had gone They had gone He had been going They had been going

a ¬ut (at a-t ¬ut (at a ¬o -(tu (at a-t ¬o -(ut (at

¬¸j” +ld·ust«
(ut +(u }
¬to ¬¸j” +ld·ust« (-(ut (u}
1 I shall have gone We shall have gone I shall have been going We shall have been going

( ¬ut (tou -¤ ¬ut (u ( ¬o -(ut (tou -¤ ¬o -(ut (u
2 You will have gone You will have gone You will have been going You will have been going

a ¬t (tou a¤ ¬ut (ut a ¬o -(ut (u a¤ ¬o -(ut (ut
3 He will have gone They will have gone He will have been going They will have been going
a ¬ut (u a-t ¬ut (u a ¬o -(ut (u a-t ¬o -(ut (u









-¬ _¤t st« [REGULAR VERBS]

¬tst da”¤tu st«
(u + e }
¬to da”¤tust«
(u + e }

-. d. ·. d. -. d. ·. d.
1 I call We call I am calling We are calling

( ·totd e -¤ ·totdl- el- ( (-·ut-} ·totd e -¤ (-.} ·totdl- el-
[ 6]

2 You call You call You are calling You are calling

a ·totd e. a¤ ·totdt et a (-.} ·totd e. a¤ (-.} ·totdt et
3 He calls They calls He is calling They are calling
a ·totd e. a-t ·totd e. a (-.} ·totd e. a-t (-.} ·totd e.
¬tst +¸ast« (ut} ¬to +¸ast« (at (at}
1 I called We called I was calling We were calling

¤ ·tot·ut -¤ ·tot·ut ( ·totdat (at -¤ ·totdat (at
2 You called You called You were calling You were calling

a ·tot·ut a¤ ·tot·ut a ·totdat (at a¤ ·totdat (at
3 He called They called He was calling They were calling

aj ·tot·ut a-t- ·tot·ut a ·totdat (at a-t ·totdat (at

¬tst +ld·ust« (ou} ¬to +ld·ust« (at (u}
1 I shall call We shall call I shall be calling We shall be calling

( ·totdlu -¤ ·totdlu ( ·totdat (tou -¤ ·totdat (u
2 You will call You will call You will be calling You will be calling

a ·totdlu a¤ ·totdut a ·totdat (tou a¤ ·totdat (ut
3 He will call They will call He will be calling They will be calling
a ·otdu a-t ·totdu a ·totdat (u a-t ·totdat (u










¬¸j” da”¤tu st«
(ut + e}
¬to ¬¸j” da”¤tust« (-(ut e.}

-. d. ·. d. -. d. ·. d.
1 I have called We have called I have been calling We have been calling

¤ ·tot·ut e. -¤ ·tot·ut e. ( ·totdl -(ut e -¤ ·totdl -(ut el-
2 You have called You have called You have been calling You have been calling

a ·tot·ut e. a¤ ·tot·ut e. a ·totdl -(ut e. a¤ ·totdl -(ut et.
3 He has called They have called He has been calling They have been calling
[ 7]

aj ·tot·ut e. a-t- ·tot·ut e. a ·totdl -(ut e. a-t ·totdl -(ut e.
¬¸j” +¸ast« (ut (at} ¬to ¬¸j” +¸ast« (-(ut (at}
1 I had called We had called I had been calling We had been calling

¤ ·tot·ut (at -¤ ·tot·ut (at ( ·totdl -(ut (at -¤ ·totdl -(ut (at
2 You had called You had called You had been calling You had been calling

a ·tot·ut (at a¤ ·tot·ut (at a ·totdl -(ut (at a¤ ·totdl -(ut (at
3 He had called They had called He had been calling They had been calling

aj ·tot·ut (at a-t- ·tot·ut (at a ·totdl -(ut (at a-t ·totdl -(ut (at

¬¸j” +ld·ust« (ut (u } ¬to ¬¸j” +ld·ust« (-(ut (u}
1 I shall have called We shall have called I shall have been calling We shall have been calling

¤ ·tot·ut (u -¤ ·tot·ut (u ( ·totdl -(ut (tou
2 You will have called You will have called You will have been calling You will have been calling

a ·tot·ut (u a¤ ·tot·ut (u
3 He will have called They will have called He will have been calling They will have been calling
aj ·tot·ut (u a-t- ·tot·ut (u











st«ut ¬ºuta”
¬tst da”¤tust« ¬to
-sd¬u ·(d¬u -sd¬u
I go We go I am going
Do I go? I do not go Do we go? we not go Am I going? I am not going
You go You go You are going
Do you go? you do not go Do you go? you do not go Are you going? You are not
going
He goes They go He is going
[ 8]

Does he go? He does not go Do they go? They do not go Is he going? He is not going
¬tst +¸ast« ¬to
I went We went I was going
Did I go? I did not go Did we go? We did not go Was I going? I was not going
You went You went You were going
Did you go? You did not go Did you go? You did not go Were you going? You were not
going
He went They went He was going
Did he go? He did not go Did they go? They did not go Was he going? He was not
going
¬tst +ld·ust« ¬to
I shall go We shall go I shall be going
Shall I go? I shall not go Shall we go? we shall not go Shall I be going? I shall not be
going
You will go You will go You will be going
Will you go? you will not go Will you go? You will not go Will you be going? You will not
be going
He will go They will go Will he be going
Will be go? He will not go Will they go? they will not go He will be going
He will not be going

-¬ -la ¬to ¬¸j” st«ut ;¬t

¬t. ¬¸. d. I have been going – Have I been going? – I have not been going
¬t. ¬¸. +¸. I had been going – Had I been going? – I had not be going
¬t. ¬¸. +. I shall have been going – shall I have been going? I shall not have been going


-u ust- ;¬t
da”¤tust« ¬¸j” da”¤tust«
·(d¬u -sd¬u ·(d¬u
We are going. Are we going? I have gone We have gone
We are not going Have I gone? Have we gone?
You are going Are you going? I have not gone We have not gone
You are not going You have gone You have gone
They are going Have you gone? Have you gone?
Are they going? You have not gone You have not gone
They are not going He has gone They have gone
+¸ast«
Has he gone Have they gone?
We were going He has not gone They have not gone
Were we going? We were not
You were going ¬¸j” +¸ast«
Were you going? You were I had gone We had gone
They were going not going Had I gone? Had we gone?
[ 9]

Were they going ? I had not gone We had not gone
They were not going You had gone You had gone
+ld·ust« Had you gone? Had you gone?
We shall be going You had not gone You had not gone
Shall we be going? He had gone They had gone
We shall not be going Had he gone? Had they gone
You will be going He had not gone They had not gone
Will you be going?
You will not be going ¬¸j” +ld·ust«
They will be going I shall have gone We shall have gone
Will they be going? Shall I have gone? Shall we have gone?
They will not be going I shall not have gone We shall not have gone
You will have gone You will have gone
Will you have gone? Will you have gone?
You will not have gone You will not have gone
He will have gone They will have gone
Will he have gone? Will they have gone?
He will not have gone They will not have gone






¬tst da”¤tust« [The Present Tense]

;¬t · I go - We go Do I go ? - Do we go?
You go - You go Do you go? - Do you go?
He goes - They go Does he go? - Do they go?
I do not go -- We do not go
You do not go -- You do not go
He does not go -- They do not go

-t st«t -tl¬sl lsut-t (Always—(¤ ut aal -·ut-ul u(l. not now) cd ¤¬·ul
luul¤a lsut-t (habitual or routine activities), ¬t¤t-u ¬·ut (general truths) s ¬utau ¬·ut,
-atul lsut-t, s(dat, ulsa-t, ¬¸¬t aat luu¤t ¤tc d¬-tu e. -t st« ¬ta ·(ut
always, daily, everyday, every week, often (ujldt-}, frequently (dt-dt-} rarely (+t-u¬,
¬d,o, sdl¬a¸} usually, generally (¬t¤t-ua·} occasionally (¬¬¬t¬ta} once a month o
u·st ¬j ¬tdt ¤« e.
[ 10]


st. a.
o I go to school at 10-30
o He generally sits on the first bench. But today he is sitting on the last bench
o The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
¬j -·ut- ¬ u¬at (tu at
o Look, the sun is rising.
o He usually (¤tc+t¬} catches the 9-30 bus.
o We seldom (+t-u¬} speak Sanskrit
o He often prepares his own tea.
o I never read novels.







o I eat on apple everyday.
o I don’t buy cheep things.
o He always goes for a walk in the morning.

o ¬ljaut luu¤t : Two and Two make four
o +¸l¤laut ¬¤ut ·

The sum of the angles of a triangle is two right angles. l¬stjut »¸jt-tut
¬-dt«t · stc»¸jt ·-t·- atu e. If the two sides of a triangle are equal.
The angles opposite to these sides are equal.

o dçtlus luu¤t · Heat expands while cold contracts.
¬-¤lal ¬sta”u ¬¬-j atu e ¬ut- sslal ¬st¬tu e.
o ·uts-jut luu¤tu ·usa s-dt ¬tst da”¤tust« »t¬ s-lu aut s¤”lj;¬t ·ut¬s
-la d¬-tu e. st. a.
st. a. · The simple present is used (d¬-tu e.} with adverbs such as
always, often…
o -·ut·¤ut-¬ ·

dt¬tl¬ l¬jt”lu uat ld(tu... · (¬lat - · --}
[ 11]

Just as a person give up worn out clothes and puts on other new ones, so does
the embodied self give up discrepit bodies not enter new ones.

uu le-sl-a u-¬tlj...
Weapons do not cut it (the Atman), fire does not burn it, water does not
moisten it and wind does not dry it.








o Geography : s·ctat
How do seasons change ?
We know that the earth revolves round the sun and also rotates on its axis. Days
and nights are caused by the rotation of the earth on its axis. The axis of the
earth makes an angle of 23 1/2 with the vertical. It is this inclination which
causes changes in season.
o About Finland
It is often said that Finland is a small country. A glance at the map, however,
belies this with a total area of 130,128 sq. miles, Finland is larger than Great
Britain, but her population is only 4.7 million. The majority live in central and
southern Finland. The northernmost part, Lapland is sparsely inhabited. Vast
forests of spruce, pine and birch cover most of the land nad the thick
undergrowth is full of flowers and berries. There are about 60,000 lakes of all
sizes connected by narrow channels and short rivers. Tideless seas wash the
coastline. Fish abound in the seas, rivers and lakes. The highest land is in
Lapland the country of scenic fells where reindeer roam.

o ¬tl(·u¤t ·
“For the first time Drydon introduces the notion of literature as an organic force
which develops with the development of a nation, expressing the impulses of
each new age in a manner suited to its growth”

[ 12]

o d«l -¬_¤t ujt lsut¬st -dt e ¬ ¬to da”¤tu st«¤t d¬-tat ual. aut
¬ut¬ ¬tst da”¤tust«¤t ¬ atu e. -tdl lsut-t -l-es (deliberate) ual ¬j
-ul-es (involuntary -adt automatic) (tu e.

st. a. · ¬tdtul, ¬t+«dtul, ld¬t-dtul lsut-t -t¬¤« aal (tu e. -tdt
lsut¬stu ul¬ ¤¬· d¬l”s-j s-l ustu.







o Verbs of senses or perception

(ol-Œu¬~u lsut-t} ¬dl s ·

See, hear, smell, feel o
(·utu¤t -t»t s look, listen, watch, stare, gaze - deliberate lsut-t e}

o Verbs of feeling and emotions :

(ot¬jl su”s lsut-t}

love, hate (la--st-d } like, dislike, loathe (u;-a s-dl} detest (la--st-d } want,
wish, desire (o-ed } hope, prefer, o

o Verbs of thinking : ¤tul¬s ¬d’laut lusu s-at lsut¬st} ¬dt s ·

think, (ld¬t-d }, suppose (ut-d } assume (¤tulod } remember (uts -t»d } forget
(+ol ¬d }, know understand, realize (»uto -tddt} consider, agree imagine
(s,¬ut s-dl}, mean, mind expect (ut-jt s-dl} trust o

o Verbs of possession : (¤tlosl sut”dat lsut¬st} ¬dt s ·
Belong to, possess, have (possess ut -a”¤t} owe, o
o ·l¬t scots lsut¬st · seem, appear, look (ot¬d } consist, contain, matter,
concern o lsut¬st ¬tst da”¤tust«¤t ¬ d¬-tu e.
s·ctat ·
[ 13]

Love : I love you very much. (I am loving u(l}
Hate (la--st-d } : I hate mich !
Like : She likes him but doesn’t love him.
Dislike : I like dogs but dislike cats.
Loathe : Her husband simply loathes her cooking.

[ 14]

rear : I fear there will be a war.
dosire : We all desire happiness and heatlh.
detest : I detest people complaining.
want : I want your pen.
wish : I wish you good luck.
respeet : I respect my parents.
think : I think you are wrong.
assume : Scientists assume that there is no animal life on mars.
suppose : I suppose you want to borrow money from me again ?
remember : I remember it now.
forget : Forgive and forget.
believs : I don’t believe in ghosts.
expect : England expects everyone to do his duty.
know : I know him very well.y
understand : I understand your point.
trust : I trust in God.
be long : This house beiongs to me.
owe : I owe you five rupees (¤t- a¤u ¬t¬ ;l¬ut -t¬dtut e.}
possets : I possess this house.
own : I own this house.
have : I have a nice house.
look : He looks nice.
seem : He seems to be a good man.
appear : It appears that you have made a mistake.
consist : The committee consists of ten members.
contain : This bucket contains a lot of water.


--- u¬-ut ·ut dtsut¤t ¬to da”¤tust« d¬-tat ual ---

[ 15]

s(dat -u quotations -da-jt
o The true teacher, like Socrates, plays the part of a midwife.
- S. Radhakrishan
o One can prove anything by statistics expect truth. -- G. C.
o False friends are like our shadows, keeping close to us while we walk in
the sunshine, but leaving us the instant we cross into the shadow.
o Socialism is when people work for the government. Democracy is when
the government works for the people.
o A stitch in time seves nine.
d»a¬-ut -s ctst ·l¬t ud ctst ·¬td e.
o Fools rush in where angels fear to tred.
o Patience is bitter, but its fruit is sweet.
ul-¬ut ;« ¤lst
o Gossip (¬¬¬¬} is that which no one claims to like; but everybody
enjoys. - Joseph Conrad
- Love looks through a telescope, envy, through a microscope
- Josh Billings
- There is sufficiency in the world for the man’s need but not for the
man’s greed. - Mahatma Gandhi.
- If you wish to be great, be self-effacing and humble. The tree laden with
fruit always bends low. - Shri Ramkrishan
- Time and tide wait for nobody.



