PIERO M.

ARMENANTE
NJIT
Coagulation and
Flocculation
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Solutions, Colloidal Dispersions and
Suspensions
Solids can be dispersed in liquids under several
forms. The nature of such dispersions depends
on the size of the solid particles.
In general, one the following states are
considered:
• Solutions
• Colloidal dispersions
• Suspensions
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Characteristics of Solutions,
Colloidal Dispersions and
Suspensions
System Particle
Size
Separation
Method
Particle
Visibility
Particle
Movement
Solution < 20 Å Membrane Invisible Kinetic
Colloidal
dispersion
20 - 2000
Å
Ultra-
filtration
Ultra-
microscope
Brownian
Suspension > 2000 Å Filtration Microscope Convective
1 Å = 10
-4
µm = 10
-10
m
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Motivation for the Use of Coagulation
in Wastewater Treatment
• Wastewaters often contain pollutants that are
present is colloidal form
• In such cases the colloidal suspension may
contain:
- organic materials
- metal oxides
- insoluble toxic compounds
- stable emulsions
- material producing turbidity
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Motivation for the Use of Coagulation
in Wastewater Treatment (cont.'d)
• This material must be removed prior to
discharge
• Because of the nature of the colloidal
suspension these particles will not sediment
or be separated with conventional physical
methods (such as filtration or settling) unless
they are agglomerated through coagulation
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Coagulation
• Coagulation is the process by which colloidal
particles and very fine solid suspensions
initially present in a wastewater are combined
into larger agglomerates that can be separated
via sedimentation, flocculation, filtration,
centrifugation or other separation methods
• Coagulation is commonly achieved by adding
different types of chemicals (coagulants) to the
wastewater to promote destabilization of the
colloid dispersion and agglomeration of the
resulting individual colloidal particles
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Additional Benefits of Coagulation
• The addition of some common coagulants to a
wastewater not only produces coagulation of
colloids but also typically results in the
precipitation of soluble compounds, such as
phosphates, that can be present in the
wastewater.
• In addition, coagulation can also produce the
removal of particles larger that colloidal
particles due to the entrapment of such
particles in the flocs formed during
coagulation
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Effects of Coagulation Treatment on
Wastewater
Primary Effect
• Agglomeration and eventual removal of
colloids (primarily responsible for wastewater
turbidity)
Secondary Effects
• Precipitation of some chemical species in
solution
• Agglomeration of larger particles in the floc
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Coagulation vs. Flocculation
• Although the words "coagulation" and
"flocculation" are often used interchangeably
they refer to two distinct processes
• Coagulation indicates the process through
which colloidal particles and very fine solid
suspensions are destabilized so that they can
begin to agglomerate if the conditions are
appropriate
• Flocculation refers to the process by which
destabilized particles actually conglomerate
into larger aggregates so that they can be
separated from the wastewater
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Stability of Colloids in Wastewater
• The colloids commonly found in wastewater are
stable because of the electrical charge that they
carry
• The charge of colloids can be positive or
negative. However, most colloidal particles in
wastewater have a negative charge
• Such a charge typically comes from:
- lattice imperfections
- ionizable groups that become ionic species in
water (e.g., amino, or hydroxyl groups)
- ionic species that can become adsorbed on
the surface of the colloid
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Types of Colloids
Colloids are commonly classified as:
• hydrophilic (e.g., proteins)
• hydrophobic (e.g., clays, metal oxides)
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Hydrophilic Colloids
• Hydrophilic colloids are typically formed by
large organic molecules that become hydrated
(solvated) when they are in the presence of
water
• These molecules are thermodynamically stable
in their solvated form
• The charge in such molecules originates from
the presence of ionizable groups on the
molecule that transform the molecule in a
"macro-ion" when placed in solution
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Hydrophilic Colloids (continued)
• As a result of these charges hydrophilic
colloidal particles are significantly hydrated
when placed in solution
• Agglomeration of hydrophilic colloids typically
involves the addition of significant amounts of
ions which compete with the colloids for water
molecules thus resulting in the dehydration of
the colloidal particles ("salting out" of the
colloid)
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Hydrophobic Colloids
• Hydrophobic colloids are made of small
colloidal particles having little or no affinity for
water (the solvent)
• Their stability in due to the presence of a
charge which attracts other ionic species
present in water and results in the formation of
an electrically charged layer around the
colloidal particles
• Colloidal dispersions are thermodynamically
unstable. If the charge layer is removed these
particles tend to agglomerate spontaneously
and can be removed from the wastewater
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Double Layer Associated with
Colloidal Particles
• If a colloidal particle is electrically charged it
attracts ions and other colloidal particles of
opposite sign
• These ions are tightly attached by electrostatic
forces to the colloidal particle forming a first
inner layer of charges. This layer is often
referred to as the Stern layer and has a
thickness of a single hydrated ionic layer
• The particle and the attached ions of opposite
sign form an electric double layer
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Double Layer Associated with
Colloidal Particles (continued)
• Additional ions of opposite sign to that of the
colloidal particle also accumulate next to the Stern
layer. They form the diffuse layer
• Within the diffuse layer there is typically another
layer of ions which are not so tightly attached to
the particle as the Stern layer, but which cannot be
removed by the presence of any external velocity
gradient either
• These ions bound to the particle even as the
particle moves delimit the shear plane, i.e., the
plane of ions which are unaffected by fluid motion
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Distribution of Charges in a Double Layer

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Shear
Plane
Diffuse
Layer
Stern
Layer
Colloidal
Particle
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Zeta Potential
• The zeta potential is defined as the electric
potential difference between the shear plane of
a colloidal particle and the bulk of the solution
• The zeta potential is an indirect measure of the
electrical charge of the colloidal particle
• The zeta potential can be experimentally
measured (using a microscope) by
determining the velocity of a particle moving
under an electric potential of known intensity
(Note: the actual potential between the surface
of the particle and the solution cannot be
measured experimentally)
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Electric Potential Around a Colloidal
Particle
Distance from Particle Surface
E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l

P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l
Zeta
Potential
Shear Plane
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Quantitative Determination of Zeta
Potential from Experimental Data
The zeta potential is defined as:
ζ
π
ε
πµ
ε
· ·
4 4 v
V
EM
x
where: ζ = zeta potential
v = particle velocity
ε = dielectric constant of the medium
V
x
= applied potential per unit length
EM = electrophoretic mobility
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Quantitative Determination of Zeta
Potential from Experimental Data
At 25
o
C in water the zeta potential can be directly
calculated from:
ζ · 12EM
where:
ζ = zeta potential in mV
EM = electrophoretic mobility in (µm/s)/(V/cm)
Average zeta potential for wastewater colloids:
-16 to -22 mV (range: -12 to -40 mV)
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Relationship Between Zeta Potential
and Coagulation
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Alum Dosage (mg/L)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

T
u
r
b
i
d
i
t
y
(
J
a
c
k
s
o
n

t
u
r
b
i
d
i
t
y

u
n
i
t
s
)
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10





Z
e
t
a

P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

(
m
V
)
Residual Turbidity
Zeta Potential
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Isoelectric Point
• When the colloidal particles are in the
presence of enough counter ions they become
electrically neutral
• This point is called the isoelectric point
• The zeta potential at the isoelectric point is
zero
• If the particles are not any more "shielded" by
the double layer they can interact with each
other
• Hence, at the isoelectric point the particles
have the highest potential for agglomeration
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Energy Forces Between Colloidal
Particles
After Sundstrom and Klei, Wastewater Treatment, 1979, p. 339
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Energy Forces Between Colloidal
Particles (continued)
• If the repulsive forces produced as a result of
the presence of the double layer are too
significant the colloidal particles will not be
able to come in close contact for the attractive
forces to produce agglomeration and hence
coagulation
• In such a case the effects of the double layer
must be neutralized (e.g., by increasing the
ionic strength of the solution) for coagulation
to occur
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Coagulation as a Process of
Destabilization of Colloids
• Coagulation of colloids occurs when a stable
colloid (because of the intrinsic stability of the
colloid dispersion) or a stabilized colloid
(because of the presence or a double layer) is
destabilized
• Destabilization of colloids occurs when the
colloidal particles are brought close enough to
each other for agglomeration to occur
• Several destabilization mechanisms are
possible
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Destabilization Mechanisms
Depending on the type of colloidal suspension
that should undergo coagulation different
destabilization mechanisms can be employed
such as:
• Repression of the double layer
• Neutralization of colloid charge by adsorption
of counter ions on the surface of the colloid
• Bridging of colloidal particles via polymer
addition
• Entrapment of colloidal particles by sweeping
floc
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Repression of Double Layer
• The potential generated by a charged particle
decreases rapidly with the distance from the
particle surface
• As a consequence the thickness of the
electrically charged layer surrounding the
particles also decreases with the distance form
the particle
• If the particle is surrounded by a large number of
added ionic species their presence will interfere
with the potential generated by the particle.
Consequently, the potential will decrease even
faster with the distance from the particles
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Repression of Double Layer (cont.'d)
• The thickness of the electrically charged layer
surrounding the particles is arbitrarily taken as
that distance at which the potential falls to
37% (=1/e) of the surface value
• From the Debye-Hückel theory it is possible to
calculate that the thickness of this layer is
given by the equation:
z
I
· ⋅

0 33 10
2
.
ε
where: z = thickness of layer, in cm
ε = dielectric constant for the solution, in C/(V cm)
I = ionic strength, in moles/L
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Repression of Double Layer (cont.'d.)
For water at 20
o
C it is:
z
I



3 0 10
8
.
where z is in cm and I is in moles/L.
Example:
for I = 0.001 M → z ≈ 100 Å
for I = 0.1 M → z ≈ 10 Å
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Repression of Double Layer (cont.'d.)
• The results from the previous equations
indicate that double layer repression can be
accomplished by increasing the ionic strength
of the solution
• This increase does not alter the charge of the
colloidal particles but reduces the extent to
which the same charge affects the potential
around the charge
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Repression of Double Layer (cont.'d.)
Distance from Particle Surface
E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l

P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l
Low Ionic Strength
High Ionic Strength
Z1 Z2
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Repression of Double Layer (cont.'d.)
Double layer repression can be achieved by:
• increasing the ionic strength of the solution by
adding additional ionic species
• even more effectively increasing the ionic
strength of the solution by adding ions of high
valence since:
I C Z
j j
all ionic
species
·

