Jean-Claude VEILHAN

The Rules of Musical Interpretation in the Baroque Era
(1 7th - i8th centuries)
common to all instruments

According to BACH, BROSSARD, COUPERIN, ,, HOTTE TERRE, MONTÉCLAIR, QUANTZ, RAMEAU -d'ALEMBERT, ROUSSEAU, etc.

E1

ALPHONSE LEDUC - PARIS _1 75 , rue Saint- Honoré
Réf.: UN

VI

Contents
PREFACE
IX

METRICAL SIGNS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS Metres of four beats Metres of two beats Metres of three beats Lesson on every variety of metre (Montéclair) PHRASING Articulatory silences Detached notes Slurs
Complete indication of slurs, 15; Complete or partial absence of slurs: should they be added, 16 11 13 1

^i
1 3 6
10

^
C

o


e

e^

F.

i.^
Unequal notes
Different degrees of inequality, 22; Reversed inequality, 23; Table for unequalising values in the principal metres, according to Cajon and Hotteterre, 24; Exceptions to the rule of inequality, 25 20

Dbuble-dotted notes
Different instances of double-dotted notes, 27; Exceptions to the rule of double-dotted notes, 31

-

27

Rubato

32

EMBELLISHMENT GRACE NOTES
Accent, 34; Chute (Fall), 34; Coulade (Run), 35; Coulé (Passing appoggiatura), 35; Flattement (Finger vibrato), 36; Pincé (Mordent, Schneller), 37; Port-de-voix (Appoggiatura), 38; Son enflé (Messa di voce), 42; Tour de gosier (Turn, Gruppetto, Doublé, Circolo mezzo, Double cadence), 43; Trill (Shake, Cadence, Battement), 44; Vibrato, 47 33

Two examples of pieces with grace notes added by their composers ORNAMENTS French ornamentation
A.L. - 25.732

47 49

50
L,,

^=c

VII German ornamentation Italian ornamentation The cadenza (improvised on a pedal-point) 51 55 58

THE VARIOUS TYPES OF ADAGIO AND ALLEGRO CLASSIFICATION — TEMPO — CHARACTER Classification of tempo indications according to Marpurg Classification of tempo indications with their metronomic values according to Quantz Characteristics of the various tempi according to Brossard and Rousseau 60 60 61 62/63

OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE ADAGIO SHOULD BE PLAYED (Quantz) ...... 64 OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE ALLEGRO SHOULD BE PLAYED (Quanti) ..... 67 CHARACTER AND TEMPO OF THE VARIOUS MOVEMENTS AIRS AND DANCES
A llemande, 70; Aria, 71; Ariette, 72; Bourrée, 72; Branle, 72; Canaries, 73; Chaconne, 74; Contredanse, 75; Cotillon, 75; Courante, 75; Entrée, 76; Forlane, 76; Furie, 77; Gaillarde, 77; Gavotte, 78; Gigue, 79; Loure, 80; March, 81; Minuet, 81; Musette, 83; Overture, 84; Passacaglia, 85; Passepied, 86; Pastorale, 87; Pav an e, 88; Polonaise, 88; Prelude, 89; Rigaudon, 90; Rondeau, 91; Saltarello, 91; Sarabande, 92; Siciliana, 92; Tambourin, 93; Villane ll e, 94

70

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS CITED INDEX OF TERMS, SUBJECTS AND AUTHORITIES CITED INDEX OF MUSIC EXAMPLES (by subject and composer)

95 96 99

A.L. - 25.732

For it is essential to speak about rules. and it is this same good taste that in the long run remains the sole criterion for expressing a musical discourse that is at once both alive and sensitive. then. for the musical era known as the Baroque. . And it is all this that the qualificative term rules. Veilhan A. only a few years or decades after their graves had been freshly dug? Indeed since 1 750 (the year of J. Freedom of choice. C. the old forms. J. and thus to help them in avoiding inconsistencies of style. Beethoven five years old: another musical world had decisively eclipsed the preceding one. In 1775 Haydn was forty-three. It is this state of awareness we must seek if we want to make the music of our predecessors live again in the present with a true sense of continuity: a resurrection. however. must always remain within the limits of the style and practice of the time. There is not just one possible interpretation. S. We have. But in fact.L. they constituted the very musical and social air they breathed. not an exhumation! Theoreticians and musicians of the period often tried to lay down these rules in treatises so as to convey them more easily to students and music lovers. Even though certain traditions persisted. Couperin and Rameau be saying today. confined ourselves to the principal rules (common to singers an d instrumentalists of all kinds) which constitute a set of clues enabling us to decipher and complete the outline that a score of this period generally represents. however.IX PREFACE What would Lully. and especially over the past few years. there was not always unanimity over ce rt ain points of interpretation: where there is disagreement I cite the general prevailing opinion in an objective way. conventions an d inventions which make up `good taste'. Even within the period itself. the instruments and the rules of the past. p. the Baroque era had been in decline. 95. Formerly rules were passed on from master to pupil. adding. The word may seem didactic and suggestive of fixed precepts.732 . Nowadays. where necessary. what we are concerned with is a body of traditions. Bach's death). but many. Corelli.25. Mozart nineteen. if the performance of their works could already be described as "appalling" in 1775. it is the job of the musician to create his own interpretation.13. principles. In the last reso rt . We are witnessing a true return to the sources. effects. This book is simply a compilation from the p ri ncipal contemporary treatises (chiefly those published in French) in which the most significant definitions and opinions have been selected in such a way as to present today's reader—as far as is possible—with a synthesis of this famous `good taste' in interpretation. N. the divergent views put forward at the time. must be taken to indicate and encompass. research into specific periods can guarantee greater fidelity to authentic interpretation. knowing full well that a book of the present size cannot hope to be complete (a totally comprehensive study would take up dozens of volumes!). The dawn of Classicism was beginning to be clearly visible. concepts and instruments had undergone a radical development. See the Bibliography. the date of their works is not restated at each quotation. All quotations in this work are printed in italics. indeed. Certain writers being quoted more than once. used in its most flexible an d general sense.

• RIM rrlr11MM. . See the table of `unequal' values in the principal metres on p. Fuguc etc.. along with the characteristics of each. -=MOW ---../11P"111_ MIP". the unit is the half note.^^.. since the same species is sometimes very fast and sometimes very slaw.. — —s— l !— 1111r71.rs=111111r s rrrr•WI/O! ^rr^.. ..I AMINO 011 NMI MIMI JIM r .1r1111111•1111. (Hotteterre) This chapter gives some of the p ri ncipal contemporary definitions of the various metrical signs used..11 -AI IIIIIIIIIIIMIrIMI.^rrr^^^ . 24.1L.11s MIMI OM ---r ..L. sum rw•••••s SW' V rrr^^l>♦or rrrrr^^ r MOM ea sour . (Marpurg) Allegro: F.rrrrLt a.B. • . but not really in `Airs de ballet': A.) It is taken in 4 and. .1 Metrical Signs and Their CharacteristicsThe most perplexing thing when one starts beating time is the number of signs which distinguish its different species.+rrlrM•rrlrrOMrr . .rlNBNIN• sss .. In all metres it would be a very good idea to indicate the tempo as the Italians nearly always do.__ 111/71M ISM_./ •-a NMr•••s rILA rs •sI ^ ILlrt MOM • ^I rll s•=rM. Adagios. normally. N.rr^ r^^ Hotteterre: The metre of four slow beats is indicated by a C (.•„ AM:AMII= MI MN NM 1. very slowly ( . ) For instrumental music it is suitable in Preludes or first movements of Sonatas../s rrlrrlMINIM= —. METRES OF FOUR BEATS This relatively little used metre has four beats to the bar.---.a MIMI MN MOMS r D L'Affilard: The measure of four slow beats is shown by a C: . This metre is used only in fugues and counterpoint... ) It is used both in vocal and instrumental music (.l=r11/M 1111111111-NIMrr113rr 1. _ ..732 .25. BARSANTI (1724) ./MO IMMa WM NM NM 411•1111. Allemandes.IIIrO1s>L •rrr* •iMMIE= 11/. In these definitions one often finds the terms `slow' and `light' which correspond roughly to the tempo indications `lento' and `allegro'.

732 i• `^ • x• ^ ^-^ '~ -K $^ ^- ^ ^ - -' a^.1111111B ^ MIN IBM =1111•••• ^^^^^^^^^I 5D—_ a — arm..iINNIIIII'f IfXIMINIM WM JINN MI . each beat having three crotchets or the equivalent: t I-011s 11111111••• NM1111•111=111111MMI. affectionate kinds of expression. (2) That is to say.L. P • A..r . 5 Allemande from the same Largo Allegro 15.111 /^^^ 12 This compound metre (2) is suitable for extremely lively and rapid music. but as this was found too complicated.2 Prelude from a Sonata b y Signor CORELLI. . it is often used by the Italians for tender and affectionate feelings though it will then carry the words adagio affettuoso or some other verbal indication. There are three quavers.r1111•11••••• . parallel to the preceding (4) metre (.. which the 16 Italians describe with the word prestissimo. N. and sometimes for lively and animated kinds. However._^IIMS 4•11. ) has four beats. people used the expedient of beating in 4.70•1 ^ . 4 sixteenth note triplet groups to the bar. ( This compound metre ) is exactly right for spirited and lively kinds of expression. each with` six subdivisions..a~emme w— _.R V '10•11111•1111M^^ ^^^^. . but of a very light character: 'S.^^^ M ^I^^^^^^^1^t /. ) is similarly taken in 4. (Brossard) 5101 (1) That is to say.4 eighth note triplet groups to the bar.25.. (Brossard) In former times this sort of metre was performed with two beats to the bar.. op. since on its own it denotes gaiety. but lion) half as fast again. it Thus the sign C alone does not suffice to indicate the tempo: the real determining factor is the character of the piece at the head of which it is placed. but gravely. or the equivalent.111r »MIAOW 1•1/ . (This metre) is suitable for tender. . (Brossard) ^ ^ L'Affilard: This metre (. _^^^^^s— t 12 8 The metre 8 . (Choquel) flag Z^r tig L'Affilard: This metre is shown by a 12 and a 4 and is performed with four beats to the bar. 1..B.a •t1IIMMIINNI • =Y s ••. The sign 4 was hardly in use at this time. __`'111 . to each beat..

••••• •1•1•.. It is made up of (the value of) 4 dotted quavers. % which is taken in two spirited beats (Denis) In a four-beat metre. either in the pulse of the metre or in the manner of playing the quavers. 5 Tempo di Cappella Tempo di Gavotta ( han . ^ « s•• . when the C has a line through it one must be sure to observe that this line means the notes will be given a different value. (Cajon) Hotteterre: Normally the pulse is 4 light beats or 2 slow ones. op. and should be performed twice as fast as when the C has no line.UMW METRES OF TWO BEATS The metre of 2 beats comprises: 1) 2 slow beats shown by Q' 2) 2 light beats shown by a 2 3) 2 lively beats shown by a 4) 2 very fast beats shown by a 8 5) 2 extremely fast beats shown by a ló 6) 4 which is taken in two slow beats 7) finally. since the different ways of beating do not change its nature..tons. this last having two light beats. Mr. and has 4 beats to the bar: s••/. p.11s a--•••s MU= IN JOB MIMI •ss••••••s••• ow. (Quantz) — (See also note (1) . WNW . we are referring to a harpsichord piece by Mr. chan -tons les doux trans-ports Ist extract from the opera Alceste (Lully) 2nd extract from the opera Armide (Lully) 2 slow beats 4 light beats Quickly Poursuivons. as it were. ^ ••s••••••s. ) This should change absolutely nothing.732 .••s • • •IMINII0 MOM MIS 1=III MOO '. poursui . hence 12 semiquavers. by Sign' STUK... The Italians only use it in what they call tempo di gavotta.eons jusqu'au trépas A.< U' .. de Lulli used it in his operas pretty well as the equivalent of plain duple time.•IIM• . 1st book.s V• 1E= a v . I.3 Hotteterre: A famous composer of our times has introduced a metre of 16." Ma M.L.. 29) It must be noted that this metre (which the author calls quadruple time with a light beat) may equally well be taken in a slow duple time (. or a metre of two beats. This sort of time is called: alla breve or alla cappella. .25.s•s••••s iii•MINI .. by Sign' CORELLI.MIMI. and tempo di cappella or tempo alla breve. Couperin.

I•11.a< ^..11NWII•.732 i ^ E Ÿ. Cotillons."\ i-I -t:i.a t/. etc. If you think about it.i.. ) is normally lively and `piqué' (spiccato).L. Gavottes.Mr •1•11 MI MEE INN WI VIM OM MIN.a..a. !MIR Da. but should be moderately paced.re (1) Marpurg applies this same rule to the 4 metre.. It is suited to light and `piqué' (spiccato) airs. WINN • •M1E1E1 4111•11•10 NMI ^a^a^ March from the same Bourrée from the same Gavotte from the opera Roland (Lully) Rigaudon from L'Europe Galante (Campra) + The speed of this type of metre is neither too slow nor too fast. in the Entrées of ballets. Commonly it is indicated merely by a plain 2 ( . A= 11•7IMINMOI' NI= + ...1•IMI. (Choquel) Hotteterre: This metre has two light beats. which we are about to look at.W. It is found at the beginnings of Opera overtures. .11118s .WON An .^ s -••••.t ••••-•11•1ft. Clérambault IAA sMION/1111•11t . MI ^I t^.••11 . Moreover it can be said that th.. it is really no more than light quadruple time cut in half: From the 1st Cantata by Mr. with the quavers changed into crotchets: Overture from the opera Phaéton (Lully) Entrée from the same opera 2 rG rr r .pi . Bourrées. (.-4=1t.. Branles.. ..^^.4 It may be concluded that this metre is mid-way between quadruple time shown by a C and duple time shown by a plain 2. If it is used in slow pieces. It is found more in cantatas and sonatas than in motets or operas.' >^as OM . .25. Rigaudons. (Hotteterre) 2 or 2 I The sign for this metre is 2. A. (Marpurg) There are two sorts of tempo in duple time: sometimes slow. Marches./M• MINIM . an exceedingly fast tempo is indicated ( 1 ). .NNI.W-. ) The metre is taken in 2 beats. (Câjon) When the words alla cappella or alla breve appear alongside the time signature. 1 .. ^r ^.411 r>•••1 aa\.'>. . sometimes extremely fast. MIN .•1=• AM =II MI NM MIN ^ ^•.^^ . (Choquel) cP* p Hotteterre: This metre (.. MOM s -AM Min •11 SI -.. there should be a clear indication of the fact. .s. Alm= 1111ss •••••• ss•s Or •M• a From a Sonata by Sig r Masciti -F/Mil ED MIME ME S.a. metre is in reality that of C divided into two.at01111atat.r II -Alls t1INIIINI.^ ^^l V%i: >11•11La/r s Qu'à vo -tre gloi -------tout cons . •a MAW La rtar AM MENDE-MO /MI . .. ) It is not known in Italian music.

(Hotteterre) Tambourin DENIS ^•el. ^ f 1 •I ts C^7 I.. from Alcionne Shepherds' air: Mr.•.••s •s•• s f• MD IN Y ^^^^ ^ ^. from L Europe Galante (Campra) IMI •^ . NO 6 Hotteterre: 4 This metre is nearly always taken in two beats ( .ra OM •••• MEN r•^r•••^ts ..^._^.rr• ^ •_• .••••. L'Affilard.732 .^..•v.••••111•1111. This metre would be suitable for certain Tambourins or other tunes of a similar character.00••..I•I•• ^ ..Jr••0•1r.. . atvaIMMa:s. Marais. •a•••ta Gigue.1. from Roland (Lully) Forlane..r.Jr•^•1111.^.. r' ^tr. r•^ r•rr.^ I/ta+Ct•.1• •A.•••IIM• "It•\•M^• r•./+/•^r••.t•.1111•11M-. in Loures. . adding: this metre is shown by a 4 and an 8 and is taken in 2 very fast beats. = rAt/IBr••rrwAIMIIr•I= •r•r•••J^Srf• t !7r•1•t•11•r.••_ •••s .i ^r•r. buoyant airs are so written ( . . . •. ^•^^trs1•tr v+. Forlanes. Gigues.•rra.•• rra t•• 2 8 One might also use 8 metre which ( . for example. ) Some call it 'the metre of six slow beats' (1) ..___•..•• /fa r/•. in some Airs from 'ballets de caractères etc.. contrary many lively.rna .__+•—__—S_ _..•.. from Roland L'Affilard calls this metre: a metre of two rapid beats. from Le Triomphe de l'Amour (Lully) (1) As. however one seldom sees a slow air composed in this metre.••••1t•.. It is rarely found in Italian music: Reprise from the Overture to Armide (Lully) Loure: this is from Thétis (Lully) ^ M 11s .111111•• ^^. 1•1•1.-ta•__ MIMI .. so that each beat is occupied by a crotchet or its equivalent: •ION•11111.. and on the. r•^ ^^..iratrar MII•raa .11I.11I •I•••• .L. .•.^ -.. .s I MS/NMI •s = NEE r•.w ^'f^---^• ../ .•r•.— .r 5 4 8 Hotteterre: Some composers have indicated it (4 metre) in this way: Sailors'air: Mr. =SIM r. . .I i • ^ Air of the zeph yrs. ) It is used in the reprises of Opera overtures.MEZIN•l•^^^r•7f•^^r_J_•_r^^r•^^^••^fa.... de Lulli.r•rr• 'r•• -AMU rr.. ..rGJr...••rMOWS __ NMI SINIMNP71•.^.. ) would be taken in one very light beat.•••'.25. iY••••••• • al tL^/'11111..\•^'t/fa/• Y Y r..111.•I^•='••J_+_ s MN. A.

^. (2) That is to say. it is cálled double t riple.^. amongst all composers.... that is. s ^ O . .s¢Ys ^^ ^.. two quarter note tri p let groups to the bar. .^. it is taken at a tolerably fast speed. and it is composed with a strong beat. (Choquel) (1) That is to say. ^. Denis adds the metres . ) It is in fairly general use...^: .. fast pieces.^s^. or again major triple.L. it is particularly suitable for Gigues etc. (Denis) g Nevertheless. yet it is the one in which indication of the various kinds of pulses by special signs or characters has been the most neglected...^ s^a^^^^^.•. sometimes. though very incorrectly.. and in France quite often.^^ ^^^ r.^^.^. Hotteterre: It is taken in 2 beats ( . but a 6 over 8 suggests a movement twice as fast...Z.:^...:.^^^.^t . but chiefly in Cantatas and Sonatas. (Brossard) The sign 6 over 4 decrees a very spirited speed.s^s^wsrrs^^^. being the first.. . it appears in swift. animated and spirited. especially when the metre is taken in 2.- t< >ga -^"^vas 6 Normally this compound time (1) is used for tender.. . plain 3. s^s. The metre in three beats is the most varied. NM . in consequence.^ ^ ^r s ^r.. (Brossard) r6 16 i^ • METRES OF THREE BEATS I 16 This metre is shown by a 3.si^^.^.r==. and $ which were not in widespread use in 4 France. ... affectionate movements.^.r ^.^ ^^^srsrs^ .732 ! . and a final 'idle' beat.^sq...rr^^ ^s . A. This metre is very much used. a weak beat. because its pulse should be twice as slow as that of ordinary triple time (4)..^.^. This compound time (2) is suitable for modes of expression that are lively. being the second. extremely lively.^± • a.::^^^ '^...^..rs^^... L'Affilard tells us that it may be taken in 7ix light i i ^ beats: 4 .^.u^ s . whether old or new.nr ^. two eighth note triplet groups to the bar... . 4 and ..25.^. (Saint-Lambert) 6 8 According to the above definition by Saint-Lambert it is clear that normally a 68 indicates a faster speed than a .^:ras ^i^s..... only four characters or signs are found—namely 2. but more commonly it is in two.s.

732 . ) It is used for moving.: The Sleep of Protée. in France it commonly serves for Chaconnes. 4 3 or 31 1 When triple tizne is written with a 4. Minuets. Chaconnes.bics On this particular way of notating 2 Choquel has this to say: Sometimes in this sort of metre. Cantatas.--- Courante by Sig+' Corelli Allegro A..sf• OM MI MINN IMIN•M1••••••=1r1•11/111•111111• s •111 ^^1 Mal 11••=111•01111I I\• t)111s11a11111. so one should expect to find these (white) quavers elsewhere. It is taken in 3. white quavers are used so as not to use black quavers when the minims are to be divided in the vocal line.25. the pulse is normally a trifle brisk. `Airs de bù llet'. this is what Mr. from the opera Persée (Lully) s 111111•111 s11. affectionate kinds of expression and the pulse should be moderate: neither too fast nor too slow. tender pieces such as Lullabies.L. Minuets and other spirited and animated dances. Passacaglia from the opera Armide (Lully) Sarabande from Issé (Destouches) Slow tempo Solemn tempo Chaconne from Phaéton (Lully) Spirited tempo Demons' Air from Thésée (Lully) Lively Minuet from Roland (Lully) Spirited --.111111• I= NMI WIN ALJr1101. etc. . MINIM * nl Air from the Cantata by Mr.. When it is written with a simple 3. in Sonatas and in Courantes intended for dancing. from Phaéton (Lully) Another lullaby. Sarabandes. It is used for Passacaglias. Sometimes it is very slow and sometimes very fast. Clérambault has done in his Cantata A lphée et Aréthuse . (Brossard) Hotteterre: Titis metre is indicated by a 3 or sometimes 4. etc. Italian Courantes. it is suitable for tender. Graves.7 Hotteterre: Titis metre is normally taken in three slow beats (. Bernier It is also noted in this way: qui tant dc mi sé - ra . Plaints.

Canaries from Isis (Lully) (in one) Passepied from Le Temple de la Paix (Lully) (in one) Vivace by Sig' Corelli. it should go twice as fast as the (previous) triple sign (4 metre). as it were.L. ) Sometimes it is used in Cantatas. the metre is again taken in 3. in one beat only. op. ) is taken in 3 slow beats.25. 5 Adagio by the same. It is suitable for buoyant A i rs such as Canaries. A. (Cájon) This compound time (2) is suitable for lively. the metre is customarily taken.8 3 8 In pieces having the sign g.732 . from op. . in the same way as the ordinary triple (4) or even the major triple (2). three eighth note triplet groups to the bar. or their equivalent. parallel to the preceding one (4) ( ) is similarly taken in 3. but half as fast again. however. etc. spirited kinds of expression and should be taken at a lively. Some composers. but since the bar contains only three quavers. it is then taken in three beats. Each beat is made up of three quavers. spirited pace. with but one to place on each beat. Passepieds. which should be fast. (Brossard) Montéclair: Slow on the second beat The metre 8. . It is taken in one when up to speed. (2) That is to say. three quarter note triplet groups to the bar. (Denis) This compound time (1) is suitable for tender and affectionate kinds of expression and should be taken at a moderate tempo: neither too slow nor too fast. !alled minor triple. very fast: however. (Saint-Lambert) Hotteterre: This metre. on account of this great speed and of the difficulty of making three such hurried movements with the hand.. that is to say. but more often (1) That is to say.. is made up of a dotted crotchet. have used it for very slow Airs. 3 (in three) (in one) 9 4 The metre 4 (. . (Brossard) Hotteterre: This metre is taken in 3 beats ( . etc.

IIl^ I W 1..I f. ai /^111fi AS•• /M^li••i M /r^A•^•r 1^^i^1i^^1^li•i s t^•Ir^^i —1 V:+ N ii^ ^ •=r^^1•^i^^^^i^•i^ti^i^li^^-.111•11-4s 111rIMI11•1tiM1111•r 1111101•1s1111s1 111s WM.9 in Sonatas.101111•1 =M This air may also be sung at a slow and tender pace.25.-.=. (3) That is to say.•MINIi SOINIM \t• i.411111tLA=111111111•1111^/^^^i1t /111111 /. 1st Cantata by Mr.01e116../ ./ ./if.732 .7S7 a._. two sixteenth note triplet groups to the bar.1/r1MIIIVAiiIT It 1. /NM ^^ ^•=^/^1•^^r•^ NM ^1^ MUM 6 This compound time (2) is for varieties of movement and expression of the greatest 16 rapidity: what the Italians describe with the word prestissimo./•/i.. (2) That is to say..i111iINiJ M •^•^U1/^. .111/7J1=11 NMI MIS EMU •J•'bi•41•111s1•1•110•J111•1. ^^// • . In France it has only been in general use for a short time.1=0 mil /1J• . one sixteenth note triplet group to the bar. or better still in one) /• i st ASO 1/7J•IMIir1. (Brossard) Passage-work Hotteterre Spirited.4•111./ s1^/N1i. a a ^^ A.1/~ MIME 1t •1• tiN1i.L.w^.i. 16 (Brossard) Passage-work Hotteterre Briskly (in three) -+ tI I_ ^11iÌ• .• ^' I W en" t á••••• ^ Jr.111111111P••.r•i^1^^ a a (1) That is to say.)1t11•tIJ /Il /J• .mour (Hotteterre) Montéclair: Light ^ '/' 1^r. 11•1111i1I/ .^^ I.1.01.i•illttelr Ls I r11111II. . 16 (Brossard) Passage-work Hotteterre Jestingly (in one) ^ V— .r1/NI•^N ^1t r.I A lil/ ^ ^/^ /^l^i / ri / 1`^ ti is i lï VI^\ Ir^^^^^i^t.WNi11<)1• ^^i^ ^ i•1^.J /If -.1111110..per-tons l'A . _ JIMMINEMII1 1MUM. equal semiquavers (in three../•t•1^ _a — i-1 RIM Briskly (in three) .r./ 1J^r/1^II lt♦ l7r1^I ^)^* + AII[/1 _ . 9 This compound time (3) is really for very fast and very swift kinds of expression..7111111• JIM OW t`7 >•i s111s111111M111I•/ GsINIV'1•11s!!i l tJ•INIV AIM= Ilia M11. Bernier Gigue by Sigr Masciti Res .: f:/1IIMMr7 7IIIMMINMI i^ MS _ ^ /. INN ANNI •i<) MINIM Nt1 ^1^•N a•^1iN 1^^1•s •1111M irN1•1 1111Y1•111•111111i.1•11111•111111t1 >!^ MUM.•=UMNP.1^11•` ^I^iiitA^ -^i--^l^^^Ì^• I1IIIIIIIIr i NM MP • /^.^tr^. and above all in Gigues.. Finally let us mention three rarer metres given by Hotteterre and Brossard: 3 This compound time (1) is suitable for extremely lively and exceedingly rapid music.il1 n ^ ^•^^•ii^^ t. i•1-^^^— i./ D INNS /Jr^. three sixteenth note triplet groups to the bar.iIIIIIP7 .

Y^• ^aa1 sdt' 1aMr/ a•1r^••A•^f• ^^a>.^^^ a oseL ..•r ..l^ WOW a..efJf• a1. .t •r.^ .r S •J6N>/'Q ..7stralrs í ma sis rill a••a1•1a1m1••l• t•. ` .ttt C •. .•s..s•im -"mra•aarraras1sw^. SOW= sfsssolums•••• ss rI/Daodemlls&arAril wc I7a1a111al..f a'.•Ym♦ sLlomo1i<tM. s #. a4sltrr :OM1P0JtG rsuux ra7AipOJet .^tilaref sfa•r ^ O s •sasl... &rrs • ntivrs.- ^aa!•raf•^ • a••' a w.•1r•.•la•w sfa+.r Sr m^rrsY^... e.. E. allo. •••ra•a•a••a1a••alla•1•an MINI mMy^• l•r••• ia•• s1••• ••M•a lb •:i • Am ^ ^^í.:11•r 1•81:711•11•111111r Saws worm or= M ss r1•••••1114/111MINI •Ii :7 Jaltal.s r a A bcis tans & crr. 11. e.i•aa••^I ^isf• -^ -.alaa/ a•rl1••••at••^aaa•la[ •sa•saar.e^rcf•O^t . .err.rt•1 afar:ilmsr s:: at• NIP l4  riDrYs WIN aatu OLJNalaaiv asasr. a -...^l a^ .1142111111•111$161•1•30 .•aaaas •••sarlsl•lrlr.•NaA arsarllrLrr. ia/1•• t! a^a1a a•s• s /• •sa•7r•^a•t. • a • ----^ d c>ras á^tnr • trs al♦ IBM ai. aR• Yi"1_:1 a..^wtlr^.fs a>ra!.wa• s•sma^mmo J Amax arnr 017 s •!^ a ltt yt a ts a••••• mow 11114111sM•1r•11•11111111.25.lÌ. MU 10.r -+wsa.71M •.r^11••staa•rrs^Ri^^s•0 s r. .s .^al•^ o.:^ (.a^ A...---.^nh'tpcprt : r .t a^t^aa f a.••• 1i^1•a1•^ ^ ir^ ^•i sa•la••r-'a r • s a••C7a^^a^^r•`.a•^a.rNr •allil.1^aaaar• IMP A main. A aamaYaa.0". r ^ \V Iron aMaa..i^^^"I ^ asafaal SIM IMO loam.: 1•aa .L rc a7l D•^]IÓ r + a[^7a*: 1.+' sé7I ti.4•40 a ir^^^lpl •.u.^i•a1• .'^^ 1.111.f..732 ^^^ .ar r a+Ll ari ^.. ^•••1slisr•11 11•!!•1fE• _^^• S .faLd." 01. ar 11 ^^ s r• ^^rti•^rrt7ar aps••a•laila•:•lt-.uac. ammo Iils Isams.^ .•/am.a 5 ^ e íir É^.r• .../ •lIP'mmer.a' . 1.rw..l•:/^^N^^ u^s^mattm^/mrSi ^ limm/ f s /.nvt i O •!MA Il•aCaRa+r:ltrmr2141< 3^ 90111^a111•• +. •'^naar•rsar ^J7irlt ^aa la•a•l•a••al•^•r^Te7•r^1• 1..woman!.'+ aarna•.+ • aas•7•7•wII7•INGII•t s1•a•7 f/ alVIINr eaa•ael•'alc..l^^ eta=•^all .c.s.IIiYs1ss••s1an•• f•.lr. emu r i J /'i^ .!•n••a••ISatl/• .u lA^^l♦•l•lts••ü .iaw^^a ter. It 11 •a.^ ^`i•lalarmualsrYar.r r • • d aalrc Ion.aP...^rs^^G^^nmlár^•^ tt Italft tLi Y V.10 LESSON ON EVER Y VARIETY OF METRE Montéclair.`f:r mums . imm'm••s•sef•mrss.^ts. /.•rlsfs s• •1•ar ^^n.11r art I aU L•..tN•11 _r711111s01.. ^fl aa/a• m aw •^^^fl a1 •i• ra>ra.r.r.^flRTraa t •r•^r ^...aa.wa^r1 aAilrs. ^^r^ ^> •1 sa A iro & itnta • a^s .a^ ^s^ srara•l^ f^'7t< aal SIM= ^ Ole :.m. ^ d 1lMrJ s'77G^ 1111^!' d MN /3.01••••• ••/htkl ia m : ríi NM ' aY't a:^aa•^l•••ra fa•l^ _. ^sm s^ ^.^aas• 1111• ••••-: 1tNI•r• 11t .^7 AIst• -I^aa7•r7t axt71 r a..l••r•1a•i C.`:a••s >tsr afta./ a s all.? ^•r! MIaa1•lati :^li•• lam•••R• slara•aaa•a•ra esa.^ ^^iwiiá a^a^ iliiia r ^^^ * iri %i^al^7lt^i^ir^ i^i. A! A .srlrir^s^ wr^^f•ls^4^-! WET l^rratal•^msa# se/as .11111•1111•81 I laa _1•11WI•8•IS WM.a• wtrrrl• a.^ mil r11• a! s11171. •In ••s.r7r =NO a•^ I rt^^ ^= a r^^aa^^.a sa.1111111:msm`r i8.4. -on .t l.^^ IOWA d aItur lent j t cri 1• :•a•11 ammo.^^s/^•f^1^^^•^s• t ra^••^•i 117•Aa^•l^r.t%. I7trt .-.a=. lf.1 a'aPaa ^ ' a^aa -•/ A I ra^rlsaa.a y. sr• al are asrlrMI Wee s• a+ wir .rf rt ^l• as ITV as a••••111 t`.la ^ ILar'u^im ^s alaT• r. Ma W111111101qf ism I:fom1111111q•r a. /Carla I as• ^•laY r•l/a amp ass r.r._: =Se 11r1a(•Mar ar i••ruaaaimw !p _ `.ga _ 1 A 111I ' V r a1 *! . .a.^•l wrr^u /a^c.m••sa• UMW .a••ar 1. ^^^a^.111.•roas^•s^L f.^ de/flexure.1•111.1 ^•.^ltMm^mr a Mrs t•!amaa•arspTam^:U 1a/'+roa =Mom arli^ti•a rla a sttE ar^ 7l111 s•lwlq••aq ••1 • s^^ri>iÌ11^•1as^^•^ sarws •:wr.^rw s•sa í twrl*ma.aa '! 0^an•••ll^.rutlr .•• ar . Sotr. Principes de musique (1736) rPe't'Il stir 'll^tcS tt ..als4sa• 'mamas aaaafsslh•ass••..011111sssss ^!C srssmi AM IR7 r • f .ípi s r s r.l•r.al•s^11^I11 —r..^.a a•=n •l•al a \M . ill* .•^...4 IRAN' r. •.41•••sias..ti7r MANI ^irlwc^-Y •aarota••a••aa•t^•^aCUMMINS= Sawr a. -AM.e.^s1. il•aral•ti pm* wommisa1•al J71r.Y411•111s ..•ll••. tal =UMW NM MI hamorlF t IN ì e i/at/ ONS mom r sa. axa^a a e^r. s••rs.^'^t/at .r r arET Aim s•a.r v s &hers va/e.. J' • t... rr^i•^.Arm ^ áruarfsn>. • NO.sr a •INMP•P71Or1 1Asrt a aY allali•rJ12111ax ^^ 4111allb Ammar. • err • A al •.T Lan Imo sal.. -r -im/ eitre eenrPoaer • tn a.rrtlQz .•wlas^I^swsagar>tis.40r as L7a 'aOl • aAraq 7.11^j 7e ••••••0•• APR* ••••••••/'^tra^s0tow/••s•a^. 1 . It .fclnt" A tl/Mir~ Mina ring slam.7•a^afA maim a+.^rl^k^lr^^f.r. s•1 1/.al•aarA•ssll•t^tlit.L.afa. . -.. A uabr In..e♦. .L.a.rr i m s^ ss^l '^:Aíl.r r r atr.r♦ .artll ^wlrr. _ -. t Jlaell•w11••.if/s1a^•^`.r.. (s^srr^a7^t^^r^ i rsi •l•••••t 1•r a••1a•a.rs^..alr•a•• 6 . emir alrl• s^ sr_asf•imlr•. .. ^ ime ^^ rvrawrof ^ a+rr s ^ rra s^^ aAi^ rN ^r-s^a>♦..nnjp.7.>A f atalleMH11•MliatrtnleaAS ensIMÏri now I r e a Alma ssírr aIr/MIIINl••••t. a•^ a••tsp ss^er !^•^ •1s._^ une fors 1t[^ in: vit*..

On the contrary. notes were not held for as long as their notation would subggest..fi 11 Phrasing ARTICULATORY SILENCES — DETACHED NOTES — SLURS — UNEQUAL NOTES — DOUBLE-DOTTED NOTES — RUBATO ARTICULA TOR Y SILENCES In Baroque music. great or small. unarticulated sounds. That part which I call sustained or sounding is always at the beginning ofa note. as a general rule. with mordent or without. the player will have the task of determining the silences for himself. A.L.732 . j\'otes must not appear to be glued together. it is necessary to soften the attack and release. As Engramelle makes clear. .. my use of the term articulatory silences in music refers to every such hiatus. and the length of the silence will depend on the duration of the sound ( . as it were. depending on the character of the note. the part which I call silent is always at the end. • In the following two pieces one must try to respect an articulatory silence after each note. . In the Sarabande. each note should be shortened by a silence whose length will vary according to the duration of the note and the character of the piece. no matter how beautiful. ) In performance every note. Sustaining will be more. is partly sustained and partl y silent. each note should be rounded: for this.. we give an approximate transcription of the articulatory silences as they ought to be (it will be seen how complicated the notation becomes' In the subsequent Allemande. and even those of equal value are in some cases to be interpreted in quite different ways ( . tivithout articulatory silences would have no more grace than a folksong from Poitou played on insipid musettes which produce only blusterous. (Quantz) Engramelle explains this practice in detail: Notes in the music (i. one distinguishes between sustained notes and those called broken (`tacté'): sustained notes sound for the greater part of their value and their silences are cbnsequently extremely short. and a piece of music. that is to say.. without them these could not be detached from one another. so that only the touch (`tact') of the notes is indicated.e. ) These silences at the end of each note define. these latter apply equally to faster pieces. but their true lengths and the value of their silences which are integral to them and serve to detach them from one another are not shown by any sign ( ) However in performance they are not all realised in the same manner. when added to the sustained sound. and are then shortened in proportion to the duration of the notes. . ) There are not even strokes ofa trill that are not separated by very short tiny gaps between the rise and fall of the fingers upon the keys. This `aeration' between the notes is called an articulatory silence.25. French or otherwise. that is practised in performance but is difficult to notate (as are most other rules of interpretation). but without playing in too dry or `piqué' (spiccato) a manner. This is a general principle in old music. notation) indicate very precisely the total value of each note. or less long. gives the total value. broken notes on the other hand are those in which the sustaining is very short. from which no note is exempt. To sum up what Engramelle says in another way. avoiding any sharp cut-off. and they are consequently concluded by a considerable silence ( . it has a given duration of silence which. its articulation and are as important as the sounds themselves. Again. whether trilled.

.732 .• sv^t^tt^ s REM WM:.t:s ^^ A^tt:1 s. MIMI= II•-s• 111.ws• ar .AININNO r — ^—tttrJritlt•ts^t^^^^t .a..•••••s•/ 7•tat^^ vtt^t 7r7^• 1^ •^^•^ n. ^^ill^^lt t•♦ :1 s7IIIIa•s t•.11111111•1• ^ /1•/•=1•1• ia r l/••••• ^r• WAN= attr7^ t^..11•/.. p.12 Sarabande: A.1111•7••s •III7=1111•11•ta1 •••• ••••s •••• ^ WWII. 20 (3) See double-dotted notes.wir7t• s ..t .^^•tt^lr^t••••t• s a^t•^•••••s •^^^1 • IN s rrs^t7 MINI MANI •p.111^^i7ts .^ 1//^^ ^ ^. =NI'"" •• t• 41•1111 I•1I• s••••s MO I • • • E (1) See double-dotted notes.7t^t.i•t^^[7 ^ tca^.^^s^ t^c•ttr /a ^ •1^^ • a ^ ^ ^^••♦ tt^^ 1•111~as•tr•tl'•tL:^^ IL._•—. p. p. 3 and 4) A.t••.tif•i^a•^^^ ^^ttiattt^ti'a•7•tstttttt• ^ttt7^7tts^tlill ^ ^a tttr r im ^ OMEN/MO IIIMt•:r tit /NM /r MO MIMI f NM MO • MEN — 1 Allemande: D. Van HEERDE (1st half of the 18th Century) (Played) (1) ^^s 7tt^^^t•1^ta OEM NMIt IM1* MUMa•^t•t W..tY^tt ^t^ •ts1L=^lr!♦t ÌttV E R:•tttttttts.^ ^^ ^.:=tS^.^ 1 MI• dll (3) arm •rrioloww MO= ^70•11:11 11r1MI t: s meow lV.. 27 (2) See unequal notes.w=r•^t^s tt^tiaal^ar •aa^ J^rsa^a NEVI ^V • s••=111^ (2) t tr.. 28 (ex.^+e•r a ^I^tts .7 • 11111•Irat•• r.^ •s^s•••11• .•s:1t•••• NMI.110•M ♦7t 1./ •rs =1•21•1 1 M NM II l::s11.4. .•NU •. ...25. MOM 11=1••••1••7••s MI= __+•••• •1=111••• MN NM M MIMI =MINIM __ J1•M•11-s••••t1••ss• s .:^ r.L..^.^s^tt^ aJttt[-^ts ^S.s•1118r ANII•11rt1= ia7r ^.•.0 /^t:•^t<7ttW^:Y/r•a:t71 t1 .. O7•INI •w•• ..t^s! \t .• c ^ s ^^: ^ ^s •11••s•11•• ^ ••c• •• wv ^rts^ltr^trl•t^7^tt^ ^ r^^crer^c^a^ r=-^:•/aa^^twc-sw^^ ^^t^r:-rti^ ^ cMMI•a•s ^^•1^^ s IVY a••c^Itl1•1•7ss=7s 1/.raa^at/^-^. I /W 7V •^1I^Issr 5^^a1^if^I^ls 'IIItM!— WV. rs ININ••lML ^^^%^! IMINIMr •1=P111=1 I.•L't'lmasimmea.••••R••I• ^ ^ ..7O^ .••s MOM t^lr^ttt^ MI/NMI a>•1=11 1111s •••••• a.s ls ^t•tt...1 S^ i•I•tt^ s 1 •11=111. = M•1111.1 ^ ^ ^ tr r/.^Q s !'^t1^a t r17/^^[=.war ^^/ • t^. DEMOIVRE (1st half of the 18th Century) =11111•111MM•.4•1M111—attr..7••1NIIIs •INNIIIIIMIIII/M1111•=111116..11•I.

For notes with dashes. the word detach implies a dot or dash on each note: (1) The dots signifying 'detached notes' should not be confused with similar dots signifying 'equal notes'. dashes sometimes indicate a more marked articulation than dots: When there are dots above the notes oYe must play them with a very short pressure or bow-stroke which should not.732 . and not detach them. composers might ask for more markedly detached notes in certain pieces. it is indicated by dots or little dashes (2) above those notes which should only be half heard. (Méthode raisonnée pour apprendre la musique. Bordet explains: One must use a sharp attack (piquer) and cut off the sound of each note regardless of its value. When this detached articulation is not expressed by rests as in the preceding example. 20. Detaching the notes is when one divides a note into two others of equal value and pitch. all the notes must be taken in one bow.13 In a group of slurred notes. (Marpurg) In the following example. however many there are. however. See paragraph 'unequal notes'.25. 1755) A. strokes). p. as Dom Bédos points out: Two notes slurred Three notes slurred DETACHED NOTES Beyond the customary use of articulatory silences. as has been said above. In this case they would spell it out in words or indicate it with short dashes (or sometimes dots (1) ) over the note-heads. the final one is not exempt from the rule concerning articulatory silences. and each one marked with a pressure on the bow: Bordet defines the latter as pearled notes: one must simply increase the sound of each dotted note under the sign (slur). (Quantz) Quantz adds: If there is also an arch (slur) above the dots. For all that.L. (2) Marpurg does not seem to establish any distinction between dots and dashes (short lines. . be really detached. of which only the first is made to sound: Here the rest takes the place of the second note.

es . .^— -. staccato • simile _________ _________ _________ _ '^1•^^^^^^M^^^7^^. :^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^-. 20 A.ä ^ ^ 14 Gracefully: A.L.IWINGW . ) Thus crotchets become quavers.b ___ • w.s11 WW1/s11111111117s 1=1..r -..-- I Pia iaWWISWWWWWWWWWW111WININ=Is WWIWIIWINWrtl^5^7^^^^S7waa..^7 ^^.MISSIIIMMINIIIIIIISIMMIIII s111M1 .as . / AWI77WW^^e^^^ . ^^ V.^. WM—...^W^^r^^ s^^^^^^^^^^1^^ ^ ^ --^ .." IMIEW.1/ a.. p... (Quantz) Aria: J.. S.IMISa1. ^^^^^^' ^ !•W1 —^ . -. ^r^ . DANICAN-PHILIDOR (1712) Equal notes (1).eIMI. •t..11•• ir .^e e e =wee ^ r^r7e^^7^^ 7W ^1•^^ ^ .732 4Qg ..^^JJ^a^r^i7 = ^^^^ ^ 1•^^^ . and detach . •^^^^^^^7e^M^ ^1 .•^^^—__777 ea 1=1".. ^ / Z r r AL __••_ —••_--__ -^^^--^. ^e_ —^^ ^.r.^ .-^ II r -SOS > •1 _NM WM > ZW.. ) It is customary to put dashes above the notes to be played staccato (.1111 yr. ^ L_.. s7WIMP MIMI WIIII7ININ WW. e I .WIN WINIIMrIs 111..^o—^--^^^^^^^^^^^----s ^ ^r^^ WNW — ^-2115•1111WMII^IWW^^^^^^ -. ..1IIIWII MI AM T When the word staccato is found alongside a piece.. v^^ — •ANW.8•0111s AMP Mill _s e^ :WNW o^irWW.UM ... .^^^^^^^^^^^ R a . ...25.AWa.1^.. every note is played with a short.^7 f^^ ^^el^^ ^^^^^r^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ .ASMISMIASI.... detached bow ( ..J^.1111P4M1 e11WN. . ^:v^..e^^^— Vo^./WILAWIWEWaJEW •WIIIWIWINEN W=.11W1WI1. / IN IIMIIMIWIWI 1111WW•111WINIEWIIW ^ . ^^MM^e^^^^t^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^^^—^--M' ^ = a ^ r.-WA.MININ WISINWfasaWs1 Me — PW. • 7..1. BACH — Cantata BWV 127 (1725) .... ) They must only sound for half the time they last according to their (written) value ( .INWaNEMrL/5..fl^._--1=^^^^— ^ ^ (1) See unequal notes.. quavers semiquavers and so on. = MNP77WUMMO WW ISM MEMO= MIN NW WW.

the use of slurs is much more restricted than it was to be in the Classical and more especially the Romantic periods.15 Grave: J. or not at all: Complete slurs. making it unnecessary.11111J1 J1 1/Y7l=P7IM 1 Y Y1 Y YIJI r 1^s 1Jt ^ ^' Y Y^/Y^^1^YYI1^ ^Y11^1Y^Y^^^lYlY1^_^ . partially. to add any further ones: A.25. ' I I ^li 1 Y1 ^Y-Y1Y^Ti1^1^ ^S-w^1 Y^rYr^r^^^1 ^^^ .lYJ111/6l L71J1 1111111/411=11•11 s Y 71• 1•1•11 Y1111•11•0111111ESJJ1111Y1•MILJMMINI J1 YY1=MOM =MUM 1•ti 11.L..--a r 'Ir Urfl • Ull'JJ111•10 1ti24J.^^^^^ ^^--- SLURS In this highly articulated. Different instances may be cited according to whether the composer indicates the slurs completely.732 .111 1. F. therefore. . FASCH (1688-1758) ^ I I I I I fff ^ r^11___L. Sometimes the composer himself writes in all the slurs he wants. `aerated' manner of performance (we have seen the importance of articulatory silences) that is characteristic of music of this pe ri od.

.732 .=MIM. Thus.16 Andante: J. it is as well to recall Quàntz's warning: Notes must not appear to be glued together. leaving it to the performer to decide whether or not the musical text needs them.. BACH (1721) MINI rN= MOMS MINIM amnia •111 NIrsIIMIMININI •sss• 01•1 .25. in the following example. however. S. any slurs would seem superfluous: Andante: A. composers do not write in the slurs.L. •11111^ r1111111111 -•••••011•10 Complete or partial absence of slurs: should they be added? Very often. In this case. VIVALDI (1678-1741) Cantabile A.

...` a^7ifa^.^f• -1^ ••r^r^.i.. expression and rapidity of the phrases.^a•ffl —`^^^ m.I rIlraL••••••1afll•Mrlfli UM J .r!•r1^••.r _ •'p ` •^ 7^7^a1•^ urIIID.i. El 1 . in the Allegro movement below.Mi.25.f/^•^i^f• J•^/ffi•id•/ ••J•^.i.• AIM JI ^_•^^^^^1Alfaa^ffalJ•f•^^ ^JfflJ• r _A MMJ AI^Afffr Eli ^^^^^Af^fi^MMMAlM MUM ff^^^ M ^ ar7 Similarly. ff =.17 ..a•y• ^i ^^i^C^^ .I 1•7N• •IAt!•lliO. one can choose between an interpretation entirely in detached notes and one that is enhanced by a number of slurs to be determined by the articulation./ f/ rv__+ J•^^.f/7t•J I7..ifl^ ^a>r afa•_ +••al^^.sMIIIMi... 11011á•ffii Mil MI AIllAi••••I v •••f•l MnillA^.a•^^f•_ . main f•sM^t -^^ ". . the choice is left to the performer: A.^ •AfaMOfflfif• r•r• llifi .1f .a^..a•Ma•f l•A^^A^7faA' —_ —^` aff^r^—J/ alral---_= f^^ --__+af^ a^ ^a fi ^ . VIVALDI (1678-1741) • • Mr •AfraA•ANEV r__—./11• i s Maiff•ifffAJi 1 !l^:l^tY1^7Arf/^^f/ffA^7tl/7 ••s ill ......r Jral. the rapidity and a rt iculation of the phrases may permit the sort of slurs suggested here uy means of_ dotted lines (all other ligatures are original): Allegro non molto: A.L. Telemann only indicates a few ligatures_ Aside from these._ ral`^^r^ffi^/ff^•flalaf•^^fafLffi fla^ ffl•f•1••^r^ .1♦f••• Mai iJAr 1111• _^^ IM\^ ^li!MMIMMAJ••• ^I i...••_.732 . ^s•s 'aA.^1 Vr^•fa—'^ ^i -. in the following example.LJ.....r•ar•^ara.. /••f/-!'irilla• MN AI UMW Jilin •••• Will //. NAM ff:1.. i• (b) • •1 •ilfifaJff.M1AiAfiiir 41IMralir!♦ Mai afif•a/1An.^.••••JA v Milli MI • W IA fiAfAJftrf !Mil no By contrast.•^•nri — r>•._..\•I.-^ ^ ^^..^]•ra•••'J^ ill vrl^A^•r•^ . .r r^ 1•11 I . ')( (.-.M•11A1••• I ..4•11111U--- •Mat =J 1oimi fiJ ^ ^^ = f• t•— ff af! • •r•af a^fJirarl. i •_.flf•/a1i MA MAIM' a/ M l MI^•^ MOM= ff NM :1]!S ---1111=1111L` ----1111=11111— . •• . •1 MI M•f_i••f•.— I ^^) .1•^f/J•I /J1ra•miOr• .f^^^ M^ ^f•f•f• fIii_`^ ^^^^^^.)( . .^•^f. In the following extract.J Milli i^^^^.

lez.•r=1 ^ ^ 1/^ 1• The tirata (detached) and the coulade' (run) (1) However. or r the same syllable: MONTÉCLAIR.^f :i:^w^rr •11111111•1111110M.. N .. p.111 . a succession of rapid notes may require to be performed as detached notes: .41.+-ár/^^ ^ = ^^ _ *w^^^^^ 1^^•. the absence of slurs may also indicate the composer's wish for an interpretation entirely in detached notes.Icz. TELEMANN (c1716) !.732 . 27 (3) What Quantz says here for the strings can equally apply to the wind. when there are three or more demkemiquavers after a dot or rest ( .. one must give to each of these fast notes its own distinct bow-stroke (3) and hardly anything may be slurred. lJ. t MI MINI ^ . However. then.1•1M . the detached notes being produced by very rapid double-tonguing. .t)^^. ..^^ ^_`^__ + ^^ . . in particular the flute.. Entrées and Furies.^/^. A. as this definition of the tirata by Montéclair suggests: The tirata requires separate bowing or. as often happens in Overtures. ^ ^^ =^^^ -. • .^ _ ..^ ^^ _^ ^. vo . 35 (2) See paragraph `double-dotted notes'. .L:r.1^ 1. I /^1'Jr1^7^^r^^^.J^^J /AMU t...r^^ —/_—. p.. petits of . Ph..^11s1. (Quantz) (1) See also the `coulade' (run).I. vo . tonguing for each note.^r•. ) they are then played at the fastest possible speed (2).^^ -' _ i ^/ r.dJ JJ^^^1 ^^1 ^^.^.lez pe-tits Oi - seaux According to the character of the piece. (1736) tiratas ^^^^. on wind instruments.25. and the 'coulade' (run) takes all the notes under a single bow. s.seaux vo . ut ^^aJF ^ ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ MINIM . or in a single tongue stroke._ g- 18 (Allegro): G.

Atir. It is then correct to apply the given phrasing to the whole section: Passage-work: HOTTETERRE (1719) • MN -. one must not slur those which should be stressed.L./ . (Quantz) Prelude: HOTTETERRE (1719) Moderately 1. ..25. especially in the pardessus (1) and the violin. pardessus de violes and all similar instruments). since a particular expression is often sought thereby.^'^ r :^ :^ ^^CM=^:d .. O ^^ ^^. should be taken only rarely and with great care. ÌI'lUMWW>'1>•MO MMIW MOW' a / OM 011J w-s11111 Iw^1 MMMMM . .^^—^ _^^t—^+^ -- ^ Alternation of slurred and detached passages It may happen that the composer. however..^1 /19^•1^ ^V-m _ ow. V.^.. however.-^^^^^^. the composer often indicates the slurs at the beginning only. then.. is allowed a certain amount of freedom to modify the articulation shown by the composer.__ i= .•=)>i weir >I. so as to facilitate the bowing ('Six Sonatas for 2 transverse flutes.s 1011 N. or group them in twos. This liberty.M IN 5.r C:^ ^C^ ^C.732 ... that the possibility of adding slurs (where they are not indicated by the composer) depends on the musical context.^. one is at liberty to detach all of them.maw _á NNW ss MOM ^^:D^:D^: ^?^ ^^_^ ?.^—_— ^^_^^ —_.-^^. .^^ ^^ ^C ^.7. we have this on Bordet's authority: Although I have almost always slurred the first two quavers of each bar or beat. The performer. In that case it seems logical to observe what he has written: Notes which must be slurred should be played as they are written.. and should be exclusively reserved for cases in which there are special instrumental difficulties.^-.. (1) (Translator's note) Pardessus de viole —a member of the viol family.^ ^A^..111sI1s111Y011111M.^^ ^^' •MM.^ .— _ JONI M =7 _ I7 JO WM ^^ _ MI _ + • 111111W1 WM 1 1J11W • WWI t.lJI /D = is•ammon.^^^ s •••_.^^ _—` .111 . marks slurs over certain passages and not over others..-_ J WM Vr 1M---. It may be seen. >r^^^ ^. smaller than the treble and tuned a fourth above it.WIOMIIIIr. But equally. A.B. always bearing in mind Quantz's warning—which it is worth recalling yet again: The notes must not appear to be glued together.19 Filling in slurs according to a given opening When the nature of the passage-work is constant.7^J^ ^^J^^^^/^^/^^_^^^_^^^^r^ _ ^^r^^^^^^^_^_—_^_-_^_J /^I • s—m^^. as with Hotteterre for example.•- ^_^^^ Arpeggio • (simile) I allIIIIJ•1JIIIIIMWM IIIMMINt 1111•11111/ff .571 MII1./1IIIMMIMIWJMIrtJ WM OM MAIMS WM OW OM MIMI J • MOMMIMIJ7JIW _ „mi.1^^^^^i^^ 11111MIM WOW IIINIMINI11J . ^ ^ ^^^ 1^ JMMMM^ ^ 1 r..J.. ..s^^^^^ ^^^^^^^.1:I ^.MU t .=^ . but that as a general rule the performer should introduce them only with the greatest discrimination.

This inequality cannot easily be notated. namely: — Inequality consists in prolonging and leaning on notes to make up pairs of one long and one short. But this is c re only if these notes are not mixed with figures of even faster. more than on those which come between them. sixth and eii h. in such a way that in each figure there should be a stress on the strong notes. . both Western and Eastern.732 . namely the second.20 UNEQUAL NOTES Inequality of notes is a manner of playing which bestows on them a sort of swinging motion. In very schematic and general terms it can be roughly transcribed as follows: (1) As early as 1550. was pretty well systematic in its use of it. 24. A. fast passages in Q very rapid pulse where the speed does not allow unequal playing. the first. . giving the sound a little more strength than on Le second and fourth notes: (. or even in an Adagio. although one should not sustain them for as long as if they were dot:cd. third.) (. although they appear to be of equal value.25. (See the second example from Naudot on p. it gives a flow to the melody and makes it more supple. the fastest notes must be played with some inequality. p.). and where one cannot lean or apply a stress except on the first of the four notes ( . in France. (Choquel) This inequality is not only found in Baroque music. for then it is these la tter which should be played in the manner just described. primarily. Loys Bourgeois mentions this in his treatise 'Le droict chemin de musicque (2) See also Câjon's observation on this point. etc. viz.) (>) (›-) (>) But exempt from this rule are. jazz. . (2) If for example one wished to play the (following) semiquavers slowly with equal values.L. this would not be so agreeable as when one leans a l'-tle on the first and third of the four notes. It is to be seen in older music (1). and in various present-day forms of music (Pop music. designed to give then more grace (Saint-Lambert). Here is Quantz's definition: In pieces in a moderate tempo. or shorter notes in the same metre. fifth and seventh. however.) (y) (') (. ). 21) This definition sums up the principal points on unequal playing made by musicians of the 17th and 18th centuries. fourth. The Baroque era.

• ..ili/s77»— m• =EMU s ^^^^^^^t 5^^^^ — ^-------_` s MIME= M . In this case only the first note of each group is lengthened and stressed.s r71 .r._—_-_--tJ^s WM/ Ar 12/. C. Thus in the previous extract from Naudot's concerto.L.^I / rMM ^^^ — MI MI ME MI =MIMI M.• ^^^i ' r Allegro 2) :t7>• ! ^^ \Vi =1 NM Min ME MN MOr .11MINMI ^.. if the speed chosen does not allow the sixteenth notes to be played unequally.MIN NM MIs ME NMI MMIL— „. . (^) (=) (y) •t:ANUO1---_^ —__—_ 1+ _^—./W '. r ^ ._ .M1/ s^^r MEMO NMI NM MINN ^A^^^a.011M IMIN..B. NAUDOT (c1741) Allegro . except for those of too fast a speed to make it practicable (see p.= M . where there are four notes to fill up a beat.^. ^.R ^ 3 I MIMPAIMM s11010" MEN NW IMAM= roaromeri r.A111 1111 M MMMM.W.WI'IMMII _ =rMU ^^. 25 for other exceptions).MIMr110 MOM ' MOM Mom ^^ — Inequality is applied to every movement permitting notes to be unequalised in twos. Only a considerable rapidity of execution can... .. f^'a ^^^^---MAO— ^—^ —I I iisI•wilms UMw •MNs1s=11MON1 NI . they can be rendered as follows: Allegro (_) I .40 . those of a given passage) which are made unequal (1 ) (with the exception of notes considered as gracenotes.25. therefore. for we must not forget Montéclair's caution: Whatever the metre may be. ^^^. (1) Again on this point. •11111=M1 -AM= ^^ — It is the smallest values of any single movement (or.— ^^^•^^ ^^^^^ ^L ^ ^^ M^^^^ ^ _ (-) N.^^^^^ ». 27). ^^^ ^^^ ^ . prevent the sixteenth notes from being played in unequal twos...011P.. consult Cajon's remark on p. C. ^^^. The two examples below are extracts from the first movement of a concerto by J. —M=M • ^— MIMI MI 111 IMI. these should always be unequal. Naudot: the eighth notes in the first example and the sixteenth notes in the second are unequal: J.IIMIMIMMIS MI/r-.^ AU s7^7 ^=^.. 1) i^-^.710sAW a^^ ^^^^M ^^^ vr^.732 .M^o.^^^ • _^^^. within a movement.. ^^ ^ l r^ __ V = ^^.^.^ WM/BM MAI MM. See p.21 i. 24 A.A1 NM/ WV! w^^^^MMM J^ ._ wa: MINIIMIM MOM IMMJIM Mil ^ MUM 1111111111 RE_` 7.

w^ In/7.25.__„ .rl• . for if the notated value of the quavers were to be observed exactly as they are written on the music paper.^.s Lot r. so that the first note is worth two thirds of a crotchet and the second its remaining third. . in others the difference is of a third. a third or a quarter. and others where they require to be less so.. aJ0OINrrrrrMIIF MM. yet it would seem essential to define it. As to the triplet quavers.rrrtrrrrr /1rr••Jf /MINN IIINIA>•M OM MI arT rrJ MEMO ENNMI/ IJMMMJM / ONN MINN rJrar a.=1111 I) l. they would all be equal in duration. a less palpable one. .^ II/r^r Y +_rI_-^-. sustaining and silence.`v x...fi 22 Different degrees of inequality When notes are to be unequalised. Written scores do not tell us what the value of this difference is..^^^^^I^^r^/r^^=^>•i1^^^J^^ ^J^ -"MOM =MN AIM rarrra rr ^r111111 NE r I/ ^^^ `.^: ».1s11.. ^ ^ ^ s /l^li . and the second ( ..iN/I WW1 .-71♦ Min . ... ) Unequal quavers are marked in twos ( . ) of which the first ( ..... as with pulse. ^. finally there are others where this difference. this too is decided by taste.•rINI IJrrJrrr MINuacr171MIIIIIIIIM11 V OM' /MAIM V MINNr=^=raaJr M rlrr^i/1• Va WiaIIIPrara.^Il^^/'^^ L1d^1M^^J^^/^ ^^^^^MIIMrlNN / V.^^ a^ll^^rrr^r^^r^^^^a^ar^71 Speaking of the eighth notes..1111•11111. if it is a half. (+)^ (+) MINI-NI MINI I1 MN 01.. Engramelle says: It is as if the first notes were dotted quavers and the second semiquavers. 11111111110111M11 rt>•MI .^.732 . .L.^. .MMr^ .+ rJ• t ^1 . ) is longer. .1111i/-aMMrraMIJlIN/ wrrt =MEMO= VIM • 1M. and this is rarely heard in performance (.INNIMIN MN NM• MINIM i^ 11111 V t^^^^^=rr1 ^r• . they will be made equal. ) is shorter: but what is the difference between the longer and the shorter? In some cases the difference is a half... so that the first notes are to be played as if dotted quavers and the second notes semiquavers._.INIJMNII MJIrra1MINP.. taste must decide whether they should be unequal by little or by much: there are some pieces where it is appropriate to make them very unequal. (Saint-Lambert) Engramelle defines the different degrees of inequality thus: There is an essential observation to be made concerning quavers that are often played unequally in twos. . Here are two examples of inequality cited by Engramelle which relate respectively to the first case (marked inequality) and to the third case (slight inequality): Marked inequality: The King's March NO rt ar7 Ma/ 17•111110 • MIINI M / /WIN aa. This gives us: A. . 'MIMI if. I'M .111 .^ ^.r^s ^^. .1 ) • :1IINIs ^tr. . should be in the proportion of 3 to 2 as if the first note were 3/5 of a crotchet and the second 2/5.. •.

I s 1/7/ //1/ I r1111= 011111•1•1=J1=_1IMMIlJ //J1t 1/I/_11/J 1IIIIIIII/1^1/f 1111/ MIMI • .. This can be realised as follows: ^ r^ /1 1/r MI•A^^ r. . 8 1I•mMI 1. 34).. and that it may vary according to the character and speed of a piece. 11.11— A/1/ra/T 1 A 1 M NI ^\ / MOM IRE JItJ MOW 1rr7/1 1 I /I /7J /= al Illr= /T IJ1r1 IIINr/•1 ^ .. Slight inequality: The Fountain of Youth 7 1♦ 17 1.. w/i. which would make a performance as dull as if the notes were being played with strict equality...SIMNS I[ as Ma ^ I . good taste and musicality remain the only touchstones. In the following table.... Reversed inequality: Sometimes inequality can be reversed by making the first (half beat) shorter than the second: LOU LIÉ This type of inequality. • aJIMEr/Jr1111111•11. and is particularly applicable in fast movements.^ .B.1 1 Q=misosrI•asso1 MN.• MINI t• SIM memr-wwww 1 a^ 1 ..25.•^_taJr^/I^t•Jf ^^^^t./ N MIMI IN MI / Air • 1171: /7 / :IOW 1 11/. we set out the note values which should be unequalised (dotted) according to the principal metres in which they are found along with the definitions by Cajon and Hotteterre which epitomise contemporary practice: A. 11011111/.L. N.. There again. t...t ♦^1 i..tlt♦ ^t: IIMPW 1 ^ 1 •J•r1^. is not without resemblance to the `chute' (fglling appo ggiatura.-=Yr1/=_=====J1/^1 V.a1^1I11' ^ IMI ^ 1♦^r1sr^1^^^l1Jt r/ u r^1/1^I/r1/ Mr•INE_ '''IMI/t• ^^1^1^^1sJ^^L^ . less common than the first./1111111W^ L•^ ^^r/•r111=1 r IM= -1 rrMS IM11 ^111111 1JrI••J /7•1•11 ^1 ..eC alh'Z ` .iss. As a result one must be careful not to interpret this inequality in a systematic or monotonous way..a1^ .1 AIM11/4111=/ tsr1W1 ^ — /1^11//•1J1 /Y /a1^/1/.. Thus it can be seen that inequality may assume different forms. MIMI= IMP 11 r• JIM / NE ^l1^•• ^1^^ ^^^ ^^ r>t'^^r•r1^^II IMI1SIM111. .732 . The same applies in the following example. The performer will determine the articulatory silences for himself. as Engramelle specifies.INII IJI^^rlrlrrr r^ i « n MN =.23 aIM• .J0110•r1MINI•J1r/ MON IN MI SW Is1 =MIMI MSS /1. t•1 ^^^t♦• t♦1 L^1^ 111111 MIN Ell ^1 I The semiquavers are unequal in the proportion of 3 to 2. T etc.811•11111111111111 ^ simmwmpossossala NM USN ^^^^^^1_^^^^^^^ s••/^ r^ ^^ — — s _ aNS/ ^1 1J/^1 1• IOW SI.4•111 RV 1^ -.111M-. — .s r1'1r•_11 s11J ar7 INI 7•1.. ..t I011IIMI•s1I1111W ^SJ^11r1NIr^rI11^Jr1/I sr11Jr^1J= WI = s7IM. sec p.111•111P. ^_^•1111^11/^1— S/ Yrlrrr^rlt•1^1^ a==`1N^^^ 1 ^a^ó ^ ii •1^ s s L^^ ^ etc.. .