¬tst da”¤tust« lu·u

A Postman
Points :- 1. His appearance. 2. Daily duties 3. Hard work. 4. Qualities.
[ 16]

5. A useful public serant
A postman is a common sight in our cities and villages. He wear a khaki uniform.
He has a khaki canvas bag slung over his shoulder. In this bag he carries letters, post
cards, money orders and parcels.
His work heigns early in the morning. He goes to the Post Office to collect the
mail. He then starts on his round to distribute the letters. He visits each house and
shop and delivers letters them. He collects the letters from different letter-boxes along
the way. He takes them to the post office. He goes home for lunch. He returns to
work. He delivers the mail a second time in the evening. He goes home to rest after
finishing his day’s work.
The postman does a hard job. His work is dull. He does the same work every
day. He has to be on his feet all the time. He has to walk many miles a day. He also has
to go up and down the stairs of many buildings. At the end of the day he is very tired.
He is a useful public servant. People eagerly wait for him. He is a cheerful
worker. He is the bringer of good and bad news. If we had no postman we would have
to go to the post office ourselves to collect our letters.



Difficult Words
Slung – Hanging ; »+ lc¬ta Mail – Letters; c¬tout st¬«t
Distribute – Give out; d( ¬d Delivers-Hands;(tat(ta d( ¬ e




¬t¤t ¬’·s ¬- ‘The postman’ lu·u -t·ut e. - ¬¤tj s-s ·ulsa lduut
lu·ut ¬tst da”¤tust«¤t ¬ o»tu e. The farmer, The nurse, The hawker o
-t¤ ·ulsa ld¬ut -t_st stu” (daily routine) sut”ddt ¬tst da”¤tust«ut u¬ut¬
atu e. ¬j ¬t ·ulsa lduul +¸ast«ul l¬l·u dj”ddl (tu at ¬tst +¸ast« ¬j
¬ta d¬-tu e. st. a. ¤t-t l¬u (My favourite sportsman) -¤adl- -(l
[ 17]

+¸ast«ul ucut-tut ¬j ¬¤tdu atu e. -co ¬tst da”¤tust« + ¬tst +¸ast«
d¬-tu e.
ut. XII ¤tc u¬ut¬l ul¬ut lu·u ¬-t.

My Favourite Sportsman

My favourite sportsman is Sachin Tendulkar. Sachin plays cricket with skill
and aplomb. There is no answer to him.
Sachin Ramesh Tendulkar was born on April 24, 1973. As a school boy of
14, he burst upon the Bombay cricket scene like a bomb-shell, with a string of
massive scores at 276, 159, 156, 123, 123, 97, 150 and 329 not out in the school
and club cricket! During just two seasons, Sachin scored more than 3000 runs!
In 1988, Sachin at 15, became the youngest player in the Ranji Trophy
championship. Gavaskar said, “People come to see only stars and Sachin is
already a star now.”

[ 18]

He has never looked back since he entered Test arena. His test match
records are splendid. In a one-day match against Pakistan he hit four sixes and a
four in an over from Abdul Kadir, the best spin bowler in the world !
On the Indian tours of New Zealand and England he has played
magnificently, so magnificently that admiring girls in England languished for the
favour of his friendship, while the middle-aged mothers longed to adopt him as
their son. The shy Sachin had to run away for safe shelters.
Back in Bombay he has been a cynosure of all eyes. The shy sophomore of
Kirti College has become the most sought-after celebrity in cultural, industrial,
sports and even the film circles He has the technique and temperament for the
big occasion plus an opulent repertoire of strokes He has the flair, makes
flourishes with his bat at the crease and is fascinating to watch.
He is a dare-devil who can put to the sword the best of bowlers, if the
occasion demands.
To sum up, one can quote from Imran Khan : “Tendulkar’s career will have
its ups and downs.”
But at the moment he stands on the threshold of greatness.

--- excerpts from the ‘sun’ magazine

[ 19]

o -t l¬dtu ¬tal dut- at et¬t-t¤t, ¤¬~l-¬¤t a dramatic narration ¤tc d¬-tu
e. a Œt-t -t stu” ·( ¬ s- ats-u (Vivid pen-pictures) u·sl¬¬t -¬ s- e.
o ¬-t ‘Savvy’ ut ¤ ';+ ut -s¤ ¬ºl u¤t+t-al ld¬u u·s l¬¬ · (¬tst
da”¤tust«¤t}

“It’s her eyes. They pierce right into your eyes, summing you up in one
shrewd flicker. The next instant they twinkle at you, innocent child-like. An
intense aura flows out of her bright saffron robes, as she articulates her
thoughts, clearly, passionately. Even her short hair – frowned upon by other
members of her ill-stands testimony to the rebel she has always been. Uma
Bharti, our savvy woman this month, stands on the lawn of the party office. The
atmosphere is charged with enthusiasm and buoyancy. It is as if the place has
come alive by her mere presence. People mill around her. Not only is she
comfortable, she heartily enjoys the adulation with unpretentious candour. The
crowd hankers for the glimpse of her. A few even touch her feet……. she greets
a few with a smile. Others she dismisses within seconds.
o d«l sports events, commentaries sl¤s ucut-t, -a(tl¬s ucut-t, utcslu
ucut-t o u ats-u s-dt¤t dramatic narrative ¬(¬ d¬-tu e.
o Bedi comes and bowls to Sobers…
o Shri Ram lifts the bow and breaks it. Sitaji immediately garlands him.

[ 20]


o ¬tst da”¤tust«¤t d¬-tuo ºl ¬Œu»-u u·s l¬¬ ·

He hums a song as he walks along a gravel path, not a care in the world.
He throws his head up and laughs, reads a book, goes for long walks. He talks to
the birds when he is not feeding them or just sits in nature’s midst. No files to
read, no meetings to attend. No speeches to make or secret parleys to worry
about….

“I am taking a holiday now. Go and talk to the people in the new Govt,”
he says, visibly relieved to be away from it all. There is no rancor or regret.

Chandra Shekhar now spends most of his day supervising the construction
on his farmhouse.

“Running the country was easier. You only had to give instructions. Now I
have to get the work done myself,” he smiles wiping out the sweat from his
brow.

--- ‘India To day’ (July 31, 1991)

[ 21]

o s¬ modal auxiliaries.
shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must -u ought to – -t
;¬tu sut-s ing ¬·uu ot¬at ual -t¬j sut-u can-ing, could-ing s-at
ual !
o Above all ¬tal dut- at ·ut¬s -la d¬-tat primary auxiliaries : to be, to have
(-¤s -¬dtstu ·ts s-at} u ¬to st«ut ;¬t ual.
(be lsut¬su ¬to da”¤tust«u ;¬ s¤”lj ¬ut¬¤t ¬ d¬-tu e.
st. a. He is being informed)
(have lsut¬s ¬j give s take ut -a”¤t ¬ ¬to st«¤t d¬-tu e. We are
having a party. --u¬ u(l.
o utu · to be ut ;¬t –is, are, am, was, were o introductory ‘there’ ¬ta
ldu¬ d¬-tu e ¬ut ldu --u¬ ¬¬t” s-l e.
o ¬to da”¤tust«u ·so -t st« sdl¬a¸ here -u there ul ¬ta us¸¬t-
dtsu¤t ¬j d¬-tu e.
- Here comes the bus! - ·¬ -td !
- There she goes ! ajl - ¬tu!
o sdl¬a¸ sto ut¬ut·Œ, ussl ucut ¤tc +ld·ust«u ·so ¬tst da”¤tust«
d¬-tu e.
- The school opens on the 17
th
June
- When does the school reopen? ut«t sut- »¸o e.º
o In clauses of time and condition (type – 1) +ld·ust«u ·so ¬tst da”¤tust«
d¬-tu e. -(l u¬dtsu¤t when, as soon as, while o u·st (tu e. ¬¤ s
- If you (will) come, we shall go for a walk.
- I shall go after I (shall) have finished my work
- I shall wait till you (will) finish your lunch. -(l shall, will -·ut(t- -( e.
-t luu¤ ujt -¬·uut e. ujl +¸ot ludt-dt ¤tc -t luu¤ ¤uu¬¸j” e.
o Prof. K. Das says, “In fact, if we try to analyse the sentence patterns in
everyday speech and in works of great English writers, we shall find that it is
the simple present and not the present continuous that we need every now
and then. (Its average ratio is (87/13)
-t -l+¬tu u¬-al -t st«ul -¬·uat -tsl ustu e.


¬to da”¤tust« [The present continuous]

I am going We are going
( (-·ut-} ¬tu e . -¤ (-·ut-} ¬o- el-.
[ 22]

You are going You are going
He is going They are going
-t st«u ¬¤¬dt as¸u ¬(ot e.
o ·toal d»a ¬ lsut ¬to (tu -co s -·ut- (now) ¬ lsut ¬to (tu a
sut”ddt ¬to da”¤tust« d¬-tu e. ¬¤ s
- I am reading now. ( -·ut- dt¬ e .
- Look, the sun is rising ¬t-t, ¬u” u¬l -(ut e.
- Hurry up, the bell is ringing.
- He often sits on the back benches, but today he is sitting on the front
bench.
o '-·ut-'ut -a”u atst ld-at-l ustu
We can take it ‘now’ in a general sense.
-co s sto ·ulsa -·ut- ¬-as +o u dt¬at (tu ¬j '(to¤t' dt¬at (tu
at -t st« dt¬-l ustu e. ¬¤ s
He is reading a play by Kalidas
stolst¬u utcs a dt¬l -(ut e.
-t st« »¸·¬ ¬(ot e, eat scots ¤s¸t-t ·utu¤t -t»dt ¬;-l e.
+. ¬tst da”¤tust«ut lu¬s ul¬ -t¬j ¬tu s scots lsut¬st (¤ut ¬tst
da”¤tust«¤t ¬ d¬-tu e, ¬to da”¤tust«¤t u(l.
¬dt s see, hear, wish, want, remember o
-. ¬j sut-s -tdt lsut¬st lŒ-al -co s see ut -a” ¤«d aat (tu at
·ut ¬to da”¤tust« dt¬-l ustu e. ¬¤ s
The manager is seeing the clerk tomorrow.
s. -t st« +ld·ust«ut -a”¤t sto ¬tss¬, -tut_a lsut ¤tc ¬j d¬-tu
e. - ·utu¤t -t»d uc e. ¬¤ s I am coming tomorrow. sto ( -td
e.

(¬. ¬·uu · ut} ¬tst +¸ast« [The simple past]
;¬t · I walked We walked
You walked You walked
He walked They walked
[ 23]

¬ºuta” · Did I walk ? Did we walk ?
Did you walk ? Did you walk ?
Did he walk ? Did they walk ?
ust- · I did not walk. We did not walk.
You did not walk. You did not walk.
He did not walk. They did not walk.

¬tst +¸ast« -co -s d»aul +¸ast«ul ¬¸j” ucut
[Simple past expresses a one time completed past event.]

o ¬t¤t-u -la +¸ast«ul dta¤t sto ¬tss¬ ¬¤u lusudt«l -adt sto -s
d»aul ¬¸j” ucutdt«l dta ¬ -tdal (tdtal -tst« u ;os ·( ldut« e.
o ¬tsu ¬-ast, et¬t-t, ¤¬~lut, dtat”-t o ¤t -t st« ¬d”¬ edtuot -( e.
-u aut ·ut¬s u¬ut¬ ¬tdt ¤« e. ·ut st«ut u¬ut¬¤t au -atu No. 1
e .
o ¬t¤t-u -la lsut¬stu o¬tslu ¬tst +¸ast« ·utddt¤t -td e. ¬¤ s
Walk - Walked, Call - Called, Play - Played
d«l ¬ lsut¬stu o¬tslu +¸ast«u ;¬ ·utddt¤t -td a¬ ¬·uu +¸as’s-a¤t
¬j ot¬ e aal ¬-«at ujl -( e.
o¬+¬ +·,··· -¬_ lsut¬st¤t ;sa +··+¬· ;¬t ¬ -dt e ¬ut +¸ast«
-u +¸as’s-a -luul¤a e. ¬dt s
go went gone --- eat ate eaten.

[ 24]

-co s ¬¤¬ lsut¬st¤t -sts· cst -luul¤a lsut¬stut ¤(td-t du sl.u
ual ·uat !
 ¬tst +¸ast«ut u¬ut¬...
1. ¬tss¬ ¬¤u lus u (tu ·ut- ...
- I saw him yesterday.
- I passed my S. S. C. Exam. In 1960.
- I went to Bombay last year.
- The train left ten minutes ago.
- I met him at 5 p. m.
2. ¬tss¬ ¬¤u lusu u (tu ¬j ucutut ¬ s+” Œt-t -t¬j ¬¤_ usl- s -¤s
¬¤u a ¬¸-l ao ¬o e . ·ut- ¬tst +¸ast« d¬-tu e .
(In such cases the time is implied or indicated by the context)
- I didn’t sleep well (i. e. last night)
- He retained his parliamentary seat (i. e. in the last election)
3. -s ucut ¬¸j” ao ¬o (tdtal aut ¬¤u ¬¸-t aut e - ¬tst +¸ast«¤t ;loa
atu e.
st. a. He worked in the school for 10 years.
(-ut -a” - atu s a (d st¤ s-at ual.}
He worked there for a long time.
(-ut -a” - ¬j atu s a (d st¤ s-at ual.}
:. ujldt- used to -u would ul ¤t;s - past habit ¤tc d¬-tu e.
- He used to smoke when he was young.
- He would sit there on the river bank for hours.
u¤¬tu s-at, ·¬at, -dt ¬ -a”¤t ¬tst +¸ast« d¬-tu e.
- When he wasin Bombay he went to Juhu Beach regularly.




5. Conditional type II ¤t ¬tst +¸ast«ut ¬ ut¬ atu e.
He would come if you called him.
[ 25]

¬t a¤ ·totdt at a -td.
a ¬ -la subjunctive (¬uuta”} ¤t when the past tense is unreal
st. a. as if, if, only, I wish, o ¬el
1. ! wish I knew his name.
2. It only I knew earlier, I would have sent you a telegram.
3. It is (high) time you had a hair cut !
_a-t dul ¬ut e , (¬t¤a s-tddtut ¬¤u ¬tsl ¬ut e.

dtat”¤t · dtat”-t¤t ¬tst +¸ast« ¬ d¬-tu e. ul¬ul dtat” dt ¬l +¸ast«ut ;¬t
utudt ¬u·u s-t.
The Camle’s Revenge

A cunning jackal wanted to enjoy a feast to water melons. But he had to cross a
river to reach the melon field on the other side of the bank. So he went to a camel and
said, “Mr. Camel, there are lovely melons across the river. If you carry me across I shall
show you, where they are. Then we can both feast on melons.”
The camel agreed to carry the jackal across the river. They reached the field.
The jackal ate the melons very fast. The camel was very slow. After the jackal finished
eating, he started howling. “Why do you howl ?” said the camel, “If you howl the
farmer will catch us.” But the jackal replied. “It is my habit to howl after my meal. So, I
shall not stop howling.”