1
2
2
where: C = concentration of ionic species j
Z = charge of ionic species j
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Repression of Double Layer (cont.'d)
• The typical chemicals used in double layer
repression are those that produce cations with
a large charge such as Al
+3
and Fe
+3
• Therefore chemicals such as
- Al
2
(SO
4
)·14H
2
O (alum)
- FeCl
3
are often used as coagulants
Remark: these salts produce coagulation also
because of their charge suppression and
bridging capability
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Neutralization of Colloid Charge
• This mechanism is based on the addition of large
organic molecules containing ionizable groups to the
colloidal dispersion
• The charge of the dissociated molecule must be of
the opposite sign as the colloid charge
• As the organic molecules dissociate the resulting
large, charged molecules can effectively interact with
the Stern layer replacing the counter ions originally
present in this layer
• Because of the size of the molecule and the low
charge of its organic "tail" the potential around the
particle is decreased making the colloidal particles
interact, agglomerate and coagulate
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Bridging of Colloidal Particles Via
Polymer Addition
• The addition of large polymeric molecules having
charged or ionizable sites (polyelectrolytes) to a
colloidal dispersion results in the attachment of the
polymer to the colloid (just as in the charge
neutralization process examined previously)
• Because of the length of the polymeric chain the
motion of the colloid-polymer particle is hindered,
thus promoting contact with other particles
• The polymer chains protruding from colloid-polymer
particles can interact with similar particles forming
"bridges." This results in particle agglomeration and
eventual coagulation
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Colloid-Particle Interactions During Bridging
of Colloidal Particles Via Polymer Addition
After Weber, Physicochemical Process for Water Quality Control, 1972, p. 74
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Entrapment of Colloidal Particles by
Sweeping Floc
• If significant amounts of aluminum or ferric salts
are added to a solution the hydroxide of these
metal will precipitate
• During the precipitation process the hydroxide
forms large tridimensional polymeric structures
(floc formation)
• As these polymeric structures form the colloids
can become entrapped in it and be precipitated
by a "sweeping floc" mechanism
• Large amounts of sludges are formed as a result
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Characteristics of Coagulants
The ability of a chemical additive to produce
coagulation is in general dependent on the:
• electric charge of the ion or molecule used as
coagulant: the larger the charge the more
effective the coagulant will be;
• size of the ion or molecule used as coagulant:
the larger the size of the molecule the more
effective the coagulant will be.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Coagulating Power of Inorganic Electrolytes
Relative Power of Coagulation
Electrolyte Against Positive
Colloids
Against Negative
Colloids
NaCl 1 1
Na
2
SO
4
30 1
Na
3
PO
4
1000 1
BaCl
2
1 30
MgSO
4
30 30
AlCl
3
1 1000
Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
* 30 >1000
FeCl
3
1 1000
Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
* 30 >1000
(*) Common coagulants
After Droste, Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment, 1997, p. 385.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Common Coagulants
The most common coagulants used in wastewater
treatment are:
• Aluminum salts (alum)
• Ferric and ferrous salts
• Lime
• Cationic polymers
• Anionic and non-ionic polymers
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Aluminum and Iron Salts as
Coagulants
The most important coagulants or this type are:
• Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
·14H
2
O or Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
·18H
2
O (alum)
• FeCl
3
• FeCl
3
(with lime)
• Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
(with lime)
• FeSO
4
·7H
2
O (copperas) (with lime)
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Characteristics of Common Inorganic
Coagulants
Name Formula Mol.
Weight
Density
(kg/m
3
)
Alum Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
Al
2
(SO
4
)·14H
2
O
Al
2
(SO
4
)·18H
2
O
342.1
594.3
666.7
2710
Ferric chloride FeCl
3
162.1 2800
Ferric sulfate Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
400 1899
Ferrous sulfate Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
·7H
2
O 278 3097
Lime Ca(OH)
2
74.1 2200
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Aluminum and Iron Salts as
Coagulants (continued)
• When added to a solution these salts
dissociate into ions. The resulting cationic
species are not simple ions (such as Al
+3
, Fe
+3
)
but their hydrated forms (such as Al(H
2
O)
6
+3
or
Fe(H
2
O)
6
+3
)
• The addition of small amounts of Al and Fe
salts does not results in coagulation. This
indicates that double layer suppression is one
but not the main mechanism of coagulation
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Aluminum and Iron Salts as
Coagulants (continued)
• When added in significant amounts the ions
from these salts react with the OH
-
or
bicarbonate and carbonate ions in solution to
produce the corresponding insoluble
hydroxides (Al(OH)
3
or Fe(OH)
3
)
• Coagulation of colloids is observed when
precipitation of the hydroxides occurs (with or
without the presence of lime)
• The solubility of Al(OH)
3
or Fe(OH)
3
is a
function of the pH
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Aluminum and Iron Salts as
Coagulants (continued)
• The precipitation of these Al and Fe
hydroxides proceeds through the formation of
polymeric hydrocomplexes
• These complexes and the hydroxide particles
are positively charged if the pH is below their
isoelectric point. Hence they are adsorbed on
the surface of the colloids producing charge
suppression and coagulation
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Aluminum and Iron Salts as
Coagulants (continued)
• If the pH of the solution is beyond the
isoelectric point of the hydroxide precipitate
then the hydroxide particles will be negatively
charged and no charge suppression of the
colloid particle is possible
• In this range colloid coagulation can only
occur if the amount of hydroxide precipitate is
high enough for bridge formation and
sweeping floc enmeshment
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Hydrolysis of Alum in Water
The addition of alum (hydrated aluminum sulfate)
to a wastewater produces the hydrolysis of the
sulfate with the consequent formation of insoluble
aluminum hydroxide according to the reactions:
( )
( )
Al SO H O H O
Al OH H SO H O
2 4
3
2 2
3 4
2
2
18 6
2 6 3 18
⋅ + ⇔
↓ + + +
+ −
The insoluble aluminum hydroxide forms a floc
precipitate responsible for colloid removal.
Note that if the wastewater is not buffered the
resulting H
+
generation (pH increase) will prevent
the reaction from proceeding any further.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Reaction of Alum in the Presence of
Calcium and Magnesium Alkalinity
In the presence of calcium or magnesium
bicarbonate alkalinity alum forms aluminum
hydroxide that precipitates as before forming a
sweeping floc responsible for colloid removal:
( ) ( )
( )
Al SO H O Ca HCO
Al OH CaSO CO H O
2 4
3
2 3
2
3 4 2 2
18 3
2 3 6 18
⋅ + ⇔
↓ + + +
If the alkalinity is insufficient lime can be added:
( )
( )
( )
Al SO H O Ca OH
Al OH CaSO H O
2 4
3
2 2
3 4 2
18 3
2 3 18
⋅ + ⇔
↓ + +
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Equilibrium Composition of Solutions
in Contact with Al(OH)
3
After Sundstrom and Klei, Wastewater Treatment, 1979, p. 343
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Hydrolysis of Ferric Chloride in Water
The addition of ferric chloride to a wastewater
produces the hydrolysis of the ferric chloride with
the consequent formation of insoluble ferric
hydroxide, according to the reaction:
( ) FeCl H O Fe OH H Cl
3 2 3
3 3 3 + ⇔ ↓ + +
+ −
The insoluble ferric hydroxide forms a gelatinous
sweeping floc precipitate responsible for colloid
removal.
Note that if the wastewater is not buffered the
resulting H
+
generation (pH decrease) will prevent
the reaction from proceeding any further.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Reaction of Ferric Chloride in the Presence
of Calcium and Magnesium Alkalinity
In the presence of calcium or magnesium
bicarbonate alkalinity ferric chloride forms ferric
hydroxide, which precipitates as before forming a
sweeping floc responsible for colloid removal:
( )
( )
2 3
2 3 7
3 3
2
3 2 2
FeCl Ca HCO
Fe OH CaCl CO
+ ⇔
↓ + +
If the alkalinity is insufficient lime can be added:
( ) ( ) 2 3 2 3
3 2 3 2
FeCl Ca OH Fe OH CaCl + ⇔ ↓ +
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Equilibrium Composition of Solutions
in Contact with Fe(OH)
3
After Sundstrom and Klei, Wastewater Treatment, 1979, p. 344
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Reaction of Ferric Sulfate in the
Presence of Alkalinity or Lime
In the presence of calcium or magnesium
bicarbonate alkalinity ferric sulfate forms ferric
hydroxide, which precipitates as before forming a
sweeping floc responsible for colloid removal:
( ) ( )
( )
Fe SO Ca HCO
Fe OH CaSO CO
2 4
3
3
2
3 4 2
3
2 3 6
+ ⇔
↓ + +
If the alkalinity is insufficient lime can be added:
( )
( ) ( ) Fe SO Ca OH Fe OH CaSO
2 4
3
2 3 4
3 2 3 + ⇔ ↓ +
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Reaction of Ferrous Sulfate in the
Presence of Alkalinity and Lime
If ferrous sulfate is used as a coagulant alkalinity
and lime (or lime alone) are required to form
ferrous hydroxide, which is then converted to
ferric hydroxide by the oxygen in the water:
FeSO H O Ca HCO
Fe HCO CaSO H O
4 2 3 2
3 2 4 2
7
7
⋅ + ⇔
+ +
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) Fe HCO Ca OH Fe OH CaCO H O
3
2
2 2 3 2
2 2 2 + ⇔ + +
( ) ( ) 4 2 4
2 2 2 3
Fe OH O H O Fe OH + + ⇔ ↓
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Strategies for Al and Fe Coagulant
Addition
The appropriateness of the use of Al or Fe salts
as coagulants and their dosage depend primarily
on three factors, i.e.:
• pH of the wastewater
• alkalinity of the wastewater
• concentration of the colloids
Several situations are possible and will be
examined.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Strategies for Al and Fe Coagulant
Addition
Colloid
concentration
Alkalinity
level
Destabilization
mechanism
Al and Fe Addition
Strategy
High Low Charge
neutralization
Easy coagulation
High High Charge
neutralization
High dose or remove
alkalinity and add
low dose
Low High Sweeping floc High dose.
Easy coagulation
Low Low Ineffective Increase alkalinity or
use other coagulant
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Effect of the Presence of Phosphates
on Coagulation with Alum or Iron Salts
Multivalent metal ions such as aluminum or ferric
ions form very sparingly soluble precipitates in
the presence of phosphate ions. The reactions
involved in phosphate precipitation are:
( ) Al SO H O alum PO
AlPO SO H O
2 4
3
2 4
3
4 4
2
2
14 2
2 3 14
⋅ + →
↓ + +


( )
FeCl PO FePO Cl
3 4
3
4
3 + → ↓ +
− −
These reactions are of course in competition with
the many other reactions occurring as a result of
alum or ferric chloride addition to a wastewater
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Lime as a Coagulant
• Lime is a generic name used to identify several
combinations of calcium and oxygen, such as
Ca(OH)
2
or CaO (quicklime). Lime often
contains magnesium
• In the presence of bicarbonate ion lime will
react to form a calcium carbonate precipitate
that can remove colloids through the sweeping
floc mechanism. The reaction involved is:
( ) ( )
Ca OH Ca HCO CaCO H O
2
3
2
3 2
2 2 + ⇔ ↓ +
• If the wastewater is acidic the lime addition
will go first toward the neutralization of the
acid before colloid removal can take place
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Lime as a Coagulant (continued)
• If the lime addition is sufficient to raise the pH
above 9.5 the magnesium content of the lime
will precipitate as Mg(OH)
2
• Magnesium hydroxide precipitates in a
gelatinous form which results in good
clarification because of its enhanced potential
for colloid removal
• On the other hand the gelatinous magnesium
hydroxide precipitate typically makes the
resulting sludge more difficult to dewater
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Effect of the Presence of Phosphates
on Coagulation with Lime
The addition of lime to a wastewater will first
result in the neutralization of the wastewater
followed by the precipitation of CaCO
3
if
bicarbonates are present, as described above.
If, as a result of Ca(OH)
2
addition, the pH of
wastewater goes above about 10 and if
phosphates are present then the following
precipitation reaction can take place:
( ) ( )
10 6 2
2
4
3
10 4
6 2
Ca PO OH Ca PO OH
+ − −
+ + → ↓
where hydroxylapatite is formed as a precipitate.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Polyelectrolytes as Coagulants
• Polyelectrolytes (also often referred to a
“polymers” in coagulation processes) are
synthetic or organic polymeric molecules having
ionizable groups or charged groups along their
chain
• Polyelectrolytes can be classified according to
their origin as:
- natural, i.e., derived from starch products or
of biological origin (e.g., alginate from algae,
chitosan from the acidification of chitin in
shells)
- synthetic, i.e., synthetically polymerized from
monomers (e.g., polyamine, sulfonate, etc.)
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Polyelectrolytes as Coagulants
• Polyelectrolytes are also classified according
to the charge that they have when they are in
solution as:
- cationic, i.e., forming a macro cation when
placed in water
- nonionic, i.e., having no net charge when
placed in water
- anionic, i.e., forming a macro anion when
placed in water
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Examples of Polyelectrolytes
Type Functional
Group
Example
Cationic Amine
Quaternary
Polyethyleneamine
hydrochloride
Polydiallyldimethylammonium
Nonionic Polyalcohol
Amide
Polyvinylalcohol
Polyacrylamide
Anionic Carboxylic
Sulfonic
Polymethacrylic acid
Polyvinylsulfonate
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Examples of Coagulant
Polyelectrolytes
Cationic
n
Polyethyleninine
CH
2
CH
2
N
H
H
+
Cl
-
Nonionic