For the same reason. 2 and 4 and 8 Quavers are equal and semiquavers unequal (Câjon) Quavers are unequal (Câjon) Quavers are equal and semiquavers unequal (Câjon) Quavers are played unequally (Câjon) Normally quavers are equal and semiquavers dotted (Hotteterre) One might also use a which would be composed of 2 equal quavers or 4 unequal semiquavers (Hotteterre) Quavers are unequal (Câjon) Quavers are equal and semiquavers unequal (Câjon) 8 6 4 6 8 Metres in 3: 3 2 3 and 4 3 8 9 4 9 8 (Observation): Here quavers are played unequally. as the notes of lesser value should be unequal. then. if semiquavers have been used in a melody whose metre is 2. it is the same for every metre in' which quavers are declared to be unequal. in every metre in which semiquavers ought to be unequal. those which the nature of the metre ought to render unequal will become equal._ . they will become equal if the melody has demisemiquavers. Thus. This rule would even extend to demisemiquavers if a melody made regular use of hemidemisemiquavers..^--_- •^ :^ = 24 Table for unequalising values in the principal metres according to Cdjon and Hotteterre Metres in 4: C 12 4 12 8 Metres in 2: s*.L. and when these are not used in `his metre then it is the crotchets that are played unequally (Câjon) Quavers are unequal (Câjon) Quavers are equal and semiquavers dotted (Hotteterre) Quavers are unequal (Câjon) Quavers are equal and semiquavers unequal (Câjon) When in a melody there are notes of lesser value than those which are prescribed as unequal by the kind of metre in which they are found.r ^-:.732 • . -25.^^^^m-3. (Câjon) A. then the quavers become equal.

(Cájon) Gigue: E.) —when the notes are played in groups of three. r=1/11111111111111•1111=100r MEN --^ IMM ra.^.. ^ i- — note-heads which have dots or dashes: an exception should be made for notes on which there are dashes or dots.L. ) when there is an arch (slur) over notes in groups of more than two. (Denis): Passage-work: HOTTETERRE Briskly and with equal quavers ^^:. that is..^^_ ^^^_^ ^^ . { . ••1111 ^^ s-s•11rr1111•111111111.^^^ ^ ^^^ — when the tempo is too fast for inequality in groups of two to be performed or perceived (see p..^^ ^rrrrrrrr_^^ MI ^ ^^^ 1111111.^7• _ I •• 1s I I MIN-.111Pt.-1=111 ^^ — rIN10rr0111 ^^^^^^^^^ MO ^= ^^ ^^• ^^` spiccato — slurred notes: (..alls111•111•7•11111 MNI/S-71M-41•11MINNIO sIIMM MIN ^^^^^^^^^^ • w11$111111/7» :0•7. whether these be natural or incidental to the type of metre present. etc. of whatever value. C. (Quantz) When one finds quavers or semiquavers with dots above or below. SCHICKHARDT (1670?-1740) Allegro MNIMII ^^. DALL'ABACO (1675-1742) a W •a•11M•411111111 _^^ .732 • C L* — • i[.^^..^^ LIC_r= ^ • =a^ ^^ r^ V^ . (Quantz) Passage-work: HOTTETERRE Spirited • ^ V • ../ MIPt 1111111 = 1s7 s r71s ^ ^ •/ ^ • MI •/I^1^^. (Quantz) Allemande: J.25. groups of 4.. 6 or 8.^^^M.1• s••••111111111111MM111•111•M MINN ^^^^^^^^^^^ MO ^^^^^^.. which does not allow unequalisation in twos: All notes./^M. 21). one must then make them equal and detached.^1^f= ^^^^^^ s ^=M^^^^^^Y^^J^^^. . F. except in the following cases: —contrary instructions from the composer (`equal quavers'. that are played in groups of three are always equal.25 Exceptions to the rule of inequality The rule of inequality is of general application. A.^^^^ ^^ ^ _. — repeated notes: One must also make the same exception when several notes of the same pitch follow one another.41.11111V11111 • • r / INI NE )./^.

. Mr/^^^^^^^^I= mamma =Mir ^^^^ :! }_^_•_iss^^^^ . s ^^ 1^ ^ ^^f^^f ?i r /m^/'7r^^^ . .. this time in Italian music: Courante by SigrCORELLI Allegro (Hotteterre) — the basses of Sarabandes when the y arc entirely in quavers: Sarabande: A. with the quavers dotted I Go t —a o.ILAMM+.. It may happen..m. .. ^^^^ v^^•w=M^rMMMM^^:== ^ ^r :::^^.r. that a number of slurred notes greater than two will not always preclude a certain inequality. m ^= ran.B.r^^ ^s .^/rl/t.111M. 1111111. such as that required by Hotteterre in the following example: Musette: HOTTETERRE Gently. D..I7 J^17 ^a^s.L.IM.25...26 c í^ N. PHILIDOR (1712) equal notes .^ wr^•^^ ^^j^^:^.^ ^^^.fl^^ W/ ^ Couplet from the Passacaglia in Armide (Lully) l..J^^lJ^^rM •^ ^=^^ ^ ^^^ MU ^. and further.:^^..^fífl'ssss. (Hotteterre) ^ ^^ ^ r..s^. (Hotteterre) Another example of equal quavers. .^ — A.Iu^^^^^ • ..732 . however.^ What makes the quavers equal on this occasion is firstly their intervallic leaps.^ R:S]=^ . sequence of disjunct intervals: Fugue: HOTTETERRE Spirited. equal quavers %maim ^uJ^I.^.I Mrs^^rs+... the fact that they are intermired with semiquavers...

•M>>I =NI -• s••7=11J•• ^>•^^^ 1+^'^^^M^MI. The note which follows the dot is always extremely short.M^^. J. DOUBLE-DOTTED NOTES This is the name for a type of inequality which is very pronounced.27 — notes of small value which correspond to ornaments: Passage-work: HOTTETERRE Solemnly ..25.7 7J. rr .732 r it I a. E. -___ ^ ' (equal) .•+ -a- ^s ^^ ^--. it is therefore superfluous to add dots (to dotted notes) or hooks (to short notes). (Quantz) The short notes which follow dotted notes are always shorter in performance than their value suggests.Mt1 =1111111=1111 :7. t. Y :. A. (C. unless they are shown as dotted.7•••••s11111110 s1s1^ ^^^ ^1 m Obse rvation: The Italians make less use of inequality. 2 that of a quaver (1).^^ 1 ^ • .L.NMI r . mumg WIWI. with the articulatory silences which L'Affilard does not neglect to mention (To make the dots into their value..7^M>•rM^M^. (1) Hence it is necessary to double -d ot the dotted notes.M MMI ^^^^MM[ :M M1MMlIMIMMIMM14/11' WM= 111s1( 74E1 AION 7•INV /rMmilt. Bach) This would be transcribed as follows: or rather. one must hold the dotted crotchet and play the subsequent quaver quickly): h • IN _ ^^- Different instances of double-dotted notes Quantz is very explicit about these different cases: The dotted notes in example 1 (see below) require almost the full value of a crotchet.^T r (equa» .wry 1^^^^i7^^^r^Mj r1•^^ L7•. P.. . Rousseau: In Italian music the quavers are always equal.M^^. applying to dotted notes followed by notes of small value: in performance the dotted note is double-dotted and the small value shortened....1/IU IrIIMIIsM -. and those in ex.(equal) -1 ^ NM 7 • 'IMINf' UNIM . According to J. (equal) --.

that is to say the sixteenth notes and thirty-second notes in the upper line which would be played as sixty-fourth notes (see ex..ss•s ••s •-aJssummoomiw/wniar/seum. The dotted notes( 1 ) will only last as long as the lower hemidemisemiquavers.^-r?=^ r . To form a clearer idea of it ( .-^-^ -^-' ^^.. MIrIIMIis s'. the more caressing and agreeable will be the expression: Thus this extract from a Prelude: HOTTETERRE Solemnly Ex. lb and 2b) and hold the dotted notes until the time required for the lower dotted notes has elapsed.. s ?^ _ r --= •.•s••s=rsi sI/eummummamor sow imaw mallowm^••=lreescs imuot/— ass 1..s AIM/Wits MIMI n^^^^^^^ ^ ^ ^^^^^^s... ) play the upper notes (of ex.^. .^ ^sa^^^^a V ^^^ ^ s 11111111•1•11M/MEW MMININW~ a1•••111111111-11111s11r111 MN L should be performed: N ^ ^r ^^i'a ^ ^áw ^^^.womr1. 3 Ex. ^ita^ s^^. -.— _. lb and 2b). 4 (Quantz) .i.nmm.---r. ^ .25. A. —x-_ =^^ .._ -°--- – — " ..^•^^^ v r.'. 28 One cannot determine precisely the value of the short note after the dot.-..L.^. Ex. 1 Ex.•r cosiLarossus•r I/wwwwwe.= /01111111•111s71^^^•s^r ... . . -:-^-e ..as s V• •..__^. lb Ex.^•^rrs^^^^ ^t ^^^ ^ r^^r8üi^ ^1^irMí^r^.-.í irr^^r•i^c^áií^r ^i^^^ lAM as.^^^^ ^w ^^ító• ^ i^. .:^:>.732 .^INI i `^ 1.111= OW E E s: É %1 ^ ^^ (1) By `dotted notes' Quantz here means the notes a/ter the dots. 2b (Quantz) Dotted notes followed by more than one short note In this case the short notes must likewise be played more rapidly than they are shown: The more one prolongs the dots after the notes (examples 3 and 4). 2 Ex.__.. ..

E. When. the quavers which follow the dotted crotchets are not expressed according to their true value. as for Bourrées. even at the price of hurrying the group which follows. etc. sharp manner (. Ex. instead of the ¢ they put a large 2 which likewise indicates that the notes are to be played twice as fast as in other metres. Rigaudons. Ex. and the Chaconne.732 . it must be prolonged. whether the tempo is slow or fast: Ex. the same rule still applies to the short note and it must again be shortened. and when there are three or more demisemiquavers after a dot or rest they are not always performed according to their true value.L. one must wait until the very end of the beat to which they are allocated. whether in an Adagio or an Allegro. Entrées and Furies. The French use this metre for different types (of movement). -25. All dotted notes are treated in the same way if the tempo permits. 7 to be performed: It is the same for a brief rest followed by a group of notes in dotted rhythm. ). but one waits for the very end of the beat to which they are allocated and plays them as fast as possible. The notes D and C (in example 5) should not last longer than those (in example 6).. as we know. there are demisemiquavers (example 7). as often happens in Overtures. in this metre as well as in crotchet triple time (3/4) which is used for the Loure. the Sarabande. Quantz specifically tells us: If in a slow Allabreve (1) or in a full bar of four beats one finds a semiquaver rest on the beat with dotted notes following it (example 8). Gavottes. the latter should always be played very quickly. However. Moreover. 5 Ex. the same rule must be applied. the rest must be performed as if there were a dot or a rest of half its value after it and the following note had an extra hook. P. but in a very short. especially in slow pieces. 6 Silence replacing the dot When the dot is replaced by a short rest. and at the same time avoid getting out of time. Rondeaux.29 Reversed dotted rhythm When the rhythm dotted note—sho rt note fl is reversed ^•. the Courante.. Before playing them. it indicates. therefore. the Allabreve metre. (Quantz) As C. Entrées. Bach confirms: When there is a short rest. after a long note and a short rest. 8 to be performed: A A A (1) When the Italians modify the metre whose sign is a large C by drawing a line through this sign (4). (Quantz) A.

á+ 111111111111•1111111 VW — W.11111111P r. the effect. BACH (1721) r— s –I J oh 171 r0ttrW111. .1111M. Unless this is done the metre could be confused with 6/8 or 12/8 (example 2). when a short note (anacrusis) begins a movement. If.^•^ . this may be further shortened: A single quaver is always short.rr^^^^ Ir ^—^ t t Mr s L. ) If one were to play the dotted notes appearing beneath the triplets in such a way as to give them their normal value. irrl^r iniirsmw^=r^ —i — ^^^ l s^^-^o^^^ ^r^ ` ut.. the notation r 77 not being in use at this time.r 30 A nacrusis: Similarly. the dotted notes are then interpreted as in the lower part in example 2.: ^^ ^t A•.. and the two types of note must be treated very differently from each other ( .. ex.MI•11•• ^ Superimposition and succession of different rhythms: On this subject./s^^^ ININI^lIg-.sas • ^^^ ^rr^ ^^Iworrl^^^^r1IPAIl. .imillirMa. The short note following the dot must not be sounded until after the third note of the triplet rather than at the same time as it. Quantz writes: This rule (of double-dotting) should also be observed when one of the parts has triplets against which the other part has dotted notes (example 1). on the contrary.1.. then.. (Saint-Lambert) Allemande (J) . 2 ^ 1 !' U.s-7. Thus the third movement of the Fifth Brandenburg Concerto should be performed in the rhythm shown above the stave: Allegro: J.1111M ^t.lMa7//ralr ^lr^^r^ IV ^^ i^Ilr^'^t ^^^^ ^r/^r ^ .^. Observation: Quantz's rule only applies when triplets are added to a rhythm which is initially dotted. ANN All=111s9•1=1111 Ex..illl 11111111•11M1NIM4// Mad= ^^rrlI^^rr^^^ /l•^ rl.. S. instead of being brilliant. 1 Mai MEIN INN arr III II.-25.1 • According to Quantz.L. A.^^IA♦^ a^ --— a1r 11111 rrlaa ^r 'M ar ^ 3 3 - M R1110140I /1 Ilegg.732 ..- 1":71 Of"7"") il i ti r^rr11^1^^lr^It^ r^t. would merely be deformed and insipid: Ex.. 1 should be interpreted in this way: r which thus differentiates clearly between the two rhythms. the rhythm is essentially composed of triplets.

S.MO OM /11/7M-AM _-. for there are exceptions. ^7^^^s a^r^^^^^^= ^^^^ ^^ =Ell ^^_ m /. .732 .NNW ^. Melodies in which they occur should be examined carefully.Exceptions to the rule of double-dotted notes Naturally. BACH (1721) Andante 11111111111111•11•11111111 ogimmol Mir OEM s•. Bach) Thus the short notes in the examples below do not appear to need double-dotting: 2nd Brandenburg Concerto: J.• ^^ 1s1111111111/ sow mu witm allow ••s• -..25. It is only in the generality of cases that short notes should be played quickly. and one should distinguish between melodic passages and those cases where the short values following a dotted note are simply the opening of a rhythm which does not lend itself as a whole to double-dotting.am= 11111•11111=1111 ^a^^ Sonata: J. P. F.t ='7 _ EMI MI ./N1 . ^^^^ A. FASCH (1688-1758) Allegro Passage-work: HOTTETERRE Spirited _^S.L.. E. (C.=M . double-dotted notes should be used knowingly.t^1^^S.^^^^^^^^^^ s ^iMI MIMI =^^ ^^^-^-Vr^^^^^ s ^^ .

.^ 1f 1'1-1•NIF • /Mr . the French put all theirs into subjecting this same beat to their will.T..4 it there may be no four bars that are of exactly the same length (.M11111 IM1^ .. and to an adequately affective r^ rendering of the accents marked with a mordent: Double of the Nightingale in love (1722) MÌL. /M \ I.I . .^_rI/1trrs^—=ICs^^e^ _^^^^^^ M r_^_ s /\ ^M^^^^^^^—l^^M1^^II^ IIINs11111111•a-als a/•111111MINNI1111116.1Ma.L..-t•MIIIIMIIIMMIIIME M=MIMINIMI•1110r .V11NMt PI MrMEIIIIMMrM-74S1111•1MINIM7 11. ./M^r tn^^ ' .n^r^ ^^Mr^ NI.. 1636) Perhaps in an ..f 4.IM•1M0 MlIIII•r MTIMII/•PIM =IMPIP"INE MIMI r 111/111•Mo1 lrAr MI IMI 1Ei./11111 ^^ _ WWI s I>•••• s.d111110 111•111 h11/211/. to the neatness of the passage-work.. or to the differing passions of the subject. AP7MIIIIM111•1111117 .••s•••s• [0: NNW ••• _ -^^ i -^ . •--. (Mersenne. everything must be sacrificed to taste.Mina MOM= ^• .^. The beat—whether in two or in three—is changed a number of times to make a given piece of music sing. . • !s _11• NM I } = (F..s ••_••a. ) For if Italian music draws its energy from slavery to a strict beat. •J111INK.. according as the savour of the song and the agility of the singer's organs dictate.732 .d.M.M1 1111•71. (Rousseau) tr• Ohs 1001 d One must not adhere too precisely to the beat in the Double below. —'r.O s •' s-a1 /7 ...32 RUBATO tWhat we call rubato—that sort of elasticity in playing and of suppleness brought to a rigid beat—is not an invention of the Romantics: far from it! Already in 1601 Caccini alludes to it (Nuove Musiche).r11•rfr101L7l'I 11. `Harmonie Universelle'.•~~ My ^ AO 1..1rI/MINNIa:aaIN/aINO r. T ^wv . Li .. hurrying it and retarding it.25.r a. COUPERIN) A.rr1Pra•18-ININIIIINNINIZIMrsir11141 . and it was to become a characteristic feature of musical interpretation in the 17th and 18th centuries.rlS-as•s /NM •1M011sr NM! ^r S. hurrying or retarding the downbeat or tale upbeat according to the text and words.

(Saint- Lambert) Here. and much dexterity in expressing them well (. . by inappropriateness. And by want of skill. (1) Let us say that ornaments are variations. much circumspection is required in knowing where to place them correctly. thus. In such cases the more usual terminology is adopted.. it becomes confused and ridiculous. By inappropriateness. or grace. (1) `Ornaments (ornements) were often termed optional ornaments or grace notes. ). heavy and constrained. added by the composer or (more often) the performer to embellish. the vibratos etc. by excess and by want of skill. the playing becomes crude and uncouth. and it would be better not to play them at all than to play them badly. and that grace notes (or `notes de goût')—more sober an d more concise—are the little notes. It is from such models that one's taste must be formed while doing one's own practising at the same time. for otherwise they will disfigure pieces instead ofincreasing their beauty. and 'grace notes' (agréments) essential ornaments oi grace notes.732 . is a list of the p ri ncipal grace notes. the melody and harmony become naked and unadorned.. even though these two terms were frequently confused in the past (as they are today). and perform it with boldness and freedom (. in alphabetical order.L. Sometimes two authors will give the same grace note different names. By excess. one must never hurry in making a grace note. And here I can only say in a general way: grace notes should never alter the melody nor the metre of a piece.25. the musical text and increase its beauty. ) Good taste is the only criterion. for pieces in a spirited tempo. However. since the manner of expressing them changes according to the pieces in which they are used. A. the trills. since even the living voice of an experienced master barely suffices for that. ).. it is very important to know how to perform grace notes well..33 Embellishment notes For greater convenience. a clear distinction should first of all be made between grace and ornaments. to wit: by omission. the appoggiaturas and arpeggios should be quicker than when the movement is slow. embellishments designed to vary. (Marpurg) It is impossible ever to fully understand how all these grace notes must be expressed. because it is not possible to explain it completely in writing. This is why great care must be taken over these invaluable adornments of music every time there is need of them. (Muffat) Where can one learn to distinguish those notes which should be coloured and those places in the melody where one kind of grace note is more suitable than another? One must study pieces in which all the grace notes are written out and in which there are neither too many nor too few of them (see examples at the end of this chapter). one must take one's time to prepare the fingers. where and how to apply grace notes It is easy to err in any of four ways over this important aspect of melody (the subject here is grace notes) ( . For it is impossible to give rules for the placing of grace notes that will apply in every case. with a summary of contemporary definitions. indeed to adorn the skeleton of the musical text (we shall return to this later). (Montéclair) When. By omission. Afterwards one must listen to people who have a reputation for playing well. (Saint-Lambert) GRACE NOTES It is almost impossible by using the written word to teach the manner of forming these grace notes well.. however quickly it has to be played...

34 Observation: In the majority of cases. ) The little quaver must be felt as if it were indeed a note.: -1. __ v .. These grace notes should therefore be interpreted flexibly and in accordance with the context in which they appear.-_. -_ __ -P .. (Denis) ( . after having leant on a note for some time (A). ACCENT The accent.MMIa..r1/1111•MisIBMVAIIIMM INIOr^^u... . it is expressed by a broken inflection of the voice: ILO ^ A ü a i •7 ^ ^ ^ i7 I 1A^ ^ ^^ 1^ [l (David) The accent is marked by a small perpendicular dash above the note and is only made upwards or at the end of a held note. (Choquel) The accent is an aspiration or sorrowful lifting of the voice which is practised more often in plaintive Airs than in tender ones.IIritar. where the quavers are unequal: (Hotteterre) (1st book for the transverse flute. and the accent must be felt at the end of the name (I) of this note.a^. or `son coupé' (interrupted sound).^^.MON/fi0. the sound of the first note must therefore be lengthened. normally it appears at the very end of a dotted crotchet when it is followed by a quaver on the same degree. in metres. and as if dying.a.. but with a very weak sound.411•111INOI riiIIIIIIIMMII. ..^^•v^. aromm.11MM IMiNN/WZA. leaning heavily on its vowel. also called aspiration.^. on the pitch of the note above. . its name in solfège (translator's note).732 E' ta 0 ..^.. . fall 111•1•1•111111 WI= 111ria • ^^ri ^ ^•^it:. is terminated by means of an imaginary note above the one on which the sound is.^_^w• ^.e.. --< . 1 'r • 1111•rn. it never appears in spirited Airs nor in those expressing anger: One can hardly determine all the places where the accent should be placed. . tables of grace notes given by writers of the past are only schemes for realisation. ) The fall brings much grace to songs of pathos: sar. since otherwise the performance of this grace note would not be in good taste. s • Ir i1= MN OIIIIIIirui . 1708) strong note accent Strong note accent r (Montéclair) lam CHiJTE (Fall) The fall is an inflection of the yoke which.IIII s 1-21MINi. .AM.25.L.IMraa. falls onto a lower degree (B) without lingering there ( . that is to say..ass.mWEIINIOI NIMMr_^11•=1 • MI i 1w11111. .^^^r.^^uw. A.s-:. according to the expression (of the piece).^^^^n fall AB • fall AB fall AB a ^^car. .. gently.ua.11ris1111111 i port de voix ^^^ (Montéclair) (1) i. . . -.

MI NM WI =II _^^ T ♦ ha.A M Jt• a< t111/711«I -`^ NMI fJf. .f/AINIIMUMMI.. rn ^a x . ) small notes in stepwise motion. There is not normally any sign to identify it. ) or simply by means of a slur: :t^f/11UNINI1111/2•111 .%/111111111MIN ♦ coulé coulé .. and tastetkìvill decide on the places where it should be inserted. that is to say. It is used on various occasions. less strong one.B. making it smoother by binding the notes together. particularly where the melody falls by a third. for to judge by the note alone this would not show the slightest difference from the `coulé'. . (Choquel) COULADE (Run) The run is two or more ( ..tJ ir-u. there are some masters who show it by means of a small note linked by a slur to the strong note onto which it must flow (. See also p.^ ^!• VI ^ coulé coulé • Wen.í^i Ól (Montéclair) N. and this depends on the words. the smoothness or the beauty of the melody: run fall run run run flatté >~^^^7^ri^irA^^^^^7a. . which can be made without interrupting the flow. reaches a lower. inserted between two disjunct notes to make a more graceful link between the one and the other. ' i _ _ ^ / 1 6 :^ ^^f/I!•1:^ ^7:` ^ UI1• ^^^ ^ ^ ♦ / ^ _ //J• _ ^_^/^O ^_^/^ ^_ Miff MIMI IMP IN 0 I^^^^^ • ^^^^^^ •5l1^^^^^r11d^^^^ i. AM )1l7 Mff. .35 The fall has a totally different effect from the `coulé' (see below)... Iffl•r/.25.s 11 MIL I/lt. rid= VM III NM 'MIMI MI MI IA OM :AIM • r ^^ 1i ^ ^^^ ^C^ ^ rï ^^^ i-^ii si ^^^' iii .5•11111mm/1•mma t/m =Iw/ tA :aMIIli. / / • ^^S!•^^^i MIN •s ^^ i (Montéclair) `Coulés' are performed by means of one or more notes interposed between the 'backbone' or essential notes of the melody where the interval is a descending third or fourth: 41 r J J I _(r^^^J^ I o (David) It will be observed that a coulé' should be made between nearly every interval of a falling third: A (Hotteterre) A. 18 COULÉ (Passing appoggiatura) The coulé' is a grace note that softens the line. It is an inflection of the voice which. (Loulié) The run is shown by a number of little additional notes following one another in rising or falling conjunct motion.L. falling from a strong note...732 • t+ ::r^ .1111=11 t1M1/7 111111111111 1111IIff. following directly on one another. however.

fais torn . On wind instruments. the `flattement' is a sort of finger vibrato produced by rapidly tapping the finger (or fingers) on the edge of one or more holes. Some tap it on the extremity or edge of the apertures by stretching out the finger which is to effect the throbbing. The .^1^ ^ If Mat n43sNOININI IMI. (Montéclair) FLATTEMENT (1) (Finger vibrato) The `flattement' is a characteristic embellishment whose effect falls roughly between the shake (trill) and what is today meant by vibrato. with a wavering motion of the hand (M. 34 A. without raising or lowering the pitch.fais tom -ber ton ton ." `S. on a note of long duration.ner .ber.ber ton ton . Fais tom . 1st book of pieces for the viol). s. 47 (3) Pla inte can also mean accent.____ O MIN ^^I^I^ ttlllllr. or on a note of repose. It can also be achieved with the bow.ncr . the descending thirds are not joined up by a `coulé': good . by pressure on the hair. see p. especially for stringed instruments.36 When the words express anger. the `verre cassé' (2) or plainte' (3) is usually effected by the little finger. where the holes are stopped by the fingers. others tap it over the whole aperture and even over two at the same time depending on the force and expression they wish to achieve. it might be shown by a wavy line ^•^: mordent accent flatté coulé quasi shake fall sudden shake complete shake cadence (1) Sometimes this term leads to confusion.^r^^^ II 1=INIPIIIIM1111111111•t•INIILIMO. and is made with a lower note that does not form the interval of a semitone.732 . Formerly. On the viol. Fais tom . . this embellishment is most often added where one is swelling or diminishing the sound of a long note. This embellishment produces the same effect as the vibration of a taut string set in motion by the finger.re. There is at present no sign to identify it with. The finger which makes the throbbing should remain in the raised position to finish with.1•11 NMI MNIIIMMINNE•111r __&_$_I__. (Mahaut) Hotteterre adds: One will observe that flattements' must be made on almost all long notes. or when the melody is in a precipitate tempo.MIIIIII^ ^^ 1^1^iN 1I If utr/tl^It• /1^ M^ M ^all• s•••111•tl c>s 11111t 111111•• .1111 s1 NMI .r^t^^1sIW .25.Iia *41s1s1IW111I411111111111 S7=_•= M etc. p. short aspirations.re. for example. and sometimes over the centre of one or two complete holes. they must be made slower or faster accordifi • to the tempo and character of the piece. and that. at this period.L. (1st book for the transverse flute) Montéclair: The ' latté'isa sort of rocking which the voice makes with many soft. ' lattetnent' or flatté' can also mean a lower mordent or a shake. Marais. the terms `flattement' and `vibrato' did not always have distinct meanings.MILD poor . just like shakes and short trills.flattement' is a slower throbbing than the `tremblement' (shake).ber. (2) See also under Vibrato.

It can be performed with the lower note (this is the usual `pincé') or the note above (this is often called `pincé renversé'../MINI.. `pincé triple'. flatté flatté flatté flatté flatté MESSA DI VOCE: see SON ENFLÉ.". `martellement'. the voice must first of all be carried onto the pitch of the strong note (principal note) and then descend to the next degree after which the voice reascends promptly to the strong note and stays there: P pince note of repose (Montéclair) Upper mordent: When one uses the pincé' by contrary motion.4111. it would become unbearable in that it would make the melody tremulous and too uniform: mordent poor mordent poor mordent accent complete shake preparation cadence note tr. etc.Ns ^^ •t ir 1. ) The term Schneller' serves to describe it in German: i • NIIIMINIII ri1111111 swr mn sI sii~. 42 PINCÉ (Mordent.732 . p.25... or Schneller in Germany.4111. Generally it comprises a single alternation (`pincé simple').MMII s3MINO.IN•11111/= --MIIII .. 44) nor a pause (`point d'arrêt'.: : ^^ /' W.L.4MI.. `Schneller'): pincé (lower mordent) pincé renversé (martellement.1 /MMININIMt. Schneller) (Montéclair) The `pincé' is one of those shakes so short that they have neither a preparation note (`appui'. see p. sometimes two or more (`pincé double'. . 46). it is called the `pincé renversé' (. see p. s rr.). upper mordent) Lower mordent: To form this well. (F. It is somewhat like our present-day mordent.MINIMINII—JMINI. Couperin) It was frequently identified by the term martellement in France.37 Were the ' latté' to be used on every strong note. according to Choquel's directions.s91111Cs IIMMINININEWw 011•ao.=1•1•1111•••011M.^_= (Marpurg) The `martellement' is a very short trill which one makes after having sustained the sound of a note (Choquel): martellement ntartellemen t which. would be performed as follows: A. Schneller.

Only through the feelings of a mind thoroughly imbued with what it is saying can one attain perfection in this embellishment. One should never play two in a row. .. ): one must tap the finger on the aperture. but they are taken abruptly. 'inflated sound'). which should be done rapidly. Lia ^ ^.25. MI MM. and few singers have succeeded in making it as touching and sensitive as it should be. The port-de-voix is the inverse of the coulé' I think that this sign / would be more suitable than the sign V to identify it: The port-de-voix is not marked at every place where it must be made. there must generally be a mordent on the last notes of each piece.. ). that is ( . whether a tone or a semitone beneath. it adorns it in so graceful a manner. crotchet and quaver.^ ^ MUM /^ ^ •-•1111. ). taste and experience provide this knowledge (.... All quavers that are preceded by a dotted crotchet or its equivalent should be played with a mordent. . therefore it is very difficult to give a good written definition of the manner in which one must set about forming it well. ^ N= BIN Ng 'W// .. 42. a fourth or a sixth. a/ WWI IMIIIIWOI i rlIM ri IMMEsIMIs M How and where to perform the mordent Short trills or mordents are a sort of appoggiatura. because they make the melody more brilliant.732 . There are three varieties: 1) The prepared and sustained port-de-voix is played upwards and it originates on the note beneath that on which the sound will settle. imperceptibly swelled (1) (I) See 'son en fl é' (lit. ••s MN Ms •s MN IMMs11s111111sss••••MI ' W/ AEI + . When it is made on a third. Short trills or mordents are made on notes which begin the air or melody. One should only make one mordent in each bar when there are only crotchets. such as the minim. The portde-voix is always accompanied by a mordent: Port de voix Port de voix (Montéclair) David: The port-de-voix is one of the most essential of the melody's appurtenances. note that one can play more of them in lively airs. such as some in four and in two. . ) It is also shown by this sign: V .= MI MNIO.. (Freillon-Poncein) PORT-DE-VOIX (Appoggiatura) (V) The port-de-voix is sometimes marked by a little added note (. with the finger curled rapidly just once or twice. so long as the metre or pulse is not too precipitate.b 38 ^. S • AMP =NINO aJIM L! WIN. and all those in three beats. that it serves to express all that the soul can feel. so long as it is in the minor . by which I mean on the first of the last two notes. and the same applies proportionately to the other values. In metres which are solemn. it must be emphasised like an appoggiatura. and must first rise. and when the sound has been lodged it must be softly threaded through the first of the three segments into which the duration of the note must be divided.^ `1 A.4.L. p.

39 on the second segment. . One kind should be sounded ( . But if the preceding note is lower than the following one. They are sounded on the beat.. originates on the note preceding that on which one will come to rest. ... the melody would often be dry and extremely simple (.. . in front of which the port-de-voix is found. in place of the principal notes. Passing appoggiaturas (before the beat) are found when a number of notes of the same value descend by leaps of a third: A. it should be taken from below Ex.. One could call the first accented and the others passing appoggiaturas. 2 (example 2): There are two kinds of port-de-voix. on the third segment. 1 Ex. To that end ports-de-voix have much to contribute (. ): Z r1° ^ V 2) The double port-de-voix originates on the third below the note on which the voice will come to rest: ?) 2 t ti 0 3) The disjunct port-de-voix. (David) Quantz: Without them (ports-de-voix). this is what characterises the port-de-voix (.. both descending and ascending.^l ^ second. this is too o 1 1 R^ `Gothic' and unbearable to make general use of. ) When the preceding note is one or two degrees higher than the following one. just as it has been given birth. and made to die. but it can be tolerated and practised in certain cases: 1r . the latter should be taken from above (example 1). borrowing the sound of the first to slur it onto that of the . Ports-de-voix are a slowing-up of the preceding note (.. ) oñ the beat.L. ) Dissonances should sometimes excite and arouse (the ear). . ).25. ) on the previous upbeat. The other kind ( ..732 .

7 MY ..MB =I NM 10111•1 MI MN l:li1111111111•11la MIN ^^ not to change the dissonances into consonances: me sr r. 1 11 ...III? s l =IIIIIIMM-1111 s1 a.• M.•a s I N rSatMIN•tM14 i•s 111111tss t. (1) In Adagio movements the Italians sometimes make the port-de-voix (C) as long as the note which follows it. ./ t A= NM WII11IIMII•111 WARM II /tJ1aO1alI s11♦ a l•a^^= ^^^^^-^1^..111•11M11 1 • aIIIIMr1•111I•It♦• iN IIIMI sra1IIIaIIIIIIII OM al . and even longer (DJ. making a small shake after it.t• M ^t^^a^r^^•al^.. the first being followed by a dot. 1• ^at I^I^I/O/a^ ^i VA AN `=^^J•^rs^. Often there are two appoggiaturas before a note. 1 I When there is a port-de-voix before a note and a rest after it.. in a metre of 6/4 or 6/8. aIMP"7111111•11. a WM71111E1 INI.4•If. so as • 11/711 Mi.732 .I —a a /tt7111111•111l shakes exceedingly short. two note s are tied.. the first being indicated by a small note and the second by a note which counts within the metre: Accented appoggiaturas (on the beat) are found in front of a long downbeat that follows a short upbeat.a a/ (a JO .25. own am/ ai If 1111.1 '411111•111 s Is1Y.•^ i^/V^a^ a11111MIlMININIIIII. CORRETTE: Méthode raisonnée . one should hold the port-de-voix for the entire value of the first note with the dot: •.L. .w i MI . C D (M. I. .40 The appoggiaturas we are dealing with here require a caressing expression. the port-devoix is given the value of the note and the note the value of the rest: (Quantz) . UM MSS 111114111111111111M1 r • r11~ M1111110. When there are shakes on notes which form dissonances against the principal harmony (./ !NallI V tal. The appoggiatura must be sustained for half of the following principal note (1): Where the port-de-voix ornaments a dotted note.. one should make all ports-de-voix preceding these . •s ^t•S r^^••1•Is ^1 ^ÌI .—a1M11/ NM IIE s ALI MI n.M111I11=11111111a11111s1•11&. unless it is absolutely necessary to take a breath.. . 1750) A. ).. namely the length of the dot: When. as may happen in a Gigue. MINI MIS LI. the latter is divided into three equal segments of which the port-de-voix is given two and the note itself only one.I • 1 .s :Nit mare/ 11111aP•maleIaaia.

/ /IMMIONNII• =WM J .i7JMMI ss• s J 1MILIM/ /TI/^ I^^ ^^ /^—/^^^^r ll7i^ MM W MI WWI IML MN /IMJ^ ."'°- 11.^^^ wil^t r:I^r—^ 1..I MI NM . See also p. ^—^^ ^^^^^^^ . ^1^^^ . one must also know how to insert them in an appropriate way when they are not written. 2 mordents Ex. ) It will be seen from this example that ports-de-voix are most often placed in front of notes that are preceded or followed by faster notes and that there must also be ports-de-voix with most shakes. i..IMMI— ..• 41 ( .1 /IMM IMsP ^^^I^LMNIMIIIIIINiNILa MO= ^^^^ ^^/ !I s /^^^^ ^ l• 4/NOSHOMM J .^^iI11s1 MUM (I) Ex. Here is a rule that may be of use in learning this: Wizen after one or more short notes on the downbeat or upbeat of a bar there comes a long note which remains consonant to the harmony.^^.^ ^ . s•^ s ... 3 turn (Quantz) N. _ • • ^L^^^ J^ —^ ^^^^^J^__^ MIME ^^^J_^^^^^^^ M..^ i^. A.s ws BM sIMIIsIMMI _ /^ ^s/^^s —JL^^ M ^l/' 1^^^ .732 .. ) It is not enough to be able to perform ports-de-voix according to their characteristics and individual differences when they are marked in the score.NINISIMr/ /•11111111~SI/ AllsMr MINIM A•11110'. 1 half shakes Ex. the preceding note will show whether the port-de-voix should be taken from above or below. 1...^ >•a ñ a^0 ^^.. .t/^^ OPM11^_-1111.^^/^^ M ^i—^ ^ L^/^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^M.-:-a^^^r. this may be done on the notes over which the corresponding figures appear: Moderato 3 ! JJ1Jn. . .ONNIM =GIFT>..WW JrPINIMMI^^^ :^_^ INE•1111ss••s1.. 42 for Quantz's observation on how to make ports-de-voix on the transverse flute: 'If there is a held semibreve or minim .^—^^^= ^ ^ JIJ r aJlll^^^ i M"..^^ t --a^1111^ .1•1111 i 11M= INMEJ L1/" IIINSIMr• /.. B.^i/ I^ sIIMIN ^— .7 1J^1^ ^^^0_^^^_^W^^ Jl . 2 ^./ /1111111. y --^ v -^ • • •1•01•Mo^I^. The (following) brief sample contains most of the ports-de-voix (.^^'/.IN /111111 s01•11111111111114— ^ 11••s /11•111iMtM1111111111111M11/. If one wishes to mix the grace notes of examples 1. ¡ ^` .. 1 A Ex. a port-de-voix must be placed before the long note. 2 and 3 with ports-de-voix and use them in the following example. ^ Il 1.^ i so7 IN= ^ ^^ i R2•11M=t.s MI • ...^ NM MOM St•../• = ^ ^ ^ / ^ V^—\t/^^ ^ 2A I Ira I ^ir v^^.7JMiY Mam / TM /if 1.011111111— 1••tJV71 s 1•11s111/Itl 4•111111. in order that a pleasing line should be constantly maintained.am 11. . (1) These examples should be adapted to the pitch of the relevant passages.25. . _ Matz_ . Jos ..L. 2 A Ex. ^ 1^ ^iJll^.

(2) Though th e harpsichord cannot swell its sounds (. and end with the same softness as one began with... then diminishing it during the final part: If there is a held semibreve or minim.. beginning with a tiny fraction of the voice: it is threaded. — 25.L. gives special attention to intonation and moderation in `inflating' the sound. ).fit has other advantages (. ) There is no symbol by which to identify inflated and diminished sounds.. (F. increasing its strength). and strengthened bit by bit. one will find that. where the embouchure by itself (fixed wind-way) does not allow so great a correction of tuning as on the transverse flute.This sign: -411111 ^ means that one must begin softly. thereafter one starts to diminish the sound until the end of the note. Unlike `threaded sound'. `inflating' it mid-way through its duration (that is. so to speak. (Montéclair) Montéclair here shows it by wedges: inflated sound diminished sound inflated sound diminished sound full voice . (Quantz) `Inflated sound' was a stylistic feature much in use at this period (particularly in Germany) and was practised on all instruments with the exception of keyboard instruments. it must first go forth from the breast. whether one is blowing strongly or weakly. ( . . thrusting out and éxtending the voice until it reaches its greatest fullness ( . it is therefore advisable to execute the `son enflé' with circumspection: Reflecting on the difference between (.. Quantz adds. despite the resemblance between these instruments.. the rule which we have given (1) must be applied here. ) the transverse flute and the recorder. (Quantz) Quantz. Couperin) A. it must first be sounded softly (. then. by prolonging the voice without any wavering whatsoever. In this way the sound will always be in tune with the accompanying instruments. moreover: Piano and forte must never be exaggerated..42 SON ENFLÉ (Messa di voce) Inflated sound (`son enflé') and threaded sound (`son filé'): `Inflated sound' is the opposite of `threaded sound' which Montéclair defines as follows: 'Threaded sound' is executed on a note of long duration. strengthen the bow mid-way through the value of the note on which the sign is found. after which one starts to breathe out—quietly. The voice should be. the transition from one to the other should be made imperceptibly: (1) Quantz here refers to the technique of embouchure on the transverse flute which makes it possible to maintain correct intonation when the dynamic level varies. nor must instruments be forced beyond what their nature allows: for that is exceedingly disagreeable to the car.. as smooth as a mirror throughout the entire duration of the note. Here are some comments referring to the `son enflé' taken from composers of the 18th century: How to inflate a sound: .To inflate a sound well.. where it was not possible (2) (apart from the clavichord and the bowed harpsichord). On the recorder. `inflated sound' arises from the vocal procedure which consists in attacking the sound softly.732 .. each requires to be treated in its own particular way. however—and to increase the volume of sound until half-way through the note. ) But in order that the sound should neither rise nor fall in pitch as it is being reinforced or weakened (a defect which might arise from the nature of the flute). ). .

the five notes which serve to make it are taken in a single breath ( . Sonatas for solo violin and violoncello with harpsichord. and move on to the following note slightly more softly. if the speed allows it. See also on pp.. . . ) the tongue should begin ports-de-voix softly. Gruppetto.-A.43 Prelude Grave e affettuoso i Ply f ^ * (J. ) After having paused on the stressed note. The turn can also be the termination of a trill.. Desplanes. 46. 1712) Where to inflate the sound Long notes should be sustained in a manner distinguished by swelling and diminishing the strength of the tone. But if a number of notes follow one another. make them swell. and the speed does not allow one to swell each note's sound. one could still increase or lessen the force of breathing during these notes in such a way that some notes will be louder and others softer.. p. (Quantz) N. the throat (`gosier') must make its turn by moving lightly from the first note to the fifth.B. ) To execute it well. Double cadence) The turn is indicated by the sign 419 . . And this change in the strength of the sound should be made from the chest. A. should have its own piano and forte. a quaver or a semiquaver.25. (. 59. 38-39 the example and the quotation from David concerning the `son enflé' which accompanies a port-de-voix. 1111' n^ o (Montéclair) N. whether a crotchet. also the 'Messa di voce' on the first note of a Fermata. as far as speed allows. TOUR DE GOSIER (Turn.L. Doublé. Circolo mezzo. See p. ) each note.. by exhaling.732 . (. making a kind of very sudden shake on the second small note (o): r .. that is to say.mm/ i/ P P ar7mt Lawssiissdmormi ^i =^.B. the voice must emphasize the strong note (M) where the sign cv appears (.

Cadence.^.. —The termination is preceded by a `point d'arrêt' (a rest or a pause on the principal note). it may start on the note below the main note of the trill. Couperin) This is the general rule. (Quantz) — It always starts on the beat and generally on the note above (except when it is preceded by a port-de-voix from below). tr.^_ v! .._ 44 When a slur precedes the turn (`doublé').^^^ ^..25. or long. Here we will deal with the usual.. This is the preparation note. The latter sign (+). mordent.-. —This termination is always rapid. . then the first note of that turn should not be reiterated: eka s . •. the speed of the strokes will increase. chief among which were `tremblement' (shake). probably derived from t. etc. `flattement'.. 37.. _. For the short trill (`martellement'.. what we call the trill (derived from the Italian 'Trillo') was given various names. `battement'). However. but it may equally well mean a different embellishment of the performer's choosing (mordent. The trill can be illustrated roughly as follows: preparation note ^ strokes 10111•71111 ^ r e^ • e7 I7 'point ^ d árret mï^r 17 r1 iii^N ^^^^^ ^^^r-^ s 111s11s111s The beginning of the trill (preparation note) With which note should one begin a trill? The preparation note.).. _ ^ — r ^'-F• v .' _. according to the requirements of the mode and the note from which the shake originates. `cadence' and `battement'.L. (F. Battement) In 17th. . depending on the note that precedes the trill. The most frequent are t. see under 'Pined' on p. Rules for the trill The trill obeys the following general rules: — A shake should occupy only the space of a tone or a semitone. . t ri ll. often indicates a trill. gruppetto. — If the duration of the preparation note permits.732 . which should be formed on the note above the principal note.^^ (Marpurg) TRILL (Shake. Signs for the trill These are numerous and their interpretation often varies from one composer to another. +. :. mr Tr —.and 18th-century France. Every shake begins with a A.

. It would be rather difficult to indicate precisely the correct speed of a good shake. If the place in which one plays is large and reverberant.1•1111 ^ ^ C^ ^^ •. and end it (the trill) as fast as possible... . i:ti:^^_L:. and that for half the value of the note.. it is a small place or a room hung with tapestries.//.IIIN IM. however. and consequently eight notes: ^s In fast.. strike progressively faster while swelling the sound... but in spirited pieces they must be played faster ( . and then humming (trilling) for the other half of this duration: becomes ^^.MINI (Choquel) Choquel's advice is. during the space of a pulse ( = 80). (F. rigidly schematic. :.L.. I would imagine. which should always be perfectly perceptible.. a rapid shake will be more suitable than a slow one. This must be regarded merely as a simplification of notation: Although the strokes are shown equal in the table of embellishments in my first book. ) In sad pieces the shakes are played slowly.. that the speed of a long shake in preparation for the end of a piece would be neither too fast nor too slow if. One should adjust not only to the place in which one is playing. . ^ :^t:"^ . (Van der Hagen) Quantz: One does not have to play every shake at the same speed. (Quantz) A.45 port-de-voix which is in front of the note and is taken either from above or below.r•. (Quantz) Duration of the preparation note The preparation note of a shake should be longer or shorter in proportion to the value of the note on which the shake is made. it underlines the importance of the preparation note.: a ' .. Beyond that one must be able to distinguish what kind of piece one is playing ( .^IME. which is a meritorious achievement on any instrument. The strokes In tables of embellishments of the period.732 . (Loulié) One should mark it (the trill) by leaning on the note which immediately precedes that which carries the trill. .. '. However. . . a somewhat slow shake will make a better effect than a fast one (. . where the listeners are quite close.. one must begin by moving the fingers very slowly. Couperin) To succeed in making a good trill... . they should nonetheless begin more slowly than they end: but this gradation should be imperceptible.. strokes in trills are most often represented as equal. . the finger made hardly more than four movements.25. ).+ rr. of course. lively pieces the short shakes can be a little faster. .. and one can then lift the finger once or twice more (hence making two or four more notes) during the time of a pulse. . . .. but also to the piece itself that is to be performed. ) If. .::+. . on the other hand.

which merely represents a systematic way of notating it. (F. • .^^. . but when Ex.-J.2 Ex.25. 1 and 2).. are explicit in this respect. :. whatever the speed of the piece in which it appears (the note which follows the dot should always he extremel y short. (N. the note carrying the trill). I. Lebèguc. The terminations in the above examples by Montéclair and Hotteterre. but it is always greater than that generally indicated.732 G . the strokes are interrupted on the principal (i. but rather for tempi to be observed very precisely.) The termination Sometimes one ends the shake with a fall (`chûte ).HOTTETERRE: Prelude tion. ^ .^ J^J^J^^ • .3 only the principal note itself is given ir (ex.^ ^^1^ ^^I both a port-de-voix and an after-stroke. and sometimes with a turn: stroke fall turn (Montéclair) This turn is called `after-stroke' by Quantz: The ending of each shake consists of two little notes which follow the (principal) note of the shake and which are added at the same speed (as the strokes). In those days. 3) one should assume there will be ¡ ^'. Couperin) (See the first example under `Trill'.e. it was called the `point d'arrét' (halting point). 1676) A. may pass over them. In German they are given a name meaning 'after-stroke' (ex.^^. because otherwise the shake would be neither complete nor brilliant enough: ^^.•^^ ^^^^^ ^^/ ^^ \w^^ MMrMM • ^^1 { NI AW. 1 Ex. just as in the example opposite by Rousseau. The termination of the trill is always rapid.. (pause) The length of the pause is included in the value of the trilled note: The strokes and the note where one stops should both be included in the value of the essential note (i. This rapidity can vary according to the character of the piece.^/ sounding Those who find it awkward to make certain shakes. J. p. not wishing their hands to be constrained in any way. lower) note of the trill in a sort of pause. 1). ROUSSEAU: ari r^^.L.46 The `point d' arrêt' (pause) ^ Just before the termina. Quantz). where they appear too difficult to play.e. First organ book.MU. Sometimes these two little notes are written out (ex.44.

1761) TWO EXAMPLES OF PIECES WITH GRACE NOTES ADDED BY THEIR COMPOSERS C. 'rocking' must be preceded by a messa di voce ('inflated sound'). It is known that in the 17th century. etc.. The vibrato seems to take its origin from the rocking motion of the finger on the string of a viol or lute or on a clavichord key. It appears to have been particularly highly valued in Poland.wr ^ RIM UM VANNES !I. .. I.^ . .^^^^^^•^+ M. Concerning the tremolo.1.. which lends a great deal to the melody when used appropriately.. ) It is not possible to represent it in notation. ^ ^^^^í^iu^^^áYi á ^ / . in fact. when the note is a long one ( . ^ MI /MI 1alM1111 ^^^ i i II (1) See also p./_^. whatever the metre ( . 36. Tartini writes: This embellishment (tremolo. MIMI= s aJMIlli. in Italian 'tremolo'. De Lusse writes: There is yet another kind of flexible shake which the Italians call 'tremolo'. ) This embellishment produces a very good effect on the final note of a musical phrase. (L'Art de la flûte traversière.^.^. (1636) Marpurg adds: 'Rocking'. A..~ZIP71 OMNI NBLIINIMrMINIIIII> /9M !t/1•^i^T^^^^&M .. ).-25. with the difference that the repetition is not made by fresh articulations (.. `broken glass') ( 1 ).111111=11111..minor-Irmo. since in 1545 Agricola recommended flautists to use it in imitation of the Polish viol players.732 .f l>• WI • MIIMi. ) It also makes an extremely good effect on the long notes of any melody at all. It is an imitation of the Tremulant organ stop ( .41s1111Js1 1•1•5. WIWI IMO •LANIM1 01st:TEMIMINNW _ ow JIM/ S..^J^^s •I t=^^ • _ • ww NW 0 11M1 a:i^• ^• •.r 11 IMO 1MIN11•r•ta . obligatory embellishment.MTE>•NIIIMIs1111111•111WaMINMI1 . In former times. .. hu. or `tremblement' in French) is never used on half-bodied sounds (`threaded sounds') (. is nothing other than the repetition of a note on the same pitch. .. hu...47 VIBRATO Today vibrato has become an almost systematic. .. the finger should be rapidly rocked on the fingerboard.if 11•111•110M1ss•11r1IIMINIIPUINIMMI rWO= 1•1111a-s111111t• ONOMINI ANNIMvirs IMMIMIN =NMI 1•t. DIEUPART: Overture (c1710) • .s11t VIM ^^Y^^^ I^Y I^ I ^M^^y^^ ^ ^Y . It is made simply by an active movement of the lungs breathing out these syllables: Hu.... French lutenists and viol players termed this effect the 'verre cassé' (lit.1•js ^•^ IMO/ ^^ ^^^ AINNIIMMINN MN NSW NW Mw I . especially among string players. m =cm . this oscillation of the sound was very diversified and was consciously used as an embellishment. ) On a long note. • ^^ .[. hu. Mersenne puts it precisely: Whilst the bow is in motion on the strings.

.WM 111•111••s •• MIMI MUM M•11•1111•111.f 17/11 s.. One may add to these pieces embellishments which it was not customary to notate. _^^.. de BOISMORTIER (Six suites of pieces for the transverse flute. A. B. t^ r^M-//UNIMII =NI IN •11111111 mar I •rs• I•• =al s 1=IMIMI•10•1••ss•111M•r IMI MINN a sI•NIMI s IMO=1•a -•••11111111111111 N.A•••17 '-s•s .11••.1•1/M•11•1111•11INMAIi\f RUE ^ ^••••- .732 ..•^^^^ a^^^ M sLL^ I.Iis•• s .s IMMINI 1•MMIII . 1731) These pieces are embellished with all their grace notes: Courante • . etc. _ •MOMINIIIW7 1 0/ ^ _^_7^^^__^^^^^_^. such as `threaded' and `inflated' sound. B. 'flattements'.L.^^^^^ mordent (lower) double 'cadence' shake with mordent a.11111^^ •1•7•Ir MINIM •• WNW r•••••s•••/^^^^^L^1•11s1 J11•• •• IIM•1•11rNMI MOE I= MI IN••s l••••t1 ARUM.. vibrato.s1•1 AM:7 I ICII•E-1111111.11111/ SS L••sIMP fall port-de -voix and mordent J..M.7^ _r_^^^^s^ ^^^ ^ _ ^I -..ii/^^^^..25.« Nrs11111. ^ .Extract from Dieupart's table of grace notes: Explanation of signs shake .•110r . . Amme Y MPì=1NY M.

Rousseau defines variations thus: Under this name one designates every manner of decorating and varying an air. Ornaments are therefore the variations added (by the composer or the performer) to the melodic line. called the `simple'. 33. which is a sort of embellishment of the melody. which is how we have described the little discretionary notes. of which Loulié gives the following definitions: Passages' are many little sounds that are interwoven amongst the simple grace notes. . whether by diminution or by 'passages' or other embellishments to adorn and embroider it. Examples of `passages' or doubles (Montéclair): 'simple' 'passages' or variants Examples of diminution (Montéclair): 'simple' 'diminished' r lr r n-7 A. However much one multiplies and crams the variations. î _? . consists of several measured notes put in place of a single one.49 ORNAMENTS Let us recall (1) that by ornaments we are here referring to variations and embellishments designed to diversify and decorate the bare bones of the musical text. The word variations encompasses the terms doubles. Diminution. and at the same time the character of each variation must be marked by differences which sustain the attention and prevent boredom. it must always be possible in the midst of these decorations to recognize the heart of the air.732 -F3•77:-F-- (1) See the chapter on Grace Notes. thus distinguishing them from grace notes. These 'passages' are commonly called doubles (va ri ants). diminutions and passages. appoggiaturas. etc. p.L.25. trills.

" ^ ^itfa^ ...nme<•frfif al' 1• rip) f/fifafsffifaifflf/lutiffur I... fitness of expression.^^^^w ^^uut ^a^/^^^^^^rr i/'r ^V•—^ S. For greater clarity we have here set them out vertically under the theme of the minuet: Minuet (J.m:ai. above all. lack of affectation and.. noble simplicity to the absurdity of doubles and irregular kinds of music ( . From this 4th book. and. Leclair. the second in sixteenth notes. such as appoggiaturas.r /1/11•15 MP" a^Vfa al . with respect to the manner in which it must be played and decorated.1111i.L.s•s•111f12 ^ (Double 2) WM: araa•l•11•ifi11M MO I aaali tt//1.1111s.--.. etc. turns. 4th Book of Sonatas for the Violin. M.. 1738).•11111•111a•iJ•1• L// /11111/al•A111M1aaaalitaa/ia.t /111171111aal1•11aiIIMIiWa • u•110•lANIia• LAM •1111111•111MfY •/S AV^M1111 s r11 ILA fa1i1•i •^•^a•^ r1111111111. firstl y according to French taste.•i/ s ai1•i•ia•11 s11rdEll ••./••11s1111P11111•1111=1.. ) preferred melody (.-ar I Mims mama NMI r a . lastly. (Montéclair) If the French musician uses ornaments. single and double shakes." = a^i \V r<^^ a ^ •^ ^i^ir•^^^^ fff/fa^ •as arT••r^iilrt=ai^a7tl •^ u AIM raL. his `good taste' persuades him to do so with discretion and poise (later we shall see examples of Italian `extravagance'): An important point.MEN r^^^rir^rf s ^^^.. 49. mordents.•arif M ts • sanfif = s f ai "Sa111111 s1=i•O1S =YIP' ^i (1) One can consider the Adagio in two ways.4/1/1. The first manner calls for a clear and sustained expression throughout the melod y.. LECLAIR) 1738 Allegro non troppo .. the first in triplets.. is to avoid this confusion of notes..••••"---s I. and a style always combined with the essential grace notes.11111MWMII/ -/ /\ -.^fifa^^ffafafa/r^^^i -^ ^ M •^ i•^ I . and one which cannot be stressed enough.. which are added to melodic and expressive pieces and which only serve to disfigure them.11i JrNIIIIMMI a IIIIII•t __fi1Mt♦ ai111•ai1MINIIMI MOM I.ew•afÌ/' v7i /r •w1lA1fafl111M1iii/. (Quantz) A.* MSS s ^ t♦ Omfiss rffit♦=eamt•fi.aatf^^^^ •^^•/^ r• l3tsi^ri'm (Double 1) or L. aWi4I1•1J LI'1/V'l. nor a lot of arbitrary grace notes.m.. . ) Passages are arbitrary..50 FRENCH ORNAMENTATION The French musician of the 17th and 18th centuries was inclined to make more use of grace notes than of ornamentation such as we have defined it on p. (1) The incomparable Lulli (. and everyone can play them more or less to taste and inclination. ).^ ^^^^ =11J MNP.^^__^^ ^J^_ BMW ^ ft MOW= AO.. short trills. in contrast to his German. his Italian neighbours.111•<.afaat MINf•i ft111 r 1M1 Am•-. secondl y according to that of the Italians. here is the beginning of a Minuet which Leclair follows with two successive doubles (on the sanie bass).11•1111al .. but in addition there must be no extensive passage-work. (J. .4111•1111 SWIM L :. M. finger vibrato.fi^ : ^^^ s i ^J = ^ MEN Li^ 7 s '/:' ^^ ^^ ^>... ar 1111.a•aff>♦ ^ira/ i^•alai^^a^iJaif♦•i BMW /7J^^I♦ Nfif. r ^^ ft♦ s^>i ^r 3 -.6^11•a/ \r ^ ^a/"..fi•fi IIIIIIaAafINILt AMP' --• r ^ f•s7f^^ar^ aia^in•f /7 •T^•^•s ai•••arai•i•ralaft'a...= afa•i1.. 25-732 .aJ..

BLAVET) 1732 = ss ^-. the first of one's added notes must usually be the same as that of the simple form. whatever its value. unless one is sure of making them better still ( . care must always be taken in variations that the principal notes on which these variations are based are not obscured...-M-ENIM--MNI– \V.^^^•^-^^-!' -r1111 _ I7I a•. melodies which are already well written and which already have enough grace notes must not be varied.•s-I •rC•. One can also choose another note in harmony with the bass. It is in this respect that the greatest abuses are perpetrated.L.t •'• u L•s••— scL/rl-sorJ---rms-am-arJIaI-1=1. whether greater or smaller than a crotchet./ r'7••^-^ ^^^^= ^^^^^ MINIM I.. .25.7 . ). It is not enough to play a long succession of quick notes (.. especially outside France..732 sf 4. Variations should only be made when the unadorned melody has already been heard (. in the main they wish also to follow their own taste.. ). is not content to play solely the essential grace notes. this is why I would advise against becoming too involved in variations instead of rather applying oneself to playing a simple melody in a noble.i 1t Bah •s ONS–wrM •-/-•1am-rI • ••••• . A. ). we have set out the simple form above the ornamented one): Adagio (M. W--IIII---1J =I -1111Ms-s11MI Mr MVO --mmll GERMAN ORNAMENTATION Amongst the numerous precepts given by Quantz.--.. and seek to perform the melody with different arbitrary variations ( ..^–•^^7 l. appropriate and clean manner.^..limi arm n a-a. . . and the same must be done for every variety of note. provided that the principal note is heard again immediately afterwards ( . ) In general...51 Here is an example from Michel Blavet of the ornameï iation of a phrase upon its being immediately repeated (as before... let us cite the following: Almost every person who applies himself to the art of music. When variations are made on crotchets. ) Likewise.

•PW rr•••••t• ^•` —•^— I VW .^-zs^'a _ ^ . are two examples of ornamentation.^ e^ . t•`.i=7^ JON= v•-rr•N^r ^•^I a•^•.. the first more specifically French (mainly grace notes).. ^^ r . J 1J^^r••r^\t^ r as ^ ^ t• •"/:.•.111.7 .-on^imeMamoso•verr ama14 0. I /` . 52 QUANTZ: different ways of varying a single phrase: 7x i "NV 1110111ININP7 <117:011/71 •/ -MINN _^ ^ ^t.imo -r.^ ^áe Lr^^1r_r" .I7 ^--^^^^ .1.25._r ^`i/..•r^ ® . WNW _^ rl AMMO IMMUNE ^^^^^ IMI )l1111 ^ -.^^ii^^^ r•• rt•tr •t._ ^: • ^^^ <t!•t•^I^t• I.1=1 •^ • ^•^^^=t•t•^^^^^-• •.^^. ^ •í • i ^^••^r• r•ttr^ ION r.^ + 1)+ /' -i-^.a ^^^ ^^^r •a•.<tt•^^t•^ ^ w / t•t♦<I --.._ . rt r• Jt••M . ^sil .MOM an^ ^ ^I ^ ^r<rl ^.^r^-•t• • ^ ^+^ . and Couperin les goûts réunis' (conjoined tastes).^_ ^^ -^r^r/r^o d) .4^-r^-rrrrrr-r^rrllL-_==.4/f ^^^^^^^^ =M r ^ ^_ 11111111::: .ìes. P..i.. _ (1) Resulting in what Quantz called 'style mêlé' (mixed style).r• rJ.L. mt .s ^^ m _ Ì .11111t• •411111111t• 10=1•111•1•12ts t-•I^O•r^l^^r^t<t^^^r^^^ • ^ii ^. . IMI IM í lV•^t♦ rim mil r -_/' _ w-^-J+M-_)^--•_-)_+_^^/r••+•..4/•s/=11111/Ir =It i^C: s^i/„.1=1 1r^t•-It /.11.^r^~••r • ^ ^•rrrr•rr•..^r. 4.= ID = r ^t ^ r ^r r ♦ ^ris•r•a^^-rrrrs t• • ): mow •' r.r^ _ \^'Ir7^7M / '^»1 •.Ai &a r•-.•^.IIMrt•.t•^rrrr.41M. TELEMANN) 1732 /MOM ^./ 8 íiií •^ ^ r ii^ 7^^ ^^ ^ av.ïi r^ ^^ /1111.r• ^^^ ^r ear ^ ^^^ . (1) Here. from Telemann.r• \\Ì OM MIN /.AMNI r^^t••^r^^ ..^ ^^t•t• •• LJ1IM•I<!t•rrtl.^r/ •/ :vta_^ =r•^ r•rrr•-r)rrt• t^ ^^^-!.r••.732 } • ^ l^ ^•: :.t•t_t• In the matter of ornamentation Germany underwent French and Italian influen.L•^ ^ ^^^ ^ • MIN INN r•W ^ NW 11..rA^^! 1=i . 111==1.r V 9 l >• .^ ^ ^ ^=ó^ r i^ = .----.—- — _^ -_ ^ ..1.. •rrrr•^ r^^ u.•r ` .__ .1111t<r•• sMININLrI AIM Ial111. A.n^r-••r-rrrr•mr+c•ca..)/ r.... .•t<^^a•^ ^i ^•^^ ^^oi•4r^i i=ii^á ^^i ^ i •^i ^^^ 1\•.. • ^^^ t/^ min)f tL7^ r.PMMIMa. the second more Italian in the style of its ornaments: Example 1 Sicilienne (G.^Irri•'rr rrsrr^r^ 1..40 J110•11 srr.^ ^t._ t••tr•t•) asl^= / rr•^• r•r/\J•^ ^t ^s ..It•t• 'r^-^ t• _t•iiit•_Ÿtrrt•t•^ .SS is ^s^ w ^=isss• ^^. ^•^...r<f/^ . Al 411.d<s 411•111al1'».^•: ^• r• .^•.Art. /P'".!111111111•V _ ^ NW _ ^_: ^^ . .I M ^ ^.s1r•r.r•^r^1^n^rr ^I^.a^rrr.v n+w+ r __ í/t••I•••L•s<tt•r!•t♦^•1^.11^ NIP" rr/ `^ rr/.a^ ^^^^^ •^ .a•-...-rr.^ ^^r^ . `' ^ .rrr.//1sP'77•11.I].r•.

1•NM -EINS =II MMMMMM71111M^-ANNIENIMAINIEN MMMIMMM MM1=11=. .= = =MEIN= =111/41sINNI lt....•t]M•MVJ-... _ ^ .MMMMI..ME1!-7i.IM7MM MM—ll .1MMEM/ !A M-117311111s 1 1 1 1 J. J.MiI.6IMi /II..BIM MMMMr MINI= -II.^^MM NO IN MI.•{MNIS.I MS 7MINN M=J.M. " MI' ./ /W7^".^^^^ .01•111MINa.^I^IMt/ ./'M^t M rf .MMM MIN MMMI .^^ISI0../ JI.. _^MMI ^ SI _ ^— .MNI ^.' • o.M -MM.M^ MMM •MEMM I IME MIM .. iIME• MMMM_IMMMMM -^ • Emir ...^.I711 —/I M OEM MM EMI MMM7t l./M1IMMMMMNMI.^^. M MM/.^. 1J-RMMMM1111•111. 7JMM=^MMIMMI-I•IIMM1-MMI-IMM JMM IM MOVIE= EMMA EE I 7lM-IM0MMMM/•. ..1MS.•r • M I'1•I WS.M1M-MI-r• 16./ .7f ^^ ^ /' ^a^M. •^^-. o^ ...iM _...sMI.._ -MI.0 J716 =7 M^1// -IMMI I •..J ! 1^N/.M MiMM• s M ^MMyIMMMMMMM M--M . •11111 M MN.IMMM ¡roam =SIM II NI MIIMIMMMIMMIIMMEMEINISnMr7r 1r111MM..M.17.-7-IsI I I JMI MO MMM-I 1..f ILMIY^MM^.L.MIM .• I_ W•I7^7 w^. Bach (harpsichord) ...t.IN= MIMM-MMIME= ..I • ^M.CM= .=NM IME= MMI7 -MMI IMM-1111111M^7 17i.^^MI^..JMMM MI s ^_ \•I MMM.^ -• ^M^M .•=1=NI MS= MM-MINIMNIS -* _ =.732 .1 a ^-III-II. ss•I4JMMEI-M-II a • 1^MM^_M _MM` MMMMMMMr-^MN-MMM--^-MMSuMMM^ —I—I—i . S.0 M^^. ..W.J1>a 7M. ^MM INS -M.M-MCMMMMI-M-M-I^MM-MIII^I MM-1 .• MM/M s' MS/-Y^. .MM=ME l.M— I -••=1• M-MENIP ^ (^) ^^^i I• ••1 I= 1 . I .I.4sI .IJI /•.MMMMMMM-. M M. Bach has ornamented (for the harpsichord) a theme taken from tarcello..0MMM IMI-. s-M.MM-MI••=M.^ M-MM^-IM^M-MMM=1..M-=MN! •Ali iM--MMM-M MMIM MSS INN M ME.a.MIEN Im.-^MMMM -^MM MI-. I.611-11.. 1 1 1 IMMf. -••••••.MIMMMMMMMMM .^.25..!•YrLr. It will be especially noted how Bach varies his ornamentation at different repetitions of the same motifs: Adagio (MARCELLO-BACH) Alessandro Marcello (1684-1750) (oboe) I soy ^ - M^^^^MIMMMI. Min I MIR MIN MON= -MMMM^ I .Irmer7 -. —II ^r^_ tMM f^ ^ ^ — ^^^ • • MEMO MIN ^ • -.-../ Ml EINMPIIIMIIIIIIIIIIMM-MMr/ 1 /7. 1 MI ^ M.Jtt I 1T Man= =..61111111s-ME NOMIP711I/t-I / .^^ ••11M../ AlMr1 I.i.I^I/_lE1MM MI MI. .53 Example 2 Adagio (G. 1 .t7=/..r 7s MM. Jr 1 rw I JJMIM AI 1M J1 rs rvsMMMI•s .-I M MMMM I••• M.J.^M-c>r-^MMM/ \.♦1=1=11 I ININIMPsII s MMMM.1%/I IIIJ•IMEM=. -IMM -IME1111 In the example below. / ..•1111111 .•111I111=i1J1Ns-III IMO ENS =NM..MI^ ^t^^s^ J.aMM. M^..^^J DYA 1 IN ^ .^^. . NM I= _ ^MM^ • MI. . TELEMANN) 1732 I•M.I -MI-MrMI WNW =..I7 N_.JI /MV/JM^MIM=^I.JMM ..E^. /.I 7 M M MM ^I M^ J----M-^ I.MI M1^^MIM^-MI M^^-^ ^.^/ J..4 • IZa .• 1J61Mr7f II -.^ ^ . P./11-IaMrM ^—s -M ISM INI ill =FM -MM.I7<7 -AND -.IIMJMJM MEIN M.ls...61s11Yi41..MEM-M EMI MM^MMI s A..t I.M!•.^MM M...IIIIIIMr111111111I I --M..MJ MMIIIM/TM1/gat I'1 II /JMM.^^^^ .^ ^ •••••-10•E.A.1 l»i^r. + ^/MMEINSI! M— MMME IEIMMr7MMM.=^ .I/..MYMIMMIMMMM.S.M. —`M M-I^I I sos-1M.7I•.IIM-MMMJM I._ MMN.MMMMM^.MM-.._M - M tM./.I..^V _ ^ . .._MI MM-M..1••st^•••'".^ >_.• Jai/ /.. .i.61M I .MMYIaI.

—. . ^i.•^'— ..•._rr= ---...•_... ^ ..J J •111•1•11-8•11 a :-.^.^mJ— —rLS.^•a^•^•s•.. 1^ 1. • ^^YY m—a['IL .- A.\S•^ ^^^^•^^^• _ ^^^^^^^^^^D^^^ .1 La/ ^ ••a• M . ..M. —^^^ •-.!.^.J aV..-.".../ 1 aI— ^ mar INN •r i^--^ ^^..—.^ r—•..•.• ...•• ^..^^^^—a-at^^ ^ r •^^•^^ ^. ^ •^ •a^^—•a^ / ..^ 3 :^a /J!17 rt ^..._•111•./1/~/5/41>—aa.•1 a../.^•1^ 1 ^^^!^' -•-^• ^ ••s••••s+•• ' ' IIIIrir .. 401.... >. .^ -^^..-.__•^^__^_.Il.^^ .....••at ^.0 ^•' .^.......11/211111•1111•MB I:—:'^•^ .^...^••I. ^^. .. ••7^a1a1/ •.Jat ••..^^A^1••.••7^ •••a. WWI MUM -..^=r.^^ a... Ism WI 11111M.^I.^.—^..^•i^..//// UMW ^•1.^. f J^1M .— _^^.•^.Ar^ tit .^^^^ 0 s•••s•••••••.^s . 1 ii/•••—••r••I— fii AlIM11^a•1••r .al—_•^'_•^^_s -!^.^^•r ^••^ T %1 ^\ !/r•u ' in— Min I • MO/ 1111s1•• ^: r•^ a.11•M...•••.r^.•I^.^ ^.I .WV NNW • •-^•^--..--^^•OM..1MI ••.•—^^ • s •^•0•M•• ^ ^.^^ ^.Ras --/ ^a•rr^ -I r a/^.^ >.s -.=1:11•1•1•10••••1.••^•i ^ ^ ...•••••••=11111 ^. ^----r -.r•••• ^. —^^.•. -• •11.^^a^.l^P .5..s I.O ..^ •/.•77í /r ••M a—ß...41•1 ^..732 ..r. Inn NOME •110•Y•••..01M•11 .^ • ^ . -MI MEN ^1 .:...^al-1^•--`. ^.—•^ •t^.^..^ ^^^1 ^C-..1...—..•a.m^r^—!^.. »• _-.^ W.••1111•1•211111111^.Ir•••I•11•MI ^^^ r ••••s•1 ^^ MANNI. U.25.^ 1( .I...^••^• ...^^^t'.• ••.r._.•••s••.41111111111. _ l'Or.^_ ^. II ^ M . ^----•-.-•/-a^—••..•.•^.-. U ^^.1-71 \Vs ^ { NMI •— ^ all..•^•.--1^..r ^^^• S V..0 1..a-^^1•^ ..1.s 1...^....^•.•^ ^./.+r Illa i :• ^sa^ ^ ^^•i ^ ^s^^w^ ^ í^ ú+= rI• ^^ WINNO -../ .^^^^^ —^•I a-s :i...-.—.•• _.^ L:/J1-.^^ ^.p....= /•^ .a^...^—^••^s —•^. vr•a•—^^ ^^•^^^•---nr—r^••^y-••.L..•. • smormil .54 ^• .rJJ •.^iii^i^^ -- .^. ..^^^ Nowa.^^—+.•••. ^ ^ -.wi i1. .. ^.^•/—•1•^•..•^s^ ^^—. — N•_• ^ --^-/^—^ i.^r. a / •— -'-•IIMI.^..r j^ I-r-r rrw.. .^^•^^--.a.^•.._^..A. NV ^ • ---E4/111/- - .

but one tries to find such larger ornaments as are elaborate and refined.^^ _^^^_^^^^^w^^^^r^. .s-NE =NNW NMI ^ s=r01111111 =MI =IN ^ SLAM N ^. leaving t'e player free. Knowledge (of figured bass and the art of composition) is essential in Italian music. one does not content oneself with these little French grace notes. ) One cannot deny that for a piece to make its full effect in Italian music.55 ITALIAN ORNAMENTATION Quantz: In music composed in the Italian taste. ...^^^^^ ^•^.^^r MU =Y:a^^^a^^^^^ ^'_^ W. .i.r /^^ •^^^a_^ s ^^^---^ +--r-^i-^^ ^ s--^^^^'w ^^ u . dry manner./7 r^s r r.. . ).1.. s) + ^r ^^^ I li III.^ ^_. o. _^ _.. within the limits of his capacity and judgment. the performers contribute as much as the composers. Wizen perfori p ing in the manner of the Italian taste (in playing and decorating the Adagio).^rrl/ /^^J/^^^^rRilJ^J^^^ ^^ s^1^^^^iM1^ ^.. much is left to the caprice and capacity of the player (. this is because . .of certain passages written in an extremely simple. 1 i M ^:a/ ta^^:3^sM. Here the (following) example may be taken as a model where these optional ornaments are fully written out in notation: Adagio (QUANTZ) a... to vary them repeatedly so as constantly to surprise the listener with new inventions ( . yet always consonant with the harmony..

.^{^ .rJ•^^ ^^^^A ^ ^l tL ai^—. t ^.ss•..^^ ... ^^ r SIM MIMI MM ^^. _^Ji^ r^ ^ _ -^^ ^. which is not always to the taste of the French: They (the `passages'..^. ^ ^7// 1//f lr^ sssr^^^^As^•1^^•V7^^= 1.."". moreover. This constitutes only one suggestion among some fifteen different variations offered by him.^1Ar. ^^..-' _ 7.rI.t 1^t 1^•i -^ OL1 ^ 1^^^rss ^ !^_^ I!•H ^^lr^^^^^•^ ^J.^ {{ . ^ ^r _^^i^ll^l•.s ^ .^1• ^ ^^^7`^7^•^ ^ 1^1 I•_^^• I^ ._^I^J.. he leaves it to the performer to invent others as he pleases . .m•^. ^ s^st /- - I I.r-. .^./C^{ -Jr{. ..^^ lfJ 1 l<: Js 11•^=^^=i^{^ ^ ^• ^. NIMI..41Is --_ . .56 : . when instrumentalists..^. . especially now. disfigure the nobility of simple melodies by variations which are often ridiculous.J^^^^ ^:Jr^ ^-^^•^ ^^r^^^^ ^^ 1^1/•J/ .r :^^•s ^ .^ J^^1A •.. ornaments) are practised less in vocal than in instrumental music..1.....25.rs .L. : A. . the line of which is already over-written in the first place.r^^. wanting to imitate the Italian taste.•••••s ..•Y^L^ ^-^•1^ A/. imaginative freedom and virtuosity..-_ . i11^ ^ ^^ __ -MY I ^^ If•.^^ _ r I • I Aasoritir^^ r •^=>v. •101.The Italians often decorate melodies with even greater ..• _ — .. ^^. . -../D/J/MEMO . .. (Montéclair) Here is how Tartini decorates the melody of an Adagio.732 -7. .T1^^ s •• ^.

1^r^A^^:^r^ ^ìu117 ^rr 17^^ AM". IBM 11••Il ••• •1•11•1•••1•1110 11.1/7I 1 iJ•1111MIIIIMIIMI•11•1JINI/ IM1i/11J IJILII /• MIMI 111•11•• s••1111•11••s •• s ••••••• s^^^S.^i n ••••/...1r s ^^^^^^^= =^^^•1•^ ^=^L1 i •s•1 s mown MIIM!!•IIIIIMINI MOM= `^... (+) .. IN L/ // 1 /••••s •11=11MrrL/J•11JI s•1•17ii••• s• s •••• í + + • ^^ 'I<^^u^^7.1• s ^^^7r^ ••••••1111•11MINI••1•11•11a11•1•1•111•11.^^-Unlr .^^ r7t:•••••••7111•MI1 ^:. A =Ana e t c..•111•11<1••••••111111 IN MOM MI MUM MI IN •••• NM OMNI NB ^' %MN MIN s 71•••• s ••••s••••••r1111•"• s ••••••• ..u••c1•••s••••=1 \C •41•1• MUM MINIM . TARTINI (1692-1770) Adagio ^ sì^^^ 3f^^^ ^^^ t ii ' i >r^^^^^r ^^ci i^ ^n i.L.^al^r^^^.MNI i ^ _.. EOM= •••••s•11iit•1M•11J1M•111MI•lwaf Jai ! /t..• •^^ ^ A.>t^= ^— } _ ^^^^^ le- + 1^^ Itt..^^^^ ^ ^.MIN 1=11•IIIMIM =MINI EMI •••• _ _"11111111.—sommtw.? 1•7^71•• MN ••••••1111•1•/ NAB 1i.^l^^^^ u.25.^s^^i^ =^ ^ =IMAM NE EMI ^ s•ss••••.1.y.41•• •••11•I ^I --s--41=„11111•1111A11611p11111:M_ 117••••s•1 I i /CI I' II :: 11 •.1. • r^r - imp A. us.-^..^.G. 1•^ ^^r^ J♦ ^771^^::^•^^^J^ti4Y1•^ ^i1^^— .732 á.. .11. .^^ -^ 1•••••••=1I .^^^ r ri -7011^ • I AR:VW 177 W •••11•111=1•• s •111•11•1101 •••sr115•1•s 11••rI vv.

. he stands to gain more from appropriate brevity than from tedious length (.^ r^s 1^^^^^^^1 A ^J^^^^^_^-^^ ^ prises the ear with new s inventions.y .-----.. _______ —_ ^^ ^^_ ^ ^^i ^^' \ •^ -^^ ^^:^-^^^ ^ ` s figures of different kinds: ^t pi/ :... who have been imitated by the Germans and by other nations who are intent on singing and playing in the Italian style.. there is then no better solution than to choose one of the most pleasing passages. at least until now (1759). ). and to fashion the cadenza ^ ^ from that ( . and elevate to their highest point the passions one is aiming for ( . A lively cadenza will consist of large disjoint leaps and of spirited passages with an admixture of triplets and shakes: (. ). They must contain a short repetition or imitation of the most agreeable passages found therein. Cadenzas should always partake of the principal sentiment that prevails throughout the course of a piece. (Choquel) Quantz devotes a whole chapter to the manner of performing the cadenza. r.58 THE CADENZA (improvised on a pedal-point) Here we refer to that optional ornament which. I do not know whether tastes migra change. the French have abstained ( .1•1111=1111•1 ^^^^^^^_— NM MN ISM s•••1111•1J ! .L.irrr ..rr >7..^ Therefore one must al^ I 'II MN OM MI MINI M r 41/7 AN ... It sometimes happens that other preoccupations may prevent one from inventing something new on the spot. Their greatest beauty is in that they arouse the listener to a new. and in fast pieces which are serious at the same time. Cadenzas for the voice or for a wind instrument should be such as can be completed in a single breath. and they have n-ver been used in French music.. iNI. It was only in the period roughly between 1710 and 1716 that cadenzas such as we now have.il111s MIN ways blend together . nor to confuse the one with the other.. / air NM /ta Kra_ Wear NMI r-••The more one surv:^.. ) A. ).. with a pause in the bass. ^.41111111111111 s w. Up to now. _ _ Care must be taken here not to mix the spirited with the sad in an absurd manner.. They only occur in sad.^. to wit. ^^:^ * NB •L' :r ^ ^ ^^^r^w^ w /^al. .732 . (Quantz) It is rare for pedal-points to be made in our Latin music. .. rh the Italians.. is added in the principal (solo) part at the end of a piece.. the more pleasure one gives. Cadenzas should be invented virtually on the spot. they require not so much knowledge as a lively mind. provided that they are sufficiently rich in invention. . the fifth of the key in which the piece is written. -7 MUM-NI . Here are some important extracts: It is perhaps not yet fifty years since these cadenzas became fashionable 1.. ). slow pieces. on the penultimate bass note.^.. ). However. . and the Italians excel in this sort of decoration. . A string player may make them as long as he wishes. The aim of cadenzas is to surprise the listener yet again unexpectedly at the end of the piece... ). touching admiration through something unexpected. for this reason it is sufficient to make only one cadenza in a piece ( .i..25. depending on the performer's wishes and imagination.. became fashionable ( .. and to leave a singular impression on his mind. .

1111Jr /1111711•1111111JI MOrINNINWIlf MI ^^^^..4111/ ..732 . ON ".=1111M1..a/IN/MINt11111. intermingled with distances: I should make some further comments on fermatas. over the first of which there is an arch with a dot inside it. they are much rarer./ /•111•1111171J ^^ s JM^t^ ^1^t0^^ ^^1 1111•11 Y >•MMI....^ ^ bass. but for instruments.. decreasing and increasing the strength of the sound.NNW /111s1.MO MIMI IIM MIN =MI MIMI sI MNr MINI tMOW" Vf -.111M111 . t/ MOti t 11MSL A melancholy cadenza is almost entirely made up of intervals which are very close together.t1IIMII OM^^^J•^^^^ 1J s =a^v^.= mom other keys is not permitted. and it is used to give the singers an opportunity for making an embellishment at this point (. in the Adagio of a concerto. This embellishment should consist only of such principal va Va do notes as are found in the chord of the figured ^ .rs:..25. ). The example du (opposite) may serve as a model: One may stay on the first note under the arch with the dot. for instance._.. one must have enough breath left over to complete the subsequent decoration in the same breath. (messa di voce) (1) for as long as one's breath permits.L.. any number of examples of well-wrought cadenzas would not be enough to give a complete idea.^ . forming an interval of a descending fifth.. (..t amor. at the beginning of an air.59 •^f^^.. The fermata usually consists of two notes.. ^. A... However. ..-1•111 r^^r^ EL: (ii) 41) ..7 /Jtt^_^^^t=_ t^^^^^ V•^ ^^ i^^^^ . (Quantz) (1) Messa di voce (`inflated sound'): see p..RIM I ^ ^^^^^^.^. ^^^ w r • t:11111111.... ss1111sIr >. 1J1^W s JIt^^^M^t:.IIIIMIrs 11•111s 11111111•110 EMI JIM/ tJt11•11t11•1111Ms /IN/ 1rINIII• WI MI !NW s•1•11111/ O111111 s •••••t1•11•1 ^/^ =NM /IV=.^... Sometimes they are encountered in vocal pieces.1111•1111M4W . where a pause is made ad libitum. as passing into 11101111 lMIMIMM7 ..T. they may be found. though even so.^ .. Thus it is only by paying great attention to cadenzas played by several able people that one will learn to perform good ones too.) But since it is not possible to write out cadenzas just as they should be played... ^ t^r r^!!t 1. 42.

Allegretto or Prestissimo. Presto.(Let us remember that Quantz is writing this in 1752.. 61. and these words are rendered in French (with much less precision and in a much looser sense than in Italian music) by the following: Lent (slow). a great many pieces that are at present completely ruined by an ill-chosen tempo would make a better effect and bring more honour to their composers.fin Allegretto is written and performed today. . (Rousseau) IMPORTANCE OF THE TEMPO No-one can doubt ( ) the importance of seizing upon the tempo required by each piece.L.The Various Types of Adagio and Allegro CLASSIFICATION — TEMPO — CHARACTER There are five principal modifications of tempo which.25332 Presto or Prestissimo Allegro assai (1) Allegro di molto Velocissimo Vivacissimo Vivace Poco presto etc.. Andante. 12/8 etc..B. namely one which is fast and one which is moderate (in the ratio of 2 to 1). A. of which one must distinguish those which indicate only the degree of rapidity or slowness.. what was said to be played exceedingly fast was performed almost twice as slowly as today. for each of these different tempi has two principal kinds of pulse. Quantz remarks: In the past. Con brio. etc. Vivace.. Where the words Allegro assai ( 1 ). Gustoso. observe this moderate speed in fast pieces.. Allegro and Presto. . Less slowly Andante Poco adagio Andantino Poco largo arghetto Poco lento etc. such as Agitato..) • ^ ^ G CLASSIFICATION OF TEMPO INDICATIONS ACCORDING TO MARPURG The three gradations of slow tempo are: Very slowly Adagio assai ( 1 ) Adagio di molto Slowly Adagio Largo Lento etc. If. or the major errors that can be committed in this regard. are expressed by the words Largo. Thus the great number of fast notes formerly found in instrumental pieces by German composers were much more difficult and perilous in appearance than they proved in performance. ^< .. The French of today still. Each of these degrees is further modified and subdivided into others. The three gradations of fast tempo are: Very fast Fast Allegro Veloce Less fast Allegretto Poco Allegro Poco vivace Poco veloce Allegro ma non troppo (non tanto. depending on whether there are sixteenth notes or eighth notes in bars of 2/4. C.Pt •.. Quantz goes on to say: It must be observed that above all else it is necessar y to give as much consideration to the word written at the beginning of a piece to indicate the tempo as to the quickest notes that make up the (rapid) passagework. etc. (1) See note (2) on p. etc. and those which additionally indicate the character and expression of the Air. Gracieux (graceful). N. the music was written in the same manner and played barely faster than . Gai (spirited) and Vite (fast).-. 3/4. etc. 1 .. non presto) etc. were marked. Quantz suggests a pulse beat (at 80 to the minute) as a standard which could se rv e to give one an idea of each tempo in question. Adagio. (Quantz) To do this. etc. . then. Modéré (moderate). such as Larghetto. Andantino. and thirty-second notes or sixteenth notes in bars of 3/8. 6/8. Furioso. for the most part.. there were certain rules about this and they were to be observed as they ought to be. 9 Largo} ( i ) or di molto.. Concerning rapid tempi. ranging from slow to fast..

that is to say: 2/4 J = 120 or ( J = 120 etc. Mesto J=40 CJ = 40 Adagio cantabile Adagio spiritoso Arioso Larghetto Soave ¢J=80 CJ=80 Allegretto Allegro ma non Allegro ma non Allegro ma non presto etc. = 107 (Presto) when the speed is extremely fast and there are only 6 quick notes (sixteenth notes) to the bar (Arioso) (the metronomic signs for all these metres refer to the Allegro tempo) (1) Note that this tempo is the same as that indicated by Engramelle for an Allegro of twenty bars in duple time. J = 40 Oh= 40 Adagio assai 12) Adagio pesante Lento Largo assai 121 Grave etc. (2) According to Brossard. Quantz.L. = 80 when the speed is extremely fast and there are only 6 quick notes (eighth notes) to the bar 3/8 J1 = 80 3/8 J. = 160 when these metres are taken fast (Alla 12/8 J1 = 160 siciliana) 12/8 J. which is its usual sense. quick notes (eighth notes) to the bar J. Affettuoso Pomposo 4/8_(2/4) J = 160 when these metres are taken fast 6/8 J. the adverb 'assai' for some means 'a great deal' and for others means that the metre and the tempo should be in no way exaggerated. = 160 when this metre contains no semiquavers =40 when the bass moves in quavers J = 160 when there are semiquavers and quaver triplets 3/4 J = 40 (Adagio assai. here takes 'assai' to mean 'a great deal'. as we can see. .25.bar 3/8 J. Lento and Mesto if the bass only moves in crotchets 3/4 (Adagio cantabile) =80 if the bass only moves in crotchets and the melody is arioso rather than sad 314 3/4 J• = 107 (Presto) when the speed is extremely fast and there are only 6–. = 80 when the speed is extremely fast and there are only 6 quick notes (sixteenth notes) to the .732 . but should remain within a prudently moderate slow or fast speed depending on the different characteristics that have to be expressed. Dolce Poco andante Maestoso Alla siciliana etc. which should be performed in twenty seconds. troppo tanto CJ= 120(1) Allegro Poco allegro Vivace 4a=160CJ =160 Alleg ro assai (2) Allegro di molto Presto etc.61 CLASSIFICATION OF TEMPO INDICATIONS WITH THEIR METRONOMIC VALUES ACCORDING TO QUANTZ 4. A.

though with vivid and well-marked expression agreeable. frenzy or swiftness. that is to say the metre must be hurried along or its beati made extremely short. vivacity. etc. means. .L. This normally indicates liveliness. consequently almost invariably slowly and drawing out the metre a little lovingly. playful.732 ^a . blithely. graceful etc. spirit. and consequently almost invariably slowly means smoothly. way always means lively and really animated. etc. sedately. but in a graceful. that all the notes must be made equal and the sounds well separated Allegretto Allegro diminutive of Allegro. emphatic manner. pompous. Presto Prestissimo Arioso Dolce Maestoso Soave Légèrement (lightly) means in the saine tempo as if one were singing an Air means that the voice must be made tender and the melody rendered in the softest. j as an adverb to show that one must sing or play with fire. comfortably. most graceful manner possible means in a majestic. spiritedly A. as if broadening the metre and emphasizing main beats that are often unequal Larghetto Crave Adagio Affettuoso (or affetto) Andantino means that one must beat time and sing and play gravely. . sweet. pretty. brisk. pace. and consequently gravely and slowly. animated. especially for the continuo bass. very often quick and nimble but also sometimes at a moderate speed. to walk with even paces. with majesty. etc. or at a bold.62 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SÉBASTIEN DE BROSSARD Largo means extremely slowly. -25. bordering on the lively and animated Vivace Italian adjective often taken ( . It roughly the same as Allegro means fast. means a little spirited. without hurrying. etc. Often it also means to sing or play quickly. etc. tenderly etc. rapture. and consequently almost invariably slowly Andante from the verb andare': to go. in a leisurely way.

t..`7^ 'l'-`: w 4. ' ^^ •\ [Ili L J F' ^^i /s . and an affectionate and sweet expression in the character of the melody the metre slightly less spirited (in relation to Andante): it should be particularly noted that the diminutive Larghetto has quite the opposite meaning (in relation to Largo) present participle of the Italian verb andare'. ir : ^`''= 11'^ . . the most lively of all after Presto. the beats and the metre drawn out. In French: 'Vif. ^ L -= ^ ^ III— ^ . 1 iM i d ^ ^i ^ . 1 11^.s c iii ^ i ii` ` ^. s t ^^^i.' to go. `ia1 i rr ^ ^ .r . ^ zs till ^..) indicates a style of melody that is sustained. and it is also the indication for a spirited tempo.1 1. 7. ^.41i1^ ` If^ 't J 1.1. • s1 _^ñ ^ ^^^ ^is . i.-.: ^ ^` ^^'I.1I ^ _::^ ^ • 1 n!!! ^ i ^ loi s ^a^ .^ ^ in t :to. ^ °é r ' ^^.63 VARIOUS TEMPI ACCORDING TO JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU a tempo slower than Adagio. quickly) (see below: Légèrement) means fast s•".^^I . and the very ultimate in slowness.^ ^11 . . s1^i^^ ^ __ tl/ ^ ^ ::: 1^^ 7. . etc. .^!. 11C11^ ^r t 1 : Ï^^ 5 .. slower than Andante.-fi ^ ^^. i i^111 s . the metre being slightly less vivacious adjective taken as an adverb ( . ) it is often applied to transports of fury..) indicates a tempo halfway between Andante and Adagio.^ ^_ A.^¡^r s ^ r• ^" r ^ ^`111 ^ s^. ^ ^1 ^ ^ ^ ^i ^ sometimes an even more precipitate t mpo is indicated by the superlative Prestissimo or Presto assai. It shows that the long sounds should be 'threaded'.. i s:1^1^ ^ ^ ^ti!' .' ^ • v ^ . elaborate and appropriate for important Airs t:.12 ^ r ^Il 1 f♦ lr ^^. .^ orr. a pulse halfway between the spirited and the fast. ) means lively. frenzy and despair.. It corresponds almost to the Italian Vivace (1) See note (2) on page 61.BI ^ . and very close to Andantino adverb which indicates slowness in tempo. to be performed with boldness and fire. corresponding almost to what in French is denoted by the word 'Gracieusement' (gracefully) indicates a more moderate liveliness (than Allegro).e() Very fast adjective taken as an adverb (. 25-732 . quick.t^ ^^ ái l^ tllh -%4 u ^ q ^ ^ ' trill t ^^1 t±.1^ ^ ^^ ^ •u r ^ ^.-^^. ^ 11. ' ^^ ^ ..r^ s . animated tempo.s . It describes a tempo that is decided without being lively... RBI R ti ^^ v this word Dolce (sweet) is the opposite not only of strong (`Fort') but of harsh (`Rude') ^ •r iw ^b ` ^. a slightly less slow tempo than Largo... .^ ^ ¿ ^ %ÌÌ ! C 1 /ir ^J `ÿ ^ IìGI^ •Z ^^• ^..L.. ^ îít^ I^.. s i ^ ^ _ ^s . s 1l `74. But ( .. and in addition..^^ tali . 114^ III.. - ^^ 4. . ^ .^.^f ^ 4111. steady performance adjective taken as an adverb (.f'/^/. Vivement' (quick. . 61 this word indicates a tempo still faster than 'Gai' (spirited). a certain gravity in performance adverb which suggests leisurely. which are anything but sprightly spirited. ' ^.

50 (now (1)) and p. The Adagio affords more occasion than the Allegro for both exciting and subduing the passions.. . .) An Adagio can be compared with a flattering supplication ( . thereby putting light and shade into his expression. one must also be governed by the principal sentiment intended by the composer in Iris piece.B. secondly according to that of the Italians. a lyrical Adagio too slowly.25. V. the mind must as far as possible be in a tranqur almost sad state (.. The right method of playing an Adagio requires the soloist to allow himself to be held back by the accompanying parts rather than to go ahead of them. Largo.64 OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE ADAGIO SHOULD BE PLAYED (1) (extracts): J. Larghetto. the key and the metre—knowing whether it is equal (duple) or unequal (triple)—also provide some elucidation. A. firstly according to French taste.732 . etc. As regards the two ways of playing and decorating the Adagio. it must be judged in the total context of the piece. SWELLING THE SOUND When in an Adagio the soloist alternately swells and diminishes the strength of the sound. J. so as not to play a very sad Adagio too fast or. A pathetic Adagio should be clearly distinguished from these other kinds of slow piece: Cantabile.-C.L. on the other hand. TONGUING In the Adagio. and rough tonguing must not be used. except when the composer requires some notes to be cut short in order to waken the listener who may have been languishing. ) letting it die away gradually. an excellent effect is produced. N. Andantino. DOTTED NOTES When in the Adagio there are slurs over dotted notes (see example). each note should be caressed and soothed. . QUANTZ DIFFERENT SORTS OF ADAGIO—THEIR CHARACTER AND TEMPO Thé principal mood of the Adagio is one of tenderness and sadness. it must be slurred with the preceding note. Arioso. NOTES FOLLOWED BY A SILENCE Especially when rests are encountered. the note after the dot must not be stressed. . see the chapter on Ornaments.53 (Telemann). . In playing. In order then to play an Adagio well. Affettuoso. An extremely sad Adagio is normall y shown by the words Adagio di molto or Lento assai. Andante. the sound must not be cut off at once. it is better to sustain the last note a little longer than its value calls for ( . p. so to speak. As to the tempo required by each particular piece. the sound gradually diminishing to piano (see Quantz's chapter on the Violin): (1) Subheads by J.

65

A A A
A

If there t a dot after the second note, in an Adagio the first note must be played as shortly as in an Allegro, but without as much force:

A A A A
A

THE EXPRESSION OF ASCENDING CHROMATIC SEMITONES When in a slow movement there are semitones intermingled with the melody, those which are raised by a sharp or natural sign should be l^^ °...^ :^ perceived as louder than the others; this is produced 'V7^^^ sot 1•q -^I N3•ININMM.^'^^,".MOI when, on wind instruments, the wind is increased: (')

s (>)

^^

A
A

GRAVE A Sostenuto, which is the opposite of Staccato and which consists simply in a well sustained, serious and harmonious melody, in which there are many dotted notes which must be slurred in twos, is normally headed with the word Grave; for this reason it must be played with a long, weighty bow-stroke. A Grave, in which the melody consists of dotted notes, should be played in an elevated, lively manner (... ) The dotted notes must be swelled as far as the dot, and they must be softly and briefly slurred onto the following notes, unless the interval is too large. For very distant leaps, each note must be stressed separately. If such notes rise or fall by step, the long notes, which are most often consonances and cduld ultimately displease the ear, may be preceded by a port-de-voix. (1)

A A

A

A A
A

o
A

i

ADAGIO SPIRITOSO An Adagio Spiritoso is most often composed in triple time with dotted notes, its melody being often interrupted; and the expression requires even more vivacity than we have requested (for the Grave). For this reason the notes should be stressed more than slurred, and fewer grace notes should be used. Above all, ports-de-voix which finish with half-shakes may be used (2) ; but when some cantabile ideas are found amongst the rest one must adapt one's performance to these as well, mingling the serious' with the charming in alternation.

A A

(... ),

*fl ow'

If many conjunctly rising or falling semiquavers are found in a Cantabile or Arioso in ), one must strive to express these sorts of notes in a simple triple quaver metre (3/8) ( and charming way, sotnetimes using `piano' and sometimes 'forte'. If leaping quavers are interspersed, rendering the melody dry and failing to sustain it, leaps of a third can be filled up with ports-de-voix or triplets. But when tize bass has notes of the same value for the same harmony throughout a bar, then the principal part is free to make more grace notes. Nevertheless, grace notes slzould never deviate from the general manner of playing in which one is directed to perform such a piece.

4 A

(1) See paragraph 'Port-de -vo ix', p. 41 ('When after one or more short notes ... J. (2) See paragraph 'Port-de -vo ix, p. 38, example by Montéclair.

A A

A.L. - 25.732

A

4 47

ANDANTE, LARGHETTO In an Andante or Larghetto written in triple crotchet metre (3/4), where the melody consists of leaping crotchets accompanied by the bass in quavers, with six often remaining on the same pitch and in the same harmony, one can play with more seriousness and with more grace notes than in an Arioso. But if the bass goes hither and thither by step, one must be carejtrl with the grace notes to avoid making forbidden fifths and octaves with the principal voice.

As regards the interpretation of the Adagio on the violin (for wind instruments substitute `tonguing ' for `bowing'), Quantz says:
An Arioso. Cantabile, Soave, Dolce or Poco andante is played with calm expression and with a light bow-stroke. Even if the Arioso is mixed with different kinds of quick notes, it still requires light, tranquil bowing. A Maestoso, Pomposo, Affettuoso or Adagio spiritoso should be played seriously and with somewhat weighty and pointed bowing. A slow. sad piece, which is indicated by the words: Adagio assai, Pesante, Lento, Largo assai or Mesto, requires the greatest moderation of tone and the longest, most tranquil and weightiest of bowing.

A.L.- 25.732

67

OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE ALLEGRO SHOULD BE PLAYED (1 ) (extracts): J. J. QUANTZ

THE ALLEGRO AND ITS VARIOUS APPELLATIONS Firstly it must be noted that, of the various names given to pieces of music, the word Allegro, unlike the word Adagio, has a very broad meaning, and under the term Allegro are included several kinds of pieces in fast tempo, for example: Allegro, Allegro assai, Allegro non presto, Allegro ma non tanto, Allegro moderato, Vivace, Allegretto, Presto, Prestissimo etc. Here we are using the word Allegro in this broader sense, referring to all kinds of lively and fast pieces, and paying no attention to the special meaning of the word when it describes a particular sort of fast movement. Since many composers use the words assembled above more from habit than to give a good description of the true tempo of pieces (... ), many cases are found ( . . . ) in which the composer's intention must be guessed at from the content of the piece rather than from the word found at the beginning to denote the tempo. CHARACTER AND TEMPO The chief characteristic of the Allegro is sprightliness and liveliness. The Allegro must not be begun faster than one is able to play the (fast) passage-work to be found in it ( . . . ) It is for this reason that the speed must be decided on in accordance with the most difficult passages of the piece. However much vivacity the Allegro calls for, one should never deviate from a controlled and reasonable speed. For everything that is hurried will cause the ear more discomfort than satisfaction. One must always have as one's aim the sentiment that is to be expressed, and not set out merely to play rapidly ( . . . ) Hence, if in an Allegro one wishes to affect and charm the ear, each piece must in fact be played with suitably fiery expression; but one must never hurry the tempo, as the piece would thereby lose all its grace. TO AVOID HURRYING The tempo is hurried when the fingers are lifted too quickly, especially for leaping notes. To avoid this fault one must give a little emphasis to the first note of fast figures; in this way the important notes should always be heard for a little longer than those which are merely passing notes. As for triplets, one must take great care to make them very full and even, and not to hurry the first two notes too much ( . . . ) To give this effect one may stress the first note of a triplet since it is the most important note of the chord. TONGUING (See also p. 68, `To set off the theme', `To express different sentiments') The fault of hurrying too much also very often results from lack of attention to tonguing. The fast passages of the Allegro are those which must above all be played roundly, cleanly, with vivacity, with articulation and distinctly. To this end, liveliness of tonguing contributes much (... ) The tongue must sometimes be applied robustly, sometimes gently, according to the requirements of the kind of notes in question.
(1) Subheads by J.-C. V.
A.L. - 25.732

as much in the Allegro as in the Adagio. A majestic sentiment does not allow much to be added. A. then more tranquility should prevail in it. majestic. it must always be well differentiated from the less important ideas in its expression.. If charm is the piece's dominant sentiment. ) and in dotted notes.68 HOW TO BREATHE Breath must be taken at a suitable time and carefully husbanded so as not to separate the parts of a melody which belong together by taking a breath at the wrong time. one must then play it in a spirited. TO EXPRESS DIFFERENT SENTIMENTS (spirited.. (1) See paragraph 'Double-dotted notes'. because on the one hand they become essential harmony notes. p. as also by piano' and forte' And for reprises in general.L. it must again be noted that it is principally vivacity of tonguing that expresses a spirited sentiment. and anything appropriate to it should always be performed in a sublime manner. THE LOW NOTES IN LARGE INTERVALS In passage-work. the wider the leaps. If. ). according to the requirements of the sentiment it contains. (1) One can also sometimes use shakes on the dots.. )... and on the other hand the low notes of the flute are neither as strong nor as penetrating as its high notes. in an Allegro.25. These last should be firmly stressed and played with animation. Majestic sentiment makes itself felt in long notes ( . CANTABILE PASSAGES When fast notes are followed by some slow. But if majestic sentiment makes up the character of the principal ideas. 27. so that the listener will not experience any boredom.732 . TO SET OFF THE THEME AND COLOUR IT When in an Allegro the subject comes back several times.. and more force given to the second. lively fashion. there are more spirited than majestic and charming ideas. . the piece must as a whole be performed more seriously. cantabile notes. The dots are sustained and the following note is passed over very briefly. one must immediately moderate one's fiery expression and play the slow notes with the sentiment they require. lively or bold. the alternation of piano' and forte' will lend much grace to one's playing. ORNAMENTATION In the Allegro as in the Adagio the plain melody should be decorated and made more pleasing by ports-de-voix and other small essential grace notes. Whether majestic or charming. charming) Sentiments change frequently. Charming sentiment is expressed with slurred notes which rise or fall by step. Bold sentiment is represented by notes in which the second or third are dotted. Spirited sentiment is imitated and represented by short notes ( . where the first half can be played softly. the more strength must be given to the low notes. it can always be made perceptible by vivacity or moderation in the movements of the tongue (. likewise with syncopated notes. and the first ones consequently hurried. bold.

A charming sentiment requires ports-de-voix, slurred notes, and a tender expression. On the other hand, a spirited sentiment demands cleanly finished shakes, mordents, and a playful expression. As regards the interpretation of the Allegro on the violin (for wind instruments substitute `tonguing' for `bowing'), Quantz says: The Allegro, Allegro assai, Allegro di molto, Presto and Vivace require lively, very light, short and well detached bowing, particularly in the accompaniment where the manner must be playful rather than serious. However a certain moderation of tone must be observed. An Allegretto or an Allegro that is qualified by the words: non presto, non tanto, non troppo, moderato etc. (... ) should be performed a little more seriously, and with bowing which may in fact be somewhat weighty, but nonetheless lively and vigorous. In particular, semiquavers in an Allegretto, as with quavers in an Allegro, will require a very short bowstroke (... ): but fast passage-work should be played with a light bow-stroke.

A.L. - 25.732

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^

70

Character and Tempo of the Various Movements (Airs and Dances)
The various movements (airs and dances) in use during the 17th and 18th centuries will here be listed in alphabetical order. For each we have selected the principal definitions given by writers of the period, citing more than one when they complement or sometimes even contradict each other: in such cases, the date of the definition must be taken into account, the character of movements having often been subtly modified from one period to another. Whenever a precise speed is given for the tempo, it will be translated into a metronomic figure. (The patent for the metronome only dates from 1816. Before then, theoreticians used different means of indicating the tempo, such as chronometers—pendulums—, pulse beats, the number of seconds required for a given number of bars, and so forth.) AIR: see ARIA ALLEMANDE At first simply a dance, at the end of the 17th century the Allemande became the first or second piece in instrumental Suites. Its tempo was generally moderate, except in the second half of the 18th century when it often required a fast, sometimes even very fast tempo (Dom Bédos: Fast Allemandes of thirty-two bars in twenty seconds, that is J = 184!).
A sort of tune or piece in which the music is in quadruple time, taken gravely ( . . . ) The Allemande in a Sonata is now universally obsolete (... ); those who still use it give it a more spirited tempo. The Allemande is also the tune of a dance extremely common in Switzerland and Germany. This tune, as well as the dance, has much spirit: it is taken in duple time.

(Rousseau) Allemande (HOTTETERRE) 1708
Gravely

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A.L.- 25.732

71 Allemande (HOTTETERRE) 1708 Gracefully
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1

Allemande (ENGRAMELLE) 1775 J= 184 (from Dom BEDOS)

ARIA Aria means Air or Chanson, that is, a melody whose pace is precise and even, and whose beats, especially the first of each bar, are well marked; its tempo is nearly always somewhat fast and sprightly, provided there is no term such as Aria larga or affettuosa etc. to render it otherwise. (Brossard) Air (J. B. DE BOISMORTIER) 1731 With spirit
L..N/r. Am" mart -.a rr Ir.t M •.•11s 71r7. ••=111111s1./7 1=1•r r••./tj /WV .111•111 •f•IIM1•1•.s••,1111111•11. /'I•tA./ •.s .M.I111111•1111111.1.JI.MEMIIIIIN•=•11111'I• ISM MUM 1•11•7/ I .•1•tt •1• /I•^•/ 1^^.^^^•^•.••^r1^^^ MO' . A1'.4113/i 1-_•__^l"^R^.11^^11 1[ .: ^•!r•^.^^Ir.i ^' ^^^^•^^ 1•___ •=.111111M •^^^^11• •• I1•111111111M11 I

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Tender air (L'AFFILARD) 1694

= 80

Aria (J. M. LECLAIR) 1738
Affettuoso
't.t1~ •._I VINNIIIIMMI•1=1•1/• MINION NM .rlr7iIMIIIIMwINEMIwMIIIII/MIIIBMIIIII MOME MIS MOW 11111n411 -...INIIIIMIIIIIIIMINIw WM IMIIIII!lias !NNW /SWS — IIitlr
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A.L.-

25.732

.. i^ ^^ ^^^_^^^^^^^^ a ^ .. lf..^ -__ 1 BRANLE = 112 (L'Affilard) Very spirited kind of dance which is danced in a circle to a short tune in rondeau form.111111111s1M1.MI + + BOURRÉE = 120 (L'Affilard) 01= 160 (Quantz) Sort of tune associated with a dance of the same name. 1.. ^I^. MitilHarlIMINCI. INNI1.7[^^^ ..7...25.1.^. An Arietta normally has two reprises.. means a short Air or Chansonnette.L. [>•^. .1^^ ...'r1111.....1. 1762) .. in the Italian taste.IM MLA! i..-N.. (Brossard) Ariette `Cruel vainqueur' (L. which is believed to have come from the Auvergne ( ..1.^-=..—/s-1111•1111s.^ ^lj^^^r^. light bow-stroke...11111111 11111. /.111111111111111111 s =1111111i..111111•--^— ---•__. 1762) Sweetly and `spiccato' a . .i.^ .. Jr.1.^.^ = t..11111111=1 NI= MN SIM a.7.f JIIMIP7MM111111=111•11111. ) The Bourrée is in brisk duple time. that is.^.11=1=11.^^ ^ 11M MEN'../OEM n 11M = 120 .7.01^^I111^...•1111 11.5^... or is repeated da capo in the manner of a rondeau. (Rousseau) The Bourrée is virtually the same thing as the Rigaudon.... r0 (Rameau-D'Alembert) JP ^ Bourrée and Rigaudon are played with spirit and with a short.^.=M1a/// AMAMI r1111. 1II •1111111=1MIr.. CLERAMBAULT) 1713 J = 87 (Choquel.11/111107..^.. BACH) c1720 144: • Bourrée (L'AFFILARD) 1694 V. . and begins with a crotchet before the downbeat..^.^_^^ a^.-t)t•^^^^J^^ a^ —r WIC ... ^ Ariette `Ce n'est plus la mode' (A.. with the same refrain at the end of each couplet. 11111.732 ^ .MP B. (Villeneuve) Arietta: diminutive of Aria..^ L7 /^\^^ If^^^/M./J. =MIL-1111111111•111 1 MINI111111.^.. S.72 ARIETTE (ARIETTA) The word Ariette implies a spirited Air.r iJl^ .^..a/ .. MAIM .' ..=1111111M ^. CAMPRA) 1710 = 96 (Choquel. (Rousseau) A..= INNE/MsI .-av^c^aMINIIIIIIIlal• WIN 11:1111M-MIIIN..•.^ 1^•^^^^/^.u..^.1111.^ Vi NME• 1•rJ•111•1141111111•111ra /Mr N MIAMI sS MINI AMMO . (Quantz) Bourrée (J.7.

(Montéclair) Canaries en rondeau (L'AFFILARD) 1694 J.s7 =. >_. :^ -^--.I^^^ ../ ^s^^^^^^^ 11117J11111tJ M Ilf ill 1!1M1 A'IllIM NMI ^^^^^^^I•f^^^^l l• Ill ^ft tlf^^7 Vi^^ ^^ –••1tif• M l Ill (1st couplet) MS ^^^ IMMMIIIIIIIIMIt Ma a/ f^ I I I (2nd couplet) MAI //.sW a^^l^^^.^I..t. = 106 (L'Affilard) J. (Rousseau) Cana ries (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 Quickly '_] 1/•••//!'fI t>•. •f^^rff= .= 106 A.73 Branle en rondeau (L'AFFILARD) 1694 d = 106 END I .i .I AIf/'f/ fIIMINA /. because of the speelof the tempo required by these two tunes.l♦ l In IMlIIIIf11111I111•1•= I \_I IlINIfr••1•INIIt _^^^^Il^i^l e\. . 6/8 metre is more suitable to the Canarie and the Passepied than 318.f^^fr•– ^Ia^^I^Ii^^I^ ^^^r^^>•1 II .as ^:^^. • •IIIslfls/ MI1111•111f•11 t 111/ ^ T CANARIES fast. .s/Z1 laall•t L » IS /f• ^^1 I .L.-^.^^t . s1a.f >•. Gigues and Canaries must be played extremely (Muffat) Sort of Gigue whose tune is even faster in tempo than that of the ordinary Gigue ( ...r IIIMI:4111111=I1111fa. .25. ir ARNE ill–I–_.I`ION.111s11/t•fi ^I<•f•^^^^^^^I^^<i^lf^I^ f^ • !^ -••• s• px.vIAIMBIA'/If<•= f. = 160 (Quantz) Whatever kind of metre is indicated.732 . ) This dance is no longer in use today..-11111111Ia11•11s•11:11 I r . »1/.

the Villanelle ( .) which are spirited (.74 Cana ries (DENIS) 1747 CHACONNE J = 156 (L'Affilard) = 160 (Quantz) The Chaconne is a long piece of music in triple time. (Freillon-Poncein) It is known that the Chaconne.^. . (Rameau-D'Alembert) One may alternate at will between major and minor (.. not on the downbeat. the Loure and the Courante). ) Normally the Chaconne begins... . It is composed of a number of couplets which are varied as much as possible ( ..> 111•1r111... - . without ever hurrying or slowing down the metre. ). MIA ^^^ s .t^^^ ^^^^ s^sr^r^/s ^s^ .^. .J^^^. but on the second beat. (Quantz) The metre is shown by a 3 which is taken in three light beats. or in one and a half slow (beats). ) and between grave and sprightly or tender and lively..sr•ItF_• ^:^^f ^i^M^tl. s ^.732 ..-^ V^!Ç4^14'@P. ^ ' ?lnïr•^— Chaconne (L'AFFILARD) 1694 j= 156 A.. (Denis) Chaconne (M... s^^^ . (Rousseau) A Chaconne is played as majestically (as the Sarabande.T r7 J^Rs iw. CORRETTE) 1738 Met ^^• • 11•11•11ra s s i s r•1111 -NM 10•111rwis. the Entrée.25. . whose tempo is moderate and whose metre well marked.L.

! s 111MMII. CHEDEVILLE.11111•11 sr71111111=1. as being more spirited ( . CHEDEVILLE.MEN NM W1111111u s /11111=1111111//11111=11111111111121111 tl!•—. ) The tunes of Contredanses are most often in duple time._••--^_wr Z2/"Ur — s -.. and the Courante a very slow Sarabande.. they would become intolerable if overladen (with figurations). and the bow is detached at each crotchet.r/lbi S=11•11111111111111•1"/ s / /•/1•• 111111t/ JO MIMI ^ s 1 a A. . 1696-1762) -4y ^ . (Rameau -D'Alembert) The Entrée.25. (Rousseau) Contredanse (E. 1696-1762) ^ MIME sI .s s . (Bacquoy-Guédon) Courante in the French manner (MONTECLAIR) 1736 Slow •AL1>_•1111111•111111 wIMc.aMirt MIS r>rsMINO MI I= war 1111111•11 sIf ///s^1•11nr• MINII5.1.11 w 1131171 vIIII WO' r zs^^>r1 .wstiss 1 3 + •11•^ ^ . (Quantz) Those who did the Courante put two steps in each bar.♦ Ls. they should be very rhythmical. a^ + COURANTE j= 90 in 3/2 (L'Affilard) j= 80 in 3/4 (Quantz) The Sarabande is really a slow Minuet.L. the Loure and the Courante are performed majestically.s Wt.. Cotillon (E.1J^^ 111 .r 75 CONTREDANSE j= 132 (Choquel) Tune for a sort of dance of the same name ( . ^ ! • • • Contredanse (CHOQUEL) 1762 ej= 132 COTILLON This is a sort of Contredanse which was later to become the Quad ri lle. brilliant and sprightly. the second gccupying the third beat only._-.. . a s!11s111111=111 s I v %•111s ` s•ss r1Yr1 s!••1111tl!• MIaall•IIIM•• IMMrrJ♦1r!•tlria1l 1 — MIMI —. since they are repeated with great frequency. P. whether it has a dot or not. P.11MONII s s Ill /UMW. . ) that at balls is normally danced after the Minuets.11 MM11111/71111 rNI MI MI ri111/1MINI1s1t MIIIIIII•1111•1111111•1•1131 1.732 .IV1^^rla•1r)1^^ ^.^Z1^. while still possessing much simplicity.013///L1 IMP I la^^^^•^^^a s ^1.111.111 I..•r11•1•••111 sr>.

BITTI) c1712 Allegro a.732 . the Loure and the Courante are performed majestically. (Rameau -D'Alembert) A.^-^^w11=11•1••=11 MUM % .^ ^ ^^^a^ss._ _ ".`3•:i - ::s-L'A 76 Courante (L'AFFILARD) 1694 J = 92 Unlike the French Courante.^^^a^r^^ ^^^a ^ ^.. whether it has a dot or not.^ ^ ^^ ENTRÉE J = 80 (Quantz) These are normally Preludes or Sinfonias which serve to introduce or prepare for the movements to follow. the Italian Courante is fast and in 3/4 time: Corrente (M.^^: ^. .. at the Opera.^^ r a^^^ ^^^^ a_^r s.^ ^^^^ a .. the term is used for an entire act of an Opéra Ballet where each act makes a separate subject. and the bow is detached at each crotchet.L. (Rousseau) The Entrée. (Quantz) Entrée de ballet in two slow beats (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 First part of the air • 4- 6 • ^ e FORLANE The Forlane is in a moderate tempo.25.^ ^. (Brossard) Tune for the Sinfonia with which a ballet begins.=:^^_"^r.^ar•^ ^ w^ ^^a^^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^ .a ^^^i^s^ ^. half-way between the Loure and the Gigue. Further.

111111LLI OJM11L11111= NI =IN AP.f 11KiJANIs 1 I = A.1111MrSIE.s 22M/». (Rousseau) Gaillarde (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 . i1•1s11•Lt4111111r..s L♦ L♦ MI 111•1 s1r71 L.L.. (Brossard) Furies tune (DENIS) 1747 I.. BACH) c1720 • NA= MAMA 11 /aL/ . It is called Forlane because it originated in the Friuli..._. ' •L.. /:1111111... (Quantz) Con furia: furiously.-.JAI7 NV./ .•1••M1/11• > ♦ ^^=1L1111111111101 i rLW/•11111111t11111111/ Llr s11=31 I O/1 • Forlane (DENIS) 1747 FURIE J = 160 in C and in 3/4 (Quantz) A Furie is performed in a very fiery manner. violent and very fiery tempo. where the inhabitants are called Forlani.) Formerly it was called Romanesque because it was said to have come to us from Rome. ./a<^^^^ M^^^^IJ ^i r•^^^^/^ s 11111. (Rousseau) Forlane (J.M1..1=1 L^^1 11L..77 It is taken cheerfully.Mtl1:i1LLL I AMIBolm• =nit MUM A=r-.LnL<'7IIMr ANI/f AP..••sf S1111s1Ln1•••••^1rrn111111lr111 t: 111 I •41111111L AMIN= IM111Y.1WTf a^L^7 L. in a fast. S.•11•111•11•1•1 .r/LSY1. ) long out of use ( .IIMIIIIIM NMI L•IIIMILLLL/NM IMINr1•1•111WW• 1 s=1f LM •LN ^^ . and the dance is very spirited too.LL1.25. ^L^L^LLL^./M11111.I i7Laf.732 .. UM _ GAILLARDE (GALLIARD) Tune in a spirited (duple or) triple metre from a dance of the same name (.=11M111111•11.1f ANI'' MI milINIOINIW LLL^^INI•sin^ Li s MN InLL^^L^ _ AMU_ ___ __ _ r: ^ !I^I^i v^v^ MI ^ ^ //2 Vr^LLLf / LV^^/^^LM^^^^^ "'LL ^ -^ILf1Lt 1'L•/NI '__- i.

MEIN í ^ii^•^^` r^ • (1) Choquel gives the same tempo for both the Gavotte and the Rigaudon.732 L.111Mr1s1 J^^ ^ MAW M. (Rousseau) Gavotte (HOTTETERRE) 1722 With gravity V r ^ r r LJ Gavotte (Jean-Baptiste LCEILLET) cl 715 Presto .^.. but never extremely fast nor excessively slow.^... AL+..L.^ .1111.^ NM 1NNIIIMIN ^^^^i ..111M.11111. eight or twelve bars each.•11W. .'•111=1 NM .•111.11111. however.r 77-1^ .s.^ ^ .^^..^^..i • ^ • Tempo di gavotta: this is when it is only the tempo of a Gavotte that is being observed.... ) The metre is shown as 2 and should be taken very slowly. (Freillon-Poncein) The Gavotte is almost the same as the Rigaudon. the pace of the Gavotte is sometimes slow.rr^^ —ww--. L'Affilard) = 132 (in (V. A..11111.. VIVALDI) 1737 ...rrrgm . and is made up of two repeated sections having four.a.7^ = r ^ ^^1^ ^s ^ Gavotte (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 61 = 120 va11.:.1111M1111M1111 MN s.^.=11.. (Rameau-D'Alembe rt ) These are graver and more serious tunes (than Rigaudons and Bourrées) and a more touching kind of expression is found in them ( . Choquel)(1) The Gavotte is in duple time.^^.11.78 GAVO TT E d = 120 (in (V. . (1) (Quantz—who gives j = 160 for the Rigaudon in (V) Its phrases and cadential paints are articulated in groups of two bars.M11111//f . . sometimes sprightly... NM M.A/ NI . s11•11111111•41=1 111111. it has a more moderate tempo..~ 111s11 =NB _-..-25.IIIM.m. without deferring to the Gavotte's normal number of bars or reprises.r — •11V rlmomor s ...11111s11 MO AI.r.•111 ^^^ i..11= ^^m^.me ow . = 1 L^ 1^^^ : ^. (Brossard) Allegro tempo di gavotta (attrib.MIIIMB.=..41111=111•.

s111110 MIN MI MIMI MI NM._aIIN.IIIM -- MN t1•1 l Gigue (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J.s•s••Lniu. L'Affilard) J.WMIIIIV.: Mr:1•I•1•• INN EMI /7 1/1.1•••_ al .111. light bow-stroke. WW1.0111111•• ^ L7wMSC 1. (David) The metre is shown by a 4 and a 6 (1) .. 3/4 and 3/2 also exist..ts I= MN r11•11111111. = 116 a•La) av A ilff 111111s11••t MMIIIP•917111•1•11 IIMI a WIN= 4/WIIM7ItnfalsW 1111•111111atar Li.a.IM 1171MINNIPa7 t.MI IAMB MIMS MI/ L101 II III. (Freillon- Poncein) Whatever kind of metre is indicated. PAISIBLE. Gigue (J. EMI MIMI.s CM= MP.. L'Affilard) J.1•1•11111M 7 INL Mira/NM AEI= MONIAEMBOINI•11•1. (Quantz) Thus the majority of writers of the period endow the Gigue with a rapid tempo.c s11=11s-aJNO.r Air 41• IN IIMI :11ANI61111111I11 NM •11111-JA_____-+1/.ir Lary.MN ^." ^ . whose tempo is far more rapid.t AIIsMIM NM MUM III l•71111•1 Mall= JIM •110•1111•1111••• . s•s t 11J^f .4•MIPS• 1111111111••• MIMI /1/M-4111•uIIIIIIM.^.111J'f 1.Ami ring/ =maw = a/1•S 1311111111 =11MIl 1 MI 1111••••••1 I amomamo. = 116 (in 3/8./AIIIII NO EOM =AMINE/ MN r AJ NM MP ^^ /.s•••h. Gigues and Canaries must be played extremely fast.211M •7s11111011J MIMEO_ MI OMNI WIIMIIII ZS 111IM ON MPS NI NB Millrl7=WW1 ^ Vr/NM=•!_MI MI M1111^'IMI^^^^^i^V^^1^ ^^ a ^^t . and (6/4) and is taken in slow duple time.. MIMI/ r rs+t 111111i .! 11111•11/ AM AM MI MO IIM.11 1 Gigue (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 el. 4/2.• a IC 1111 rC^ ^ me • !♦ awirmint.s•V aAIN/Mr•1111111116YMINIIMI NI= 1111. (Rameau-D'Alembe rt ) The Gigue and the Canarie have the same tempo. of 618. The Gigue is played by means of a short. A.732 .41aM •a N= MIMI= MI .1111 AIM= ^a^^ MI INII 1•01 r IMO S-4•01. This contrasts with the contrary indication of Freillon-Poncein quoted above. = 160 (in 6/8. 2/4.=mosamemiespimmi.= 100 (in 6/8. (Muffat) The Gigue is really only a very lively Loure.11M =V/ A11»L•111110 =WINO =IN NM OEM Is11 .AMINUM.25. • Sa. it/w•al a^ ••••• LTV !•U1NO.t^OM Ms NM NUM MI OM Ili•111.L.-JW ^ s _ iJ•^^ MN WHIM IN VIM •1111•1s31 MIIIIIIIIMI. 1650?-1721) MUMS.1s 10 WIN NM PANNE-II I MI •:. . • • • A111110••••••saININ M11a911•r a-411•IIIIN.•s•111111= ME/". .0./ NM III I '^•s1111. ' •...... s 171••f I111.4MIN= MIMI INN I. Quantz) The Gigue requires the metre or pulse of 318.s • = /JIM MI MIMS MIIIIIMr ^^^i : ./M BM NB ^. Ms MI ^^^11 1 NNW. r^^^^^ ^^^^r^^^^^^^Y W. of 918 or of 1218 very buoyantly.M117• sIIIIIMEN11•11/ Ar.10s11 IIIMI SIM II MINI NM 1 NMI • IN NMI =111•11=1. which applies to the older and slower Gigue in 6/4.^^^ r 1LIN % iw•rw9I /!1S:aJ 1. s •s•• IM M Mr cMIPIMMININII NMI ••• rn111 /PT CI •a11•11• MN IMP • 1.2. even an extremely rapid one (as Quantz's tempo indication shows).i.= 100 PAY MIN . ` I= .^ (I) Gigues in 4/4.79 GIGUE J.r a ENE ^l ri rf' /1•11/s =1.411=1 MIN AI= Mo.V.

Y. on which the tune of the dance in question was played. which here he must be assuming to be 2/4.411EN =MI EN NIA M . M•NIEMIOEN1J. >. Mr/r1♦ MEM ^^rarir NM ^ arar>.. (Brossard) (1) Loure is the name of an old instrument similar to a musette.11r.a aMrNIa•ENaEN. it usually begins on the upbeat..41111E MEMO SIO-DIMMENEEIMMININNIIMIE as 'DENIM.MIPr rINIF. (Quantz) The first beat of each bar (is stressed) more perceptibly than the second.'IN= MEMO IED•Waar•IEM•Et • la/ar • MEIIr.ME ON.m1rI_I /W a•rr'rlraal/ NIVltllr MIN r. IMENLa1•••ME•r^ 11EMO MOM MAIMED/NM ENO AMMER I .Gigue (J..r MIEN .41rrlrlrl /MIMI /rrr N r•rl1/r1 .1" WIENS ^^I^^ w r1EO1MErI1•S.s 1111111•11las1_411.. and is taken in duple time.732 . (Brossard) Loure (M. such as two crotchets.M.rrl... t1=/^w•rW 11r rtt lr7l=1111 MMrriMMrllalr.1•NIEr'NOMM _^^1_r1M1^t'Jtsrrl/r 1 1^ 7/ 1Y 21M11/. ^ .— / Loure (DENIS) •at.NEN/INM IMMIN'A ENNEAD' /-4MOMMIEWMEMI NE MIN riMMII. whether it has a dot or not. without however dotting or sharply accenting it.^^^E-NIJ 17WMEIMIE r>•Irr rarriMENraENNOr>tr•rIENNEMME77 —1• r .e. 1 l.4111f. Al. ^ /'rlrl• • Mo.tM M• NMOM= . M1111111111111/f J•raIII I^IIrLMMEN ANEM/EEDNENI•4/ ! M / Nall/ • 77111.ri sr s• r.MEIMMr. and the bow is detached at each crotchet.•tENDEMINrMINrut./ Lourer (lit. two quavers etc. the Loure and the Courante are performed majestically.-25.. LCEILLET) c1710 Gigue (DENIS) 1747 ^i •r=I^ -^ MEMO . shortened).^^ • 7^r>• rll^ -.Ill• ^ rENOWINDErrIEN1EENNrINW ru. than to the second.sINIMME .W MIS NM rENIMrlrla NOIONra/I W a MO. ^ `. Normally the note in the middle of each beat is dotted (i.I • ^^I/^^ ^r _ ^! J.sOMEMIr 11W-MINEMI EN •s^^a>. L11II1ENN rlarrarIMMMEE +/'r s!•IIs 41111 OM ENEMA= EN EIME•DOMMIEN• W I NNE • mOmM. (Rameau -D'Alembert) The Entrée.. `to Loure'): ' this is a manner of singing which consists of giving a little more time and force to the first of two notes of equal value. 1=1 Ir MFEN AIM • i-aUa.411111s11•111•sMERrr•sIIIIMEINiaalm_ in AMMIIMMIMErUNO ^^ =WWI& .MENEWNIEENnow MN MO rENI>.MINV.aMI1 MOW LAM ~MN a EMI• V II. CORRETTE) 1738 r•.^^^ENEN^rra^lrr uENM^a^Er•rWrMENaMMsw^Ma^i^^^EN•^Mr r •aa• alINN1^••^.a•v:a/r 1747 -f.1 MIMIWIMEMEN-IEWIMEMEMOMIEMENIMI MEO MIME .10_.1i. (Rousseau) (2) Quantz does not indicate the metre. I + . UMW •4111EEN ••* sNI ND' INEI• EMY•l7M/ WWII! MOM /rrlEIt MUM I MI ••s1 MIN W M I i•^ ' LOURE (1) j= 80 (Quantz) (2) The Loure is a tune whose pulse is slow.N. a.411.-B.. is shown (as) 6/4..NIN 11111ti.

^1^•1^•1•: ^l^1 .ir•=s lr-. BLAVET) cl 737 Tenderly .1 atfM1•••s•i March of the Shepherds from Jepthé (M.i1111•1f11•••iisf/ MP 1 Mil ra Va MI[... ) has prevailed.^ tl•Il11s1110M 111111._ 1•!•.732 .1111••••s MOW! MEMOIR Ir111111•1sf i^ 1. L'Affilard) J = (in (t.-111•11 1 s•01 1 Marche en rondeau (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J = 150 s•1111. MIN...1 • !'7• . 1f/ !1•1. the sign 3/8 or 6/8 ought to be used to show the pulse.1.MN MI •r•l MN NM IMP— •W MI /. (Rousseau) March (L'AFFILARD) 1717 J = 120(1) + (3) .11=11111/l1111111.1•1•.= 70 (L'Affilard) J./ ••!JIMI•111 1 s1•111111= ^. /I ^ •^^11/l/1^^/^^I^1.•• NNW" mnii 111. Very sprightly dance which originally came to us from Poitou.• s 1•111111 •^ •M .1a/!•a•1••11•INE MO . 11•11•111M /NE r%Iái I MIN IMMIF.•LL..1 .=••••••l.t••s•-s•1 s111 VIP" t1♦.. but the practice of marking it with a simple 3 ( .1111r^ . MP' MI 1i.. A.L.25..= 76 (L'Affilard) The importance of the Minuet and the large quantity of writings concerning it make it necessary to give it a fairly generous amount of space here... Vrft/•. .••11111J•1•ILaf 17r.^•^•^^\S•F r1r s I^1rt . • MEWAM•11• :S!^ /^ ^_^ 7 111•1•1•0111•1. Quantz) Duple and triple time (.811111s. 711E11 / rlrr2/1•111/I ^ iJl. .11ra.11.•.7111•M _•. In imitation of the Italians..n111111. (David) A March is played seriously. .11 •r r 1• MMININNEO. mlIN111 IIII/Tf . while once again noting only the most significant definitions. (Quantz) The tunes of Marches should have different characters depending on the occasions at which they are used. (Brossard) (1) In the 1705 edition L'Affilard gives ei = 96.••1/..111.s1P..^1f^ •r1 ^ MINUET J = 160 (Quantz) = 76 (Engramelle) JI . .ol••••I 1 ^ • a .s= AMID 111s .^•lr..81 MARCH J = (in . which is always very spirited and fast. a tempo he increased to 120 in the 1717 edition.11111111•Il . L'Affilard) ( 1 ) J = 150 (in 6/4.tl 11•1sLI1 SLIM a..••^1^1 .) are both equally suitable metres for the March.a1• ^L MINIM r•MNI All a•1 :o 1 JIM f a7♦/1/IL IN I NM 1• >f1.tY7 i7.1=•.

because of this. . on the other h an d. ) only in one ( ) Minuets for dancing are also taken in this way ( ..^ ^as w0 1 .L7.^^^. all these inconveniences could be avoided. we even compare the metre of the Minuet for dancing with that of 614 in terms of its values.. (Bacquoy- Guédon) The downbeat in this metre (6/4) is called the strong beat (`bon temps') and the upbeat is called the weak beat (`temps faux').. which we call the strong one. it was only in the second half of the 18th century that this tempo became palpably more ponderous.. = 70 r ^' ^ ^. It is therefore worth making a clear distinction between. Finally. (Choquel) Because of this great speed. L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J.. ) because they are played in a very spirited manner. (Rameau-D'Alembert) According to him (Brossard). ..^ii^ ^ ^ ^^^^ ^^í ri^iwsii ^i ^ + x A.^^ . especially in the Minuet.. . (Quantz) It c an be seen that on the subject of how Minuets are written nearly every author of the period stresses (and often deplores) the difference between their notation in triple time and their beat in duple time. and it can be said that the least spirited of all the types of dance in current use at our balls is the Minuet. on the one hand.82 It often happens that very good musicians do not dance in time. lifts the dancer.^N I IO .. the slow character of the steps in the Minuet as it is danced and. or moderate if taken in duple time (6/4: two bars of t ri ple time).^ . which ought to be directed towards always taking two bars to execute the steps of the Minuet. (Loulié) Moreover.. and the consequent difficulty there would be in making three hand movements so hurriedly.. even though it is only ever marked in 3/4._ _ _ ^^^. ) The number of bars in the tune should be four or a multiple of four for each of its repeated sections. because this number is required to complete the steps of the minuet. the contrastingly lively character of the music where the tempo is either very rapid if taken in t riple time. it is usual to take this metre ( . I say Minuets for dancing since there are harpsichord Minuets which are not normally played so fast.^7.25. Minuet (M... It is a different matter in the theatre. But on the contrary the character of the Minuet is one of elegant and noble simplicity. *Th.^ ^^ ^ ^.L. and the crotchets are marked with a slightly weighty though short bow stroke. as it were. so as to assist-the dancer's ear and keep him in the correct rhythm. and a genuine Minuet tempo could be found by using a pendulum. this dance is very spirited and its tempo very fast. so that in taking the Minuet in 6/4 time. The metre of the Minuet is of three light beats ( . being stressed. although the Minuet's tempo undeniably slowed down as soon as it was no longer danced.. and this is the only reason why 6/4 is used instead of twice 3/4. (Saint-Lambert) The Minuet is a tune in triple time and in a moderate tempo.732 ^•^--. and this overriding habit sometimes distracts their attention. the metre of simple triple time is so hurried for the true tempo of the Minuet that the hand has insufficient time to mark each beat when moving through the triangle formed by this kind of metre. the tempo is moderate rather than fast.. and it is for this same reason that dancers take the Minuet in 6/4. and the musician should take care to make this division evident with well marked cadential falls. because in 3/4 this strong beat is not distinguishable from the weak beat.^^r. an d consequently the period in question and the musical context must both be taken into account in performance. (Rousseau) The Minuet is played in a manner which carries along or. through the habit they have contracted of stressing each bar. only the first of which bars.

101. .^_^\rr>I r•11•11rr11111111•1111\_ ---\_ • vvr•...MION/M•a /V >. ).ra•• ...1••11r! aar. and for this reason known as a musette bass.1••••11•11Wl^-•_r^—_\_===.^7.J•I^•J••• r^ ^^ ss ^I I MOM./ Ar^M 1. naive and gentle in character.•^•a = ^ ^^^ ^•^^•^••_^^. ♦ _ Vi—\•L< AIM= ^Ir r\ra . in triple time) to each bar..=11•••10.411r /011••r•. L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 = 76 -I+ r ^-^ =MIR 4C81YP7 • s V =11•MZEIIII /7 /• t •••••/•• ss •••••• .. IrW s JIMI1♦ r•.. —•rrJ.••.L.. P./INP111=1L .• •/ AENEENE JMINI•MMIJ•/ 1* 1111•M•I 1sr.v WM.r•JIII •M7•r__^7^^•^ 1. as t te MUSETT E J(orJ) = 80 (in 3/4."•111•1•111•11 _•1•^J^J AIM ^ s^•^^ _^ ^_M^^=^•r•r•r• • ^ ^•^^ ^^ ^ _ ^^.7911. for instance.•J •r.MW _ MI 11s11/ NW s M. MiNIN/WW I .^/ • + Minuet (CHOQUEL) 1759 W \' 11_J A/ v ANIMIIMP..a V/^^•IL '^^ s •=1=1•1111•s1\1111•• IMO s^ ••1111•r••MMIMNAIIr. ) = 80 (in 3/8. Quantz) Kind of tune (. 82. 1 . It is clear that the elaborate writing of this last Minuet (no longer for dancing.4111 /MN •11.‘••••••1•10. 1681-1767) IL e J•1•111. the first Minuet by L'Affilard quoted on p. ) Sometimes it is the whim of certain dancers to require it played so fast that there is only one pulse beat (80 to the minute.= J•/ 11I•• s •./ •/ • 1• * lJ•••• J••• 11•I1•77•.••^^^^^r•r^^ ^^ •^ i11 •^1 l 1 •r^l Minuet (M.. but for playing only) necessitates a slower tempo than. r e • NIMMIIIIM•1•71 Jr♦♦• Bi•Nr• •J^7 •JEEI •.s-s t .•rI:!a/. .^_ VP 1111•11___11•11311•1 ^••rl^••IJ•••Irl s •••rw•I ./ 1J MAINE •411•1\W•111•1••11•••N1M=MI MI s 011 s/s//\ --...732 . TELEMANN. Minuet (G. •aMIMr. (Rousseau) A Musette is to be played with great charm (.`1 •• 1•11•1•1•1•1•1.B.••• s ••ral r 1•• —.r•r n^^ ^I^IS •!^^•rJ•Jl^rra^•^•^^^^•r^ ^ ^^•^•t.25. whose metre is of duple or triple time with a somewhat slow tempo.III•••/ I Mill MN LAMM' -.83 Minuet (ENGRAMELLE) 1775 J = 76 V • .SII • 1•^^^^_/ i ^•MII • I N.1 .oppp - i 11.111 Minuet (John LŒILLET) c1725 • MIS/•V r•r••rJN •11Jr•JI•s \=111 • .. s / 7••••••-7 ./••__^._=1MIN•11..-^ ^•^^^^^ ^-^^ ^ s•ss ^ ^` O 1. Quantz) J(or J. and normally featuring a held bass or pedal point such as a musette can play.II7 ^T^1 1I 1• •. (Quantz) A.I^•r^^•^_ •^^^^ _ J••==pr1••^^ ^^•^^^^ `—s.

mm=1r u eJ.__••-. Musette en Rondeau (M. ) It owes its origin to the French. applies equally to the Musette.^1 ^1• ^1^'^1r s11^I^/^^ ^ 111111 s11 1 d1111•11114111. BLAVET) c1737 Gracefully. See also on p. Telemann's Overtures. The French Overture was to be adopted throughout all Europe. without being slow .t ^1111•^^ ^ 76^ .11^•^•^= Musette `la Favorite' (E. 1696-1762) Gracefully.••••••.^----.^ No •M11s Musette (J.. de BOISMORTIER) 1731 Gracefully ^L'1•t1 .1•S•1•J1I^11^1/ LJIM1S 1 /J11I11•1•MM1J•ar L11JWI11111/. ) should have a majestic and solemn introduction (.. P. the four Overtures by Bach. By extension.._—_ _—.m••N11ENNIIIIM==IMIIIM1Ill s'''1.84 N.-25..1t11J 1^1^1J1•^^.._ — s^^. ./ WW/M MINIM IM••41111. An Overture (.-.11s111 L411110t.t'^ ^^1111 MIMI 1^1111^^1^1I:^ 11•1•^11111.732 . 1•1`18•1111a11^JII/ W ^1 J^11 ^^.\ /=^• ^^^1 ^.I1j s \ •I1.. 1~111111111•IM I^1^ :I1^ V/^^ 11^ ^^ 1^ 1^11^^1. 1696-1762) With nonchalance ^__ -do ^--}^r-J1/^1—r: r^ Á t♦11^^J^ + + ^ ^^tÁ ^ ^ ^/ 1^.•••MM II .J••s1 NMI + . ^ 1^' ^^1•M• OVERTURE The Overture has its origins in Opera: it is an orchestral prelude designed to open (French `ouvrir') an opera.A11111•11 ^i1•^ JIII111M •1•a••'9•1•1111 /111•11111.mu. The slow section of the French Overture calls for double-dotting (j. CHÉDEVILLE. P..11 = .. + am ---^ y ^I^ ^ .I/I/I al 1•2•1•31 1111111111M• 1. B.^. he claims./^ ^I ^\1^A ^7♦/`•w=^r/ 'J••C^^tJJrl^/ A ^R/ /7♦I11111IILtI 1II =I • M 1111•1111•J11 M J 1LA III If LIIIIIIIMIItlllllll/11/11/11•11011111•1111111\J. solemn character. Lulli provided good models for it. 92 the interpretation of the Alla siciliana according to Quanti which.1<:D^^/^11•^1^1I^^^I^ME•1J111111/ ••••••1 ^^^^1 l. have far surpassed him.i11111111111111•111C s111111 I ^. but a few German composers. I• IMINI NM J14/1s1111M1/1 r1111^ •s•••••'s — FINN= MIL -.+ Musette 'la Sincère' (E. for example.. an Overture may serve as an introduction to an instrumental suite (and sometimes the term Overture may even be stretched to cover the whole of a Suite as.L. etc.11•111111L1 1110. CHÉDEVILLE.).t •' 1111I1!•1J J• rR=]/ I11 V. JEI ) as a necessary requirement of its majestic. without being slow + .B.11 Mr 1 •. =le:- __ _ _ V .S • =RIM I ARNI • Ll1111•s 411•11//111 •11•1•. (QuaiAz) A. Jbecoming J. Lully established the French Overture form: slow — fast (— slow) which was to be notably successful.•111. • .---=1. especially Handel and Telemann.

M^ MMMIA^.-4111•11•1•1111111 'uMMl/MIM rain.• M•AM. The Italians ( . •I • .I ~eV MI • It.1111 . 1..^M 1^•MM M• MI ^MIMIMIMMMI M M. WI • .. O MM MA MMMMMM7M^MJMM•M^M 0 . ) consist of a lingering section labelled `slow' which is normally played twice.. .111=111M•1=1.1.1•M W AM In s. normally in triple time.. . ^ M MINIIII=M/MLMW MM ^MW^.•//•• I M. =III ILA A7 ^ 1.r.• lAIA.U.M/M1•••• WOW MM•A•• ! MNIOIMMMI. 1I7M•Jsi0M /611W7111.I.l... . ^ (Slow) %S 'SIIIMI–M-r7 MIN MMM AM•. . MM r= M••s••••s /M-s'.MMWM•M/•MMIM M P MIM.'^l•MIAMIMMtMMMIAIMMMMtMM^IM1\ IV= 1♦. s •IMM• 1:711s11•9•MMAMMRAM1.Ast•1111•1•11•MM FAO MMM. . 25 -732 .1 8 ILI ^7• M^1 .77/1s4.1l MMMMI IMO M•MrM EMI MHNNI •T MM.^MA• T 17 In 1•MMI•MM.• AIMS ....•••••.s.^ ummMM-7MIAMM/'M AIM/ • L.L.1•01•1M•M AM .MMlMMM1^MMMM^MMMMMM I ^1 we PASSACAGLIA j= 106 (L'Affilard) a little faster than j= 160 (Quantz) The Passacaglia differs from the Chaconne (see the definition from the same A.• I.1.MIMr MI MI _ .aMlt .85 A Sinfonia which one strives to make brilliant. I= MI– !•III . /M• MI M•MIIIa1•MISaM111M . lively piece in duple or quadruple time. M.MIAJ^MI Mr MMLri • .M11MIaM/AM••111111MI MM M•t>I7A71•1Mr.Wl1 MCI 110.M• AMMMMMat M MMI/1MAMM.M1111MI II11110MMM.. ): a number of these repeated sections finish by returning to the slow tempo ( .A• aM. M`MIM M ^ M •^'^^^^ M • -iiM7ArMWMMAM•rM JINN=A IMAMA•MMM . 112. . ..A.I.•.MIA1•111111MMM INN= /AIA7 III Mr MIM-1 1 ^ I V.ntlF .A. and a skipping repeated section styled `spirited' ( ..M•.^WM_M M . VI AMMA>•M7MlMM• UMW • •AM7/. imposing and harmonious ( . before ending with a brilliant Allegro.• V7 .11M.M•wumlMAMA AIA. s.V70•••MMM•MMII111.1 s AMMAIMMMMM MMMr MN= s MMMMM 11=m– J^ .1•IAMrAM IM• r / MMMMMAMM• I= •M. ^ i. -MM •/7•M• –i MM.. WIN 1A •<^II^ umsaMM /1/ AMmmMtMWmer7 sTimr1 •nmA••IuTs7sw' s•1 .r ..•10111•1 IV_ _HI AEU Ell 11J11•MIA..MMMM LM AU Is7/71:711••1♦ .M new / I •M•111111=1•11• 111.. LAO A MM/MM. >•M f= Ar M^^^^1 t•' 1 • .1MM•II MIME MI WMI1s rMiAM MIAMI MMIMM.1 0 Ammo /oir.1 W. . I AMIN.rI !L. (Spirited) r LarMIMMMoI•T 1r= . _^ a • <:aMMI/A•sZA7 W71MMM0MMM n1As111•IAM. ) Overtures ( ...MMMMMMMMIAMM.MMrMM.-.•MM.a.^M/ ^!!M•:MM^^.MMIIM.'IJ OM 11•11/71s M•MMIAWMWMA OM •• 1MMEMf MIMM/ •A^M1M.MMMMM Q MM IL ^11•11M A•AM • vimM•MMM memomI•dLammo MIMEO M. M SWIM= . .MIIMIMMMA10•M/M .MI osM.= MM/•lsINIWVIIIIIIIIIIEWIllMMM. . T 1MMII[.^^M.... ) nowadays organize their Overtures in a different way. I 12. DIEUPART) c1710 (Slow) •./ .M:M^7Mr7 ./Ar7 MOM s MM ./M•MM r• ^ s r^•r /AII MItMMINtMIMMM WM• ^MMIaA•t0M•J . (Rousseau) Here is a typical example of the French Overture: Overture (C.1.IAI I /MM•IL^.^MiMMMI.MM^ MI MM. They start with a leaping.. ..M••111 A M.MMMMAMAMMMM.AMi . an M M • M.M^'MMMMMt^r I^MM^IMM^ ^MIM/M•MAMMM .MI LM >•7=M•<Z.MIIN• • ! 0 M/MM•. then they slacken the pace by a half and provide an Andante in which they endeavour to deploy all the charms of bel canto.'711 MA =I /MI M M IMI /1•1•11M^7MI . ).wma.AO.I s !f 1^MM11MIMIA W MI 1Is7M M•711 •11s1 M 1•T s AMIMIM s1111M•111MI II111.•MMM AA.JmiMMJMMMMMM•••J ===== =OM .

7AR11•1•.41111 •^. Choquel) J = 160 (in 3/4..1 ^^^^r//1 ^ %^•s^•^•^r•^••^r•• ^.^r^•u•^nr ^•^ iiTr ^^a •••11111111.^ • - Passacaglia (VILLENE UV E) 1733 Slow and tender M.l^rt^^^^i.IS •• 1.... and is taken in one beat. The tempo is faster than that of the Minuet.0'1rf D-4/01111>•..1 MOM r A1ffr. Quantz's contrary view seems to refer to the Passacaglia for dancing. (Quantz) Most writers of the period agree in giving the Passacaglia a slower tempo than that of the Chaconne (in instrumental suites).•I M 11 711111.111111111•f 1fi.111111:•111111sr1111111••lIMIIi1•111.•r0r. and there are two vertical strokes over the central note: aura .II/a111110..111111. (Rousseau) The Passepied is played both slightly more lightly and more quickly than the Minuet..s111 . but it is played a little faster....^^a:•:I[ Ar^f^. the character of the melody almost similar.. 1. .^^ ^^ ^•^•^ t1^ ^.11111•1.WsrMMAN•71 tT7f! /1•1•71•117 . . • _ _ _ _ _ ^ ^^• _ s^lr... Passacaglia (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 j= 106 • Arosom sows.1M. = 88 (in 3/8..writers on p.11•.111M1•11•1 . as the ordinary Minuet.111•i•M!– •r0•41111111 sIIIMM11111wMI =I••11111111111• OISE s•111011NI 1 • PASSEPIED J.•A 1111•• •-• BMW r11111111MI 411111111.IN.11111Mi •11111111•1111•11111•11AINIIMI • N! J..400/ •// lIIMMw11111. (Rameau-D'Alembe rt ) A Passacaglia is the same (as the Chaconne). Often it is found that two bars are written as one (1). is shown by a 318.111111114111•11•/ .^i•ftrf• Vi^ i^^ l^ sl^1^t^•^^^ M L . (Choquel) A.-rte (1) It is in this (double) bar that dancing-masters impose the step they call the 'contretemps' (syncopation).a s s. and normally begins on the downbeat.25. ar'Ir11.•. a11.•.. (Rameau-D'Alembert) The metre is triple..11.rl r• arlr^ ..1i11111111s.. begin on the down-beat. Quantz) The Passepied is in reality a very fast Minuet which does not./ WIN AA= ale i: aNIS.rrw^•^r^.732 .^r•^^^^^^!• wr ^ ^1^^^•^i•. L'Affilard) J. but whose two repeated sections begin on the third beat. BRIM .^7^ 1:f1i•i .4111 ilk /IMs NMI MINI WARM WWII 41•1=11•11.11 ir•lOWr1111111M11111rr•111111111rMINIIMIIM NM r111..L.111•711111. = 96 (in 3/8.Aw/i/MA111 111•101/r1111111•1.^ . 74) only in that it is slower and more tender.

(Quantz) E Passepied (MONTECLAIR) 1736 :/v'^11111••••.4111.^^./ INII.1•1•••••ss/ —711s1111=1— s ^^^^^^^^ I a^ 1•1•. detached bow-stroke for each of the two crotchets—and in the same tempo as for a triple crotchet metre (3/4). ..87 Some leave these two bars separate and instead of the crotchet and the strokes write in two quavers with an arch (tie) over them.r MN" •1. more charming. Passepied (J. 1 ..—•••1111•11•WM —•—.. sI ! Passepied (CHOQUEL) 1759 sl•a.M •I1=11•I— •— /.i..11.••—IC1 • J•.s 11/!^1 _^„!.•d--•—•—. —••—KI —•—IMIL--I•11111•11•1•t•• ^i •1111• s •M./•1M••—.1 1•.• 1JY• AI . between which they insert the bar-line.^• ••— _ .. •^•^ Iwo.IIII =II — _INIII ••••I_ -111111111111 ••s '.1s1. with a short.1s1111I 11•INIIIIII••••••s .. Their metre is always 618..•••••ss11 s01 1=01111 •1•11111111•• •r• u Mil ••• =M I.—__^^•..I 1•^.• .^— ••--. =IMO MIAMI 1./ Ell•s ._ . equally sweet and less dull.01 11. French Airs called Pastorales are normally in duple time and have the character of a Musette..--.s ----1 — —IM MINN —S • •1 — ••••••—S WIEN_ /I 1•IIIIM1... BACH) c1720 ^ >.25.•. equal quavers V.a .1111•11ft_^ ^ • /MU 1•1711111111111r•••111111•_ .MIII'.—J•—.S>1•J•^•J•—. r•••.= =••I• ss =s --- fast. ^ •1111111111•1111•••••111111•1•111••••••••1111••• IN= I — ^ 111 I♦• —W7'[•1MIU>♦•s•1/•1 ^ 1s 11•.11•••••s••••11U•ANIMIIYAM •—•101.s . .. -1f—^^1^•= '.as/1111s.11t • >•I•1111111• ••—.—• .•__ t11 minim —M••.1•11. .. ^-. _ -• ^ ^ ^ —.732 .• .•^. 1s •s•I 1.—/•••MII•111/1 ^.11 •111=1.• ^ _^.. In performance these notes are played in the same way—namely. ISM sIII•I•^•1•—.11M•1/7.11= sI 111111s11[1• •IMIII • •1•11•11s •. = 96 [TTI 1-271 • a ^1 ^•^^ •_••1.^—^f— 1 / V./ / AMM.NMINIIMI—.•111s•1111111.._-111•1•._ s•./ i-••• a..^7 MANE./ I.....-••-.^7• MI= /1JW ..• Wa••••IIMI•. (Rousseau) A.1111•1••r.. S.^ ._1•••/•.I • "4•1r•••rs .••11•111.^ .c71111•1_411__•_ ^.^—•• ^—.4•11•—••—MININI•••s M.• MII —S •.t Mt•.—MMIIMMJ11 r ^^ PASTORALE (PASTOURELLE) Italian melody of the pastoral type. Italian Pastorales are more pointed.^ . l.1.^ — • _-__ • !•. I./ NW= •111.17•. ••J /11•/1 ^ .41.^^- ----Ng equal / '— AM •.4s1 ^ ]111s.1 . s .L.

1•. 0•1111s711111•/1M111111•111 s.^^.^ ^ ^ Pastorale ad libitum (attrib. .1. often followed by a Double.Mll..1U+WV IPr. ^. subsequently fashionatlle in 18th-century Germany. introduced in 1574 at the coronation in Cracow of Henry III of Anjou...r•^.11111..A /rM11111111IM MON 111•111MMINIII•I ^1♦_^^^t ï... MIUMMISMAIIII!•IIIIIIIMI/rIUrMMINIF /.^lr.r.^y a/JJ^ J•^J .1111WII. + + INNIMME IMIN.J ^SI^/IMs^^M.0 IWW sal. ._^•7 J•J^r^r1r^.^^^ :a^.711MIN ..IMI1♦.. where it adopted the gait of a rather moderate movement.^r•rW^^^f a • ^^.AMMI/1/11111•01•11111•1111111•111 s ! ^ 1s11111•11011M1111•r.I a f. .r^^ ^w^ . • PAVANE = 92 (L'Affilard) A grave and serious piece which is generally taken in duple time..rr7111111111 +^. /.732 ..4 MOM- INW/ =7111•111J{..1//M.1~..IIIIIII 1•MIIIUw MI 11111. Polonaise (TELEMANN) c1 716 A....L.411s r. 'I•'A.^ !a _.=J Ais11/ t•EMMINO NMI A1•1111s11IMIM l's•11•1111 'S^ ..NINIM ^/ . ^^/^J^ ^ ^.^^^^^.M1111=NI. IIIM..:.IMMEINIIa.ss••_ .r/^I. .. ^^^J..^^ 1111•1•1.1•WIIIMIBMINIBOI IrIIIMr_r• •s••..r11•11MININII.•1111.MIIMMw.25.I nn. ^s a..^___^^_^-I^^.^^1111• s • • 7 011111MIIMMIIMEJ._.rr.INENEr.^^. AIM )'. BLIMP-11 rJ^^^^^^^^^ ^ .111s1116.=OW 11s1/11M•111.110•11=1.IIIMIIIIWINII/.t MOM L» .=Mr.^. =•11•0.^^^ • s1.. r...1•1111•1111NJ111=^4111•1r/WW11111 /.41111s.JI.^.IIM_ t•INMI =MY" Mir-•111111r1=/111M/YMINNIMIIIIIIMMIMMIIIIMaOINIMIN 1+1 POLONAISE Court Dance. -m_ now... VII-7111M NMI MIU=MI.88 Pastourelle from Jephté (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 + '.mow .111 I. rNINIa. (Brossard) Pavane (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 Moderate '411111111•1..1U ^ !• NM MINIM ^. a .11111> !•/J111111 s 11111111 NIMIIIMrMINI=1111111MINIIIIIIMlMES MILAN ^J ^•^^411MUNMINI /MOM .. VIVALDI) 1737 .^a^ '"•••=11111•MMI.11•11MIM : MIIM7/11111MMW .r^^.I _/rJlf•.^^. generally in triple rather than duple time.\^^ sJ = 1a^.I !• NI L^...7♦•^sr J^ lma ! ¡♦ ^'fT•^.

major or minor) wherever one wishes to play. then. In the following written-out Prelude.732 . There is no special rule about the tempo or the length of Preludes..89 H2. it is worth while aiming for a very free interpretation that will as much as possible give an impression of improvisation: (1) and positioning the hand well on an instrument before beginning a piece of music. (Hotteterre) Here is how Freillon-Poncein defines the `impromptu' Prelude: It is quite simply an inclination to take the key of the mode (i. (1) This is normally done as a consequence of the power of the performers' imagination at the very moment when they wish to play without having written anything down beforehand. in other words in such a way as not to discomfort the ear. this sort includes Preludes put into Operas and Cantatas to precede and sometimes to herald what is to be sung. and which is a genuinely formal piece. one can even pass through all sorts of modes provided one arrives and departs to some purpose. and this is really the true Prelude (. (Double) PRELUDE Two different sorts of Prelude may be considered: one is the composed Prelude which is normally the first piece of what is called a Suite or a Sonata.. long or short–and in discontinuous metre. The other sort is the impromptu Prelude (Prelude de caprice'). (Freillon-Poncein) In his `Art of playing Preludes' (L'Art de préluder). . (Rousseau) A.L.) (This) Prelude should be produced on the spot without any preparation.25. though it is always best to stop on the tonic. however.e. abrupt. each Prelude must begin on one of the three principal degrees of the mode one wishes to begin in and finish on any one of these three. Hotteterre's intention was to show how an `impromptu' Prelude could be improvised. they are done in various ways as the player fancies–perhaps tender.

. . A..110111MIE 441101 s..ME M11 s111.s A.1111 ..10/7. ...11•90101 0.11300...14117 s111•111101111•11rs INI•1111•111=111s7 JIM AMMO IN0101101.1111101•01111011 ...Nor 0701101111s01001101I-7 MO 01101s00010~.VW ..110214/1.s11s"...04MM UM MINN Mr1011010•00110.. s•s••••=1111•111M . 10110100110 SIM MD*" •110110111 •00011010/. BONONCINI) c1700 •.0/~/ ill I Mr 01101100 IMIIM ME ----.L." Rams.. (Quantz) Rigaudon (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 = 120 • .70&440/M0 IN Igwom..11 ir-IMMINIO MINIM i III a I•71 4.4010/111000101010011/110 •allEIMIEZ4111.1...4•0 IV dIffW s•06. :-. 00.1•11111ilia • NO MIME IMINIMIIN4/ AlrIll Mg_ A /MI /11040111111110..-. 1011M OM 4001101•104.. l• 1110M10011000 11101140•000150011111•01•0•100.l• IMIL-711111.s--- ANNININW NAM .mow ... and beginning with the last note of the second beat. a:istmsw..010•NrINI JIM Wir r /1. .•••.111•11111MI MM./~ .01110000010 Mall ILNIPMPTININI.11100= 11114011100111 0•011110 • MUM NUM .. 25-732 . NI MI WINN MN OM 011401011/14MMPIMINIIMMI10 ZWL-714•1111 200111M 0111004.1•••s• .amem — --..... AN ss• .' ex .. •wMf 111LINIMMIFIN.01 00' MING wail.•••••• ss•• .111/9• 40 s110 /111/7111=111111010001/7 •lirrY 1•ILOMPOSNIEle .11111111. (Rousseau) Bourrée and Rigaudon are played with spirit and with a short. /14.. •& .00010=10111011010111001 ..4101100•400111101 I M...10111MMII MOIR OE 00110101 4030MI 01.•• • MN 1.....1 OM MI!~ NIMINI•A MI MINIM= AM 1001 I Rigaudon (QUANTZ) 1752 j = 160 .0111101•01 1IM1.110. 010..•10 0101=1014-1=1Ms110111110. normally made up of repeated sections of four-bar phrases..4100.. 10110 1111111110 00110101110.e....100111 ..1•14•111K.. MO 11•0011100 'Miff 000 10W•dr . s. A kind of dance.4•11 • MOM NIMMII I 003..1. light bow-stroke.A..ON ". the following Prelude corresponds to what Hotteterre calls a 'composed Prelude': 'Composed' Prelude Preludio (G.1 3•4•111000 Er1111 MIMI IIIIIIIIIC In contrast./111s 9111VILI VW 111141111•111•111..1.-....410/11 01/.74.4•000•0•1070. the tune of which is taken in duple time.. in a spirited tempo.201101 101011 0. MN 010.m. MINN Milli 01011011001101101•10 M•111•11. OM MINIIIMMIU -s.11:0100004•101010101 al OM =I UM. B....90 'Impromptu' Prelude (HOTTETERRE) 1719 With gravity 40 Or..""•s• •=1 IIMB 00111010110111400M1s4101110100140001111 /Min SS MN — -.0101•0110111s7111=110101J010000181114/ .W1111111.I 00010101101011•110 I 20111101000•14s111000.1111011110101110.1s11111111•11s: Mail W"lo 00101111100110010M. 41.10s 4111110~011.01 1010=01MI 0111 010•11001011101100•111110100 ..1•17a...-.--..10..... r. IMAM .11P11 MIMI UN .71..001101•1 .••sss••// •s ••• Ammo . 16..-N A -40- • Er •• • re- RIGAUDON j= 120 (L'Affilard) ej= 132 (Choquel) 160 (Quantz).I' I1/ IINI MN IIIIIII MI ' — ft..11P..WIEL• 001111 .M00110000 .

(J.IN AI ^._I^^•^^ ^^ ^s11 M^J^^^^^^^^i I W . When the first couplet has been played once. finally ending with the Rondeau.. which is actually called the Rondeau.1•111111s 11•1111.. = s s111/1111111111r7 MN .WIMIMI WIWI. NI /11. W..f /^\.4NUMM1111111 s111111411/ 4•11•11/111111sa1111/ sa111ss Wail >•1111111MI IN •j=11•11i i IIIIIII MIN= EN NM MIMI IWI.71 _.^1• ^ M ^^ 5!•^ta^^^^^_^ ^^^)♦ ^^ r1 1 I I I RONDEAU J = almost 160 (in or 3/4.7•sr1111WW II. 25-732 .11• 1111/1111I1 I= ANILJ MI/ t-=A. e^ .= . (Rondeau) (END) (1st couplet) SalifiM . a/MN_ /• s•s•11•111111111INI /111111111:4111•I I7aIIIIIIIII• MN IMIIII/ M/AMI1=115 a . `Air en Rondeau' etc. doing so almost invariably by groups of three notes with the first note of each bar dotted. =MI .411IIII 1111111♦ = l'7 AN rVA^/^t^ M^_^^^1 . ^^ MM.1•11Y1111111s MY1111111111/1111111111111s.:11111111r MI ^IIIIIIIIIi • NMI= w11/110.^^^^^/^ r = ^ m ^r M ^= MINIMS NB ^. (Marpurg) A Rondeau is played with a certain tranquillity. M.IZIIIIIMIMMI I IM r . M ^^ M ^ ^^^ 1 ^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^a^^MMMMM_— =I•• . ^^^eJ_^^ ^ . Quantz) The Rondeau is a musical form which enjoyed a great vogue in the 17th and 18th centuries.PWIIII/^ i^111••s11. 1738) Marche en Rondeau (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 Spirited -1^ r711111111 —^. This form could apply to all types of movement (`Gavotte en Rondeau'.M1111111111 MIN 11111•111sMt_ NM MN NI •. MIIIII IN I .M^^ J^.)." .11111.1111/111•1•1•11sU 1• _ /1111/11111.91 ^L. (Brossard) Saltarelle en Rondeau (DENIS) 1747 A. before going on to the first couplet. MIMI s ^^^==r I7 ^. 1 (Rondeau) 0 (2nd couplet) b^9 (Rondeau) i ^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^A^^ r.7•^^/ If IJ^ s =^.L. the first section is also repeated once. w -^^ I M . /^ ^^7 v . Marpurg defines it thus: One begins by playing twice the first section.^.ANNO ^^^^ '—. after which the second couplet is played. but this can be done without increasing the tempo./Q 1 = . Leclair. AN ON II/711/ /11/711111111•111. (Quantz) Nor is it any less ridiculous to change the tempi of two Rondeaux that are intended to go together. NMI MN s AM = MM =WI -AIM.011•11111111 _^_^^_I^. I L ^••••11111.111rr.. f .s 111 IMMIIIIM_IMINOILAIMMM s1•11•1111•111110 SALTARELLO This is a sort of movement that continually leaps along.. `Gigue en Rondeau'. I-AMINNI•J W . playing the major one more quickly than the minor one: certainly it is a good idea to brighten up the major one by one's manner of playing it. 4th Book of Sonatas for the Violin.

abata.r ^. .. should be played very simply. but is played with slightly more agreeable expression.//^rI.a•.4•1•arra•a•aa•^aa•-••cW1a^.7[/A. properly understood. ) is taken in 3 slow beats.+^^^ar^-•n1 1 -.:araa^l.L. L'Affilard) J = 134 (in 6/4.STa-ra•• Main . alai. L'Affilard) From being a quick dance in the 16th century.^a^alaa^^Iaa• ^aa. (Rousseau) An Alla Siciliana.aaa^ ^aa. : . serious... slow. with hardly any shakes. Quantz) J = 88 (in 3/4. the Loure and the Courante). in 1218 metre with dotted notes interspersed. ^ w^1•0111111•• •^ ^tá ^i ^r^^^^. tempo.J•••.^ • aiiL^71 1I 1 MINIM •^. + r r . and not too slowly.k•aa11•1a1110110 11111111•ana111•1rar.1s••01101111111111M.^^^^ ^a^l^ari/ ^^ i '^í:ar^a-^a^^^a^^^ar^r^^^^^^^^^a^a^^^^.^ar ^ar/^aa^ i aa -^aa^•a^^a^nars a•r Mal •a. (L'Affilard) Sarabande in six slow beats (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J= 134 '<. ^ Ì i SICILIANA (SICILIENNE) ) having a tempo much slower. it is taken slowly in three equal beats ( .a/'^^^I/^^ aas / •rawasora1•rwomma.111•f^ )i. as for instance in the Sarabande and the Passacaglia. except for a few semiquaver passing appoggiaturas and some ports-de-voix: A.S a•^_ •aaaa\a•>. 25-732 I . but more lightly. (Quantz) Tender Sarabande (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 ej= 72 • aUa•Iaa^aa^a•/A •^^a11. but even more A kind of tune for dancing ( pronounced that that of the Gigue. L'Affilard) J = 80 (in 3/4.-^^al^aara• ^ r.92 SARABANDE j= 72 (in 3/2. the Sarabande became in the 17th and 18th centuries one of the (moderate or slow) movements of the instrumental Suite. . ). (Freillon-Poncein) A sarabande has the same tempo (as the Entrée.• ^ ^^•a•\•' ^aa^ra^^ •^r^•••i I1 ••-ala\^ r• aiaa^ MINIM aar FM a/ •aa^a s^-• • When this metre is made to sing solemnly. -4- + + Sarabande en Rondeau (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J = 88 ++ + + it i 11111•111/7a/ Qa•rat nwat At /7^r t lilIrIla•t 17dga-=iK ^• 1 MOM/ a1.aew Nimble Sarabande (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 In the tempo of a Chaconne +. Grace notes can scarcely be used. being only a Minuet with a grave. the Chaconne is taken in the same manner.aaII MN NI 'ON/WIar l>•rwt i>•71!!!>•'O 1111r ^^ 11 • : ^^. etc. Ammn^••^^/^ a^v^^t^r^^^ ^^^w^/a^^ s^ Sra^r/a^m^on^ 1 crusa^ Ii t>.-. WW1 . The Sarabande.11a.1•^a•a•1ar ='. (Brossard) The metre ( .

/^^•.. M1^^.MINIM .=/•=A..INI IIII/L!'.1lt 1 ^^ ^1• ^ A^rl. 451=.1111' Pd= rJ.^. HANDEL) c1722 'MN= 1) 1_17 1•Uwt AlIJ•r.1 l71^f 71..41/ =It s .vJIM.I. TAMBOUR IN a little faster (than 80 bars to the minute.^ ^.. . OEM .-P. F.=111111IJ// !7/ If . III MN.._ =.11111111 /W..i w^•J^/•//1^.=^_ =NI .^7^^^^== =..2. ) with which the piper normally accompanies himself (Rousseau) The Tambourin is in two repeated sections (..^^.1•INIII _ /LA= AIM \`.1s1 S!•111M1111 =.iINSI...i.i !LM=11. !'77t L• =1 . •A/J.^.7^\^/r. or] pipe (`flûtet') of the people of Provence.J /LI =. • />L7=•/ial.1••AL ^^^^^.a1=1••••={J. ELM Ls /. A.. This rule applies equally to French Musettes and Bergeries../^I/S 4../..` ^^ V•s•=11••1..93 because this is an imitation of a Sicilian shepherds' dance.IIIII MAI INIIIM/ MOM ...••••11 .1 s _ It !<=.A/f•1• ^^^ ^t-^^^^•^./IIMII..L..1•J1=J11111111tJ.s 1115I1=1 /L^/111=J.=11=J J.. 25-732 ... (Quantz) Sicilienne (John LŒILLET) c1725 Affettuoso ^^^ L.•==^I..t =t .^^^ ^ =/. Quantz) A kind of dance much in fashion nowadays in French theatres.I )11111S _/ ===== J • ..411=r1rrt• AA I= WES J.\1111= ..11111 a4111=.=•. ) It is taken in two very fast beats and each section normally begins on the second beat. ar.^ii 1=1• / _^^=./.1 sE..^.t 117r111111= . ^ •/ ^ _ ^ .^^ •.. RAMEAU) 1735 Nimbly Tambourin (DENIS) 1747 !LUSllt-^ / J/7^7=/I//^ s/=//. Its tune is very spirited and is taken in two quick beats.. and the bass should strike the same note over and over again to imitate the tabor (..f L= .1INI J•.IIIMICfI I 1717 A all/01 1 -'=.^^^1^.• s /I/'//i./ sLMIII..J ^^. .11••=lf Al= MI II IIAA'===J•. It should skip along very rhythmically...Z71.==s•^^^^^^ ==^. NI =I.r 5•=1.^^. except a little faster.^'^ :I. (Quantz) Tambourin (J.•111.11=:7I.JI1•11 I.J..^ 1lts•1•^J.^^^/^^^^^=. INI Siciliana (G.^^/ AM :i1I I MIIIIIr/L11•11. 17J•. (Rameau-D'Alembert) A Tambourin is played like a Bourrée or a Rigaudon.MU . imitating the [`galoubet'.=r181=.^. A =I =I .AN W.A.MIs ...l..

1^r^J ^ t) _ ^• +^J'__` M__ ^_ .L. a little more lively in tempo than the ordinary Chaconne.94 VILLANELLE The Villanelle is a somewhat spirited Chaconne (see the definition by the same author). MAIM u^^^^.^^^ ^a1.25.. The basis of the tune is normally a fairly simple couplet on which one then makes Doubles or Vari'tions. (Rameau-D'Alembert) A kind of rustic dance whose tune should be sprightly and articulated in a very clear metre. ._1_+_1_+_=-^ / _=^^^r^ ^^^ ri ^. (Rousseau) Villanelle (CAMPRA) i 710 • L. (END) /1 j• ^^^^• WW1 III ^^j .^ ^w^^^^^^^^^rar ^ r^ ^ ^ / -^__ ___ _1J_.732 ._ a s- A.111sa.

1694-1717 LOULIÉ Etienne: Eléments ou principes de musique. 1747 ENGRAMELLE Father Joseph: La tonotechnie ou l'art de noter les cylindres et tout ce qui est susceptible de notage dans les instruments de concerts mécaniques. 1755 MONTÉCLAIR Michel Pinolet de: Principes de musique. 1737 DENIS Claude: Nouveau système de musique pratique. éclaircis. 1696 MAHAUT Antoine: Nouvelle méthode pour apprendre en peu de temps à jouer de la flûte traversière.BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS CITED BACH Carl Philipp Em an uel: Versuch über die wahre Art das Klavier zu spielen (Essay on the true art of playing the keyboard).) pour apprendre la musique et les agréments du chant. sur le hautbois et autres instruments de dessus. 1772 CHOQUEL Henri-Louis: La musique rendue sensible par la mécanique. 1702 TARTINI Giuseppe: Traité des agréments de la musique. A.732 . développés et simplifiés par Jean le Rond D'ALEMBERT. 1736 MUFFAT Georg: Suavioris harmoniae instrumentalis hyporchematicae florilegium. 1733 N. 1767 SAINT-LAMBERT Michel de: Les principes de clavecin avec des remarques nécessaires pour l'intelligence de plusieurs difficultés de la musique.L. 1695-1698. 1703 CAJON: Eléments de musique. 1753-1762 BACQUOY-GUÉDON Alexis: Méthode pour exercer l'oreille à la mesure dans l'art de la danse.. 1771 VAN DER HAGEN Armand: Méthode nouvelle et raisonnée pour le hautbois. QUANTZ Joh an n Joachim: Essai d'une méthode pour apprendre à jouer de la flûte traversière. 1752 RAMEAU-D'ALEMBERT: Eléments de musique théorique et pratique suivant les principes de M. RAMEAU. 1719 L'AFFILARD Michel: Principes très faciles pour bien apprendre la musique. 1700 HOTTETERRE Jacques called Le Romain: L'Art de préluder sur la flûte traversière. . de la flû te et du flageolet. sur la flûte à bec. 1759 MARPURG Friedrich Wilhelm: Anleitung zum Clavierspielen (Introduction to keyboard playing). avec plusieurs remarques pour servir au bon goût dans la musique. 1766-1778 BROSSARD Sébastien de: Dictionnaire de musique. 1778 (Fétis) BÉDOS de CELLES Dom François: L'Art du facteur d'orgues. 1792 VILLENEUVE Josse de: Nouvelle Méthode (. 1759 COUPERIN François: L'Art de toucher le clavecin. 1717 DAVID François: Méthode nouvelle ou principes généraux pour apprendre facilement la musique et l'art de chanter. ou nouveau système pour apprendre facilement la musique soi-mime. 1752 ROUSSEAU Jean-Jacques: Dictionnaire de musique.25. Isolated references to other publications not listed above are given in full at the end of the quotations in question. This bibliography lists the principal treatises from which are drawn the quotations in the present work. 1775 FREILLON-PONCEIN Jean-Pierre: La véritable manière d'apprendre à jouer en perfection du hautbois. B.

37. 61. 84. VIII.61.49.732 . 68 Adagio affettuoso 2 Adagio assai 60. 76. 26. Coulement 33. 90 Improvisation 89 Inequality: see Unequal notes Inflated sound: see Son enflé Intervallic leaps 26. 20. 71 After-stroke 46 Agitato 60 AGRICOLA M. 8:8-9 Chaconne 7. 47 CLERA. 74. 53. 76. 29. 65. 55-57 59. F.72. 29. 61. 80. 4. 74.61. 93 Bowing.85/86. 66. lutenists 47 Maestoso.88. 65. 68. 85 Andantino 60. de 47 Lute. 64 LOULIE E. I. 20 Bourrée 4. 35. 34. 36. 91 Lento 60. 78. 66 Largo 60-64 Largo assai 60. 42. 50. 25 Canaries 8. 7-69.71. 59 Finger vibrato: see Flatté. 60-66. 8. IX CORRETTE M. de 48 BORDET 13. 7. 76. 14.94 CHOQUEL H. 69 Allegro ma non presto 60. 52 Couplet 74. 45.-6-2/63. 81 DENIS C. 42. 62/63. 5. 33-48. 47. 48. 92 Fugue I Furie 18. 64. 82 Harpsichord. 80. 64. 29.. 67. 18.4.l notes Double 32. 19 BOURGEOIS L.69 Allegro moderato 67.86 Chronometer 70 Chute 23. 69. 69 Allegro 1. 8. 67. 75/76. 91 MARAIS M.77. 9. 47 Air de ballet 1. 3. 82. 92 DAVID F.. 50. 29.76.82 BEDOS Dom 70 Bergerie 93 BOISMORTIER J.6-9.80. 36 MARCELLO A. 2527.L. VIII. 61 Entrée 4.MBAULT L. 27. 69 Anacrusis 30 Andante 60. P. 72 Aria larga 71 Arietta 72 Arioso 61. 32 Cadence: see Trill Cadenza (improvised on a pedal-point) 58/59 CAJON 2. 92 COUPERIN F. 38/39. 37. /$0. 43. 73/74. 62/63. 89. 86. 31 BACH J. 29. 40. 92 Equal notes 13. 79 Cantabile 64. 90. 65. 73. 24. 7. 23. 7 Air en Rondeau 91 D'ALEMBERT: see RAMEAU-D'ALEMBERT Alla breve: see Metres in Alla cappella: see Metres in Alla siciliana 61.82 Loure 5. 3. Recorder) Flatet: see Pipe and Tabor Forlane 5. 85 Allegro assai 60. 38. 74. 91 Gigue 5. 1-9. 4-0. 66. 64. 64 Appoggiatura: see Port-de-voix. 36.35.7.61. 59 Dolce 61. 80.74 Lento di molto 60. 36/37. 76. 25. flautists 18. 44. 66. B. 70/71 Allegretto 60. 49-52. majestic 61. 66. 25 Dotted notes: see Double-dotted notes. 94 Courante 7. 77 Furioso 60 Gaillard 77 Gavotte 4. Un equ. 61. 42/43 Detached notes 13-15. 5.90 Branle 4. 53/54 A. N. 88/89. 62/63. E. 72. 75. 62. A. 75.74. 11. 66 Adagio cantabile 61 Adagio di molto 60. 84. 78.36 Adagio 1. 38. 25. 23/24. Flattement 33. 35. bowed 42 HOTTETERRE J.35/36. 67. 27 Aspiration 34 Assai 61 BACH C. 61. 74. 2.35 Coulé. 44 . 69 Allegro ma non tanto 60. IX. 61. 29. 61. 94 Doublé: see Turn Double cadence: see Turn Double-dotted notes 27-31. 62/63. 60-63.34/35. 84 BACQUOY-GUEDON A. 7 Con brio 60 Con furia 77 Conjoined tastes: see Goats réunis Consonance 40. 84 ENGRAMELLE J.72. 79. S. 91. 69 Allegro di molto 60. 78. 15. P.29. 85 Arpeggio 3r Articulatory silence 11-13. 78. 66 LEBEGUE N. IX. 80 Diminution 49 Disjunct intervals: see Intervallic leaps Dissonance 39. de 2.65 Contredanse 75 Contre-temps 86 CORELLI A. 92 Goats réunis 52 Grace notes 21. 66. 29. 61. Flattement Flatté. 75. 1. . B.81. 47. 80. 27. 32. 83. 62. 92/93 Allemande 1.22-24. 92 Gruppetto: see Turn Gustoso 60 HANDEL G. 67. 74 DESPLANES J. VIII. 19. 68. 29. 92 LULLY J. 35. 65. M. 67.92 CACCINI G. 34. 22. 6.18. 6. 36 Major 74. 66 Dots (over notes) 13. 66. 23. 76/77 Forte: see Piano and Forte FREILLON-PONCEIN J. 84 LUSSE C.46 Circolo mezzo: see Turn Clavichord 42. 62. 42. 49. 6. 82 Ballet 76 (see also: Air de ballet) Balls 75. Coulé Aria 71. 3 66 Cantata . 34. 34. 68 Keyboard instruments 42 L'AFFILARD M. 19. 18. 4. 55. 68 (see also: Transverse flute.66 Lento assai 60. 3. 46 LECLAIR J.45. 50. 92 Larghetto 60-63. 79. 72/73 BROSSARD S. 64 Adagio pesante 61 Adagio spiritoso 61. b2/63. 91. 89. 14. 87 Fall: see Chute Fermata 43.76. 64. 58. 34. 75 Coulade 18.91. 68. 84 Harpsichord 3. 69 Allegro ma non troppo 60. 76. 66 Affettuoso (Affetto) 61. 53/54.46. 68.75. 79.-25. 6. 40 Cotillon 4.92. 80.50 Flute.96 INDEX OF TERMS. 29. 40.87.78.62.79. 75. L. 81. 14.82. 84 MAHAUT A. 50. 75. bow-stroke 13.82. 74. SUBJECTS AND AUTHORITIES CITED Accent 34. 66 Largo di molto 60. 6.

24.65. 65.44.732 .81.10.65 Stringed instruments 18.93 TARTINI G.33-38.8 10.92 6/8 3.89 Son diminué: see Son enflé Son enflé 13.24 12/8 2.13.69 Pipe (and tabor) 93 Piqué: see Detached notes Poco Adagio 60 Poco Allegro 60.46 Theatre 82.89.48 Tremolo 47 Tremulant stop: see Organ Trill 11. 27.^ _-.55.L. 33.10. 79.27-30. 60.24. VIII.81.4.69.34. 85. passage-work 18.50.47.86.70.42/41. 86.L.70-94 Tempo c': cappella 3. 56.2 Pesante 66 Phrasing 11-32 Piano and Forte 42/.24. 84 Slurs and ties 13.37.86 9/4 6.21 ROUSSEAU J.76.83 Musette (movement) 80.44/15 Prestissimo 2.87 3 or 3/4 6 7.77.55. 33. 84.68.92.39. Pastourelle 87/88 Pause (trill): see Point d'arrêt Pavane 88 Pedal-point 58/59.f1ó Sonata 1/2. 10. 82.80-87. 24.14.10.70. 93 2/8 3. 65 Son filé 38. 46 Polonaise 88/89 Pomposo 61. 32. 30. 24 186.29. 74. . 78.88.49-59. 32.) 47 Romanesque 77 Rondeau 29. 79.91 Martellement 37 MERSENNE M.87 Soave 61.93 Threaded sound: see Son filé Ties: see Slurs and ties Time signatures: see Metres Tirata 18 Tonguing. 45. 76.18.32.65. 45 Variation 33. 94 A.50.72. 48. P.33.50 Unequal notes 20-27.4.92 Turn 43/44.20. 1. 61.24.24. 61.62/53. ornamentation 27.9.6. 59. 43.25. 93.65..36. 25 Style mêlé 52 Suite 70.67 Presto 60.81.85.85/86. 90.9.85 4/4 4/8 5.65.5. 40. 74.47.68/69 Overture 4.42.7.90 2or2/2 3. 76.69. 89 Opéra-Ballet 76 Organ (tremulant stop) 47 Ornaments.63 Sostenuto 65 Staccato 14/15.66-69 Tour de gosier: see Turn Transverse flute 19. 47.61. 19. etc.87. 29.48. 75. 73 Motet 4 Mordent: see Pincé MUFFAT G.81.24.49.4446. 3. 29.22 Presto assai 63 Quadrille 75 QUANTZ J. 56. 47.84/85 Pardessus de viole 19 Passacaglia 7.61.26. 83 Pendulum 7a.92 3/2 6/7.35.25.0 Port-de-voix 37. 44.78. 87. 80. 66. 82 Saltarello 91 Sarabande 7.73.56/57 TELEMANN G.25. 17.42. tongue-stroke 18.24.68.15-19.67.49.92 12/16 2/3 3/j. 26. . 49.83.93 Rocking (in vibrato. 89. 67.24.10. 49.10. 79 "171 3.79. 61.60.11.61 12/4 2. 94 Recorder 42 Repeated notes 25 Rigaudon 4. .43. 74.24.82.61.10.49. expression of different 68 Shake: see Trill Sicilian a 92/93 (see also: Alla sicili an a) Sinfonia 76.10. 10.37.92 Schneller 37 Semitones.83/84.29.16.79 6 96 6/16 9 9/16 9 Metronome 70 Minor 70 Minuet 7. IX RAMEAU-D'ALEMBERT 72.43.61. 50. 92 Swelled sound: see Son enflé Syncopation: see Contre-temps Tabor: see Pipe Tambourin 5. 84.82. SUBJECTS AND AUTHORITIES CITED (continued) March 4.33.6 10.4.92 Passages. 36.68.50.65. 39.46.40. 47. J. 61.80 VAN DER HAGEN A.69.64.87.43.66 Poco Largo 60 Poco Lento 60 Poco Presto 60 Poco Veloce 60 Poco Vivace 60 Point d'arrêt (trill) 37.81-83.84 Tempo 60. 86.19.65. J.60.72.5/6.58-61.16W.42.50.60. 84.79. chromatic ascending 65 Sentiments.5.60.62. gavotta 3. 36.8/9. 58 Stroke (in trill): see Trill Stroke (over a note) _.80.44.38-41. 81 MARPURG F.47 Messa di voce: see Son enflé Mesto 61. de 6. 64. 30.9. 8.10.64.41. _^^--- 97 IN DEX OF TERMS.88. P. 82.81. 87. 85. de 8. 55.94 Rubato 32 Run: see Coulade SAINT-LAMBERT M.29.10. 85. 46. mordent 36.60.75-78. 76.68 Pincé. 8.67.93 2/16 3 6/4 3.79.93.4346.10. 50.24.30.63. 75. 24.92 Mixed style: see Style mêlé MONTECLAIR M.79 Musette (instrument) 11.52.22. OM. ^^.64-69.4.23 Termination (trill) 43. 3846.73.74-84.83.24.80.4.52.29.72-78.78. 60.60. 90-93 RAMEAU J. 22.83.51/52.W.93 Oboe 53 Opera 4. .33. 40.62.69 Passepied -K71786/87 Pastorale.37/38.13.92 3/8 6-8.93 Prelude 1.72.5.51.86. 60.68.44.75.66 Metres in 4/2 1.61 Poco Andante 61.60.61. 73.18.58. $2/9Q Preparation note (trill) 37.90/21.68.90 2/4 3.41.83.4 Tempo d. P.18.49. 20.50.78-80.

y. 43.732 . 69 A. Flattement) Villanelle 74.72 Viol 36. 36. Vivacissimo 60 Wind instruments 18.Q4 VILLENEUVE J.2/ó}. 61. de 63. SUBJECTS AND AUTHORITIES CITED (continued) Veloce 60 Velocissimo 60 Vene cassd 36. 4T Vibrato 36.98 INDEX OF TERMS. 91 Vivace 60.. 67. . 42.25. 48 (see also: Flatte. 66. 47 Violin 19. 65. 69. 58. 66.L. 50.

21.25. Coulement 35. 3.46. 58. W. 25 DAVID F.50.76. 70.92 Mordent: see Pincé Musette 26. 7.2.31. 93 LŒILLET J.77.64. 47. 26. de 48.31.4. 12 Demons' Air.18.88.35 Coulé. 5.39. F. 47.78 QUANTZ J. 37. 41.83 MONTÉCLAIR M.71.36 COUPERIN F. . 76. 26 Pincé 36. 27.80 Cotillon 75 Coulade 18.90/91 Quickly 73 RAMEAU J.25-28. P. 86.99 IN DEX OF MUSIC EXAMPLES by subject and composer Accent 34. 90 Bourrée 4.72 Consonance 40 Contredanse 75 CORELLI A. 23 Loure 5.5.52. 44 Martellement: see Pincé MASCITI M.51. 79 Passacaglia 7. de 8.72.26.5. 74 Cantabile 16/17 Chaconne 7.9 BITTI M.77. 25.49.84 BOISMORTIER J.93 After-stroke 46 Air. 73.10.93 Ornamentation (French) 50/51 Ornamentation (German) 52-54 Ornamentation (Italian) 55-57 Ornaments 27 Overture 4. Con furia 77 Furies Tune 77 Gaillarde (Gaillard) 77 Gavotte 4.72 Branle 73 Cadenza (improvised on a pedal-point) 58/59 CAMPRA A. 14. with gravity 2.57. 37.65. 78 Allegro non molto 17 Allegro non troppo 50 Allemande 2.74 Chaconne (in the tempo of a) 92 CHEDEVILLE L. 30. 70.6. C.81 MARPURG F. 86 Passages (Doubles) 49 Passage-work 9. N.45.35. 46 Rubato 32 Saltarello 91 Sarabande 7. 84. F. 51. 93 Canaries 8.9. 75.34-38. 36.22/23. 4.87.43.48 Circolo mezzo: see Turn CLÉRAMBAULT L.2. 30. 3. 12. 92 ROUSSEAU J.38/39. Flattement 35-37 Forlane 5.84 Grave 15.78.39 DEMOIVRE D. 7 DENIS C.40.732 . 25.19.28. 48 Gracefully 71.41.16. 90. 1. 3. J.81. 81. 59 Dotted notes 64/65 Double 32.91.. 2. 71 Anacrusis 30 Andante 16.75.80 Lullaby 7 LULLY J.29.8. 77.80 Grace notes 41. 50. 93 HOTTETERRE J.84 BONONCINI G.89 Doublé: see Turn Double cadence: see Turn Double-dotted notes 27-30 Double-dotted notes. J.9. 1 BEDOS Dom 13 BERNIER N.71. 73.30.9. 25. 34. 23.90 Presto 63.63 Grave e affettuoso 43 Gravely.53/54.35. 77.. should be played) 64/65 Affettuoso 71. 83. 32 Couplet 91 Courante 7.38. 40.5. A. 48.46.43.79. 4.71-74. 87 Pastorale.80 LOULIÉ E.L. M.42.41. 43 DESTOUCHES A. 31 Passepied 8. 4.31.25. 83 Entrée 4.82. B. 19. S. 84 NAUDOT J. 85 Diminutiein 49 Dissonance 40.74.40.75.46. P. 25 A.70.84 CHOQUEL H.7. 48 Point d'arrdt: see Trill Polonaise 88/89 Port-de-voix 34.78 Gigue 5. B.81.90 Rondeau (form) 73.76 Equal notes 22.31 Fast 87 Flatté.92 SCHICKHARDT J.26 MARAIS M.87 Equal notes and detach 14 FASCH J. C.47. 14/15.87 BARSANTI F. 20.12. 78 Gruppetto: see Turn Half shakes 41 HANDEL G. 26 CORRETTE M.19.30.63 Adagio (of the manner in which the . 76 BLAVET M.90 L'AFFILARD M.74. exceptions 31 ENGRAMELLE J.59. 83. 45.26.36. 91. aria 71 Air of the zephyrs 5 Allegro 1.77 Furie. 3.77. 87 Chûte 34. F. Pastourelle 88 Pavane 88 Pearled notes 13 PHILIDOR A.82. 21 Nimbly 92. 86.63 Andante (un poco) 63 Appoggiatura: see Port-de-voix Aria 71 Ariette 72 Arpeggio 19 Ascending chromatic semitones 65 Aspiration: see Accent BACH J. 5 MARCELLO A. 91.48.71 LCEILLET J.76 DALL'ABACO E. 7 Detached notes 13 DIEUPART C. 80.17.53/54.35.25. B.55/56. 37 Adagio 8. 92 Largo 2 LECLAIR J.86. 31. L.34.49. C. 15.5. 53/54 March 4. B. 8.85 PAISIBLE J.46.9 Minuet 7.50.48 Prelude 2. 78. 93 DESPLANES J. P. D.26. 37. 22.79. 7.72.93 Rhythm (reversed dotted) 29 Rhythms (superimposition and succession of different) 30 Rigaudon 4. 38.76.55/56.

78 Tender Air.63 VIVALDI A.732 . 83. . 76. 26. 48 Unequal notes 20-23 VAN HEERDE A. (Messa di voce) 39. 3 Table of grace notes 48 Tambourin 5. 18. 8 Slow and tender 86 Slurs (complete indication of) 16 (absence of) 16/17 (filling in) 17. 85. F. 53.L. B. 41. 90. 10 Tempo di gavotta 3. 89 Tempo di cappella 3. 40. 37. 86 Vivace 8. 88.A2a3 'Spiccato' notes 25 Spirited (Gay) 10. 46.92 Slow (lent) 3. 16/17. 43. 18. 86 Tirata 18 Trill 36. i* 10 Li A. 48 Turn (Tourde gosier) 41. 19 (alternation) 19 Solemnly 27. 52.91 Staccato 13. I. 78. 93 TARTINI G. 28 Son coupé (interrupted sound): see Accent Son enfl t.100 IN DEX OF MUSIC EXAMPLES (continued) Schneller: see Pincé Shake: see Trill Shake with mordent 48 Siciliana 52. de 63.25. 71 Tenderly 81. 93 S il ences (Articulatory) 12/13 Slow (grave) 75. 7. 88 t^F ^^. 44-46. 12 Vill anelle 94 VILLENEUVE J. 14. 15 STUK J. 25. 31. 44. 57 TELEMANN G. 43. 85.

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