[ 26]


The howls brought the owner to the field. The jackal ran away. The camel was
left alone He was soundly beaten by the farmer and his men.
The time came for the return journey. The jackal mounted the camel’s back;
The camel started crossing the river. He reached the middle of the stream. Then he
rolled about in the water. The jackel was alarmed. “Why do you roll in the water? ”
said he. The camel replied, “It is my habit to roll after my meal. “The jackal was thrown
off into the river. He got drowned, The camel thus took revenge on the jackal for
betraying him to the farmer. This teaches us that meaness is always punished.

[ 27]

¬¸j” da”¤tust« [The present perfect]
(¬. ¬ . · (ut e }
;¬t ·
I have gone. We have gone
( ¬ut e . -¤ ¬ut el-.
You have gone. You have gone.
a ¬ut e a¤ ¬ut et.
He has gone. They have gone.
a ¬ut e. a-t ¬ut e.

utu · ·to¬toul +t¬t¤t (Spoken English) ¤t -t ;¬tut ¬l;·a ;¬t I’ve
gone, We gone ¬ d¬-tu e.
o -t st«u ut¤ ¬¸j” da”¤tust« e. ¬j dt-adt¤t a +¸ast« ¬ e. l(-sl¤t au
'-t¬-u +¸asto' s( e. -t¬-u -co u_sut, at¬a-ut -co s -uau· ¬(¬
-s ¬ºu atu s at ¬el au da”¤tust« s¤ s(dt¤t -td eº
- ¬tst +¸ast«¤t ¬ut- -t¬j 'a ¬ut' s(l- el- ·ut- -s lsut ·ut ¬¸j” atu
e. ¬ut- -t¬j 'a ¬ut e' s(l- el- ·ut- '¬ut' ¬el 'e' ut ¬·uual a
lsutu -t¬j da”¤tu ¬ul o·tdl- el-. c¸s¤t ·uts-jul +t¬t¤t s(l- at -t
+¸ast«u da”¤tu ¬ta ¬ts«, ssl, ¬·u s -¬- (tdtu st-j au -t¬j '¬¸j”
da”¤tust«' s(l- el-.
- -t ¬ts«, ssl, ¬·u s -¬- -co u º
st. a.
Babar founded the Moghul Empire on 1526.
·t·- +¬-¤¤t ¤t¬o ¬t¤t¬u -at·u .

[ 28]

¬j (d a -(u ual. -co -¤ u s(l ustu s
Barbar has founded the Moghul Empire.
adl ¬ -la
1. I have never seen a tiger.
¤ sut-u dtu ¬tut ual. (-co s (¬ ¬ul -t¬ ¬ul}
2. I have done my work.
¤ st¤ s-l olu e. ((d ·tsl ual}
3. He has not come yet (a (¬ -t·ut ual.}
4. I have just finished my work.
(¤jt¬ st¤ ¬¸; su” e.
5. Have you ever seen a tiger ?
-t st-j -t st« ¬ta »t¬ s-lu
- Just ((¤jt¬} already (sut-u u} ever (sut-u} never, for ((¬ ¬ul} since -u
yet ¬dt u·st d¬-tu e.
-t st« ¬tst +¸ast«al 'e, e ' ut dut-tut ¬·uutal -¬·c -la ¬st a-l -td e.
¬tst +¸ast« ¬¸j” da”¤tust«
( ¬ut ( ¬ut e
a ¬ut a ¬ut e.
I have seen a picture yesterday.
¬tst +¸ast« -s ¬tss¬ ucut ¬¸j” ao e -¤ ·atd e. ¬u da”¤tu ¬ta sto
¬·u ual. a¤t ujldt- ¬tss¬ ¬¤u lusu (tu e.
¬¸j” da”¤tu ¤t ¬tss¬ ¬¤e lusu ¬+d ual -t¬j -¬_¤t -¤ u s(l usl-
e
I have seen a picture yesterday.
-ts’laul ¤ssal -t ¤s¸t dut- -¬·c ao us.
da”¤tust«
¬tst +¸ast«
¬¸j” da”¤tus st«
¬¸j” da”¤tust«¤t (¤ut +¸as’s-aut ;¬t¬ d¬-tat (tdtal a ul»dtu aut- ad
¬s e. ¬t¤t-u -la s-s lsut¬sut -t¬j ¬j ;¬t aut- s-l- el-.
V1 (Verb one) -co s ¤¸« ;¬ ¬d .
[ 29]

V2 (Verb two) '' '' +¸ast«u ;¬ ¬ut.
V3 (Verb three ) '' '' +as’s-au ;¬ ¬uot -adt ¬ut e.
V3 u ;¬ -co +¸as’s-au ;¬. ¬¸j” da”¤tust« l¬dtu ¬¸j” +¸ast«, ¬¸j”
+ld·ust« -u s¤”lj¬ut¬ut ·ut st«¤t ¬tss¬ d¬-ta (tdtal, -co s ud
st« sa”-l ¬ut¬ut -u ud st« s¤”lj ¬ut¬¤t so +¿ st«¤tal +- st«¤t
d¬-ta (tdtal +¸a s’s-au ;¬ ul»d -ludtu” ·ul ¬tu e.

¬t s -t ;¬t ¬( ot e. st-j s ¬ +¸ast«ut lsut¬su ¬·uu ot¬ e. a¬
¬·uu +as’s-au ot¬ e. -co s ;;~ +¸ast«ut -u +as’s-aut ¬·uut
¬-»t e. st. a.
V1 V2 V3
Walk Walked Walked
talk talked talked
admire admired admired
play played played
-¬tu ¬jt·u a¤ -sts· cst ¬cot -co s +··+¬· ;¬t¬ -luul¤a e.
¬ut ¤»¬ts s-dt ¬(ot e.
 ¬¸j” da”¤tust«ut u¬ut¬
(+} (¤jt ¬ ¬-l auol lsut-t ¤tc · ¬¤ s.
He has just gone out. a (¤jt ¬ ·(t- ¬ut e.
It has just struck ten. (¤jt ¬ su dt-ut e.

[ 30]

(-} +¸ast«¤t lsut u; ao (tu -u (¬ ¬to (tu ¬¤ s.
- We have lived here for 10 year.
- -¤ s¬ d¬”al -(l -(l- el- (-u (¬ -(dtu ¬to e.}
- He has been ill since last week.
e,ot -sdtslutal a ¤tst e. (-u (¬ ¤ts¬l ¬to e.}
- I have worked in this firm for the last 10 years.
¤ -t ¬ .l¤t e,ot s¬ d¬”al st¤ su e. (-u (¬ ¬to e.}
- I have worked in this firm since 1980.
+;¿· al st¤ su” e. (-u (¬ uts-l ¬to e.}
(s} +ast«ul ucut ¬j -¬- ¬to (tu ·ut-
- I have finished my work ((d ( ect e }
- I have cut my finger (and it is bleeding now)
(:} +ast«ul ucut ¬ut ¬¤u ¬tss¬ ual -adt -t·ut ual.
- I have never known him to he angry
¤ au sut-u ¬-¬ aat ¬tut ual.
-t st« +ast« -u da”¤tust«u l¤ºj (tdtal ¬tst +ast«ul ¬ta
et¬t-t¤t, -lsut, cl.dl. -(dtot¤t, ¬¬t¤t, ¬dts¤t ¬¸j” da”¤tust«
-dt-udt- stlsut s-at -( e.

[ 31]

¬¸j” +¸ast« [The past perfect]
¬. ¬. · (ut (at}
-t st«u ¬l;·a ;¬ I had gone u ·so I’d done e .
I had gone We had gone
( ¬ut (at. -¤ ¬ut (at
You had gone You had gone
a ¬ut (at a¤ ¬ut (at.
He had gone They had gone
a ¬ut (at a-t ¬ut (at.

¬¸j” +¸ast«u ujldt- ·uts-j ut-¬l-t Before-past ¬j s( e.
-co s -s +ast« ¬(otut +ast« st. a.
( ¬ut- luut« ¬(t-ut ·ut- uc dt¬l ¬ut (at.
When I reached the school, the bell had rung.
-t¤t +ast«ul · lsut-t ao e. -s luut« ¬(t¬dtul -u ·l_ uc dt¬dtul
uc dt¬dtul lsut ¬(ol -adt d(ol ao e. aal a lsut ¤tc ¬¸j”+¸ast« -u
¬elul lsut ¤tc ¬tst +¸ast« d¬-tu e. ¬¤ s.
¬tol¬ -tdl a ¬(ot ¬t- ut¬l ¬ut (at.
The thief had run away before the police came.
stsc- -t·ut a ¬(ot s-sl ¬¬-l ¬ut (at.
The patient had died when the doctor came.
a¤ -t·ut a ¬(ot st¤ u; ao ¬u (a
The work had begun before you came.

[ 32]

(-} ¬ut- +¸ast«ul -s ucut ¬ ·ul e a l·sal a -¬tuut ¬¬¬ a-; u¬- ut»l-
(Looking back on earlier action from a certain point in the past) ·ut- ¬¸j”
+¸ast«u -t¬j -dt+tlds -la dt¬-l- el-.
¬t-t ¤(tu o»s Irving Wallace ul best seller, “The Seventh Secret” u
-da-j
“Her hurt had remained, yet was gradually diminishing Realistically she
knew her pain had not been caused by the loss of love, but by wounded pride.
Soon, looking back, she had been able to see that what she had really
wanted was not Jeremy and himself but conformity in marriage, a home and
children of her own. The idea of breaking away from lecturing had appealed to
her more than Jeremy had. She had been fond of him, of course. But when the
air cleared, she had been able to see that an alliance with Jeremy would have
been a disaster. After hurt had coagulated into distate, the memory of him had
begun to evaporate into the happier euphoria of good riddance.
Thank God, she had a fallback position. With renewed energy she had
thrown herself into the completion of the Hitler biography. Increasingly by the
book and her father had once more become the most important things in her
life.”

s (a) ¬¸j” +ast«u ¬ut- -¬tuut +ast« a-ls dj”dl- el- ·ut- said Direct speech
¬elut Indirect speech ¤t ;-dat Reported speech ¤t -tdot ¬tst +ast« -t¬t
-t¬ ¬¸j” +ast« ·u e. ¬¤ s ·
- He said, “I saw you.”
[ 33]

- He said that he had seen me.
(b) d«l Sequence of tenses ut luu¤ ¤¬· ¤»u dtsu¤t +ast« (tu at
u¬dtsuut da”¤tust« +ast«¤t ;-ddt ¬s e. - luu¤ ¤¬· ¬¸j” da”¤tu ¬j
¬¸j” +¸ast«¤t ¬l-j¤ e. ¬¤ s.
- He said, “ I have done my work.”
- He said that he had done his work.
4. (a) Perfect conditional st«¤t (Type-III) If-clause ¤t ¬¸j” +ast« d¬-tu e.
st. a.
If I had read, ! would have passed
¬t ¤ dt-u (ta at ( ¬t¬ aut (ta.
-o·a -(l ¬j” +ast«ut -a” 'dt-u (a ' -(at ual ¬j 'dt-u (ta' a¤ atu
e .
a¬ -la Subjunctive (¬uuta”}¤t
I wish I had not gone there. (·ut u ¬ut (ta at ¬t; (a .}
If only he had informed me about this. (aj ¬jt·u (ta at ¬t; (a }
He behaves as if he had been a millionare. (o»¬la (tu a¤ da” e.}

[ 34]

[The Past Comtinuous and the future continuous]
¬to +¸ast« -u ¬to +ld·ust«
(¬¬-tal ¬·uut · at, (at} -u (¬¬-tal ¬·uut · at, (u}
-t ·u st« as¸u ¬(ot e. +¸ast«¤t sto lsut '¬to (al' s +ld·u¤t sto lsut
¬to (u a sut”ddt -t st« d¬-tu e.
d«l 'at (at' -u 'at (u' -t ¬·uut al a -¬·c -la ¬t-»l ustu e.
;¬t
I was going We were going I shall be going We shall be going
( ¬at (at -¤ ¬at (at ( ¬at (tou -¤ ¬at (u
You were going You were going You will be going You will be going
He was going They were going He will be going They will be going

When I came, he was reading. When I come, he will be reading.
( -t·ut ·ut- a dt¬at (at. ( -tdlu ·ut- a dt ¬at (u.
Yesterday at six o’clock. I was playing I shall be playing volleyball till six tomorrow
Volleyball.
( ¬o sto e dt¬ dtol·to -¤at (at. ( -tdalsto e dt-ut ¬ul dtol·to -¤at (tou
Birds are singing now. Yesterday at this Birds are singing now. Tomorrow at this
Time, they were singing. time, they will be singing.
¬;l-t -·ut- ¬tu e. ¬o sto -t¬ ¬;l-t -·ut- ¬tu e. -tdal sto -t¬ ¬¤u
¬¤u a-t ¬tat (at. a-t ¬tat (u.
¬ju ¬to st«t - s¬ dtsu¤t ¤¸sl- at ·
Birds are singing now. They were singing yesterday at this time. They will be singing
tomorrow at this time. ¬;l-t -·ut- ¬tu e . (¬t.d.} a-t ¬o sto -t¬ ¬¤u ¬tat (at.
(¬t.+¸} -u (sst¬} -tdal sto ¬j -t¬ ¬¤u ¬tat (u (¬t. +.}




¬¸j” +ld·ust« [The Future Perfect]
I shall have gone We shall have gone.
[ 35]

( ¬ut (tou -¤ ¬ut (u
You will have gone You will have gone
a ¬ut (tou a¤ ¬ut (ut.
He will have gone They will have gone
a ¬ut (u. a-t ¬ut (u.
o +ld·u¤t sto lsut ¬¸-l ao ¬o (u a sut”ddt -t st« d¬-tu e. -t st«¤t
¬¤u lusu ¬;-l e. sut- º
( -tdlu ·ut- aj ¬-as dt¬l olu (u.
When I come, he will have read the book.