[
]
n
Polyacrilamide
CH
2
CH
C O
NH
2
Anionic

n
Poly(meth)acrilic acid
CH
2
CH
C O
O
-
R
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Polyelectrolytes as Coagulants
• Cationic polyelectrolytes are typically used to
coagulate colloids that are negatively charged
(the most common type)
• The mechanisms involved in the colloid
destabilization by cationic polyelectrolytes are:
charge neutralization and bridging of colloidal
particles
• Nonionic and anionic polyelectrolytes can also
be used to destabilize negative colloids. In
this case the destabilization mechanism is not
too well elucidated but is believed to be due to
bridging
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Typical Coagulant Dosage
Coagulant Dosage (ppm) pH
Alum 75 - 250 4.5 - 7.0
FeCl
3
35 - 150 4.5 - 7.0
FeSO
4
·7H
2
O 70 - 200 4.0 - 7.0
Lime 150 - 500 9.0 - 11.0
Cationic Electrolytes 2 - 5 ---
Nonionic and Anionic
Electrolytes
0.25 - 1.0 ---
After Eckenfelder, Industrial Water Pollution Control, 1989, p. 92
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Coagulant Aids
• Despite their names coagulant aids are
additives that can be added to a destabilized
colloidal suspension to promote the growth of
large, rapid-settling floc which can then
flocculate
• Typical coagulant aids are:
- Activated silica
- Polyelectrolytes
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Activated Silica as a Coagulant Aid
• Activated silica is a short chain polymer
capable of binding together aluminum hydrate
particles used in coagulation processes
• Common dosage for activated silica is 5 - 10
ppm
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Laboratory Coagulation Tests
• The selection of a coagulant and its dosage
cannot be made without carrying out
laboratory experiments
• Typically two types of tests are the most
effective in the determination of the optimal
dosage of coagulant and optimal pH for
coagulation. The are:
- jar test
- zeta potential
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Jar Test
The jar test is the most common laboratory
coagulation test and consists of:
• placing a sample of the wastewater in a jar:
• rapidly adding the coagulant and intensely
mixing the sample for a short time
(coagulation/destabilization phase);
• allowing the floc to form under gentle mixing
conditions (flocculation phase)
• allowing the floc to sediment in the quiescent
sample (settling)
• comparing the turbidity of the sample with the
initial turbidity
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Jar Test Apparatus
After Droste, Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment, 1997, p. 388.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Strategy to Conduct Laboratory
Coagulation Tests
Since two variables (coagulant dosage and pH
are) are involved it is typically more convenient to
fix one of the variables initially, scan for the
optimal value of the other variable, and finally
scan for the optimal value of the first variable
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Jar Test Procedure
• A wastewater sample is placed in a beaker and
magnetically stirred. The pH must be adjusted to a
desired valued (typically 6);
• A known amount of coagulant is added and the
agitation is maintained at a high value for 1 minute
to promote coagulation. Then the sample is
agitated slowly for 3 minutes to promote
flocculation. New additions are made until a
visible floc is obtained;
• Using this concentration of coagulant the
coagulation experiment is now repeated at
different pH values using a longer flocculation time
(typically about 10 to 40 minutes), followed by
settling with no agitation (15-60 minutes);
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Jar Test Procedure (continued)
• The amount of residual pollutant in solution is
measured at the end of each pH experiment. The
optimal coagulation pH is obtained;
• Using this optimal pH value a new series of
experiments is conducted in which the coagulant
dosage is changed. The optimal coagulant dosage
is obtained;
• Plots of residual pollutant concentration vs. pH
and residual pollutant concentration vs. coagulant
dosage can be constructed.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Typical Results of Jar Test
pH
P
o
l
l
u
t
a
n
t
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
Coagulant Dosage
P
o
l
l
u
t
a
n
t
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Zeta Potential Test
• A wastewater sample is placed in a beaker and
magnetically stirred. The pH must be adjusted to a
desired valued (typically 6)
• A known amount of coagulant is added and the
agitation is maintained at a high value for 1 minute to
promote coagulation. Then the sample is agitated
slowly for 3 minutes to promote flocculation
• The zeta potential is measured
• The same test is repeated at different coagulant
dosage
• The results are plotted and the dosage for zeta
potential equal to zero is determined
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Coagulation vs. Flocculation
• Although the words "coagulation" and
"flocculation" are often used interchangeably
they refer to two distinct processes
• Coagulation indicates the process through
which colloidal particles and very fine solid
suspensions are destabilized so that they can
begin to agglomerate if the conditions are
appropriate
• Flocculation refers to the process by which
destabilized particles actually conglomerate
into larger aggregates so that they can be
separated from the wastewater
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Mechanisms of Flocculation
• Perikinetic flocculation
This type of flocculation is generated by the
Brownian motion associated with destabilized
small colloidal particles. The Brownian motion
contributes to transport the particles close
enough for agglomeration to occur
• Orthokinetic flocculation
This type of flocculation mechanism is based on
the generation of velocity gradients within the
wastewater to promote particle interaction. In
this case a mild agitation promotes the
aggregation of the particles and hence
flocculation
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Model for Flocculation Process
The rate of orthokinetic flocculation can be
predicted (in principle) from the equation:
ln
N
N
G t
p
p
o ave
· −
4
π
ηΩ
where N
p
= number of separate colloidal particles
N
p
o
= initial number of separate colloidal particles
η = particle collision efficiency
Ω = volume of colloidal particles per unit volume
of suspension
G
ave
= average velocity gradient
t = time
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Model for Flocculation Process
The average velocity gradient, G
ave
, can be
expressed as:
G
P
V
ave
ave
·
µ
where: P
ave
= average power consumption in the
system (e.g., a tank stirred by an
impeller)
V = volume of suspension
µ = viscosity
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Example of Apparatus for
Coagulation-Flocculation and Settling
After Eckenfelder, Industrial Water Pollution Control, 1989, p. 96
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Design Approach for Coagulation and
Flocculation Equipment
• Coagulation depends on the rapid reaction
through which the coagulant destabilizes the
colloids.
• Coagulation requires the rapid dispersion of
the coagulant throughout the wastewater.
This is accomplished through very intense
agitation and mixing.
• High shear rates are beneficial to coagulation.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Design Approach for Coagulation and
Flocculation Equipment
• Flocculation depends on the frequency of
collision of the destabilized colloids to form
larger floc particles.
• The frequency of collision depends on the
intensity of the agitation and the shear rate.
• However, too high a value of the agitation
intensity and shear rate may break up the floc
just formed.
• Therefore, moderate shear rates and agitation
intensities are used in flocculators.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Batch Coagulation-Flocculation Process
• Two tanks in parallel are typically used. Each tank
operates in a full cycle (filling, coagulation, flocculation,
settling).
• Each step is conducted in series and is time dependent.
• After the tank has been filled, the coagulant is added
while the wastewater is rapidly stirred (typically for 10
minutes).
• The agitation is reduced during the flocculation phase
and stopped altogether during settling (typically for a
few hours).
• Batch treatment can be cost effective only for flows up
to 50,000 gal/day.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Continuous Coagulation-Flocculation Process
A continuous coagulation-flocculation system
typically includes the following:
• Chemical feeding system: to continuously feed the
coagulant to the wastewater;
• Rapid mix tank: in this tank (or pipe, channel, etc.)
high shear condition are generated (e.g., by a
rapidly rotating impeller) to rapidly mix the
coagulant with the wastewater;
• Flocculation tank: in this tank moderate agitation
(typically through impellers or paddles) is provided
to promote coalescence and flow growth;
• Sedimentation tank: to remove the floc particles;
• Filtration system: to polish the effluent, if needed.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Shear Rate (Velocity Gradient)
In any moving fluid in which different velocities
exist the rate of change of the velocity in any
given direction along another direction (e.g., the
rate the velocity in the x direction changes along
the y direction) is called the shear rate or velocity
gradient along
that direction
(e.g., dv
x
/dy), and
is defined as G:
G
dv
dy
xy
x
·
v
x
=0
x
y
v
x
=v
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Shear Stress and Shear Rate
(Velocity Gradient)
The shear rate, τ, is the force per unit area that is
transmitted between two adjacent fluid layers as a
result of viscosity. The shear rate transmitted
along the y direction as a result of the velocity
gradient (or velocity gradient) dv
x
/dy is:
τ µ
xy
x
dv
dy
· −
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Shear Stress, Velocity Gradient and
Power Dissipation
It can be shown that the relationship between the
shear rate, τ, the velocity gradient, G, and the
power, P, dissipated in a volume V, of fluid as a
result of viscous dissipation can be expressed as:
− · · · τ µ ε G G
P
V
2
where:
ε = power dissipation per unit fluid volume
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Velocity Gradient and
Power Dissipation
The relationship:
G
P
V
·
µ
can be used to determine the local velocity
gradient from the local power dissipation. Since
this is typically very difficult, in practice the
average velocity gradient, G
ave
, is determined from
the average power dissipation, P
ave
:
G
P
V
ave
ave
·
µ
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Estimation of Power Dissipation in
Coagulation and Flocculation Equipment
• Phenomena such as coagulation and
flocculation are directly or indirectly affected
by the velocity gradients.
• Since the average velocity gradient, G, can be
estimated only if the mechanical power
delivered to the system is known, it becomes
essential to be able to determine the power, P,
consumed by different systems (such as
impellers, paddles, sparged gas, etc.).
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Direct Power Input: Classification of
Power Sources
The power dissipated inside a tank must be
supplied from the outside in some way. In principle,
this external power can be supplied by means of
three primary different sources, i.e.:
• Mechanical agitation (e.g., impellers, paddles,
turbines)
• Power delivered by a compressed gas (e.g.,
through gas dispersers, sparged gas diffusers)
• Power delivered by the liquid (e.g., venturi
mixers, hydraulic jumps, water jets)
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Mechanical Agitation Systems in
Coagulation and Flocculation
• Submerged impellers (mixers) mounted on
vertical shafts.
• Paddles mounted on horizontal shafts.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Tanks with Submerged Impeller(s)
Motor
H
D
T
C
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Submerged Impellers
• Many different types of impellers exist.
• Impellers are classified on the basis of:
♦ shape
♦ dimensions
♦ type of flow pattern generated
♦ flow intensity
♦ power consumption under aerated and non-
aerated conditions
♦ their ability to disperse a gas effectively.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Example of Submerged Impellers
After Tatterson (1991), p. 7.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Impeller Pumping Action
• Radial (e.g., Rushton
Impeller, Flat-Blade
Impeller)
• Axial (e.g., Propeller, Lightning
A310)
• Mixed-flow (45
o
Pitched-
Bladed Turbine)
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Flow Patterns Resulting from the
Presence of Baffles (Stators)
• Unbaffled cylindrical vessel
• Baffled cylindrical vessel
(or unbaffled square
vessel)
Vortex
Baffle
Flat intefacial area
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Nomenclature for Submerged Impellers
C Impeller off-bottom clearance
D Impeller diameter
H Height of liquid in the mixing vessel
N Agitation speed; revolutions per minute (rpm)
P Power consumed by the impeller
T Vessel diameter; m
w Baffle width; m
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Calculation of the Power Dissipated
by a Submerged Impeller
For a given impeller of known type, size, and
agitation speed it is possible to calculate the
power dissipated by that impeller, P, from:
P N D · Poρ
3 5
The non-dimensional power number Po is specific
for each impeller type and agitation system.
Remark: in this expression the agitation speed,
N, is expressed in rotations per unit time (e.g.,
rotations per second [rps], rotation per
minute[rpm] to yield P in the appropriate units).
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Power Number
• The power number, Po (or Ne or N
p
) is a non-
dimensional number used to calculate the
power consumption of an impeller.
• In general, the power number is a function of
the type of impeller, type of agitation system
(e.g., tank, baffles), dynamic agitation regimes
(e.g., turbulent flow, laminar flow), geometric
dimensions of impeller and tank, location of
the impeller, and the presence of other
impellers. In other words, Po is a function of
any variable affecting the agitation flow.
• Po is typically determined experimentally.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Non-Dimensional Groups Used in
Power Consumption Calculations
• Power Number = Po Ne
P
N D
· ·
ρ
3 5
• Impeller Reynolds Number = Re ·
ρ
µ
ND
2
• Froude Number = Fr ·
N D
g
2
(important only in
unbaffled vessels)
• Geometric Ratios, such as
T
D
H
D
C
D
w
T
; ; ;
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Power Consumed by Submerged
Impellers
In general, Po can be expressed as:
Po Ne
P
N D
f
ND N D
g
T
D
H
D
C
D
w
T
· · ·
¸
¸