-¤ -tdl ¬(t¬lu a ¬(ot a st¤ s-l -(u.
He will have finished the work before we arrive.

o ¬t¤t-u -la -t st« (¬ul¤t} (·ut ¬ul¤t} o u·stal -l+·usa atu e.
- By the end of the summer he will have taughtus to speak English.
By next June he will have written his next novel.
The meeting will have been finished, by the time we get there.
It we don’t get there before seven they will have eaten and drunk everything.

o The future of assumption :
( ut; e .¤tu e . - -a”¤t ¬j -t¬j -t st«ut »t¬ s-lu +t¬j, ¬d¬u o
¤t u¬ut¬ s-l- el-. ¬¤ s
You will have noticed from my speech how desperate our economic condition is :
-t¬jt suul -tla”s l-ala scol »-t· e. a -t¬ ¬(- ¤t-t ¬d¬u¤tal ¬tu
(u.

[ 36]

¬tst +ld·ust« [The Future Tense]
-t st« as¸u ¬(ot e. +ld·u¤t sto lsut au a sut”ddt -t st« d¬-tu e.
-co s 'ou' dt«t lsut¬sut ;¬t -t st«¤t d¬-tu e. ¬¤ s »tou, ¬lu
-¤lu, ¬ou, o»lu o
( -t st« ld¬ ld-a’a ¬¬t” ut ld+t¬¤t s-l e.}
·utu¤t -cot ¬¸-a -t»dtu s u ·so -u u ·so u d¬-tu ¬tu u(l at
lsut¬s ¬- +t- -tdl ¬tu e. st. a.
( ¬ou ¬. at- ¬d ¬ ¬su.
¬t s -¤l-su o-olu¤t (d ut u¬ut¬ ¬(ot ¬;¬¤t ¬j ·ut¬s -la atu e
-u u¬ta ¬tu e.
¬to ¬¸j” st«t
»-»- ¬¬-tal¤t -tdt ¬to ¬¸j” st«t ual. d«l -¬¸_¤t ¬j -t st«t -tet
d¬-tu e. st-j s -t st«t ;sa ¬ta·u ·atddt¬ d¬-tu e.
d«l ¬to ¬¸j” da”¤tu u ·so a¤ ¤tc +t¬ ¬¸j” da”¤tu dt¬-l ust et.
d«l ¬to ¬¸j” +ast« u ·so a¤ ¤tc +t¬ ¬¸j” +ast« dt¬-l ust et.
d«l ¬to ¬¸j” +ld·ust« u ·so a¤ ¤tc +t¬ ¬¸j” +ld·ust« dt¬-l ust et.
st. a. ( e;ot su d¬”al ¬t«lut¤t -(l -(ut e .
( e;ot su d¬”al ¬t«lut¤t -(ut e .
(¬¸. d.} I have lived in Jaliya for the last 10 years.
- dtsu dt¬-l ust -u u¬-ut · dtsut¤t »t¬ a;tda ¬j -(at ual.
(ul¬ut ut-jut -adt u;-taut ldutal”-t -t st«u ;sa ld(¬tdotsu s- at
¬j ¬to, c¸s¤t -t st«al ¬+-tdtul ¬;- ual.}
modal auxiliaries
I shall go We shall go.
You will go. You will go.
He will go They will go.
shall will will Shall I will go You shall go, will shall
I have been living in Jaliya for the last 10 years.
[ 37]

¬to ¬¸j” da”¤tust« [The Perfect Continuous]
I have been going We have been going
(( ¬o -(ut e }
You have been going You have been going
He has been going They have been going.
sto lsut +ast«¤t u; ao (tu -u ¬aa (¬ ¬to (tu ad ¬ta·u ·atddt
-¬_¤t ¬tst da”¤tu s ¬to da”¤tu u dt¬-at -t st« d¬-tu e. st.a. ( e;ot
s¬ d¬”al -¬_ ul»dl -(ut e (-u (¬ ul»d e }
-adt
( +;c· al -¬_ ul»dl -(ut e (-u (¬ ul»d e}
I have been teaching English for the last 10 years.
-adt I have been teaching English since 1970.
a · d-¬al -¬_ ul»l -(ut e.
He has been studying English for 2 years.
-tut -a” -¤ atu s a · d-¬ ul»ut e -u (¬ ul»l -(ut e.
For 2 years he has studied English and he is still studying
-t¤t ¬ta·u (continuity) ¬- +t- e
·utu -t»t s ¬to da”¤tust«¤t ¬¤u lusu ¬;-l e.
utu · ¬to ¬¸j” st«ut s¤”lj ¬ut¬ aat ual.


[ 38]


[ 39]


¬to ¬¸j” da”¤tust« [The Perfect Continuous]
¬to ¬¸j” da”¤tust«¤t sto ·l¬t +ast« +« ·ut- ¬to ¬¸j” +ast« ·u e. st.a. ¤
¬t¬ dt¬ ¬t¬sl dt¬dl u; s-l. I began to read this book at 5 O’clock. a¤ ud dt¬
-t·ut ·ut- ¬j ( ¬t¬sl dt¬at (at. You came at 0 O’clock and I was still reading it,
at -t¤ s(l ustu · When you came at 9 O’clock. I had been reading this book
since 5 O’clock.
-adt
I had been reading this book for 4 hours when you came at 9 O’clock.
-t ¬to ¬¸j”+¸ast« aut.
-t st«¤t ¬¤ulusu ¬;-l e.
c¸s¤t sto · lsut +ast«¤t ao (tu -u a¤tal -s lsut ¬(ol u; ao (tu -u
·l_ lsut ao ·ut- ¬j ¬to (tu at a lsut sut”ddt ¬to ¬¸j” +¸ast« d¬-tu e.
¬to ¬¸j” +ld·ust« [Future Perfect Continuous]
¬t sto · lsut (d ¬el adtul (tu -u a¤tul -s ls ut u; aou ·l_ lsut aat
¬ul ¬to -( at a lsut sut”ddt ¬to ¬¸j” +ld·ust« d¬-tu e. st. a. a¤ · dt¬
st¬« o»dtu u; su”. -·ut- ¬t- dt-ut e. ¬t a¤ e dt-ut ¬ul ¬¬ o»dtu ¬to
-t»t at e dt-ut ¬ul¤t a¤ ¬t- sots st¬«t o»ut sut” (u.
By six O’clock you will have been writing letters for four hours.
As he started work in July, by December he will have been working for six months
aj ¬oto¤t st¤ u; su”. at sl¬~·-ut -a ¬ul¤t a e ¤t¬ ¬ul st¤ s-l -(ut (u.
-t st« +ld·u¤t -¤s ¬¤u ¬ul st¤ s-l -(ut (u adt ¬ta·u ¬- +t- -t¬ e.





(¬to ¬j” +ld·ust«ut ;¬t}
(( ¬o -(ut (tou}
[ 40]

-t st«¤t · ¬¤ulus”u ¬;-l e.
-t st«ut +t-u¬ u¬ut¬ atu e.
¬to ¬j” st«t -tet d¬-tu e. st-j s -t st«u ·so a¤ uj sstj ¬j” st«t dt¬-l
ust et. -u d«l a ¬ta·u ·atddt sdt”¬a¸ ¬ d¬-tat st«t e.
st«ut a;tdat
¬st ¬st st«ut a;tda ¬¤¬dtal st« u¬-ul ¬ss ¤¬·a ·u e a (aal st«ut a;tda
ul¬ -t·ut e.
¬tst da”¤tu st«
+. -t¬ul lsut ·atd e. a¤t (¤ut
(always) ut +td e. st.a. ( -t¬ -¬_
¬ts dt¬ e
I read English lessons everyday.
-. ¬(tust-s lsut¬s to be u ;¬ e. ¬
;sa ¬ºtaust-¤t ¬ ot¬ e. ldutu
dtsu¤t u(l.
I go. Do I go? I do not go.
s. ¬¬l-çuut u·st, ot¬jlut u·st ;sa
¬tst da”¤tust«¤t ¬ d¬-tu e. ¬dt s
see, her, smeil, hope, think.
:. +ld·ust«ut -a”¤t ¬j d¬-tu e.
The school closes on the 15
th
October
ut«t ¬s-¤l -tsct·- ·u au.
¬. · +ld·ust«ut ¬ta u¬ut¬¤t if
¬taut +ld·ust« ¬tst da”¤tust«¤t
¬l-j¤ e.
It he comes, I shall meet him.
¬t a -tdu at ( au ¤«lu.
¬to da”¤tust«
+. -·ut-ul ¬ ¬to lsut ·atd e. now ut
+td e.
( -·ut- ¬l¬t ¬ts dt¬ e .
I am reading the third lesson now.
-. ¬(tust-s to be ut ;¬t is are ot¬ e.
lsut¬su ing ¬·uu ot¬ e.
I am going. Am I going?
I am not going.
s. ¬¬l-çuut u·st ¬t. d. ¤t d¬-tat ual
I am hearing u ·so I hear ¬ ·totu e.
:. a ¬ ¬¤tj The school is closing on
the 15
th
Oct. (·u adtul e.}

¬.


[ 41]

¬tst +¸ast«
+¸ast«ul -s d»aul sto ¬tss¬ ucut
¤tc d¬-tu e.
I saw 3 pictuer yesterday.
¤ ¬o sto ¬ls¬- ¬tu
I left home when the telegram arrived
at- -t·ut ·ut- ( u-al uls«ut (at. (·u
lsut-t o¬+¬ ¬ta ao e. -adt u_dt
¬¤u ¬t«t (to us.}
(ucut o¬+¬ ¬ta¬ta ·ul e.}


¬tst +¸ast«
-s d»aul +¸ast«ul ¬tss¬ ucut ·atd
e .
I saw a picture yesterday.
¤ ¬osto ¬ls¬- ¬tu
The teacher tried several methods of
teaching English.
lu;s -¬_ lu»ddtul scols ¬·ula
-¬¤tdl.
(;loata” · (d dut- -¬¤tddl ual.
- ¬¤uu ¬tss¬ ¬j (tu e.
He went to Bombay last year.
a ¬ut d¬” ¤ ·o ¬ut
s ¬tst +¸ast« a ¬ut. He went.
¬¸j” +¸ast«
+ast«ul · ucut-t¤t ¬ ucut d(ol
-cos ¬(ol a o (tu au ¤tc d¬-tu e.
The thief had run away before the police
came.
¬tol¬ -tdl a ¬(ot ¬t- ut¬l ¬ut (at.
By 2 O’clock, I had finished my work.

· dt-ut ¬ul¤t ¤ ¤t; st¤ ¬; s-l olu
(a .
I had left home when the telegram arrived
at- -t·ut a ¬(ot ( u-al uls«l ¬ut
(at. (ucut -t¬« ¬te« e.}

¬¸j” da”¤tust«
+¸ast«ul ucut ¬j da”¤tu ¬ta ¬sloa
¬·udt«l, -¬-dt«l.
I Have seen the picture
¤ ¬ls¬- ¬tu e. ((d ¬tdtul ¬;- ual}
The teacher has tried several methods of
teaching English.
lu;s -¬_ ul»dtul scolu ¬·ula-t
-¬¤tdl e.
;loata” · (¬ -¬¤tddtu ¬to e.
- ¬¤uu ¬tss¬¬j (ta ual.
He has been to Bombay since. January
'80.a ¬t-u-t-l ¿· al ¤ ·o¤t e.
¬¸. d. a ¬ut e.
'e', 'e' el -o¬ ¬s e.

u¬- ¬tut ¤¬· ¬j” da”¤tust«¤t, +ast«ul ·ul ¬uol ucutu ¤(·d ¬tj e.
-·ut-ut -co s da”¤tuut ¬¤u ¬- aul -¬- ¤(·dul e. - st-j +¸ast«ut ¬tss¬
¬¤u ¬dt s (Yesterday, 2 days, ago, in 1950) sut-u ¬¸j” da”¤tu¤t d¬-tat ual. a
¬tst +¸ast«¤t ¬ d¬-tu e.
Time expressions are not essential in present perfect. Those used with simple present
perfect indicate duration (¬t«t} or unspecified (-¬tss¬} past time. Specific past
times are never sfated in present perfect.


[ 42]

¬¸j” da”¤tu
¬u-tdla”a ¬¸j” lsut sut”d e.
(repreated completed activity)
It has rained every day this week.
-t -sdtlsu -t¬ d-¬ts ¬sut e.
I have lived in Babapur for the last 10
years.
e;ot +· d¬”al ·t·t¬-¤t -(ut e. ((¬
¬to e.} (-(l ¬u-tdla”a ¬¸j” lsut ¬-
+t- e.}
¬to ¬¸j” da”¤tust«
¬aa ¬to -(ol ucut sut”d e.
(uninterrupted activity)
It has been raining all morning.
¬dt-al ¬aa d-¬ts ¬sl -(ut e.
I have been living in Babapur since
1970+;c· al ·t·t¬-¤t -(l -(ut e ((¬
¬to e.} -(l ¬ta·u ¬- +t- e.

There is really not a great deal of difference in meaning between these 2 tenses.
The continuous present (¬t. ¬¸. d.} emphasizes duration, whereas the present
perfect focuses on repetition and/or completion. Many of the statements could be
expressed in either tense without anyone noticing the difference (-tdt ¬ a;tda
¬¸j” +¸ast« -u ¬to ¬¸j” +¸ast« d-¬ e.}

s¤”lj ¬ut¬
-¬_ut s¤”lj ¬ut¬ -u ¬¬-talut s¤”lj ¬ut¬¤t -s ¬tutut a;tda ¬¤¬dt ¬dt e. ¬¬-tal¤t
¬s¤”s lsut¬sdt«t dtsutut s¤”lj ¬ut¬ atu e. ¬¤ s

( ;« »tu e . ¤t-t ds ;« »dtu e.

¬j ¬ta ¬ta

-s¤”s ls ut¬sut ¬j s¤”lj ¬ut¬ ¬dt ¬, +td ¬ut¬ atu e . ¬¤ s

( ¬s e. ¤t-tal ¬stu e.

»-»- -t s¤”lj ¬ut¬ ual ¬j ¬-s’aut +td ¬ut¬ e. ¬j -¬_¤t at ;sa ¬s¤”s lsut¬sut
¬ s¤”lj ¬ut¬ atu e. -s¤”s ls ut¬sut sstl¬ u(l.





lsut¬s ¬s¤”s e s -s¤”s e a s¤ ¬tjd º u ¬edtal.

( »tu e. u »tu e ;« »tu e ¤tc '»td' - ¬s¤”s ls ut¬s e.
¬j ( ¬s e . u ¬s e. ¬dt· ual ¤tc '¬sd ' - -s¤”s ls ut¬s e.

¤tc -¬_¤t I fall from a tree. ( ~ts ¬-al ¬s e -tdt dtsutut s¤”lj ¬ut¬ u atu.
[ 43]


-¬_ ul»dt ¤tc s¤”lj ¬ut¬ ¬;-l u(l ·;s -ludtu” e.

· luu¤t ·

+. sat” s¤” atu e.
-. s¤” sat” atu e.
s. lsut¬su +¸as’s-au ;¬ ¤¸stu e.
:. to be ut a ¬ st«u ;¬ +¸as’s-a -t¬« ¤stu e.
a ul¬ul -ts’la ¤¬· sut”dl ustu.

·utu -t»t s ¬¤ ¬¸j”st«t¤t lsut¬su +¸as’s-au ¬ ;¬ d¬-tu e. a¤ s¤”lj ¬ut¬¤t ¬j ;sa
+¸as’s-au ¬ ;¬ d¬-tu e. -t -la lsut¬s ut +¸as’s-aut ;¬t ul»dt -·ua ¬;-l e.

lsut¬stut +¸as’s-a sdl -la ·u eº
lsut¬sut +¸ast«ul ¤t;s ¬ ¬·uu o¬tslu

st. a. ¤¸«;¬ +¸ast« +¸as’s-a

wash washed washed
call called called
play played played


sat” lsut¬s s¤”





sat” to be u+¸a s¤” a¬ st«u s’s-a ;¬

[ 44]

¤tct +t¬ut (;;~} ;¬t -tdt ¬st-ut e. eat scots ;¬t (¬tst.¬t ;¬t} -luul¤a ¬j e.
¬dt s

¤¸« ;¬ +ast« +as’s-a
go went gone
break broke broken
give gave given
take took taken
do did done
drive drove driven



-tdt ;¬tul utsl e;ot ¬’·s ¬- -tdl e. -tdt ;¬t ¬-«atal ¬tst s-l ustu e. ¬t +ast«ut
;¬t -u +a s’s-aut ;¬t ¬-»t e. at ¬¸j”st« -u s¤”lj ¬ut¬ut +a s’s-aut ;¬t -u
+ast«ut ¬-»t ;¬tut a;tda s¤ ¬¤_ ustu º
¬dt· - e s

+. ¬¸j”st«¤t have ut ¬(tus lsut¬sut u¬ut¬al a st« ¬st ¬sl ¬tu e.
-. s¤”lj ¬ut¬¤t +a s’s-a ¬(ot to be ut ;¬t is, was, is being, was being, besn d¬- -¬·c
-la ¬st ¬sl ¬tu e.
s. dut- ¬scl¬al

s¤”jl ¬ut¬ ul»al d»a ul¬ul ld+lsa-t u¬ut¬l ao ¬s e.

sat” ld+lsa s¤” ld+lsa

( I -¤ We ¤u Me -¤u Us

a You a¤ You au You a¤u You

a He a-t They au Him a-tu Them

ajl She ajlu Her

a It au It

utu · s¤”lj ¬ut¬¤t I u me, we u us, he u him, she u her atu e. c¸s¤t -¬_¤t -tco
¬t(ut ¬el, atsls ¬scl¬ ¬el, s¤”lj ¬ut¬ -·u a ¬(ot ·ul ¬tu e.










sa”-l ¬ut¬

[ 45]

¬tst da”¤tust«
1 I write a letter
( ¬¬ o» e.
¬tst +ast«
2 I Wrote a letter
¤ ¬¬ o»·ºu
¬tst +ld·u
3 I shall write a letter
( ¬¬ o»lu.
¬to da”¤tu
4 I am writing a letter
( (-·ut-} ¬¬ o» e
¬to +¸ast«
5 I was writing a letter
( ¬¬ o»at (at.
¬to +ld·u
6 I shall be writing a letter
( ¬¬ o»at (tou.
¬¸j” da”¤tu
7 I have written a letter
¤ ¬¬ o»ut e.
¬¸j” +¸ast«
8 I had written a letter
¤ ¬¬ o»ut (at.
¬¸j” +ld·u
9 I shall have written a letter
¤ ¬¬ o»ut (u.
¬to ¬¸j” da”¤tu
10 I have been writing a letter
( ¬¬ o»l -(ut e .
¬to ¬¸j” +ast«
11 I had been writing a letter
( ¬¬ o»l -(ut (at.
¬to ¬¸j” +ld·u
12 I shall have been writing a letter
( ¬¬ o»l -(ut (tou.















s¤”lj ¬ut¬

1 A letter is written by me.
¬¬ ¤t-tal o»tu e.
To be
[ 46]

2 A letter was written by me
¬¬ ¤t-tal o»tut.
Is was
3 A letter will be written by me
¬¬ ¤t-tal o»tu.
are , were
4 A letter is being written by me
¬¬ (-·ut-} ¤t-tal o»tu e.
to be
5 A letter was being written by me.
¬¬ ¤t-tal o»tat (at.
is being
6
ual aa
Was being
7 A letter has been written by me
¬¬ ¤t-tal o»tut e.
are being
8 A letter had been written by me
¬¬ ¤t-tal o»tut (at.
were being
9 A letter will have been written by me
¬¬ ¤t-tal o»tut (u.
been
10
ual aa

11
ual aa

12
ual aa


utu · -t stst ul dt-dt- ¬scl¬ s-dtal s¤”lj ¬ut¬ ¬-« ao ¬u.
u.s u ;¬ ¬tal -¬·uu e. st-js ·ut ut ;¬t u. s ¬¤tj ¬ atu
e.





sa”-l ¬ut¬
Shall I Shall write a lette
( ¬¬ o»lu
Should I should write a letter
¤t- ¬¬ o»dt ¬to-
[ 47]

Will I will write a letter
( ¬¬ o»lu.
Would I would write a letter
( ¬¬ o» e
Can I can write a letter
( ¬¬ o»l us e
Could I could write a letter
( ¬¬ o»l usut
May I may write a letter
( ¬¬ sst¬ o»
Might I might write a letter
( ¬¬ sst¬ o»
Must I must write a letter
¤t- ¬¬ o»dt ¬ ¬to-
Ought to I ought to write a letter
¤t- ¬¬ o»dt ¬to-
Infinitive I want you to write a letter
( o-e e s a ¬¬ o»
be+infinitive I am to write a letter
( ¬¬ o»dtut e
have+infinitive He has to write a letter
aj ¬¬ o»dtut e.










Shall A letter will be written by me.
¬¬ ¤t-tal o»tu.
Should A letter should be written by me
¤t-tal ¬¬ o»tdt ¬to-.
Will A letter will be written by me
¬¬ ¤t-tal o»tu.
Would A letter would be written by me
[ 48]

¤t-tal ¬¬ o»tu.
Can A letter can be written by me.
¤t-tal ¬¬ o»l ustu
Could A letter could be written by me.
¤t-tal ¬¬ o»l ustut
May A letter may be written by me
¤t-tal ¬¬ sst¬ o»tu.
Might A letter might be written by me
¤t-tal ¬¬ sst¬ o»tu.
Must A letter must be written by me
¤t-tal ¬¬ o»tdt ¬ ¬to-.
Ought to A letter ought to be written by me
¤t-tal ¬¬ o»tdt ¬to-.
Infinitive I want a letter to be written by you
( o-e e s a¤t-tal ¬¬ o»tu
Is to A letter is to be written by me
¤t-tal ¬¬ o»tdtut e.
has to A letter has to be written by me
aut ds ¬¬ o»tdtut e.








¬tst da”¤tust«
Who, writes a letter?
¬tst +ast«
Who wrote a letter ?
¬tst +ld·u
Who will write a letter ?
¬to da”¤tu
Who is writing a letter ?
¬to +¸ast«
Who was writing a letter ?
¬to +ld·u
Who will be writing a letter ?
[ 49]

¬¸j” da”¤tu
Who has written a letter ?
¬¸j” +¸ast«
Who had written a letter ?
¬¸j” +ld·u
Who will have written a letter ?
·l¬t ¬st-ut ¬ºuta” dtsut
¬tst da”¤tust«
What do you write ?
¬tst +¸ast«
How did you write a letter ?
¬tst +ld·ust«
Will you write a letter ?
¬to da”¤tust«
When are you writing a letter ?
¬to +¸ast«
Which letter were you writing ?
¬¸j” da”¤tust«
What have you written ?

utu · u¬-ut dtsutut -«ut¬ s-at ¬jtu s ¬ºuta” dtsutut s¤”lj ¬ut¬ ¬ts
u¬-al -c¬ct -u ¬¸¬dj+ut” ot¬ e. ¬j dt-ad¤t ldutu dtsut ¬dt ¬
e.
¬tst da”¤tu¤t aa (a aut ·so (d u e c ¬tslu d-¬ u·s ¤¸stut e.
-co ¬(ot ¬t st« sut e a ussl s-l -t¬« dudt¤t -td at s¤”lj
¬ut¬ ¬(ot ·u e.

[ 50]

¬tst da”¤tust«
By whom is a letter written ?
¬tst +ast«
By whom was a letter written ?
¬tst +ld·u
By will a letter be written ?
¬to da”¤tu
By whom is a letter being written ?
¬to +¸ast«
By whom was a letter being written ?
¬to +ld·u ;¬ ual aa
¬¸j” da”¤tu
By whom has a letter been written ?
¬¸j” +¸ast«
By whom had a letter been written ?
¬¸j” +ld·u
By whom will a letter have been written ?
¬tst da”¤tust«
What is written by you ?
¬tst +¸ast«
How was a letter written by you ?
¬tst +ld·ust«
Will a letter be written by you ?
¬to da”¤tust«
When is a letter being written by you ?
¬to +¸ast«
Which letter was being written by you ?
¬¸j” da”¤tust«
What has been written by you ?

utu · lçs¤”s lsut¬stu s¤”lj ¬ut¬ s-al d»a ·¤tal sto ¬j -s s¤” oo ustu e.
1. He gave me a pen. A pen was given to me by him -adt I was given a pen by
him
2. lsut¬s ¬el ut¤ut¬l -·ud (preposition) (tu at au ¬ta -t»dt ¬;-l e. I look
after him. He is looked after by me.
3. -tçta” ¤t Let -u be u¤-tu e.
Open the window. Let the window be opened.
4. -tçta” ¤t -s¤”s lsut¬sut s¤”lj ¬ut¬ You are requested u·s u¤-dtal atu
e . keep to the left – you are requested to keep to the left




Active Voice

[ 51]

1 I shall have written a letter
2 I should have written a letter
3 I can have written a letter
4 I could have written a letter
5 I will have written a letter
6 I would have written a letter
7 I may have written a letter
8 I might have written a letter
9 I ought to have written a letter
10 I ought to have written a letter


Having done the work he went for a walk

[ 52]

Perfect Infinitives
1 A letter will have been written by him
2 A letter should have been written by him
3 A letter can have been written by him
4 A letter could have been written by him
5 A letter will have been written by him
6 A letter would have been written by him
7 A letter may have been written by him
8 A letter might have been written by him
9 A letter must have been written by him
10 A letter ought to have been written by him

The work having been done by him, he went for a walk.
utu · Pefect participles u passive voice perfect infinitives ul ¤t;s ¬ been
u¤-lu s-dt¤t -td e.

[ 53]


¬;¬ ¬tst da”¤tust« ¬to
1 I am called
(¤u ·totd e.}
We are called I am being called
(¤u -·ut- ·totd e.
2 You are called You are called You are being called
3 He is called They are called He is being called
¬tst +¸ast« ¬to
1 I was called
(¤u ·totdtut e.}
We were called I was being called
(¤u ·totdtat (at.}
2 You were called We were called You were being called
3 He wasx called They were called He was being called

¬tst +ld·ust« ¬to
1 I shall be called
(¤u ·totdtu .}
We shall be called
(-t st«ut
2 You will be called You will be called
3 He will be called. They will be called

utu · ¬to ¬¸j” st«ut s¤”lj ¬ut¬ aat
ual ul¬ ¤¬· ¬j s-l ustu.
1 I call I am called
2 You call You are called
3 He calls He is called
1 I called I was called.
2 You called You were called
3 He called He was called
1 I shall call I shall be called.
2 You will call You will be called.
3 He will call He will be called


;¬t»utu

[ 54]

da”¤tust« ¬¸j” da”¤tust«
We are being called I have been called
(¤u ·tot·ut e.}
We have been called
You are being called You have been called. You have been called
They are being called He has been called They have been called
+¸ast« ¬¸j” +¸ast«
We were being called I had been called
(¤u ·tot·ut (at.}
We had been called.
You were being called You had been called. You had been called
They were being called He had been called They had been called
+ld·ust« ¬¸j” +ld·ust«
I shall have been called
(¤u ·tot·ut (u.}
We shall have been called
You will have been called You will have been called
He will have been called They will have been called.

Active Passive (stst¤t}

st« ¬tst ¬to ¬¸j” ¬to ¬¸j”
da”¤tu sa”-l
I love I am loving I have loved I have been
loving
st« · s¤”lj
I am loved I am being loved I have been loved X
+¸ast« sa”-l
I loved I was loving I had loved I had been
loving
s¤”lj
I was loved I was being loved I had been loved X
+ld·u · sa”-l
I shall love I shall be loving I shall have loved I shall have
been loving
st« · s¤”lj
I shall be loved X I shall have been
loved
X


[ 55]

The causative (¬-s ;¬}

¬¬-tal¤t ¬¤ s-d s-tdd , »td , »dstdd , aat l(-sl¤t ¬¤ »tut l»otut l»odtut ¬dt ¬-s
;¬t e. adt ;¬t -¬_¤t ual aal ¬j lsut¬st.

To make, to have to get ul ¤ssal -¬_¤t ¬-s;¬t ·utdtu e. -t¬j -¬tu ¬tu s
¬¬-tal¤t s¤”lj ¬ut¬¤t '-tu' ¬·uu o¬tsl s¤”lj ¬ut¬ut ;¬t aut- atu e ¬¤ s o» e.,
o»tu e. adl -la ¬-s ;¬¤t ¤»u '-td' o¬tsl ¬-s ;¬t aut- atu e ¬¤ s o»d , o»tdd ,
dt¬d , d¬tdd o -¬_¤t · ¬j ;¬t¤t make ¤t s·tj e. ¬ut- have -u get ¤t stou st¤
s-dt -tslu -adt -t¬( s-lu st¤ s-tddtut (a e. have -u get ¤t »t¬ sto a;tda ual.
have ut u¬ut¬ -¤-lst¤t dut- e ¬ut- get ut u¬ut¬ o-o-s¤t ldu¬ e.

makeu ;¬ have -u get al as¸u ¬t s ¬sl ¬tu e.
1. Make suggests the use of force either physical or psychological make ¬ut¬¤t ¤tul¬s
-adt --u s·tj (tu e.}

¬-s ;¬ul -¬ut · make
-t ;¬ ¤(s -u sa”-l ¬ut¬¤t ¬ (tu e. a ¤t ¬-s;¬ make + s¤”. (object + lsut¬su
¤¸«;¬} (to -·ut(t- -t»lu ·utdtu e.}
st.a. I made him work ¤ aul ¬t¬ st¤ s-t·u .
s¤”lj ¬ut¬¤t +t-u¬ d¬-tat make ut ¬ut¬¤t ¤¸«;¬ to ¬ta d¬-tu e ¬¤ s, He was
made to work aul ¬t¬ st¤ s-tddt¤t -t·u .
¬ut- have -u get ut ;¬t ¤tc +t¬ s¤”lj ¬ut¬¤t¬ ¬tdt ¤« e. s¤”lj ¬ut¬ul -¬ut¤t
have + object + past participle
(¬-s ;¬} + (s¤} + +¸as’s-a ¬¤ s
- I got my hair cut (by a barber) ¤ dt« s¬td-t·ut.
- I had my hair cut (by a barber)
¬ut- sa”-l ¬ut¬ ¬-t s.¬t ot¬ e ¬¤ s.

- I got a barber to cut my hair.
- I had a barber cut my hair.




·l¬t dtsu¤t -co s have ut ¬-s sa”-l¤t to -·ut(t- -( e. c¸ s¤t -t¬j ¬t¬ u¤¸ut-t uts
-t»dt ¬to-.
[ 56]

1. make : He make me work
2. have (s¤lj¬ut¬¤t} I had my shoes repaired.
3. get (s¤lj¬ut¬¤t} I got my shoes repaired.
4. have (sa-l¬ut¬¤t} I had a cobbler repair my shoes.
5. get (sa-l¬ut¬¤t} I got a cobbler to repair my shoes.

utu · ¬-s-¬ut¤t »uto -t»dt ¬dl d-a - e s
+ ¬-s;¬ ¬el s¤” -tdd ¬ ¬to- ¬¤ s
- He had his hair cut dt« s¬td-t·ut i.e. He employed someone to do it ¬j ¬t s¤” u -td at.
- He had cut his hair -ut -a” -¤ atu s ¬ta¬ ¬tatut dt« st·ut (at
- ·toal d»a make, have -u get u¬- -d-+t- (stress) -tddt ¬to-.
 Have -u get ut ¬-s;¬ut s¸·ctat.
1. Get this room cleaned. -t ;¤ ¬t; s-tdl ;ut.
2. At present I am busy having my house repaired.
(to ( st¤¤t e ¤t- u- -l¬- s-tdl -(ut e
3. And what greater harm could you do her than to have her accused.
aut ¬- -t-t¬ ¤¸stdlu a¤ au aal dut- usutu u s-l ust º
4. I would have some one to examine your head
a¤t-t ¤¬¬ul sto çt-t a¬t¬ s-tddl ¬su.
5. Could you have her arrested ? a¤ ajlul u-¬ss s-tdl ust º
6. I have a flight to Bomday booked on Monday. ¤ ¬t¤dt- ¤ ·oul ;totoc ·s s-tdl e.
7. I helped him finish his job. au st¤ ¬¸; s-tddt¤t ¤ ¤ss s-l.
utu · help u lsut¬s ¬j sdl¬a modal ut --du d¬-tu e. ·ut- help ¬el lsut¬s u ¤¸«;¬
¤stu e. -u bare infiniteive ut u¬ut¬ atu e.

[ 57]

Make ut u¬ut¬ut atst s¸·ctat ·
1. Money makes the mare go.
2. You can take a horse to the water but you cannot make it drink.
3. The way he talked to his sister made me want to puke.
4. Any tough cop could make him sing like a canary.
5. What makes you think that I am waiting for an escort ?
6. I made her do what she did.
7. Can we make the murder look like an accident?
8. How would you like to be made to sit near a roasting fire in this hot weather ?
9. The student had made a speling mistake. So the teacher made him write the same word ten
times.
10. I won’t go and you can’t make me go.

Clauses (u¬dtsut}
·uts-ut-¬l-tut - s ¬d”¬¤a ¤a e s -¬ _ ul»dt ¤tc ul»dt Clauses -td-us e .
Clauses ul»dt ¤tc dtsuut ¬st- ¬tjdt ¬j ¬;-l e.
dtsuut ¬j ¬st- e . - ¬ts , ¬ usa, -u ¬ s o -adt l¤º.
1. A sentence that has only one verb in it is called a simple sentence.
st. a. The sun rises in the east in the west
2. A sentence that is made of two or more simple sentences joined by a conjunction
or conjunctions is called a Compound sentence. The sun rises in the east and sets in
the west.
(ujldt- compound sentences u dut- compact s-dt -t¬j ;toa (redundant)
¬d”ut¤ s u ¬sat ¤¸sl- el-. ¬¤ s
- We bought a house, and we sold it and we made a profit.
- We bought a house, sold it and made a profit.
¬usa dtsuul -s- -tdo ¬·us dtsu -da¬ -la u+t -(l us e -u and but or
o u+ut-dul -·udal ¬tstu o (tu e.




3. Complex sentence (l¤º dtsu}
[ 58]

-tdt ¬st-ut dtsut¤t -s ¤»u dtsu (tu e . -u ·tslut - s s -sal dut- ¬j
dtsut (tu e .
¬tj dtsu -co - d dtsu s ¬ ¬¬¸j” -a” ual st»da au ¬¬¸j” -a” ¤tc ·l¬t
dtsu u¬- -tut- -t»dt ¬s e . - -la ¬t j dtsuu 'o¬s' s(l ustu ¬ ¤»u
dtsuut »+t u¬- ·¬lu ¬ ¬tol us e. - co

A clause is a sentence that does not make complete sense by itself.
It depends on another sentence for its full meaning.
st.a. If you read, you will pass.
¬t a¤ dt¬ut, at ¬t¬ aut.
-t dtsu¤t - ¬t j dtsu e. ;sa - ¬¸j” -a” ·atda ual. ¬j ¬ut- au - ¤»u
dtsuul ¬ta ¬tsdt¤t -td ·ut- ¬ aut ¬¬¸j” -a” ¬¤¬tu e .
c¸s¤t ¬tst dtsutu -;d ut '-l-¬u' ul u¬¤t -t¬l ustu ¬ ¬tatul ¤« -da ¬
-la ¬tol us e.
¬usa dtsuu '· -l-¬u' ul u¬¤t -t¬l ustu -(l · -u dtsut -da¬ e -u
¬¬¸j” -a” ·atdl -da· ¬tol us e . ¬ut- l¤º dtsuu -s -l-¬u dat ¬t j dtsut
¬dt 's··t-t' ¬ o-u (tu e. -t s··t-t -da ¬ -la ¬tol usat ual. au
¤»udtsu ;¬l '-l-¬u'ul ¬;- ¬s e
clauses ¬j ¬st-ut e .
1. Noun clauses. (ut¤ u¬dtsut}
2. Adjective clauses. (ldu ¬j u¬dtsut} aat
3. Adverb caluses. (lsutldu¬j u¬dtsut}





Noun clauses. (ut¤ u¬dtsut}
A clause that does the work of a noun in a sentence is a Noun Clause
¬ dtsu ut¤u stu” s- e a ut¤u¬dtsu s(dtu e . a ¤»u·d sat” s s¤” a-ls stu” s- e.
[ 59]

1. What you say is true. (sat a-ls } 2 Tell me who he is (s¤ a-ls }
a preposition object (s¤} a-ls ¬j -td e. I don’t believe in what you say, Noun
clauses ul ldlu·cat - e s ¤tc +t¬ a that (s} al u; atu e -co au ‘that –
clauses’ ¬j s( e .
We know that the earth is round -t¬j ¬tjl- el- s ¬’ºdl ¬t« e. ldut« ¬»ut¤t
lsut¬st ¬el that clauses -tdat (tdtal Noun-clauses -t«»dt ¬( ot ¬s e . -tdt
lsut¬st¤t al scot s ls ut¬st ul¬ ¤¬· e.
say, tell, state, think, hope, imagine, inform, see, observe, fear, advise, assure, admit,
understand, realize, expect, doubt, believe, ask, agree, i.e.,
Noun-c-auses wh that
I don’t know how he finished his work.
He asked me where I was going.
2. Adjective Clauses (ldu¬j u¬dtsut}
-t ¬st-ut ¤»u·d ¬ ·ul ¬d”ut¤t al ¬tstu ot (tu e.
st.a. who, whom, whose, which, what, that (who-which) -u ut -a”¤t
¬¤ s · That is the boy who (that) works hard.
That is the boy whom (that) I me yesterday.
-¬ Who works hard -u whom I met - ldu¬j u¬dtsut e ¬ut- This is The boy
- ¤»u dtsu e.
¬·ul ¬d”ut¤t ut+- ¤t ¬¸etat (tdtal aul ld-a’a ¤tl(al ¬taut stst¤t -t¬l e .

[ 60]

Relative Pronouns ¬·ul ¬d”ut¤
ld+lsa ld ¬. ¬. -a” ¬. ¬. u ·l¬ ;¬
¤t¬ ¤u·u ¤tc
1
sat”
who
¬
that
-¬l¬. -.d. ·.d.¤t
2
s¤”
whom
¬u
that
-s ¬ ;¬
6
¬·u
whose
¬u
X






¬tjl¬sta” ¤tc
1
sat”
which
¬
that
-.d.·.d., sat” s¤”u
2
s¤”
which
¬u
That
-s ¬ ;¬
6
¬·u
of which
¬u
X






;sa ¬sta” ¤tc
1
sat”
what
a ¬
X
-.d.u ¬ ;¬ ·
2
s¤”
what
a ¬
X
(·.d. ual} sat” s
s¤”u ¬j -s¬ ;¬
6
¬·u
X X X


¬ºuta”s ¬d”ut¤
¤t¬ ¤u·u ¤tc ¬
1
sat”
who
stj
X
-¬lol¬ ¬ ;ol¬
2
s¤”
whom
stu
X
-.d.·.d. - s¬ ;¬
6
¬·u
whose
stu
X






¤u·u
1
sat”
which
su
X
¬tjl
2
s¤”
which
su
X
¬sta” ¤tc
6
¬·u
which of
¤tal su
X






;sa
1
sat”
what
u
X
¬sta”
2
s¤”
what
u
X
¤tc
6
¬·u
X X X




[ 61]

This is the boy/girl who (that) works hard.
These are the boys/ girls who (that) work hard.
This is the boy/girl whom (that) all praise.
These are the boys/girls whom (that) all praise.
This is the boy/girl whose exercise is well-done.
These are the boys/girls whose excercises are will-done.

This is the dog which (that) bit me.
These are the dogs which (that) bit me.
This is the dog which (that) I beat.
These are the dogs which (that) I beat.
This is the lock the key of which is lost

What you say is true.
Take what you like.
(Take the thing which you like.

Who are you ?
Whom do you want ?
Whose is this book ?

Which is your house/brother ?
Which do you like tea or coffee ?
Which of these books is yours ?

What is this ?
What do you want ?

utu · Whom do you want to see ? formal English ¤t ‘who’ ¬j d¬-tu e .
Who do you want to see ?

[ 62]

But ut ldlu·c u¬ut¬
ut. XII ut ·ts”ut ¬ºu ¬¬-¤t But ut ¬ ·ul ¬d”ut¤ut -a”¤t ¬ºu ¬¸etu e. a al
s-lu -t ldu ¬tjd ¬;-l e.
But ut u·s ¬st- (Part of speech) ¬j e.
1. Conjunction a-ls
(a) '¬j' ut -a”¤t
He went to the party, but his brother didn’t.
(b) However (eatu} ut -a”¤t
She cut her finger, but didn’t cry.
2. Preposition (ut¤ut¬l -·uu} a-ls except (l¬dtu} ut -a”¤t
(a) No body but you could be so selfish.
a¤t-l l¬dtu ·l¬t sto -tcot -dtal” u (to us.
(b) But fer your help, I would not have passed.
a¤t-l ¤ss l¬dtu ( ¬t¬ u ao usut (ta.
3. Relative pronoun (¬· ul ¬d”ut¤} a-ls.
Who not s which not ut -a”¤t Every rose has a thorn s- s ¬ ot·u stct (tu
e .
There is no rose which has not a thorn
- d sto ¬ot· ual (ta s ¬u stct u (tu.
There is no rose but has thorn -¬ (st- dtsuut ¬ut¬ every al u; atu e .
¬ut- ust-dtsuut ¬ut¬ al u; atu e. ¬ut- ust-dtsuut ¬ut¬ there al u;
atu e.
ut. XII ut ¬ºu ¬¬-¤t ¬l¬t ¬st-ut ut u¬ut¬ atu e .
March 87 : There was none in the audience hall …. Laughed (but, who, all)
Oct 87 : There was none ….. wept at the death of mahatmaji (who but, when)
March 88 : There is no student in our class… has contributed in the relief fund. (as
when, since)
Oct. 86 : There is no country … has problems (which, but, that)
u¬-ut ·ut dtsut¤t ;sa but u ¬· ul ¬d”ut¤ ¬ -tdl us
Adverb Clauses (lsutldu¬j u¬dtsut}
[ 63]

¬ clauses ls utldu¬ju stu” s- e . a adverb clause s(dtu e. aut ¬st- ul¬ ¤¬·
e .

1 Adverb clause of place
(-atusdt¬s ls. u.}
2 Adverb clause of time
(¬¤udt¬s '' }
3 Adverb clause of purpose
(( adt¬s '' }
4 Adverb clause of reason
(st-jdt¬s '' }
5 Adverb clause of result
(¬l-jt¤dt¬s '' }
6 Adverb clause of comparision
(a outdt¬s '' }
7 Adverb clause of condition
(u-adt¬s '' }
8 Adverb clause of contrast
(ld-tudt¬s '' }
9 Adverb clause of manner
(-lladt¬s '' }

(d s¤dt- ¬to- .
1. Adverb clause of place : (-atusdt¬s u. ls.}
chief conjunction (¤»u ¬ ut¬st}·
where – wherever
1. I don’t know where he lives.
2. His dog follows him wehraver he goes.
3. Fools rush in where angels fear to tread.
2. Adverb clause of time. (¬¤udt¬s u. ls.}
chief conjunction (¤»u ¬ ut¬st}·
when, whenever, while, before, after, till, until, as, as soon as, since. (and the
compound forms) no sooner… than, hardly…. When, scarcely…. when.
1. Look before you leap.
2. After the patient had died, the doctor came.
3. Wait till I come.
4. As soon as I have finished, I will call you.
5. When he came, I was reading.
Hardly, Scarcely = '+t-u¬', '¤ts' atu e. no sooner ¬el than -td e. ¬ut-
Hardly s scarcely ¬el when -td e .

Hardly had I opened my umbrella when the rain started.
(¬ at +t-u¬ (¤ts} e¬l uutsl. ·ut at d-¬ts a¸cl ¬sut.
-t ¬st-ut clauses ut. XII ut ·ts”ut ¬¬-¤t ¬ºu s (C) ¤t ¬¸etu e. s¸·ctat
[ 64]

Oct. – 86 : The film had hardly started … a loud bang was heard inside.
(as, when, since)
March-87 : Hardly had he opened his umbrella… it turned up in wind.
(as soon as, when, then)
Oct. – 87 : Scarcely had he opened the cage… the bird flew away.
(when, and, then)
March-88 : The police had hardly left the ground… the bomb exploded.
(when, then, that)
March-89 : The plan had hardly taken off… it began to roll violently.
(when, then, than)
Oct. – 89 : The stage programme had hardly begun… the audience started
shouting. (as, when, since)
-t ·ul »tol ¬-ut-t¤t ;sa when ¬ -tdl us
3. Adverb clause of purpose ((adt¬s ls. u.}
chief conjunction (¤»u ¬ ut¬st}·
that, in order that, so (that) lest, in case etc.,
1. Ramu is working hard so (that) (¬ al s-lu } he may pass his examination)
2. Make a note of it lest you should forget.
utu c¬stdl ot, u(l at -»u a¤ +¸ol ¬ut.
4. Adverb clause of reason. (st-jdt¬s ls. u.}
chief conjunction (¤»u ¬ ut¬st}·
because, since, as, for =
1. He passed his examination because he worked hard.
2. Since you say so, I must believe it.
a¤ s(t et -co ¤t- ¤tud ¬ ¬to-.
3. As it was raining heavily, we postponed our programme.
d-¬ts ¬t-st- d-¬at (at -co -¤ -¤t-t stu”s¤ ¤o·dl -t»ut.
5. Adverb clause of result : (¬l-jt¤dt¬s ls. u.}
chief conjunction (¤»u ¬ ut¬st}·
that, so (that), so (such) … that
1. He spoke in such a low voice that few could hear him.
a -co ul¤ ·t;ut s ·( -tet au ¬t+«l usut.
2. The lion was so fierce that no one tried to go near it.
[ 65]

3. So terrible was the cyclone that whole roofs were ripped off.
dct«lut -cot ¬t-st- (at s -t»t et¬-tu et¬-t usl ¬ut.
6. Adverb clause of comparision : (aoutdt¬s ls. u.}
chief conjunction (¤»u ¬ ut¬st}·
as, as…as, not so…as, than, the…the etc.,
1. I am taller than you (are)
2. He is as clever as Ramesh.
3. The more he gets, the more he demands.
(utu · ¬¤ta- dut-t s uctst sut”ddt u. s ut ¬ut¬ e.}
a ¬¤ ¬¤ dut- ¤«d e, a¤ a¤ dut- ¤t¬ e.
7. Adverb clause of condition : (u-adt¬s ls. u.}
chief conjunction (¤»u ¬ ut¬st}·
( If, Unless, )
1. If you work, you will pass. ¬t st¤ s-ut at ¬t¬ aut.
2. Unless you work, you will fail. ¬t st¤ u(l s-t at ut¬t¬ aut.
If -u Unless
If ¬t -u Unless = ¬t u(l
-t ·u ld-tul u·st (tdtal dtsu ;¬ta- s-al d»a ul¬ut luu¤t ¬¤¬dt ¬;-l
e .
1. If-clause ¤t ¬ut- ust-t·¤s dtsu (tu ·ut- sto ¬l-dau aa ual. ¬ ¤ s ·
If you don’t read, you will fail.
Unless you read, you will fail.
2. ¬j ¬t If – clause ¤t (st-t·¤s dtsu (tu at ld-tul -a” ¤¸sdt ¬s e. ¬¤ s ,
If you read, you will pass.
Unless you read, you will fail -adt you will not pass.
¬tst da”¤tust«ut ust- s-dt do, does ut ¬(tust-s ls ut¬s d¬-tu e . ¬¤ s,
He goes – He does not go.
I go – I do not go.
Unless (st-t·¤s dtsu (tdtal au -tdt ¬(tust-s ls ut¬sul ¬;- -(al ual.
-co Unless dt«t dtsu (st-t·¤s (tu -u if-clause ¤t ;-ddtu (tu ·ut- do-
does -d-u ¤¸sdt ¬to- · ¬¤ s.
Unless he reads, he will fail.
[ 66]

If he does not read, he will fail.
Unless you read, you will fail.
If you do not read, you will fail.

-¬_¤t luu¤ e s No future after temporal. Temporals -co denoting time.
¬¤usu”s u+ut-dul -·uu ¬el +ld·ust« d¬-tat ual. au ·so ¬tst
da”¤tust« ¬ d¬-tu e . ¬¤ s.

We shall go for a walk when you (will) come.
-(l When you will come u ·so when you come -td e.
-¬ -la If-clause u e. -co If you will come u ·so If you come -td e. -t
ujt -¬·uut luu¤ e . -t luu¤ul ¬tj ut -+td ujl +¸ot adt ¬+d e .
8. Adverb clause of contrast : (ld-tudt¬s ls. u.}
Chief conjunction (¤»u ¬ ut¬st}·
Though, if, however, although, even if.
1. Though he is poor, he is happy.
2. However poor, he is, he is happy.
3. Poor as he is, he is happy.
¬t s a ¬-l· e . ¬a acot a ¬-l· e. . +ou a ¬-l· e eat a ¬ »l e.
u. - ¤t However ¬el a-a ¬ ldu¬j -td e ¬ut-,
u. s ¤t ldu¬j dtsuul u;-ta¤t -td e.
ut. XII ut ·ts”ut ¬¬¬”¤t -t -¬ ¬ºu ¬¸etu e. ¬ -t ¬el -t·ut e.



9. Adverb clause of manner : (-lladt¬s ls. u.}
Chief conjunction (¤»u ¬ ut¬st}·
As, how, in that,
1. He did as I told him.
2. You may finish it how, you like.
3. We were at a disadvantage in that they outnumbered us two to one.
4. At Rome we must do as the Romans(do)
Clauses that tell ‘how’ an action is done are Adverb Clauses of manner.
[ 67]


[ 68]

The Sequence of Tenses (st«s¤}
-¬_¤t st«s¤ut luu¤ ·(¬ c¸st-s¬ olclut e. ¬j ldutal”-t s dt¬sd¬” ¤tc a
¬ sst ¤¬l·at u+l s- e.
-t luu¤ ¬tutut e. ¬tutut ¬ja- ldut -¬_ +t¬tul o¤t-a ¬jdl ¤-so e. -t
luu¤ul ldlu·cat- e s,
(+} a da”¤tust« s +ld·ust«u ot¬ ¬sat ual.
(-} ;sa +¸ast«u ¬ ot¬ ¬s e. (s} d«l -t luu¤ l¤ºdtsutu ¬ ot¬ ¬s e. s
+tdta” ¬¤¬at ¬t-tdt- ¤-sol-t ¬s e.
(¬} ¤t -t luu¤ ldu¬ ot¬ ¬s e.
-¬tu ¬tu a ¤¬· dtsuut ¬j ¬st- ¬tut.
(+} ¬ts dtsu (-} ¬usadtsu -u (s} l¤ºdtsu -co ¤t -s ¤»u dtsu -u -s
aal dut- ¬tj dtsut (tu e. -t luu¤ -t ¬tj dtsutu ot¬ ¬s e.
luu¤ · ¬t ¤»u dtsu¤t -tdo lsut¬s +¸ast«¤t (tu at ¬tj dtsu s u¬dtsuu
lsut¬s ¬j +¸ast«¤t ;-dtu e.
-t luu¤ ¬¤tj ;sa ¬t¬ st«¤t ¬l-da”u atu e -u ¤tso -ts~lolu-l~ut ;¬¤t
¬j ¬l-da”u atu e.
(+} ¬tst da”¤tu ¬tst +¸ast« atu e. (-} ¬to da”¤tu ¬to +¸ast« atu e.
(s} ¬¸j” da”¤tu ¬¸j” +¸ast« atu e. (:} ¬¸j” +¸ast« ¬tst +¸ast« atu e.
-u (¬} ¬to +¸ast« ¬to ¬¸j” +¸ast« atu e.
ut ;¬t¤t u u u -u u ;¬ atu e. (d, ¬¬dtst sut u+t atu e.
st.a. aj s(u ''( ¬tu e.''
au luu¤ ¤¬· -t dtsuut u·su· -udts s-l- at aj s(u s a ¬at (at ¬j
¬¬-tal¤t at -t¬j a¤¬ s(l- s aj s(u s a ¬tu e.
-¬_ut st«s¤ut -tut- ¬ - +¸ast«u ;¬ ·-u e. ¬¬-tal -a” at ¤¸« e a ¬ -(
e. -u -(l¬ -udts¤t -adt ¬¤¬dt¤t ldutal”-tu asol; ¬s e.
¬¬-talut ¤¸« -a” ¬t¬dl -t»dt ¬to- -u a ¤tc »¸· ¤(td-tul ¬;- -( e.
-¬tu ¤»u dtsuu '-l-¬u'ul u¬¤t -t¬ol. -l-¬u uu ¬s -co ¬tjdtsutut s··t
-t¬t -t¬ uut ¬s adt -t luu¤ -¬_¤t e. ¬¬-tal¤t ual - dta -t¬j
st«_¬¸d”s uts -t»dtul e. st«s¤ut luu¤t ¬taut stst¤t -t·ut e.
-t luu¤ stu-scoustu-sc ¬¸-at ¬ l¬l¤a ual, s-s l¤º dtsuu ot¬ ¬s e. st.a.
I can sing well ( ¬t; ¬to us e
I thought that I could sing well. ¤t-t »uto e s ( ¬t; ¬to us e




The Sequence of Tenses
st«s¤ut luu¤al st«¤t aat ;-;t-
-t st«¤tal
[ 69]

1.
¬tst da”¤tust« ·
He said “Ram goes.”
2.
¬to da”¤tust« ·
He said “Ram is going.”
3.
¬¸j” da”¤tust« ·
He said “Ram has gone.”
4.
¬tst +ast« ·
He said “Ram went.”
5.
¬to +ast« ·
He said “Ram was going.”
6.
¬¸j” +ast« ·
He said “Ram had gone.”





Modal auxiliaries



7.

He said “Ram will go.”
8.

He said “Ram will be going.”
9.

He said “Ram will have gone.”




adl ¬ -la



10.

He said “Ram can go.”
11.

He said “Ram may go.”
12.

He said “Ram shall go.”
13.

He said “Ram has been going.”
14.

He said “Ram is to go.”



15.

He said “Ram has to go.”
16.

He said “Ram will have to go.”


utu · st«s¤¤t infinitive -u gerund ut ;¬t ·soat ual.

[ 70]

-t st«¤t ;-;t- atu e.

1 He said that Ram went
¬tst +¸ast«
2 He said that Ram was going.
¬to +ast«
3 He said that Ram had gone.
¬¸j” +ast«
4 He said that Ram had gone.
¬¸j” +¸ast«
5 He said that Ram had been going.
¬to ¬¸j” +ast«
6 No change







7 He said that Ram would go. will u would
8 He said that Ram would be going
'' ''
9 He said that Ram would have gone.
'' ''






10 He said that Ram could go. can u could
11 He said that Ram might go. may u might
12 He said that Ram should go. shall u should
13 He said that Ram had been going
¬t. ¬¸. d. u . ¬t. ¬¸. +¸.
14 He said that Ram was to go. I u was


15 He said that Ram had to go. has u had
16 He said that Ram would have to go. will u would


[ 71]

Direct – Indirect (¬·u; sau -u ¬-t; sau}
ut-t s a¤t-t l¤¬ s sto- a¤u sto dta s(l e. - dta a¤t ·l¬tu · -la s(l ustu.
(+} ¬·u; saual ( direct speech dt¬-lu }
(-} ¬-t; saual ( indirect speech dt¬-lu}

st.a. (1) He said : “I am going.” -adt
(2) He said that he was going.

·utu¤t -t»t s direct speech ¤t

(+} stout ·totu ot u·st '¬dt u a dt' ¤¸sdt¤t -td e .
(-} -da-j l¬;t (tu e.
(s} -da-j l¬;t ¬(otut -;¬ld-t¤ (tu e.
(:} -da-j l¬;t ¬el Capital Letter (tu e.

¬ut- indirect speech ¤t
(+} -da-j l¬;t usl ¬tu e.
(-} -da-j l¬;t ¬(otut -;¬ld-t¤ usl ¬tu e .
(s} Capital Letter utut ·u e st-j s dtsu ¬tstu ¬tu e.
(:} stout ·totu ot u·st¬dtu adt u(l ¬j (d au a¤t-l ¬tatul +t¬t¤t ¤¸st et.

st.a. (1) He says “I go.” -adt
(2) He says that he goes.

¬¬-tal +t¬t¤t indirect ut luu¤tu -t¬j ¬t ss¬ -la d«¬l -( at ual.
st.a. aj s(u · '( ¬tu e' -t dtsuu indirect -t¬j ¬j -la s-l- el-.
(+} aj s(u s a ¬tu e. (¬t¬ }
(-} aj s(u s ( ¬tu e (»tc}
(s} aj s(u ( ¬tu e (»tc}
-t -la sut-u -t¬j ¬ut¬s that (s} ¤¸sat ual -adt a u ·so ( ¬j ¤¸sl so- el-

[ 72]

¬j -¬_¤t -t -¬ ut luu¤t ·( ¬ sss e. ·ut ¬-t ¬j ;-;t-u -dstu ual. uoc ;-;t-
aat ujt -ua” atu a dt dtsutul -¬ut ao ¬tu e .

st.a. He says, “I am a fool “
u
He says that he is a fool. ¬ atu

¬j ¬t a¤ He says that I am a fool -¤ ¬¬-talul ¤t;s ·tot at -ut -a” -¤ atu s a¤
¬ta ¬ ¤¸»” et - co direct-indirect ul»al d»a ¬¬-tal - ¬_ +t¬tut -t ¬ut¬ut a;tda
¬¤_ o dt ¬;-l e. ¬ al ¬ ¬-tal +t¬t ¬ut¬¤tal -tdal +¸ot ludt-l ustu.

Sequence of tenses (st«s¤}
stu- scoustu-sc ul»al d»a -¬_ut st«s ¤ (Sequence of tenses) ut ¬»uta luu¤ ¬tjdt
¬j ¬;-l e, ¬ ul¬ ¤ ¬· e.
(+} ¬t ¤»u dtsu da”¤tust« e ¬tjdtsu¤t ¬¤ a st« -tdl us.
+ld·ust«¤t (tu at

¬¤ s · I know that the train is late.
I know that the train was late.
I know that the train will be late.
I know that the train has often been late
He will say that you are hapy.
He will say that you were be happy.
He will say that you will be happy.
He will say that you had been happy.
¬j (-} ¬t ¤»u dtsu¤t -td o ls ut¬s +¸ast«¤t (tu at u¬dtsuu lsut¬s ¬j +¸ast«¤t ¬
d¬-tu e.
¬¤ s · I knew that the train was late
I said that you were happy.








Direct – Indirect
luu¤t
[ 73]

luu¤ + · ¬t da”¤tust« s +ld·ust«¤t (tu at ut lsut¬sut st«¤t ;-;t- aat ual
utu · -co s st-j s a dta -¬ s- e. - co l¬-(t¤t -tdo s ·totuol (slsa.

luu¤ - · ¬t +ast«¤t (tu at ¤tut lsut¬su -u;¬ +¸ast«u ;¬ ·u e.

¬tst da”¤tu ¬tst + ast« ·u e.
¬tst da”¤tu ¬to +ast« ·u e.
¬¸j” da”¤tu ¬¸j” +ast« ·u e.

luu¤ s · ¬t +ast«¤t (tu -u ¤t ¬j +ast« (tu at.

¬tst + ast« ¬¸j” +ast« ·u e.
¬to +ast« ¬to ¬¸j” + ast« ·u e.

s¸·ctat

1. He says, “It is a fine day.”
2. He says, that it is a fine day.
3. He says, “Sita was clever.”
4. He says that Sita was clever.
5. He says, “Ram will pass.”
6. He says that Ram will pass.
7. He will say “Ram is ready.”
8. He will say that Ram is ready.
9. People say, “Gandhiji was great”
10. People say that Gandhiji was great.


1. He said, “Kanti goes.”
2. He said that Kanti went.
3. He said “Shanti is going.”
4. He said that Shanti was going.
5. He said, “Priti has gone.”
6. He said that Priti had gone.


1. He said, “The train arrived very late.”
2. He said that the train had arrived very late.
3. He said, “The boys were playing.”
4. He said that the boys had been playing.



¬te«ut ¬j u luu¤t ¬tutut -u »¸·¬ -¬·uut e. au a¤ ul¬ ¤¬· ¬tsl +t¬t¤t ¬j
¬tsdl ust.
+. ¬t dtsuul ·(t- da”¤tu s +ld·ust« (tu at -s-ut st«¤t ;-;t- aat ual.
-. ¬t dtsuul ·(t- + ast« (tu at - s- da”¤tuut +ast« atu e.
s. ¬t dtsuul ·(t- + ast« (tu -u -s- ¬j +ast« (tu at - s- ¬¸j” +ast« atu e.
[ 74]


-t ¬ju luu¤tut ¬tst ç·ct a ¬j ¬t¤ ¤¬· -t¬l ust.

luu¤ : · ¬t +ast«¤t (tu ¬j ¤t ls ut ¬utau ¬·u s dçtlus (slsa ·atddl (tu at
lsut¬sut st«¤t ;-;t- aat ual.

utu · -t luu¤ u¬-ut ·u luu¤tut -¬dts e. - d-a -dt+tlds e s '¬’ºdl ¬t« e .' u
·so -t¬j '¬adl ¬t« (al' -¤ sst¬l s(l u ust-.


[ 75]

1. He saya. “Kanti goes.”
2. He says that Kanti goes.
3. He said. “Kanti goes.”
4. He said that Kanti went.
5. He said. “Kanti went.”
6. He said that Kanti had gone.


1 The teacher said. “The earth is round.”
2 The teacher said that earth is round.
3 The trader said. “Honesty is the best policy.”
4 The trader said that honesty is the best policy.
5 The poet said. “Nature is beautiful.”
6 The poet said that nature is beautiful.”
7 He said “Two and two make four.”
8 He said that two and two make four.
9 The scientist said. “Water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen.”
10 The scientlst said that water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen.

Direct Indirect
1 I say. “I go.” Isay that I go. -
2 I say. “You go.” I say that you go. -
3 I say. “He goes.” I say that he goes. -

4 You say. “I go.” You say that you go.
5 You say. “You go.” You say that I go.
6 You say. “He goes.” You say that he goes. -

7 He says. “I go.” He says that he goes.
8 He says. “You go.” He says that you go. -
9 He says. “He goes.” He says that he goes. -

1 He said to me “I want your book”
[ 76]

2 He told me that he wanted my book.
3 He said to you. “I want your book.”
4 He told you that he wanted your book.
5 He said to him. “ I want your book.”
6 He told him that he wanted his book.
7 I said to you. “you want my book.”
8 I told you that I wanted his book.
9 you said to him. “I want your book”
10 You told him that you wanted his books”
11 You said to me. I want your book.”
12 you talk that you
24 - auxiliaries

The best way to master the use of modals is to observe how they are used
in situations and to practice making sentences like the ones you hear , always
making sure of what you are saying.

…One way to acquaint yourself with the appropriate forms is to memorize a
group of typical sentence and use them as patters.”


1 am
2 is
3 are

4 was
5 were

6 has
7 had
8 have
[ 77]


9 do
10 did
11 does
Modal auxiliaries
12 shall

13 should
14 will
15 would
16 can
17 could
18 may
19 might
20 must
21 ought to


22 need
23 dare
24 used to


(Primary auxiliaries)

I am a teacher.
I am going.
I have a pen.
[ 78]

I have gone.
I do my work.
I do not go.
I am going.
He is going.
They are going.
He was going.
They were going.
I have gone.
I had gone.
I shall have gone.
Do I go ? I do not go.
Does he go ? He does not go.
Did he go ? He did not go.



( modal auxiliaries)

Modals showing difference moods.
1 The modal auxiliaries are used to express not statements of facts
but actions or events that exist only as conceptions of the mind
e.g. possibilities, potentialities necessities, wishes .
2 shall-will (pure future) color future
3 promise, willingness, determination, command and intention
(PWDIC)
[ 79]

4 should, ought to, must, have to, … … obligation
5 should, probability, reproach, advice
6 if-clause to express a supposition that may not be
true.
7 would-will ……..
8 can, (possibility) , (ability) , (permission)
9 could can could perfect infinitive negation deducation
10 may (possibility) (permission)
11 might , may, possibility, permission, might be
12 may-might , can-could,(synonymous)
13 must obligation (logical conclusion )
14 ought obligation should…
15 need dare auxiliary double role…
16 used to….
17 used to ought to infinitive modals to infinitive bare infinitive
bare to…
18 modals participles
can - ing not possible
must –ing not possible
19 should, would, could, should- ing , would-ing
, could-ing , not possible
20 EG… play-plays can be possible
21 can-cans not possible
22 may- mays not possible
23 EG… he can speak English
24 he can English not possible
25 can you lift this box ? yes, I can. yes I can= yes, I can lift can
be possible.
(modals)
1 shall ( simple) (continuous)
2 should 1 I shall go 1 I shall be going
[ 80]

3 will 2 I should go 2 I should be going
4 would 3 he will go 3 he will be going
5 can 4 he would go 4 he would be going
6 could 5 he can go 5 he can be going
7 may 6 he could go 6 he could be going
8 might 7 he may go 7 he may be going
9 must 8 he might go 8 he might be going
10 ought to 9 he must go 9 he must be going
10 he ought to go 10 he ought to be going

( Auxiliaries)
(perfect) (perfect continuous)
I shall have gone I shall have been going
I should have gone I should have been going
he will have gone he will have been going
he would have gone he would have been going
he can have gone he can have been going
he could have gone he could have been going
he may have gone he may have been going
he might have gone he might have been going
he must have gone he must have been going
he ought to have gone he ought to have been going
[ 81]

1 I shall go, he will go
2 I shall be going
3 I shall have gone
4 I shall have been going
5 the school opens on the 17
th
of June
6 I am to your place tomorrow
7 be + infinitive
I am to go to the station
8 be about to go
I am about to start
9 be going to
I am going to learn English

I shall go we shall go
you will go you will go
he will go they will go

1 thou shalt (you shall) not steal
2 you shall have your money back
3 if you agree, I will check this letter
4 I won’t pay the bill. it seems to be inflated.
[ 82]

5 I will do or die in this attempt.
p=promise, w=willingness, d=determination,
I=intention, c=command.

(colorless future)
1 if today is Monday, tomorrow will be
Tuesday.
2 colored future
All right, I’II come.
I won’t do it again.

3 will you please come in.
4 (insistence) (inevitability)
He will have his own way
Accidents will occur
Boys will be boys
5 (probiability) and likelyhood
This will be the book you are looking
for, I think.
[ 83]

will I do ?
(Am I likely to be suitable ?)
how shall should be use
1 (to express futurity)
I shall soon be ready.
shall we reach there in time ?
2 (color future)
He says he won’t go but I say
he shall.
you shall not catch me so
easily next time.
if you work well, you shall
have higher wages.
you shall not have it, it is
mine

[ 84]

3 In question tags :
let us go, shall we ?
4 suggestions : shall we go by car ?
offers : shall I help you ?
advice : which pen shall I
buy?
order : how shall I go ? by
bus or train ?

shall will
1 simple futurity 1 simple futurity
I shall come tomorrow he will come tomorrow
2 colored future 2 colored future
promise, willingness, determination
intention, command I will come (promise)
- PWDIC 3 in question tags
YOU SHALL HAVE REWARD IF YOU WORK efficiently. sit down, will you?
[ 85]

4 habits : An Indian will
3 In question tags : always like to talk and talk
let us go, shall we ? 5 insistence :
4 requests for : he will have his own way
suggestions : shall we go by car ? 6 inevitability
offers : shall I help you ? Boys will be boys.
accidents will
advice : which book shall I buy ? occur.
order : how shall I go ? by bus or train ? 7 probability
will I do ?
8 requests
will you please sit
down ?










[ 86]

the future continuous THE FUTURE PERFECT
will+ be+ work - ing. (will + have)
he will be reading when he will have finished his
I go there. work by six o’clock tomorrow/by
the end of December/by then
(be + infinitive)
he is to come the future perfect continuous
will + have + been +
(be+ going to) work-ing
he is going to learn English
(be+ about to) by the end of December I shall have been
he is about to go working in the office for 10 months.
(for a definite arrangement )
ram and shyam are meeting tonight by the end of December I shall have been
working for six months.
the school opens on 17
th
June. this tense emphasizes the duration of
(LESS DEFINITE AND MORE CASUAL) . a future event for a present situation which
I WILL BE SEENING YOU TOMORROW. reaches into the future. two time expressions
are essential with the tense . 1) specific future
time or event, and 2) the duration.





[ 87]

why have we both ‘shall’ and ‘will’ ?
(AND SIMILARY ‘SHOULD AND WOULD’)
W. STANNARD ALLEN
(stock phrases)
the train leave at 6:0’clock
(habitual present)
(command compulsion obligation)
(want or wish)
colorless future
Shall I ? (is this your command ?) will you ?
(do you wish ?)
(unformity) shall-should will-would (I will, I
would) shall-should will-would
colored future volition be going to, be +
infinitive (am to go), have + inf (have to go)




[ 88]

(1) be going to
(intention) (prediction)
intend means what (to have a particular
or plane in mind)


intention that which one propose or plans
to do plan, aim, intent,

objective, design, purpose, goal, target.

be going to colored future intention
feeling of certainity in mind of the
speaker .

1 I am going to learn English.
2 we are going to work harder next year.
3 he is going to sell the house.
[ 89]

4 we are going to spend our holidays in
Kashmir this year.
5 we are going to by a house when we
saved enough money.
6 when are you going to pay my bills ?


(2) for prediction
1 there are clouds in the sky and it
is going to rain.
2 now that there is recession,
things are going to get much dearer.


Hadley chase
Myra’s eyes glittered. “I’m going to tell
you what you’re going to do .
[ 90]

you’re going to “yes” that guy until you
get the run of the his of his game, then
you’re going to turn him in . you’re going
to have a gun, and you’re going to shoot
better than he shoot. you’re going to do
everything better than he does. then he
goes.”

automatic see, hear, think, understand it
go come I am going to go I am going to
come
shall - will be going to
shall-will

1 if you come at 5 0’clock, we shall go for
a walk.
2 you’ll be in time if you hurry.
3 I’ll be at your service whenever you call.
4 he going to sell his house.
[ 91]

be + infinitive
1 to convey orders or instructions
2 to convey a plan
no one is to go without the permission of
the head mistress
you are to stay her, Rita
to convey a plan :
the marriage is to take place next week.

I am to go: we are to go
you are to go you are to go
he is to go they are to go

I was to go we were to go
you were to go you were to go
he was to go they were to go

[ 92]

obligations
MUST, OUGHT TO SHOULD.
SHOULD
you should respect your parents
OUGHT TO
you ought to visit your friend.
he is in hospital.
should and ought to
MUST
you must read.
must (semi-auxiliary) have to must have to
read to you have to read I have to do my
home work.
have to…

have + infinitive
obligation must have to
[ 93]

a) you must read regularly
b) you have to read regularly

a) he must stay here :
b) he has to stay here :

a) he must do his work himself.
b) he has to do his work himself


be + infinitive and have + infinitive
I am to go = I have to go = BI HI

I am to go we are to go
you are to go you are to go
he is to go they are to go
I was to go we were to go
[ 94]

you were to go you were to go
he was to go they were to go


I have to go we have to go
you have to go you have to go
he have to go they has to go
I had to go we had to go
you had to go you had to go
he had to go they has to go
I shall have has to go we shall have have to
go
you will have to go you will have to
go
he will have to go they will have to
go

[ 95]

be + infinitive - be + going to
I am to write we are to write
you are to write you are to write
he is to write they are to write

I was to write we were to write
you were to write you were to write
he was to write they were to write

I am going to write
we are to write
you are going to write
you are to write
he is to write
they are going to write

[ 96]

I was going to write
we were going to write
you were going to write
you were going to write
he was going to write
they were going to write


obligation no obligation
present must have to don’t/doesn’t have to
have (got)to
future must shall/will shall not/ won’t
have to have to
past, had to didn’t have to
hadn’t (got)to


[ 97]











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