_
,

ρ
ρ
µ
3 5
2 2
, , , , , ,impeller type
For baffled vessels, Fr is unimportant, and:
Po Ne
P
N D
f
ND T
D
H
D
C
D
w
T
· · ·
¸
¸

_
,

ρ
ρ
µ
3 5
2
, , , , ,impeller type
For geometrically similar baffled vessels:
( ) Po Ne
P
N D
f
ND
f · · ·
¸
¸

_
,
·
ρ
ρ
µ
3 5
2
Re,impeller type
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Typical Power Number Curve for a
Submerged Impeller
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000
Reynolds Number
1
10
100
P
o
w
e
r

N
u
m
b
e
r
Turbulent
Transitional
Laminar
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Power Number for Submerged
Impellers
Laminar Regime:
Po Ne · ∝
1
Re
Transitional Regime:
( ) Po Ne f · · Re
Turbulent Regime:
Po Ne · · Constant
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Power Number for Submerged
Impellers
After Bates, Fondy, and Corpstein (1963).
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Turbulent Power Number for Different Impellers
Impeller Type Po or Ne
Flat-Blade Turbine (24 Blades) 9.8
Flat-Blade Turbine (12 Blades) 8.5
Gate 5.5
Disc Turbine (Rushton Type) 5.0
Flat-Blade Turbine (6 Blades) 4.0
45
o
Pitched-Blade Turbine 1.3
Prochem 1.0
Glass-Lined Impeller (Pfaudler Type) 0.75
MIG Impeller 0.65
Lightnin A310 0.45
Propeller 0.35
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Effect of Tank Size on Power Consumption
• In general, the shape of the tank can have an effect
on the power consumed by the impeller; however,
typically this effect is somewhat limited.
• The power consumed by an impeller in a baffled
cylindrical tank (i.e., having a circular cross section)
is typically very similar to the power consumed in a
tank of square cross section.

PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Effect of Tank Size on Power Consumption
• The power dissipation is lower in tanks having a
rectangular (as opposed to circular or square) cross
section.
• For most of the cases encountered in wastewater
treatment the power consumed by a turbine in an
unbaffled tank having a circular or square cross
section can be taken to be 75% of that dissipated in a
baffled system having the same dimensions.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Horizontal Paddle Systems
Paddles mounted on horizontal shafts are often
encountered in flocculation tanks.
Plan View Side View
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Geometry of a Horizontal Paddle
Shaft
Paddle
r
o
r
i
b
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Power Dissipated by a Horizontal
Paddle
The power dissipated by a single paddle can be
obtained from the equation:
( )
( )
P C b N k r r
D o i
· −

¸

1
]
1

1
8
2
60
1
3
4 4
ρ
π
N = agitation speed in rpm
C
D
≅ 1.8 for flat paddles
k = 0.25 (for tanks without baffles); 0-0.15 (for
tanks with baffles)
Range for peripheral velocity, 2πN/60 = 0.09-0.9
m/s.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Power Dissipated by Gas Sparging
When a single gas bubble sparged from the
bottom of a tank rises to the top the gas
expansion energy, W, released from the gas to the
liquid can be obtained from:
W pdV
V
V
i
o
·

where:
p = pressure in the gas bubble
V = bubble volume
“o” subscript: at the top of the tank
“i” subscript: at the bottom of tank
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Power Dissipated by Gas Sparging

Air
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Power Dissipated by Gas Sparging
From the ideal gas law it is:
pV p V p V nRT
o o i i
· · ·
Then:
( ) ( )
W pdV p V
dp
p
p V
p
p
V
V
o o
p
p
o o
i
o
i
o
i
o
· · −


(
·

ln
For m bubbles sparged in the tank during the time
t it is (since the gas flow rate is Q
o
= m V
o
/t):
P
mW
t
p
mV
t
p
p
p Q
p
p
p Q
p
p
o
o i
o
o o
i
o
o o
o
· · · · +
¸
¸

_
,
ln ln ln 1

PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Power Dissipated by Gas Sparging
Recall that the pressure generated by a column of
liquid is:
p g h
L
· ρ
where h is the height of the column of liquid, and
ρ
L
is the density of the liquid.
Since 1 atm = 101,325 Pascals the height of a
column of water that produces a hydrostatic
pressure of 1 atm is:
h
Pa
kg m m s
m · ·
101325
1000 981
103
3 2
,
/ . /
.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Power Dissipated by Gas Sparging
Hence, the power dissipated by a gas sparged at
a distance h below the liquid level (exposed to the
atmospheric pressure, p
o
) is given by:
( )
( )
P p Q
p
p
p Q
h
p Q
h
o o
o
o o
o o
· +
¸
¸

_
,
· +
¸
¸

_
,

· +
¸
¸

_
,

ln ln
.
ln
.
1 1
103
1
33 8
∆ in m
in ft
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Power Dissipated by Hydraulic
Devices
Power can be dissipated also when water flows
through hydraulic jumps. In general, the power
dissipated this way can be obtained from:
P gQh
L
· ρ
where:
ρ = liquid density
g = acceleration of gravity
h
L
= headloss in the device
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Average Velocity Gradient and Residence
Time in Rapid Mix Coagulation Equipment
• During coagulation the average velocity
gradient is typically quite high, with G values
up to 5000 s
-1
(more commonly around 1000
s
-1
).
• Residence times are between 10 s and 6
minutes, although much faster dispersion
times are needed for optimal charge
neutralization effects (t < 0.1 s).
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Average Velocity Gradient and Residence
Time in Rapid Mix Coagulation Equipment
Recommended velocity gradients and residence
times during coagulation in rapid mix basins:
t (s) 20 30 40 >40
G (1/s) 1000 900 790 700
G·t 20,000 27,000 31,600 28,000
The following empirical equation relating G, t and
the concentration, C (in mg/L), of alum as the
coagulant can also be used for rapid mix devices:
G t C ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅
146 6
59 10
.
.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Average Velocity Gradient and Residence
Time in Flocculators
• During flocculation the average velocity
gradient is typically much lower than in rapid
mix devices, with G values in the range 5-100
s
-1
(more commonly in the range 10-60 s
-1
).
• Residence times are between 15 and 45
minutes.
• G·t values are typically in the range 10
4
-10
5
.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Generalized Approach to the Design of
Coagulation and Flocculation Devices
• Carry out jar tests to determine dosage of
coagulant.
• Assume values for G and the residence time.
• Size the tank for the residence time selected.
• Choose the type of equipment appropriate for
the process (e.g., high speed impeller for rapid
mix or paddle agitator for flocculation).
• Size the equipment on the basis of the power
dissipation that will result in the desired G value.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Flocculator Design Guidelines
Type of Flocculator Basic Design Criteria
Vertical shaft G
ave
value up to 100 s
-1
, maximum tip speed of 2
m/s, approximately 5m x 5m to 10m x 10m basin
surface area per unit, downward flow pattern
preferable for propeller unit, stator baffles should
be provided for turbine units
Horizontal-shaft
paddle
G
ave
value up to 50 s
-1
, maximum tip speed of 1 m/s,
number of paddles adjusted for tapered mixing,
paddle area should not exceed 20% of tank section
area
Baffled channel Tapered mixing by adjusting baffles, maximum flow
velocity of approximately 0.75 m/s, end-around
baffle used when total head loss across tank is
limited
Diffused air and
water jets
G
ave
= 95-20 s
-1
or G
ave
·t = 105-106, may be used for
auxiliary mixing when plant is overloaded
James M. Montgomery Consulting Engineering, Inc., Water Treatment Principles and Design, 1985, p. 516.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Flocculator Design Guidelines
Type of Flocculator Advantages and Disadvantages
Vertical shaft Easy maintenance and few breakdowns. Suitable for
high-energy input. Suitable for direct filtration and
conventional treatment. Many units required for a large
plant. High capital cost for variable-speed reducers and
support slabs.
Horizontal-shaft
Paddle
Generally produces a large-size floc. Simple mixing unit.
Suitable for conventional treatment. Need for precise
installation and maintenance. Difficult to increase energy
input. Problems with leakage and shaft alignment.
Baffled channel Performs well if the plant flow rate is reasonably
constant. Little maintenance. A lack of flexibility for
mixing intensity. High head loss for the over-and-under
baffle.
Diffused air and
water jets
Simple installation and less capital cost. Limited amount
of operational data available. High local velocities for
water jet flocculators. High operational cost for air
diffuser flocculators.
James M. Montgomery Consulting Engineering, Inc., Water Treatment Principles and Design, 1985, p. 516.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Examples of Coagulation-Flocculation
Processes for Industrial Wastewaters
Wastewater
Source
Contaminant Type of
Coagulant
Dosage
(ppm)
Petroleum
refinery
Oil Alum 25-75
Petroleum
refinery
Foam Polyamine 1-3
Steel mill Oil Anionic 1.5-2
Steel mill Suspended solids Anionic 0.3
Paper mill Suspended solids Weak cationic 2-5
After Sundstrom and Klei, Wastewater Treatment, 1979, p. 352.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Efficiency of Coagulation Processes
to Remove Pollutants
Phosphorus
removal (%)
Suspended solid
removal (%)
BOD Removal (%)
Without With Without With Without With
Primary
treatment
5-10 70-90 40-70 60-75 25-40 40-50
Secondary
treatment
Trickling
filters
Activated
Sludge
10-20
10-20
80-95
80-95
70-92
85-95
85-95
85-95
80-90
85-95
85-95
85-95
After Sundstrom and Klei, Wastewater Treatment, 1979, p. 352.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Additional Information and Examples on
Coagulation and Flocculation
Additional information and examples can be found in the
following references:
• Corbitt, R. A. 1990, The Standard Handbook of
Environmental Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York,
pp. 6.92; 9.25.
• Droste, R. L., Theory and Practice of Water and
Wastewater Treatment, John Wiley & Sons, New York,
1997, pp. 384-415.
• Eckenfelder, W. W., Jr., 1989, Industrial Water
Pollution Control, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 84-110.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Additional Information and Examples on
Coagulation and Flocculation
• Freeman, H. M. (ed.), 1989, Standard Handbook of
Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal, McGraw-
Hill, New York, pp. 7.21-7.31.
• Haas, C. N. and Vamos, R. J., 1995, Hazardous and
Industrial Waste Treatment, Prentice Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ, pp. 144-145.
• James M. Montgomery Consulting Engineering, Inc.,
1985, Water Treatment Principles and Design, Wiley-
Interscience, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 116-
134; 504-519.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE
NJIT
Additional Information and Examples on
Coagulation and Flocculation
• Metcalf & Eddy, 1991, Wastewater Engineering:
Treatment, Disposal, and Reuse, McGraw-Hill, New
York, pp. 302-314; 470-472.
• Sundstrom, D. W. and Klei, H. E., 1979, Wastewater
Treatment, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp.
235-255.
• Weber, W. J., Jr., 1972, Physicochemical Process for
Water Quality Control, Wiley-Interscience, John Wiley
& Sons, New York, pp. 61-109.
• Wentz, C. W., 1995, Hazardous Waste Management,
Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 157-161.

Solutions, Colloidal Dispersions and Suspensions
Solids can be dispersed in liquids under several forms. The nature of such dispersions depends on the size of the solid particles. In general, considered: • Solutions • Colloidal dispersions • Suspensions one the following states are

PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT

Characteristics of Solutions, Colloidal Dispersions and Suspensions
System Solution Colloidal dispersion Suspension Particle Size < 20 Å 20 - 2000 Å > 2000 Å Separation Method Membrane Ultrafiltration Filtration Particle Visibility Invisible Ultramicroscope Microscope Particle Movement Kinetic Brownian Convective

1 Å = 10-4 µm = 10-10 m
PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT

Motivation for the Use of Coagulation in Wastewater Treatment • Wastewaters often contain pollutants that are present is colloidal form • In such cases the colloidal suspension may contain: organic materials metal oxides insoluble toxic compounds stable emulsions material producing turbidity PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT .

ARMENANTE NJIT .Motivation for the Use of Coagulation in Wastewater Treatment (cont.'d) • This material must be removed prior to discharge • Because of the nature of the colloidal suspension these particles will not sediment or be separated with conventional physical methods (such as filtration or settling) unless they are agglomerated through coagulation PIERO M.

filtration. ARMENANTE NJIT . centrifugation or other separation methods • Coagulation is commonly achieved by adding different types of chemicals (coagulants) to the wastewater to promote destabilization of the colloid dispersion and agglomeration of the resulting individual colloidal particles PIERO M. flocculation.Coagulation • Coagulation is the process by which colloidal particles and very fine solid suspensions initially present in a wastewater are combined into larger agglomerates that can be separated via sedimentation.

that can be present in the wastewater. coagulation can also produce the removal of particles larger that colloidal particles due to the entrapment of such particles in the flocs formed during coagulation PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT . • In addition. such as phosphates.Additional Benefits of Coagulation • The addition of some common coagulants to a wastewater not only produces coagulation of colloids but also typically results in the precipitation of soluble compounds.

Effects of Coagulation Treatment on Wastewater Primary Effect • Agglomeration and eventual removal of colloids (primarily responsible for wastewater turbidity) Secondary Effects • Precipitation of some chemical species in solution • Agglomeration of larger particles in the floc PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT .

Coagulation vs. ARMENANTE NJIT . Flocculation • Although the words "coagulation" and "flocculation" are often used interchangeably they refer to two distinct processes • Coagulation indicates the process through which colloidal particles and very fine solid suspensions are destabilized so that they can begin to agglomerate if the conditions are appropriate • Flocculation refers to the process by which destabilized particles actually conglomerate into larger aggregates so that they can be separated from the wastewater PIERO M.

lattice imperfections . However. most colloidal particles in wastewater have a negative charge • Such a charge typically comes from: .ionic species that can become adsorbed on the surface of the colloid PIERO M. or hydroxyl groups) .. amino.Stability of Colloids in Wastewater • The colloids commonly found in wastewater are stable because of the electrical charge that they carry • The charge of colloids can be positive or negative.g. ARMENANTE NJIT .ionizable groups that become ionic species in water (e.

clays. ARMENANTE NJIT .g.. proteins) • hydrophobic (e.g. metal oxides) PIERO M..Types of Colloids Colloids are commonly classified as: • hydrophilic (e.

ARMENANTE NJIT .Hydrophilic Colloids • Hydrophilic colloids are typically formed by large organic molecules that become hydrated (solvated) when they are in the presence of water • These molecules are thermodynamically stable in their solvated form • The charge in such molecules originates from the presence of ionizable groups on the molecule that transform the molecule in a "macro-ion" when placed in solution PIERO M.

ARMENANTE NJIT .Hydrophilic Colloids (continued) • As a result of these charges hydrophilic colloidal particles are significantly hydrated when placed in solution • Agglomeration of hydrophilic colloids typically involves the addition of significant amounts of ions which compete with the colloids for water molecules thus resulting in the dehydration of the colloidal particles ("salting out" of the colloid) PIERO M.

ARMENANTE NJIT . If the charge layer is removed these particles tend to agglomerate spontaneously and can be removed from the wastewater PIERO M.Hydrophobic Colloids • Hydrophobic colloids are made of small colloidal particles having little or no affinity for water (the solvent) • Their stability in due to the presence of a charge which attracts other ionic species present in water and results in the formation of an electrically charged layer around the colloidal particles • Colloidal dispersions are thermodynamically unstable.

This layer is often referred to as the Stern layer and has a thickness of a single hydrated ionic layer • The particle and the attached ions of opposite sign form an electric double layer PIERO M.Double Layer Associated with Colloidal Particles • If a colloidal particle is electrically charged it attracts ions and other colloidal particles of opposite sign • These ions are tightly attached by electrostatic forces to the colloidal particle forming a first inner layer of charges. ARMENANTE NJIT .

the plane of ions which are unaffected by fluid motion PIERO M. i. They form the diffuse layer • Within the diffuse layer there is typically another layer of ions which are not so tightly attached to the particle as the Stern layer. ARMENANTE NJIT ..Double Layer Associated with Colloidal Particles (continued) • Additional ions of opposite sign to that of the colloidal particle also accumulate next to the Stern layer. but which cannot be removed by the presence of any external velocity gradient either • These ions bound to the particle even as the particle moves delimit the shear plane.e.

+ .Distribution of Charges in a Double Layer Shear Plane .+ Particle .+ .+ + + .+ + + + + Stern Layer Diffuse Layer PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT .+ .+ + .+ Colloidal .

ARMENANTE NJIT .Zeta Potential • The zeta potential is defined as the electric potential difference between the shear plane of a colloidal particle and the bulk of the solution • The zeta potential is an indirect measure of the electrical charge of the colloidal particle • The zeta potential can be experimentally measured (using a microscope) by determining the velocity of a particle moving under an electric potential of known intensity (Note: the actual potential between the surface of the particle and the solution cannot be measured experimentally) PIERO M.

ARMENANTE NJIT .Electric Potential Around a Colloidal Particle Shear Plane Electrical Potential Zeta Potential Distance from Particle Surface PIERO M.

ARMENANTE NJIT .Quantitative Determination of Zeta Potential from Experimental Data The zeta potential is defined as: ζ = 4 πv 4 πµ EM = εVx ε where: ζ = zeta potential v = particle velocity ε = dielectric constant of the medium Vx = applied potential per unit length EM = electrophoretic mobility PIERO M.

ARMENANTE NJIT .Quantitative Determination of Zeta Potential from Experimental Data At 25 oC in water the zeta potential can be directly calculated from: ζ = 12EM where: ζ = zeta potential in mV EM = electrophoretic mobility in (µm/s)/(V/cm) Average zeta potential for wastewater colloids: -16 to -22 mV (range: -12 to -40 mV) PIERO M.

ARMENANTE NJIT .Relationship Between Zeta Potential and Coagulation 40 Zeta Potential (mV) 10 35 0 30 Residual Turbidity Zeta Potential -10 25 -20 20 Residual Turbidity (Jackson turbidity units) 15 -30 10 -40 5 -50 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 -60 600 Alum Dosage (mg/L) PIERO M.

Isoelectric Point • When the colloidal particles are in the presence of enough counter ions they become electrically neutral • This point is called the isoelectric point • The zeta potential at the isoelectric point is zero • If the particles are not any more "shielded" by the double layer they can interact with each other • Hence. ARMENANTE NJIT . at the isoelectric point the particles have the highest potential for agglomeration PIERO M.

ARMENANTE NJIT . 339 PIERO M. 1979. p.Energy Forces Between Colloidal Particles After Sundstrom and Klei. Wastewater Treatment.

g.. by increasing the ionic strength of the solution) for coagulation to occur PIERO M.Energy Forces Between Colloidal Particles (continued) • If the repulsive forces produced as a result of the presence of the double layer are too significant the colloidal particles will not be able to come in close contact for the attractive forces to produce agglomeration and hence coagulation • In such a case the effects of the double layer must be neutralized (e. ARMENANTE NJIT .

ARMENANTE NJIT mechanisms are .Coagulation as a Process of Destabilization of Colloids • Coagulation of colloids occurs when a stable colloid (because of the intrinsic stability of the colloid dispersion) or a stabilized colloid (because of the presence or a double layer) is destabilized • Destabilization of colloids occurs when the colloidal particles are brought close enough to each other for agglomeration to occur • Several destabilization possible PIERO M.

ARMENANTE NJIT .Destabilization Mechanisms Depending on the type of colloidal suspension that should undergo coagulation different destabilization mechanisms can be employed such as: • Repression of the double layer • Neutralization of colloid charge by adsorption of counter ions on the surface of the colloid • Bridging of colloidal particles via polymer addition • Entrapment of colloidal particles by sweeping floc PIERO M.

the potential will decrease even faster with the distance from the particles PIERO M. Consequently. ARMENANTE NJIT .Repression of Double Layer • The potential generated by a charged particle decreases rapidly with the distance from the particle surface • As a consequence the thickness of the electrically charged layer surrounding the particles also decreases with the distance form the particle • If the particle is surrounded by a large number of added ionic species their presence will interfere with the potential generated by the particle.

33 ⋅10 I where: z = thickness of layer.Repression of Double Layer (cont. in moles/L −2 PIERO M.'d) • The thickness of the electrically charged layer surrounding the particles is arbitrarily taken as that distance at which the potential falls to 37% (=1/e) of the surface value • From the Debye-Hückel theory it is possible to calculate that the thickness of this layer is given by the equation: ε z = 0. in C/(V cm) I = ionic strength. ARMENANTE NJIT . in cm ε = dielectric constant for the solution.

001 M for I = 0. Example: for I = 0.0 ⋅10 − 8 z≅ I where z is in cm and I is in moles/L.'d. ARMENANTE NJIT .Repression of Double Layer (cont.) For water at 20 oC it is: 3.1 M → → z ≈100 Å z ≈10 Å PIERO M.

'd.Repression of Double Layer (cont.) • The results from the previous equations indicate that double layer repression can be accomplished by increasing the ionic strength of the solution • This increase does not alter the charge of the colloidal particles but reduces the extent to which the same charge affects the potential around the charge PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT .

ARMENANTE NJIT .Repression of Double Layer (cont.) Electrical Potential Low Ionic Strength High Ionic Strength Z2 Z1 Distance from Particle Surface PIERO M.'d.

'd.) Double layer repression can be achieved by: • increasing the ionic strength of the solution by adding additional ionic species • even more effectively increasing the ionic strength of the solution by adding ions of high valence since: 1 I= Cj Z 2 ∑ j 2 all ionic species where: C = concentration of ionic species j Z = charge of ionic species j PIERO M.Repression of Double Layer (cont. ARMENANTE NJIT .

Repression of Double Layer (cont. ARMENANTE NJIT .'d) • The typical chemicals used in double layer repression are those that produce cations with a large charge such as Al+3 and Fe+3 • Therefore chemicals such as Al2(SO4)·14H2O (alum) FeCl3 are often used as coagulants Remark: these salts produce coagulation also because of their charge suppression and bridging capability PIERO M.

charged molecules can effectively interact with the Stern layer replacing the counter ions originally present in this layer • Because of the size of the molecule and the low charge of its organic "tail" the potential around the particle is decreased making the colloidal particles interact. ARMENANTE NJIT .Neutralization of Colloid Charge • This mechanism is based on the addition of large organic molecules containing ionizable groups to the colloidal dispersion • The charge of the dissociated molecule must be of the opposite sign as the colloid charge • As the organic molecules dissociate the resulting large. agglomerate and coagulate PIERO M.

ARMENANTE NJIT . thus promoting contact with other particles • The polymer chains protruding from colloid-polymer particles can interact with similar particles forming "bridges.Bridging of Colloidal Particles Via Polymer Addition • The addition of large polymeric molecules having charged or ionizable sites (polyelectrolytes) to a colloidal dispersion results in the attachment of the polymer to the colloid (just as in the charge neutralization process examined previously) • Because of the length of the polymeric chain the motion of the colloid-polymer particle is hindered." This results in particle agglomeration and eventual coagulation PIERO M.

Physicochemical Process for Water Quality Control. 74 PIERO M. p. 1972. ARMENANTE NJIT .Colloid-Particle Interactions During Bridging of Colloidal Particles Via Polymer Addition After Weber.

ARMENANTE NJIT .Entrapment of Colloidal Particles by Sweeping Floc • If significant amounts of aluminum or ferric salts are added to a solution the hydroxide of these metal will precipitate • During the precipitation process the hydroxide forms large tridimensional polymeric structures (floc formation) • As these polymeric structures form the colloids can become entrapped in it and be precipitated by a "sweeping floc" mechanism • Large amounts of sludges are formed as a result PIERO M.

ARMENANTE NJIT . • size of the ion or molecule used as coagulant: the larger the size of the molecule the more effective the coagulant will be.Characteristics of Coagulants The ability of a chemical additive to produce coagulation is in general dependent on the: • electric charge of the ion or molecule used as coagulant: the larger the charge the more effective the coagulant will be. PIERO M.

Against Positive Colloids 1 30 1000 1 30 1 30 1 30 Against Negative Colloids 1 1 1 30 30 1000 >1000 1000 >1000 PIERO M. Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment.Coagulating Power of Inorganic Electrolytes Relative Power of Coagulation Electrolyte NaCl Na2SO4 Na3PO4 BaCl2 MgSO4 AlCl3 Al2(SO4)3 * FeCl3 Fe2(SO4)3 * (*) Common coagulants After Droste. 1997. p. 385. ARMENANTE NJIT .

ARMENANTE NJIT .Common Coagulants The most common coagulants used in wastewater treatment are: • Aluminum salts (alum) • Ferric and ferrous salts • Lime • Cationic polymers • Anionic and non-ionic polymers PIERO M.

ARMENANTE NJIT .Aluminum and Iron Salts as Coagulants The most important coagulants or this type are: • 2(SO4)3·14H2O or Al2(SO4)3·18H2O (alum) Al • FeCl3 • FeCl3 (with lime) • 2(SO4)3 (with lime) Fe • FeSO4·7H2O (copperas) (with lime) PIERO M.

1 400 278 74.1 Density (kg/m3) 2710 Ferric chloride Ferric sulfate Ferrous sulfate Lime PIERO M. Weight 342. ARMENANTE NJIT 2800 1899 3097 2200 .Characteristics of Common Inorganic Coagulants Name Alum Formula Al2(SO4)3 Al2(SO4)·14H2O Al2(SO4)·18H2O FeCl3 Fe2(SO4)3 Fe2(SO4)3·7H2O Ca(OH)2 Mol.7 162.3 666.1 594.

Aluminum and Iron Salts as Coagulants (continued)
• When added to a solution these salts dissociate into ions. The resulting cationic species are not simple ions (such as Al+3, Fe+3) but their hydrated forms (such as Al(H2O)6+3 or Fe(H2O)6+3) • The addition of small amounts of Al and Fe salts does not results in coagulation. This indicates that double layer suppression is one but not the main mechanism of coagulation

PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT

Aluminum and Iron Salts as Coagulants (continued)
• When added in significant amounts the ions from these salts react with the OH- or bicarbonate and carbonate ions in solution to produce the corresponding insoluble hydroxides (Al(OH)3 or Fe(OH)3) • Coagulation of colloids is observed when precipitation of the hydroxides occurs (with or without the presence of lime) • The solubility of Al(OH)3 or Fe(OH)3 is a function of the pH
PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT

Aluminum and Iron Salts as Coagulants (continued)
• The precipitation of these Al and Fe hydroxides proceeds through the formation of polymeric hydrocomplexes • These complexes and the hydroxide particles are positively charged if the pH is below their isoelectric point. Hence they are adsorbed on the surface of the colloids producing charge suppression and coagulation

PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT

Aluminum and Iron Salts as Coagulants (continued) • If the pH of the solution is beyond the isoelectric point of the hydroxide precipitate then the hydroxide particles will be negatively charged and no charge suppression of the colloid particle is possible • In this range colloid coagulation can only occur if the amount of hydroxide precipitate is high enough for bridge formation and sweeping floc enmeshment PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT .

PIERO M. Note that if the wastewater is not buffered the resulting H+ generation (pH increase) will prevent the reaction from proceeding any further.Hydrolysis of Alum in Water The addition of alum (hydrated aluminum sulfate) to a wastewater produces the hydrolysis of the sulfate with the consequent formation of insoluble aluminum hydroxide according to the reactions: Al2 (SO4 )3 ⋅18 H2O + 6 H2O ⇔ 2 2 Al (OH )3 ↓ + 6 H + + 3SO4 − + 18 H2O The insoluble aluminum hydroxide forms a floc precipitate responsible for colloid removal. ARMENANTE NJIT .

Reaction of Alum in the Presence of Calcium and Magnesium Alkalinity In the presence of calcium or magnesium bicarbonate alkalinity alum forms aluminum hydroxide that precipitates as before forming a sweeping floc responsible for colloid removal: Al2 (SO4 )3 ⋅18 H2O + 3 Ca( HCO3 )2 ⇔ 2 Al (OH )3 ↓ + 3CaSO4 + 6 CO2 + 18 H2O If the alkalinity is insufficient lime can be added: Al2 (SO4 )3 ⋅18 H2O + 3 Ca(OH )2 ⇔ 2 Al (OH )3 ↓ + 3 CaSO4 + 18 H2O PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT .

Equilibrium Composition of Solutions in Contact with Al(OH)3 After Sundstrom and Klei. 1979. 343 PIERO M. Wastewater Treatment. ARMENANTE NJIT . p.

PIERO M.Hydrolysis of Ferric Chloride in Water The addition of ferric chloride to a wastewater produces the hydrolysis of the ferric chloride with the consequent formation of insoluble ferric hydroxide. Note that if the wastewater is not buffered the resulting H+ generation (pH decrease) will prevent the reaction from proceeding any further. ARMENANTE NJIT . according to the reaction: FeCl3 + 3 H 2O ⇔ Fe(OH )3 ↓ + 3 H + + 3 Cl − The insoluble ferric hydroxide forms a gelatinous sweeping floc precipitate responsible for colloid removal.

ARMENANTE NJIT .Reaction of Ferric Chloride in the Presence of Calcium and Magnesium Alkalinity In the presence of calcium or magnesium bicarbonate alkalinity ferric chloride forms ferric hydroxide. which precipitates as before forming a sweeping floc responsible for colloid removal: 2 FeCl3 + 3Ca( HCO3 )2 ⇔ 2 Fe(OH )3 ↓ + 3CaCl2 + 7CO2 If the alkalinity is insufficient lime can be added: 2 FeCl3 + 3 Ca(OH )2 ⇔ 2 Fe(OH )3 ↓ + 3 CaCl2 PIERO M.

Equilibrium Composition of Solutions in Contact with Fe(OH)3 After Sundstrom and Klei. Wastewater Treatment. 1979. ARMENANTE NJIT . p. 344 PIERO M.

which precipitates as before forming a sweeping floc responsible for colloid removal: Fe2 (SO4 )3 + 3 Ca( HCO3 )2 ⇔ 2 Fe(OH )3 ↓ + 3 CaSO4 + 6CO2 If the alkalinity is insufficient lime can be added: Fe2 (SO4 )3 + 3Ca(OH )2 ⇔ 2 Fe(OH )3 ↓ + 3 CaSO4 PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT .Reaction of Ferric Sulfate in the Presence of Alkalinity or Lime In the presence of calcium or magnesium bicarbonate alkalinity ferric sulfate forms ferric hydroxide.

which is then converted to ferric hydroxide by the oxygen in the water: FeSO4 ⋅7H2O + Ca( HCO3 )2 ⇔ Fe( HCO3 )2 + CaSO4 + 7 H2O Fe( HCO3 )2 + 2 Ca(OH )2 ⇔ Fe(OH )2 + 2 CaCO3 + 2 H2O 4 Fe(OH )2 + O2 + 2 H2O ⇔ 4 Fe(OH )3 ↓ PIERO M.Reaction of Ferrous Sulfate in the Presence of Alkalinity and Lime If ferrous sulfate is used as a coagulant alkalinity and lime (or lime alone) are required to form ferrous hydroxide. ARMENANTE NJIT .

e. ARMENANTE NJIT .Strategies for Al and Fe Coagulant Addition The appropriateness of the use of Al or Fe salts as coagulants and their dosage depend primarily on three factors.: • pH of the wastewater • alkalinity of the wastewater • concentration of the colloids Several situations are possible and will be examined. PIERO M. i.

Strategies for Al and Fe Coagulant Addition Colloid concentration High High Alkalinity level Low High Destabilization mechanism Charge neutralization Charge neutralization Sweeping floc Ineffective Al and Fe Addition Strategy Easy coagulation High dose or remove alkalinity and add low dose High dose. Easy coagulation Increase alkalinity or use other coagulant Low Low High Low PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT .

Effect of the Presence of Phosphates on Coagulation with Alum or Iron Salts Multivalent metal ions such as aluminum or ferric ions form very sparingly soluble precipitates in the presence of phosphate ions. ARMENANTE NJIT . The reactions involved in phosphate precipitation are: − Al2 (SO4 )3 ⋅14 H2O (alum) + 2 PO4 3 → − 2 AlPO4 ↓ + 3 SO4 2 + 14 H2O − FeCl3 + PO4 3 → FePO4 ↓ + 3 Cl − These reactions are of course in competition with the many other reactions occurring as a result of alum or ferric chloride addition to a wastewater PIERO M.

such as Ca(OH)2 or CaO (quicklime). The reaction involved is: Ca(OH )2 + Ca(HCO3 )2 ⇔ 2 CaCO3 ↓+ 2 H 2O • If the wastewater is acidic the lime addition will go first toward the neutralization of the acid before colloid removal can take place PIERO M.Lime as a Coagulant • Lime is a generic name used to identify several combinations of calcium and oxygen. ARMENANTE NJIT . Lime often contains magnesium • In the presence of bicarbonate ion lime will react to form a calcium carbonate precipitate that can remove colloids through the sweeping floc mechanism.

ARMENANTE NJIT .5 the magnesium content of the lime will precipitate as Mg(OH)2 • Magnesium hydroxide precipitates in a gelatinous form which results in good clarification because of its enhanced potential for colloid removal • On the other hand the gelatinous magnesium hydroxide precipitate typically makes the resulting sludge more difficult to dewater PIERO M.Lime as a Coagulant (continued) • If the lime addition is sufficient to raise the pH above 9.

ARMENANTE NJIT . as described above. If.Effect of the Presence of Phosphates on Coagulation with Lime The addition of lime to a wastewater will first result in the neutralization of the wastewater followed by the precipitation of CaCO3 if bicarbonates are present. as a result of Ca(OH)2 addition. the pH of wastewater goes above about 10 and if phosphates are present then the following precipitation reaction can take place: − 10 Ca + 2 + 6 PO4 3 + 2 OH − → Ca10 (PO4 )6 (OH )2 ↓ where hydroxylapatite is formed as a precipitate. PIERO M.

synthetically polymerized from monomers (e.) PIERO M. chitosan from the acidification of chitin in shells) .e.Polyelectrolytes as Coagulants • Polyelectrolytes (also often referred to a “polymers” in coagulation processes) are synthetic or organic polymeric molecules having ionizable groups or charged groups along their chain • Polyelectrolytes can be classified according to their origin as: .e. i. polyamine. ARMENANTE NJIT .natural. sulfonate.g. alginate from algae..g. etc..synthetic. i. derived from starch products or of biological origin (e...

i... i.Polyelectrolytes as Coagulants • Polyelectrolytes are also classified according to the charge that they have when they are in solution as: cationic. forming a macro cation when placed in water nonionic. having no net charge when placed in water anionic. forming a macro anion when placed in water PIERO M. i. ARMENANTE NJIT .e.e..e.

ARMENANTE NJIT .Examples of Polyelectrolytes Type Cationic Functional Group Amine Quaternary Nonionic Polyalcohol Amide Anionic Carboxylic Sulfonic Example Polyethyleneamine hydrochloride Polydiallyldimethylammonium Polyvinylalcohol Polyacrylamide Polymethacrylic acid Polyvinylsulfonate PIERO M.

Examples of Coagulant Polyelectrolytes Cationic H CH2 CH2 N H + - Nonionic Anionic [ n CH2 CH C O NH2 Cl ] R CH2 CH C O O - n n Polyacrilamide Poly(meth)acrilic acid Polyethyleninine PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT .

Polyelectrolytes as Coagulants • Cationic polyelectrolytes are typically used to coagulate colloids that are negatively charged (the most common type) • The mechanisms involved in the colloid destabilization by cationic polyelectrolytes are: charge neutralization and bridging of colloidal particles • Nonionic and anionic polyelectrolytes can also be used to destabilize negative colloids. In this case the destabilization mechanism is not too well elucidated but is believed to be due to bridging PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT .

ARMENANTE NJIT .25 .5 .0 .0 4.5 .7.1. 1989.0 9.500 2-5 0.7.0 4.250 35 .0 pH 4.0 .7.150 70 .Typical Coagulant Dosage Coagulant Alum FeCl3 FeSO4·7H2O Lime Cationic Electrolytes Nonionic and Anionic Electrolytes Dosage (ppm) 75 . p.200 150 .0 ----- After Eckenfelder.11. Industrial Water Pollution Control. 92 PIERO M.

ARMENANTE NJIT .Coagulant Aids • Despite their names coagulant aids are additives that can be added to a destabilized colloidal suspension to promote the growth of large. rapid-settling floc which can then flocculate • Typical coagulant aids are: Activated silica Polyelectrolytes PIERO M.

Activated Silica as a Coagulant Aid • Activated silica is a short chain polymer capable of binding together aluminum hydrate particles used in coagulation processes • Common dosage for activated silica is 5 . ARMENANTE NJIT .10 ppm PIERO M.

The are: jar test zeta potential PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT .Laboratory Coagulation Tests • The selection of a coagulant and its dosage cannot be made without carrying out laboratory experiments • Typically two types of tests are the most effective in the determination of the optimal dosage of coagulant and optimal pH for coagulation.

ARMENANTE NJIT .Jar Test The jar test is the most common laboratory coagulation test and consists of: • placing a sample of the wastewater in a jar: • rapidly adding the coagulant and intensely mixing the sample for a short time (coagulation/destabilization phase). • allowing the floc to form under gentle mixing conditions (flocculation phase) • allowing the floc to sediment in the quiescent sample (settling) • comparing the turbidity of the sample with the initial turbidity PIERO M.

p. 1997. PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT . 388.Jar Test Apparatus After Droste. Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment.

and finally scan for the optimal value of the first variable PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT . scan for the optimal value of the other variable.Strategy to Conduct Laboratory Coagulation Tests Since two variables (coagulant dosage and pH are) are involved it is typically more convenient to fix one of the variables initially.

• Using this concentration of coagulant the coagulation experiment is now repeated at different pH values using a longer flocculation time (typically about 10 to 40 minutes). PIERO M. • A known amount of coagulant is added and the agitation is maintained at a high value for 1 minute to promote coagulation. Then the sample is agitated slowly for 3 minutes to promote flocculation. The pH must be adjusted to a desired valued (typically 6).Jar Test Procedure • A wastewater sample is placed in a beaker and magnetically stirred. followed by settling with no agitation (15-60 minutes). New additions are made until a visible floc is obtained. ARMENANTE NJIT .

PIERO M. • Plots of residual pollutant concentration vs. ARMENANTE NJIT . pH and residual pollutant concentration vs. coagulant dosage can be constructed. • Using this optimal pH value a new series of experiments is conducted in which the coagulant dosage is changed.Jar Test Procedure (continued) • The amount of residual pollutant in solution is measured at the end of each pH experiment. The optimal coagulant dosage is obtained. The optimal coagulation pH is obtained.

ARMENANTE NJIT .Typical Results of Jar Test Pollutant Residual Concentration pH Pollutant Residual Concentration Coagulant Dosage PIERO M.

The pH must be adjusted to a desired valued (typically 6) • A known amount of coagulant is added and the agitation is maintained at a high value for 1 minute to promote coagulation. Then the sample is agitated slowly for 3 minutes to promote flocculation • The zeta potential is measured • The same test is repeated at different coagulant dosage • The results are plotted and the dosage for zeta potential equal to zero is determined PIERO M.Zeta Potential Test • A wastewater sample is placed in a beaker and magnetically stirred. ARMENANTE NJIT .

Flocculation • Although the words "coagulation" and "flocculation" are often used interchangeably they refer to two distinct processes • Coagulation indicates the process through which colloidal particles and very fine solid suspensions are destabilized so that they can begin to agglomerate if the conditions are appropriate • Flocculation refers to the process by which destabilized particles actually conglomerate into larger aggregates so that they can be separated from the wastewater PIERO M.Coagulation vs. ARMENANTE NJIT .

ARMENANTE NJIT . In this case a mild agitation promotes the aggregation of the particles and hence flocculation PIERO M.Mechanisms of Flocculation • Perikinetic flocculation This type of flocculation is generated by the Brownian motion associated with destabilized small colloidal particles. The Brownian motion contributes to transport the particles close enough for agglomeration to occur • Orthokinetic flocculation This type of flocculation mechanism is based on the generation of velocity gradients within the wastewater to promote particle interaction.

ARMENANTE NJIT .Model for Flocculation Process The rate of orthokinetic flocculation can be predicted (in principle) from the equation: Np 4 ln o = − η Ω Gave t Np π where Np = number of separate colloidal particles Npo = initial number of separate colloidal particles η = particle collision efficiency Ω = volume of colloidal particles per unit volume of suspension Gave = average velocity gradient t = time PIERO M.

ARMENANTE NJIT .g.Model for Flocculation Process The average velocity gradient.. a tank stirred by an impeller) V = volume of suspension µ = viscosity PIERO M. can be expressed as: Gave Pave = Vµ where: Pave = average power consumption in the system (e. Gave.

ARMENANTE NJIT . 1989. Industrial Water Pollution Control. p.Example of Apparatus for Coagulation-Flocculation and Settling After Eckenfelder. 96 PIERO M.

• Coagulation requires the rapid dispersion of the coagulant throughout the wastewater. PIERO M. This is accomplished through very intense agitation and mixing.Design Approach for Coagulation and Flocculation Equipment • Coagulation depends on the rapid reaction through which the coagulant destabilizes the colloids. • High shear rates are beneficial to coagulation. ARMENANTE NJIT .

ARMENANTE NJIT . PIERO M.Design Approach for Coagulation and Flocculation Equipment • Flocculation depends on the frequency of collision of the destabilized colloids to form larger floc particles. moderate shear rates and agitation intensities are used in flocculators. • The frequency of collision depends on the intensity of the agitation and the shear rate. • However. • Therefore. too high a value of the agitation intensity and shear rate may break up the floc just formed.

• Batch treatment can be cost effective only for flows up to 50.Batch Coagulation-Flocculation Process • Two tanks in parallel are typically used.000 gal/day. flocculation. ARMENANTE NJIT . • The agitation is reduced during the flocculation phase and stopped altogether during settling (typically for a few hours). • After the tank has been filled. PIERO M. the coagulant is added while the wastewater is rapidly stirred (typically for 10 minutes). settling). • Each step is conducted in series and is time dependent. coagulation. Each tank operates in a full cycle (filling.

.) high shear condition are generated (e. by a rapidly rotating impeller) to rapidly mix the coagulant with the wastewater.Continuous Coagulation-Flocculation Process A continuous coagulation-flocculation system typically includes the following: • Chemical feeding system: to continuously feed the coagulant to the wastewater. if needed. • Rapid mix tank: in this tank (or pipe. ARMENANTE NJIT . etc. • Sedimentation tank: to remove the floc particles. PIERO M.g. • Flocculation tank: in this tank moderate agitation (typically through impellers or paddles) is provided to promote coalescence and flow growth. • Filtration system: to polish the effluent. channel.

dvx/dy)..g. ARMENANTE NJIT . the rate the velocity in the x direction changes along the y direction) is called the shear rate or velocity gradient along vx=v that direction (e.Shear Rate (Velocity Gradient) In any moving fluid in which different velocities exist the rate of change of the velocity in any given direction along another direction (e. and is defined as G: Gxy dv x = dy y x vx=0 PIERO M..g.

Shear Stress and Shear Rate (Velocity Gradient) The shear rate. τ. The shear rate transmitted along the y direction as a result of the velocity gradient (or velocity gradient) dvx/dy is: dv x τxy = − µ dy PIERO M. is the force per unit area that is transmitted between two adjacent fluid layers as a result of viscosity. ARMENANTE NJIT .

and the power. dissipated in a volume V. the velocity gradient. P. ARMENANTE NJIT . τ. of fluid as a result of viscous dissipation can be expressed as: P − τ G = µG = = ε V 2 where: ε = power dissipation per unit fluid volume PIERO M. Velocity Gradient and Power Dissipation It can be shown that the relationship between the shear rate.Shear Stress. G.

ARMENANTE NJIT . in practice the average velocity gradient. Since this is typically very difficult. Pave: Pave Gave = µV PIERO M. is determined from the average power dissipation.Velocity Gradient and Power Dissipation The relationship: G= P µV can be used to determine the local velocity gradient from the local power dissipation. Gave.

etc. it becomes essential to be able to determine the power.). paddles. ARMENANTE NJIT . can be estimated only if the mechanical power delivered to the system is known. G. P. • Since the average velocity gradient. PIERO M. sparged gas.Estimation of Power Dissipation in Coagulation and Flocculation Equipment • Phenomena such as coagulation and flocculation are directly or indirectly affected by the velocity gradients. consumed by different systems (such as impellers.

.e. through gas dispersers. impellers.Direct Power Input: Classification of Power Sources The power dissipated inside a tank must be supplied from the outside in some way..: • Mechanical agitation (e.g. paddles.g. hydraulic jumps.. ARMENANTE NJIT . this external power can be supplied by means of three primary different sources.g. water jets) PIERO M. In principle. turbines) • Power delivered by a compressed gas (e. venturi mixers. sparged gas diffusers) • Power delivered by the liquid (e. i.

PIERO M.Mechanical Agitation Systems in Coagulation and Flocculation • Submerged impellers (mixers) mounted on vertical shafts. ARMENANTE NJIT . • Paddles mounted on horizontal shafts.

Tanks with Submerged Impeller(s) Motor H C D T PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT .

ARMENANTE NJIT .Submerged Impellers • Many different types of impellers exist. • Impellers are classified on the basis of: ♦ shape ♦ dimensions ♦ type of flow pattern generated ♦ flow intensity ♦ power consumption under aerated and nonaerated conditions ♦ their ability to disperse a gas effectively. PIERO M.

ARMENANTE NJIT . 7. p.Example of Submerged Impellers After Tatterson (1991). PIERO M.

g. Lightning A310) • Mixed-flow (45o Bladed Turbine) Pitched- PIERO M. Rushton Impeller. ARMENANTE NJIT .Impeller Pumping Action • Radial (e. Flat-Blade Impeller) • Axial (e..g.. Propeller.

Flow Patterns Resulting from the Presence of Baffles (Stators) Vortex • Unbaffled cylindrical vessel Flat intefacial area • Baffled cylindrical vessel (or unbaffled square vessel) Baffle PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT .

Nomenclature for Submerged Impellers
C Impeller off-bottom clearance D Impeller diameter H Height of liquid in the mixing vessel N Agitation speed; revolutions per minute (rpm) P Power consumed by the impeller T Vessel diameter; m w Baffle width; m

PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT

Calculation of the Power Dissipated by a Submerged Impeller
For a given impeller of known type, size, and agitation speed it is possible to calculate the power dissipated by that impeller, P, from:
P = Po ρ N 3 D 5

The non-dimensional power number Po is specific for each impeller type and agitation system. Remark: in this expression the agitation speed, N, is expressed in rotations per unit time (e.g., rotations per second [rps], rotation per minute[rpm] to yield P in the appropriate units).
PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT

Power Number
• The power number, Po (or Ne or Np) is a nondimensional number used to calculate the power consumption of an impeller. • In general, the power number is a function of the type of impeller, type of agitation system (e.g., tank, baffles), dynamic agitation regimes (e.g., turbulent flow, laminar flow), geometric dimensions of impeller and tank, location of the impeller, and the presence of other impellers. In other words, Po is a function of any variable affecting the agitation flow. • Po is typically determined experimentally.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT

ARMENANTE NJIT . such as T . H .Non-Dimensional Groups Used in Power Consumption Calculations P • Power Number = Po = Ne = ρ N3 D5 ρ N D2 • Impeller Reynolds Number = Re = µ N 2D • Froude Number = Fr = (important only in g unbaffled vessels) • Geometric Ratios. C . w D D D T PIERO M.

. . . .Power Consumed by Submerged Impellers In general. Fr is unimportant.impeller type 3 5 = f g D D D T ρN D  µ  For baffled vessels. ARMENANTE NJIT . Po can be expressed as:  ρ N D 2 N 2D T H C w  P Po = Ne = . . . .impeller type ρ N3 D5 µ D D D T   For geometrically similar baffled vessels: ρ N D 2  P Po = Ne =  = f (Re. and: ρ N D 2 T H C w  P Po = Ne = = f . . .impeller type) 3 5 = f ρN D  µ  PIERO M.

ARMENANTE NJIT .Typical Power Number Curve for a Submerged Impeller 100 Power Number 10 Laminar Transitional 1 1 10 100 1000 Turbulent 10000 100000 Reynolds Number PIERO M.

Power Number for Submerged Impellers Laminar Regime: 1 Po = Ne ∝ Re Transitional Regime: Po = Ne = f (Re) Turbulent Regime: Po = Ne = Constant PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT .

and Corpstein (1963). PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT .Power Number for Submerged Impellers After Bates. Fondy.

Turbulent Power Number for Different Impellers
Impeller Type
Flat-Blade Turbine (24 Blades) Flat-Blade Turbine (12 Blades) Gate Disc Turbine (Rushton Type) Flat-Blade Turbine (6 Blades) 45o Pitched-Blade Turbine Prochem Glass-Lined Impeller (Pfaudler Type) MIG Impeller Lightnin A310 Propeller PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT

Po or Ne
9.8 8.5 5.5 5.0 4.0 1.3 1.0 0.75 0.65 0.45 0.35

Effect of Tank Size on Power Consumption
• In general, the shape of the tank can have an effect on the power consumed by the impeller; however, typically this effect is somewhat limited. • The power consumed by an impeller in a baffled cylindrical tank (i.e., having a circular cross section) is typically very similar to the power consumed in a tank of square cross section.

PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT

Effect of Tank Size on Power Consumption
• The power dissipation is lower in tanks having a rectangular (as opposed to circular or square) cross section. • For most of the cases encountered in wastewater treatment the power consumed by a turbine in an unbaffled tank having a circular or square cross section can be taken to be 75% of that dissipated in a baffled system having the same dimensions.

PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT

ARMENANTE NJIT .Horizontal Paddle Systems Paddles mounted on horizontal shafts are often encountered in flocculation tanks. Plan View Side View PIERO M.

ARMENANTE NJIT .Geometry of a Horizontal Paddle Paddle b Shaft ri ro PIERO M.

8 for flat paddles k = 0.9 m/s. 2π N/60 = 0.09-0. PIERO M.15 (for tanks with baffles) Range for peripheral velocity. 0-0.25 (for tanks without baffles). ARMENANTE NJIT .Power Dissipated by a Horizontal Paddle The power dissipated by a single paddle can be obtained from the equation: 3 1 2 π  4 P = ρ CD b  N (1 − k ) ( ro − ri 4 ) 8 60  N = agitation speed in rpm CD ≅ 1.

released from the gas to the liquid can be obtained from: W = ∫ p dV Vi Vo where: p = pressure in the gas bubble V = bubble volume “o” subscript: at the top of the tank “i” subscript: at the bottom of tank PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT . W.Power Dissipated by Gas Sparging When a single gas bubble sparged from the bottom of a tank rises to the top the gas expansion energy.

ARMENANTE NJIT .Power Dissipated by Gas Sparging Air PIERO M.

ARMENANTE NJIT .Power Dissipated by Gas Sparging From the ideal gas law it is: pV = po Vo = pi Vi = nRT Then: po W =∫ Vi Vo dp pi ⌠ p dV = −  ( po Vo ) = ( po Vo )ln p po ⌡ pi For m bubbles sparged in the tank during the time t it is (since the gas flow rate is Qo = m Vo/t):  ∆p  mW mVo pi pi P= = po ln = po Qo ln = po Qo ln1 +  t t po po  po  PIERO M.

h= = 10. ARMENANTE NJIT .3 m 3 2 1000 kg / m 9.Power Dissipated by Gas Sparging Recall that the pressure generated by a column of liquid is: p = ρL g h where h is the height of the column of liquid.325 Pascals the height of a column of water that produces a hydrostatic pressure of 1 atm is: 101325 Pa . Since 1 atm = 101.81m / s PIERO M. and ρL is the density of the liquid.

ARMENANTE NJIT . the power dissipated by a gas sparged at a distance h below the liquid level (exposed to the atmospheric pressure.3    po   h (in ft) = po Qo ln1 +  33. po) is given by:  ∆p   h (in m) P = po Qo ln1 +  = po Qo ln1 +  10.8   PIERO M.Power Dissipated by Gas Sparging Hence.

ARMENANTE NJIT . the power dissipated this way can be obtained from: P = ρ g Q hL where: ρ = liquid density g = acceleration of gravity hL = headloss in the device PIERO M.Power Dissipated by Hydraulic Devices Power can be dissipated also when water flows through hydraulic jumps. In general.

1 s).Average Velocity Gradient and Residence Time in Rapid Mix Coagulation Equipment • During coagulation the average velocity gradient is typically quite high. PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT . • Residence times are between 10 s and 6 minutes. with G values up to 5000 s-1 (more commonly around 1000 s-1). although much faster dispersion times are needed for optimal charge neutralization effects (t < 0.

000 The following empirical equation relating G.600 >40 700 28.Average Velocity Gradient and Residence Time in Rapid Mix Coagulation Equipment Recommended velocity gradients and residence times during coagulation in rapid mix basins: t (s) G (1/s) G·t 20 1000 20. ARMENANTE NJIT .46 = 5. t and the concentration.000 30 900 27.9 ⋅10 6 PIERO M. C (in mg/L).000 40 790 31. of alum as the coagulant can also be used for rapid mix devices: G ⋅t ⋅C 1.

• Residence times are between 15 and 45 minutes. • G·t values are typically in the range 104-105. with G values in the range 5-100 s-1 (more commonly in the range 10-60 s-1). PIERO M.Average Velocity Gradient and Residence Time in Flocculators • During flocculation the average velocity gradient is typically much lower than in rapid mix devices. ARMENANTE NJIT .

ARMENANTE NJIT . • Choose the type of equipment appropriate for the process (e. • Assume values for G and the residence time. high speed impeller for rapid mix or paddle agitator for flocculation). • Size the tank for the residence time selected.g.Generalized Approach to the Design of Coagulation and Flocculation Devices • Carry out jar tests to determine dosage of coagulant. PIERO M. • Size the equipment on the basis of the power dissipation that will result in the desired G value..

end-around baffle used when total head loss across tank is limited Gave = 95-20 s-1 or Gave·t = 105-106.. downward flow pattern preferable for propeller unit. number of paddles adjusted for tapered mixing. ARMENANTE NJIT . Montgomery Consulting Engineering. maximum tip speed of 1 m/s. 516. maximum tip speed of 2 m/s.75 m/s. approximately 5m x 5m to 10m x 10m basin surface area per unit. maximum flow velocity of approximately 0. p. PIERO M. may be used for auxiliary mixing when plant is overloaded Horizontal-shaft paddle Baffled channel Diffused air and water jets James M. Inc.Flocculator Design Guidelines Type of Flocculator Vertical shaft Basic Design Criteria Gave value up to 100 s-1. paddle area should not exceed 20% of tank section area Tapered mixing by adjusting baffles. 1985. Water Treatment Principles and Design. stator baffles should be provided for turbine units Gave value up to 50 s-1.

Suitable for conventional treatment. Limited amount of operational data available. Inc. Simple mixing unit. Difficult to increase energy input. 1985. Suitable for direct filtration and conventional treatment.Flocculator Design Guidelines Type of Flocculator Vertical shaft Advantages and Disadvantages Easy maintenance and few breakdowns. PIERO M. Performs well if the plant flow rate is reasonably constant. Suitable for high-energy input. ARMENANTE NJIT . High local velocities for water jet flocculators. High operational cost for air diffuser flocculators.. Many units required for a large plant. Need for precise installation and maintenance. Water Treatment Principles and Design. Generally produces a large-size floc. High head loss for the over-and-under baffle. Montgomery Consulting Engineering. Simple installation and less capital cost. Horizontal-shaft Paddle Baffled channel Diffused air and water jets James M. Problems with leakage and shaft alignment. Little maintenance. A lack of flexibility for mixing intensity. High capital cost for variable-speed reducers and support slabs. p. 516.

Wastewater Treatment.Examples of Coagulation-Flocculation Processes for Industrial Wastewaters Wastewater Source Petroleum refinery Petroleum refinery Steel mill Steel mill Paper mill Contaminant Oil Foam Oil Suspended solids Suspended solids Type of Coagulant Alum Polyamine Anionic Anionic Weak cationic Dosage (ppm) 25-75 1-3 1. 1979.5-2 0. ARMENANTE NJIT . PIERO M. 352. p.3 2-5 After Sundstrom and Klei.

p. 352.Efficiency of Coagulation Processes to Remove Pollutants Phosphorus removal (%) Without Primary treatment Secondary treatment Trickling filters Activated Sludge 10-20 10-20 80-95 80-95 70-92 85-95 85-95 85-95 80-90 85-95 85-95 85-95 5-10 With 70-90 Suspended solid removal (%) Without 40-70 With 60-75 BOD Removal (%) Without 25-40 With 40-50 After Sundstrom and Klei. PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT . Wastewater Treatment. 1979.

1997.Additional Information and Examples on Coagulation and Flocculation Additional information and examples can be found in the following references: • Corbitt. 84-110. 1990.25. Jr. 1989. 384-415. New York. 6. • Droste. pp. W. Industrial Water Pollution Control. PIERO M. W. McGraw-Hill. L. The Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment. ARMENANTE NJIT . New York.92.. John Wiley & Sons. McGraw-Hill.. 9. • Eckenfelder. New York. R. A. pp. pp.. R.

Inc. M. • Haas. 7. and Vamos. R.Additional Information and Examples on Coagulation and Flocculation • Freeman. McGrawHill. New York. 116134. 1995.). ARMENANTE NJIT . N.. Standard Handbook of Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal. 1985. 1989. 144-145. Water Treatment Principles and Design. Montgomery Consulting Engineering.21-7. WileyInterscience. NJ. pp. Hazardous and Industrial Waste Treatment. H. PIERO M. pp. • James M. (ed. C. John Wiley & Sons. New York. 504-519.31. J. Prentice Hall. pp.. Englewood Cliffs.

New York. 1991. J. New York.. 1972... McGraw-Hill. PIERO M. 235-255. Hazardous Waste Management. Disposal. • Weber. 157-161. and Reuse. 1995. W. Englewood Cliffs. 61-109.. pp. Prentice Hall. pp. ARMENANTE NJIT . NJ. pp. Jr. Wastewater Treatment. 1979. 302-314. Second Edition. E. • Wentz. H. and Klei.Additional Information and Examples on Coagulation and Flocculation • Metcalf & Eddy. McGraw-Hill. C. New York. pp. W. Wiley-Interscience. W. 470-472. Physicochemical Process for Water Quality Control. • Sundstrom. John Wiley & Sons. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment. D.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful