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MASS INFOTECH (CEDTI) , YAMUNA NAGAR (HARIYANA)
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING (COMPUTER ENGG. DEPT.) , 2004
UNDERTAKEN BY:PANKAJ ACHARYA COMPUTER ENGG.
HEAD TRAINING & PLACEMENT CELL
"POORNIMA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING" JAIPUR
" MASS INFOTECH "
ELECTRONICS INDIA(CEDTI). DESIGN CENTER TECHNOLOGY FOR OF
is affillited by
Govt. of India, Ministry of Information Technology. This certificate was acquried in 1997 for hardware and networking.Even though for a very short span, to be able to work in" Mass infotech " has been a valuable experience in the practical education and has given me a priceless insight into the functioning of a team of technology in aproven productive environment. I here by present my sincere thanks to all the concerned authorities for helping me in completing the training . I am glad to thank "Mr. Rajiv Lamba" who gave me this golden chance to gain knowledge at their basestation. I also extend my heartiest thanks to all the engineers and faculty members for sparing their valuable time in guiding me through my training. In short I would like to thank all the staff members of "Mass Infotech" for their co-operation and healthy support. ACHARYA PANKAJ
Today is the world of technology. There will be 5 crore computers and 10 crore mobile phones in the country by the end of the year 2008, bringing plethora of related job opportunities in manufacturing, services and maintenance in this arena of technology. As an engineering graduate, innumerable career options are available for you in varied fields but you will definitely agree that technical careers offers not only good remuneration and growth prospects but social status and job satisfaction too. Therefore apart from the engineering degree, which is more or less theoretical in nature you are required to undertake practical training, which can give you an edge over others when you apply for the vacancies in the organizations.
• 1) HARDWARE a) Introduction of hardware. • 2) INSIDE THE SYSTEM BOX. a) Center processing unit. b) Memory. c) Mother board/Electronic circuit board. d) Secondary storage devices. e) Different types of connector. f) Different types of card’s . • 3)POWER a) SMPS. b) UPS • 4)NETWORKING a) Introduction to networking. b) Types of networking. c) Topologies. • 5)NETWORK DEVICES a) Hub, switch, router. b) Ccommunication channel. c) Cbles and connector. • 6)RULES OF NETWORK a) Layers architecture. b) Protocol. c) Ip addressing. d) Network model. • 7) CONNECTIVITY a) Workgroup network using WINDOWS XP b) Domain networking using WINDOWS 2000 SERVER & WINDOWS XP • 8) FUTURE OF NETWORKING.
economics of scale will come into play and big hardware companies will be attracted to set up local manufacturing units. 10 times the current market figure. availability of skilled workers. with the domestic market accounting for USD 37 billion and exports for another USD 25 billion. Increase in the use of IT technologies in the government’s interface with the public has also stimulated the demand for computer hardware. dealings of publicly owned utilities. Migration from the old manual system to computing is taking place in large portion of government –public interaction. authentication services. The government has taken aggressive steps in providing quality infrastructure with “Hardware Parks” flexible labor policies. congenial business environment. SAD. Central processing unit There are many vendor of the cpu in the market same of them are Intel. customs. especially in providing statutory services such as land records.000 schools. All these factors will make the market respond positively. The factors that would bring such mega growth are: 1. AMD. Another major segment is “SCHOOLS & COLLEGES”. the immediate demand would be 18 million. if 20 PCs are installed in each of the country’s 9. VIA/CYRIX. 12 times its existing size. The X86 CPU architecture invented by Intel is the most popular for desktop computers today all the computers run the windows_9X operating system use X86 CPU . Transumeta / Motorola but the most popular are Intel and AMD Athelon. According to cll. level playing field. 2. CVD and sales tax. 00. collections of variety of taxes and transportation (Railways. Roadways and Airways etc).COMPUTER HARDWARE:The Indian hardware industry is expected to reach a size of USD 62 BILLION by 2010. reduction in excise duty. right policies and incentives. concessional import duty. 3. That would result in high demand of computer hardware and subsequently prices would come down and make it affordable for a general customer. it will lead to a phenomenal demand for increase in hardware and would provide a big boost to the sagging national economy. property transactions.
g. --. multitasking. internet computing speed. P-3 has 0.By placing the most often accessed data in the cache memory. SYNTAX FOR CPU RECOGNITION Name – speed in MHz/cache (KB)/FSB e. multithreading. When P-4 came the total architecture is different from P-3. (1) L1 cache (2) L2 cache L1 CACHE MEMORY (LEVEL 1 CACHE) This is closet to the CPU is the level 1 or L1 since 80486 an L1 cache has been built in to the CPU itself. P-4 if focused on multimedia. overall system speed increases. This cache run at the CPU’s internal speed and so is very fast. P-3 . Type of cache memory.13 micron technology.Intel Pentium 3 –1133/256/100 CACHE MEMORY OF CPU This is a memory associated with CPU. This is a type of memory that’s used to hold a duplicate of a larger store. . and often the motherboard.18 micron technology and the P-4 has 0.Intel corporation manufactured various kind of CPU’s but in market the most selling CPU we are concerning. Celeron and P-4 Celeron processor is a substitution of P-3 having same performance so Celeron is taking place of P-3. This gives batter performance in gaming. This is faster than the main memory .
.L1 cache is 16KB+16KB Pentium 3 ------.L1 cache is 16KB+16KB AMD athlon----.3MHz bus speed with a 10X clock gives CPU speed 1133 MHz(core speed). The core speed is the no.L1 cache is 128KB Since L1 cache is part of the CPU it can’t be expanded or replaced. but it’s also slower. As the CPU speed increases it becomes desirable to reduce the CPU voltage. In order to reduce the heat buildup inside the chips. CPU VOLTAGE +Vcc supply to CPU is +5v and V core = 1. 113. The bus speed is the speed of interface between CPU and the motherboard. For cooling a heat sink fan is mounted on the CPU. CPU PENTIUM-3 CELERON AMD ATHLON L2 CACHE SIZE 256-512KB 0-128KB 512KB Placing the L2 cache on the CPU module improves performance relative to putting it on the motherboard largely because the cache can operate at a faster speed. Now a days bus speed range from 66 MHz To theoretical maximum of 400 MHz for slot A. FSB (FRONT SIDE BUS)/ CPU BUS Modern CPU’S run at two separate speeds: the core speed and the bus speed. The CPU runs its core at the bus speed multiplied by the clock multiplier.(Main socket).g.Celeron ---------.7 v. associate most strongly with the CPU and is the speed at which most of CPU circuitry runs. For CPU after Pentium Processor this is coated on the CPU package. L2 CACHE MEMORY (LEVEL 2 CACHES) A L2 cache is more copious than an L1 cache. In order to set the CPU core speed motherboard includes jumpers or BIOS settings to specify a clock multiplier. E.
The delay between powering on the computer and The moment when it start working for you is due to running of these test and initialization program which sometimes are Called the POWER ON SELF TEST (POST). IDEA BEHIND BIOS ROM-BIOS It is short form for read only memory -basic input output system. particularly for the input/output Peripherals. =>fundamentally the bios is an interface a connection and a Translator between the computer hardware and the software Programs. such as the disk drives. =>The task of the bios is to take care of the immediate needs of the hardware and to isolate all other programs from the details of how the hardware works. these are Test and Initialization program that check to see that the computer is working. low level and intimate control And supervision operation for the computer. The ROM-BIOS is a set of Program built into the computer ROM memory that Provides the most basic. Basic content of bios: Standard CMOS feature.These programs provides the detailed and intimate control of The various part of the computer. First part:This part is used only when the computer is first turned ON. Second part:Important parts of the bios are its routimes. . PARTS OF BIOS There are three main part of the ROM-bios program. Third part:Rom-bios are the boot strap loader program.MEMORY. Advanced chipset feature. Advanced bios feature.
Set supervisor password.sys 3) Command.com In these files first two files are hidden files and the third one is normal file. PnP /PCI configuration. Pc health status. Load optimized default. Frequency/voltage control. Integrated peripherals.sys 2) io. MINIMUM REQUIREMENT FOR BOOTING: For booting we required minimum three files1) ms_dos. . WARM BOOTING:When we restart the computer from the restart button or using the key by simply pressing them i. Booting:The time duration between the appearance of the dos prompt or any window and the switch on the power supply the whole process is known as the booting process. Power management setup. ctrl+alt+del key is known as warm Booting. Set user password.e. Save & exit setup. Exit without saving. TYPE OF BOOTING A) COLD BOOTING B) WARM BOOTING COLD BOOTING:When we switch off the computer completely and properly after some time we start Computer again is known as the cold booting.
The board has input output ports. expansion slots 4. other expansion slots. Power supply and Power management 6. AGP slot. ram. BIOS 8. onboard IDE channels 5. . The key features of the motherboard. Battery 9. memory support 3. PCI slots. Socket 2.MOTHERBOARD If the CPU is the heart of the system the motherboard is its circulatory system. chipset. 1. floppy port. Power connector. IDE port. Input/output ports. chipset 7. The CPU has to be fitted on the socket on the Board.
Hard disk are Tightly sealed within an enclosed hard disk drive unit to prevent any foreign Matter from getting inside Data may be recorded on both sides of the disk Platters. Disk head seek time Time taken to seek the data by move the head is referred as the seek time. The difficulty is that the old CHS (cylinder/head/sector) addressing mode uses a 10 bit number can hold a value of between 0 and 1023 . causing the loss of some or all of the data on the disk. So the number of cylinders accessible by the BIOS is limited to 1024 hard disk performance measurements are(1) (2) (3) disk head seek time data transfer rate disk’s cache size. . which is the average time move the head from one location to a randomly selected other location. Both EIDE(enhanced integrated device electronics) and SCSI(small computer System interface) disks suffer from the limit of 1024 cylinder. The seek Time measurement that’s most often used is the average seek time.SECONDARY STORAGE DEVICE HARD DISK DRIVE Hard disk are thin but rigid metal platters covered with a substances That allows data to be held in the form of magnetized spots. These platters are made of either using glass or aluminum. A head crash happens when the surface of the read write head or particles on its surface come into contact within the surface of the hard disk platter.
Seek time of 5ms-10ms and spin at 5400 and 10000 Rpm( lower latencies being associated with higher spin rates. Seek time. Most Operating systems including LINUX maintain their own disk Cache in computer’s RAM this is more faster. These device mount in a 5. DISK SPIN RATE The faster a hard disk spins. DISK CACHE SIZE All modern hard drives incorporate a disk cache typically between 512kb and 2mb in size. The faster spin rate produce increased heat and from friction and from the increased demands placed on electronic circuits that process the data. The most common method of providing extra cooling to extra hot drives cooling fan to your system. . This cache is composed of RAM chips.Cheetah hard disk A drive with fewer cylinders but more sectors per cylinder faster than one with more cylinders and fewer sectors per cylinder. As hard drives have spun faster they are developed increasing problems with heat. and access lime are all measured in milliseconds.5 inch drive within adapter rails the front bezel incorporates two or three small fans that blow air onto the hard disk.000 rpm HDD . The combination of seek time and latency is known as access time.Baracuda hard disk 10. all other things being equal.25 Inch drive bay and allow to mount a 3. The disk spins at the same rate no matter what cylinder is being read.) DISK TRANSFER RATE This simply means how quickly the disk can transfer data to and from the computer. latency . HEAT GENERATION AND DISSIPATION.Another measurement closely related to seek time involves a second component beyond the head movement latency ‘Latency’ is the time it takes the desired sector to come up under the read/write head after a seek operation and average out to half the time it takes for a rotation of the disk platter.200 rpm HDD . Hence the internal data rate is variable. This means that data read from the outer cylinder transfer faster than to data read from inner cylinders. the faster it can transfer data for this reason manufactures speed up spin rate now a days 10000 rpm hard disk an popular 7. but modern hard drive design place more sectors along outer cylinder than along inner ones. In case of LINUX the disk cache can grow and shrink as necessary.
a low power laser light seams the disk surface: pitted areas are not reflected and are interpreted as 0 bits.’52x’ . usually 4. OPTICAL DISKS: CDs AND DVDs An optical disk is a removable disk. (2)CD-R(Compact disk recordable) . Floppy disk have a ‘Write protect notch’ which allows you to prevent a diskette from being written to.To read the data.FLOPPY DISK DRIVE A floppy disk drive is a storage device that stores data on removable 3.5inch diameter diskettes These are encased in hard plastic but the mylar disk inside flexible or floppy Each can store 1. (1) CD-ROM(Compact disc read only memoly) It only reads a CD and cannot after its contents A CD-ROM disk capacity is 650 mb -750mb the speed of a cd is read in x eg.44 million Bytes(characters) or more of data. smooth areas are reflected and are interpreted as 1 bits. On the diskette data is recorded in concentrics circres called tracks. so 44x gives 6600 kb persecond.75 inches in diameter and less than one twentieth of an inch thick on which data is written and read through the use of laser beams. which menas -> 1x=150 kb/s of transfer rate.
The disk can be written once but can be read many times. (3)CD-RW(compact disk rewritable) This is an erasable optical disk allows user to record and erase data so that the disk can be used over and over again CD-RW disks can not be read by CDROM. If we have other USB devices such as a USB digital camera or modem we might able to save an interrupt by rutting mouse on the USB port as well . all the USB devices attached to a computer(up to 127) consume a single interrupt(IRQ). CONNECTORS: (1)keyboard connector (2) mouse connector (3) usb connector (4)serial port connector (5)power supply connector (6)ATX connector (7)AT and baby AT connector (8)fan connector (9)vcore connector (10)cd audio jack connector USB Connector Universal serial bus is the latest craze in external device connector It is faster than Rs-232 serial Most importantly. .
power supply connector Generally it has 4 wires for power conduction .5 inch floppy use smaller connectors. (a)Red +5v DC (b)Black GND (c)Black GND (d)Yellow +12v DC .When computer Boot up IRQ is reserved for all the peripherals connected to board but in case of the mouse or some other device is connected to the port than its driver will not be loaded and after starting operating system the connecting of mouse will not work but for the USB port whether the drive is connected or not the IRQ is reserved so that whenever we want to attach USB Camera it does not bother. One or two splitter probably does not constitute problem. Power splitter is used to split the power to connect more devices. Serial port connector Conventionally serial ports more properly referred to as RS-232 These are mostly used to attach x86 computers modern computers use 9-pin serial port connectors generally that are used for mouse and connected at COM port m/b have 2 com ports COM 1 and COM 2 These days mouse port come separately and COM port are used for other devices to communicate.these are plugged into the device in only one way . The connector has 4 wires.3.
ATX boards also host a series of power related changes. ATX motherboard use a single keyed power connector in contrast to the dual connectors of AT and Baby AT boards. The keyed ATX power connector makes it nearly impossible to destroy a motherboard by connecting power supply incorrectly.ATX boards run on 3. shuts down power itself on in response to specified events. These are of 4 types(a)ATX (b)Mini-ATX (c)Micro-ATX (d)Flex-ATX AT and Baby AT connectors This kind of connectors are used in small system like laptop and small cabinets this was used before ATX come for home uses.s. In addition . allowing the computer to power itself off when the o.Generally they have 5-pin DIN connector. AT and Baby AT motherboards used a pair of power connector. go into low power mode and so on .3v eliminating the need of voltage regulator.ATX Connector At is the newer version of AT/Baby AT. which had .
so such m/B required voltage regulators which converts 5v to 3.to be attached to the case’s power supply via cables permanently attached to the power supply in such case M/B voltage is 5v. system FAN has required power supply to move fan . But today’s motherboard required 3. They have this connector which is key locked to m/B and give required voltage to CPU. V-core Connector In some m/B there is no provision for internally give voltage to CPU like new boards.these have 3 pin connector inserted at motherboard at particular place. .3v these voltage regulators produced heat and depending upon the amount of current drawn by the CPU could overheat and cause unreliable operation. FAN Connector CPU cooling FAN.3v.
One inserted into CDROM drive and other end is connected to CD IN near the sound chip on motherboard.80286. This is used in case of running audio CD without as interface.CD audio jack Connector.80386 8bit isa slot . Different types of cards There are of seven types of cards(1)DISPLAY CARD (a) CGA-> color graphical adaptor This is of 9 pin card. This connector has double ended. 8088.
These cards are used for H. m/b 80486.C/MOUSE/PRINTER/GAME CONTROLLER 16bit/32bit Com1->mouse Com2->external modem[10 pin] (4)SOUND CARD (a) non-pci-> 16bit/32bit (b) pci-> 64bit in this card there is a 15 pin game controller and au out .D.D.PI 16bit/32bit/64bit. There two types of connectors used.D control.Line in 4 MB in size (5)NETWORK CARD (LAN card) (a) 32bit LAN card Speed is 10 MBits/s.C/H.D.D. (c) Dual CGA card-> 9pin+25pin 9pin->monitor 25pin->printer 4 MB in size (2)IDE CARD [integrated device electronics] 16 bit cards. • BNC->Broadcast network connector • RJ->Register jack connector(RJ->45) .mic.(b) VGA-> video graphical adaptor 15 pin cards.D and F. (3)SIDE CARD [super integrated device electronics] F.
It is possible to overload a power supply but power splitter. if a 5v device draws 10 amps.it is also PCI Card (64bit).6Kbps. Not all . a cd-rom and two extra cooling fan. Having same speed as external card . Speed of the modem card 24/28/33/40/50/56.5w from 12v for a total of 198. this computer requires 50. 77. There are two types of modem.Boot rom->it is an IC used to boot all the other pc’s which has no hard disk but they can be boot with the help of network boot this process is done by the help of Boot rom. AT tower. a) External Modem.5w from 5v and 70. As an example a computer with one 15a card. Since we know WATTS=VOLTS*AMPS Capacity of power supply measures in wattage. eg. (7)TV-TUNNER CARD It is also a PCI card of 64 bit. as well perhaps 25w or so depending on the board and cpu.6Kbps b) Internal Modem. Convert analog signal into digital signal and vice versa.3v. The motherboard consumes a few more watts. it is two types (a) Internal (b)External POWER SUPPLY Most of the cases come with power supplies.two HDD. Adding up these values.16w. two PC cards.its speed which is now a day used is 56. (6)MODEM. Speed is 100Mb. Each variety of case -ATX. a 3.5 inch floppy disk .16w from 3. it consumes 50 watts. b) 64 bit LAN card.
The brown and blue wires always carry current when the power supply is plugged in. Typically for instance. The out put power supply so we get form the SMPS while using the different type of color. WIRES IN POWER SUPPLY • The green wire. They are basically of six color.devices require their max. Therefore. amounts of power at the same time. Different color wire from SMPS with the voltage they haveyellow ----------->+12v red ------------>+5v black ------------>GND blue ------------>-12v white ------------>-5v orange------------->power signal identify We have two type of the SMPS cabinateATX--->Advance Technology Exchange AT ---->Advance Technology • ATX cabinate has ATX SMPS have 20 pin with lock system. it present is a grounding wire. harddisk require a great deal of power when they start up to over come the inertia inherent in stopped disk platters. we should only try to connect or disconnect these wires ofter unplugging. Attach it to any convenient metal part of the case. The switch mode power supply(SMPS) is use 220v as the input and at the out it gives DC current with different values used by different component of the computer as +5v used by keyboard LED . . +12v used by SMPS cooling fan and +12v for processor cooling fan. • The brown and blue wires connect to the tabs that are parallel to one another on the switch. SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY(SMPS) It is the power supply system used in the system box. • The black and white wires connect to the angled tabs on (toggle) the power switch.
It take 220v as the input and gave 220v as the output. It basically contain the storage battery which store the power supply. It also contain . UNINTRRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY It is an device which is used to store the elecric power when the main power supply is cut off by any reasion.• AT cabinate has AT SMPS have 12 pin with center wire black color. Then we can use the power of the ups which is allready store in the UPS.
the transformer used to step up the electricity. N ETWORKING .
and/or Software. such as hardware. Making standards was again a big . LAN evolved around PC evaluation. colleges & many business organizations use internetworking.INTRODUCTION A computer network is group of computers that are connected together to share resources. sharing a device for many computers and for many other purposes also. data. It is a data communication system that interconnects computer Systems at different sites. HISTORY & CHALLENGES of NETWORKING The first networks were timesharing networks that use mainframes and attached terminals. connected by Intermediate Working devices that function as a single large network. For many purpose such as fast communications internally. Industries. Networking is a collection of individual networks. Lack of management and duplication of resources resulted in evolution of LAN. Challenges were connecting various systems together having various Technologies. LAN enabled multiple users in a limited geographical area.
Challenges were face in mostly these areas such as connectivity. 2.challenge. reliability. network management & flexibility. The final concern was related to network expansion & new technologies. 3. LAN (local area network) MAN (metropolitan area network) WAN (wide area network LOCAL AREA NETWORK . TYPES OF NETWORKS 1.
Computers Connected to the file server are called work stations. the server has applications and data storage that are shared in common by multiple computer users. used to provide communication between computers and peripherals. In a typical LAN configuration. as well as the software that can be shared by the computers attached to the network. and they may have additional software on their hard drives. The workstations can be less powerful than the file server. a cluster of buildings. or a campus-type arrangement. . A local area network may serve as few as two or three users or as many as thousands of users. Usually. one computer is designated as the file server. It stores all of the software that controls the network. cables are used to connect the network interface cards in each computer. The area served may consist of a single building. A non-public data Communications network Confined to a limited geographic area (usually within a few miles).INTRODUCTION TO LOCAL AREA NETWORK(LAN) A local area network is a group of computers and associated devices that share a common Communications line or wireless link and typically share the resources of a single processor or server within a small geographic area.
The ISO's model is used through the industry today to describe various networking issues. 2. This model is called the Open Standards Interconnect Model. Application Layer Presentation Layer .OPEN SYSTEM INTERCONNECTION MODEL (OSI) The International Standards Organization developed a theoretical model of how networks should behave and how they are put together. SEVEN LAYERS OF OSI MODEL 1. The Open Systems Interconnection reference model for describing network protocols was devised by the Internet Standards Organization. It divides protocols in to seven layers to standardize and simplify definitions.
only data after the most recent checkpoint need Gateway . maintains and ends sessions acrossNetBIOS and sessions" the network provides synchronization services byRPC planning check points in the data stream => if session fails. User Interface written to run over the network TELNET. Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data-link Layer Physical Layer Protocol N/W Function Device Application • used for applications specificallyDNS. 4.3.Gateway TFTP. flow control and error recovery • • Example apps are file transfer-mail. 6. Layer • directly represents the services that directly support user applications handles network access. Gateway Presentation Translation Translates from application to network format and vice-versa all different formats from all sources are made into a common uniform format. character conversion. data encryption / decryption. 5. FTP. support applications. • allows access to network services thatNCP. Session "syncs establishes. Responsible for protocol conversion. 7. data compression.
address and names to their MAC addressARP. problem • If router can’t send data frameIPX as large as the source computer sends. Brouter control & error-reassembles the message from packets handling • provides flow control & error-checking to guarantee error-free data delivery. flowpackets. the transport layer of the receiving computerRARP. determiningICMP. ARP. routing routes for sending .Gateway packets. managing network IGMP.2 . the OSI network layer compensates by breaking the data into smaller units. RARP. At the receiving end. addressing.be transmitted manages who can transmit data at a certain time and for how long Transport • divides streams of data into chunks orTCP. requests retransmission if some packets don’t arrive error-free Network • translates logical networkIP. with on losses or duplications • provides acknowledgment of successful transmissions. Switch to bits error • handles data frames betweencorrection andHub the Network and Physical layers flow control NIC • the receiving end packages 802. the network layer reassembles the data Router ATM Switch Linkbridge Data Link • Turns packets into raw bits atLogical Control data framesthe receiving end turn bits into packets.1 raw data from the Physical layer into dataOSI Model frames for delivery to the Network layer 802. responsible for addressing.
how cable is attached to NIC defines techniques to transfer bit stream to cable . • transmits raw bit stream overIEEE 802 physical cable IEEE 802. andISO 2110 stream physical aspects ISDN • defines NIC attachments to hardware. the signaling involved transmitting / receiving data. cards.responsible for error-freeLogical Link transfer of frames to other computer via theControl Physical Layer Media Access Control • This layer defines the methods used to transmit and receive data on the network. It consists of the wiring. the devices use to connect the NIC to the wiring. raw bit • defines cables.2 • Repeater Multiplexer Hubs . • Physical hardware.
WORKING OF OSI MODEL .
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM -1 SYSTEM -2 Components of LAN (a) Network Cabling (b) Network Devices (c) Network Topology (d) Protocols .
What is Network Cabling? Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another. other networks will use a variety of cable types. The quality of UTP may vary from telephone-grade wire to extremely high-speed cable. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is the most popular and is generally the best option for school networks. A slot allows the RJ-45 to be inserted only one way. and size. The EIA/TIA (Electronic Industry Association/Telecommunication Industry Association) has established standards of UTP and rated five categories of wire. The cable has four pairs of wires inside the jacket. Each pair is twisted with a different number of twists per inch to help eliminate interference from adjacent pairs and other electrical devices. a network will utilize only one type of cable. Unshielded Twisted Pair Connector The standard connector for unshielded twisted pair cabling is an RJ-45 connector. • • • • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable Coaxial Cable Fiber Optic Cable Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable Twisted pair cabling comes in two varieties: shielded and unshielded. There are several types of cable which are commonly used with LANs. implying that the connector follows a standard borrowed from the . protocol. This is a plastic connector that looks like a large telephone-style connector . the higher is supported transmission rate and the greater the cost per foot. The type of cable chosen for a network is related to the network's topology. In some cases. Understanding the characteristics of different types of cable and how they relate to other aspects of a network is necessary for the development of a successful network. The following sections discuss the types of cables used in networks and other related topics. The tighter is the twisting. RJ stands for Registered Jack.
and other computers Fiberoptics Fiber optics is a system which transmits signals from one location to another through a thin strand of glass which carries light pulses to carry data. Data is encoded from electrical signals into optical light pulses. mice. A plastic layer provides insulation between the center conductor and a braided metal shield . motors. This standard designates which wire goes with each pin inside the connector Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable A disadvantage of UTP is that it may be susceptible to radio and electrical frequency interference. sent through a glass medium and converted back and decoded at the other end. This transmission system works on the same principle that copper wires do. the extra shielding can make the cables quite bulky. printers. Examples of devices include disk drives.telephone industry. Both copper and optics use electricity at the end of their lines.The metal shield helps to block any outside interference from fluorescent lights. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cabling has a single copper conductor at its center. but optics uses light in between to carry the data. but is done in a different way. These particular devices fall into the category of peripheral devices because they are separate from the main computer. NETWORK DEVICES INTRODUCTION Network Devices is a machine or component that is attached to a computer. however. Shielded twisted pair is often used on networks using Token Ring topology. Shielded twisted pair (STP) is suitable for environments with electrical interference. . and DSL modems.
4. 10base-T. as well as many other proprietary network topologies. 6. all rely on the use of hubs to connect different cable runs and to distribute data across the various segments of a network. 7. In more specific network terms. Hubs basically act as a signal splitter. Hub Switch Router Repeater Network card Bridge Gateways HUB As its name implies. and 10base-F. 5. They take all of the signals they receive in through one port and redistribute it out through all ports. converting general commands from an application into specific commands that the device understands. whether peripheral or not. Types of Network Devices: ─ 1.Most devices. 3. 2. or concentrator. Arcnet. a hub. a hub is a center of activity. require a program called a device driver that acts as a translator. . is a common wiring point for networks that are based around a star topology.
or routers Switches subdivide larger networks and prevent the unnecessary flow of network traffic from one segment to another. it does nothing to increase overall network speed. Often used in a star or star-wired ring topology Sold with specialized software for port management Usually installed in a standardized metal rack that also may store net DSL modems. SWITCH A Switch is a devicethat provides a central connection point for cables from workstations. servers. 12. bridges. or 24 RJ-45 ports Switch works on Data-Link Layer of OSI model. This ensures the integrity of our data. the switch works to ensure that network traffic burdens the fewest number of segments POSSIBLE. or in the case of cross-segment traffic. twisted-pair wire is run from each workstation to a central switch/hub. . Switches help to ensure additional network access opportunities for attached devices (increasing speed and reducing traffic) by restricting data flows to local segments unless frames are destined for a host located on another segment. The switch examine the destination address and forward the requisite frames only across the destination segment. and peripherals. leaving all additional segments attached to that switch free from that particular broadcast and (theoretically) able to facilitate localsegment traffic. switches direct the frames only across the segments containing the source and destination hosts. Hub works on Physical Layer of OSI model. Rather than being a passive connection between multiple segments. Switches no longer broadcast network packets as hubs did in the past. In a star topology. that is they electrically amplify the signal as it moves from one device to another. Most switches are active. they memorize addressing of computers and send the information to the correct location directly. Switches are: Usually configured with 8.
this can result in a lot of unnecessary traffic being sent to all devices on the network. According to a International Data Corporation study. Network interface cards are a major factor in determining the speed and performance of a network. Hubs pass on traffic to the network regardless of the intended destination. TOPOLOGY . The three most common network interface connections are Ethernet cards. storing each incoming packet in an internal buffer before forwarding it. However. a hub (or collection of hubs) can easily cope with the network traffic generated and is the ideal piece of equipment to use for connecting the users. to cut down the amount of unnecessary traffic being generated. Most NICs are internal. and Token Ring cards. They differ in the way that they pass on the network traffic that they receive. They can be of the store-and-forward type. such as Mac Classics. you may need to use a switch to divide the groups of hubs. use external boxes which are attached to a serial port or a SCSI port. Laptop computers can now be purchased with a network interface card built-in or with network cards that slip into a PCMCIA slot. followed by Token Ring and Local Talk. Ethernet is the most popular. It is a good idea to use the fastest network card available for the type of workstation you are using. Network Interface Cards The network interface card (NIC) provides the physical connection between the network and the computer workstation. Some computers. When the network gets larger (about 50 users). beginning to forward packets already after their header is in and before the rest of the packet has been received. or cutthrough. Local Talk connectors. Switches differ in some ways. Hubs repeat everything they receive and can be used to extend the network. with the card fitting into an expansion slot inside the computer. In a small network (less than 30 users).Difference between a hub and a switch Hubs and switches are different types of network equipment that connect devices.
and other peripherals. All nodes (file server.The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables. workstations. computers. and peripherals) are connected to the linear cable. It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable. Main Types of Topologies:─ The following sections discuss the topologies used in networks . Tree A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. Ethernet and Local Talk networks use a linear bus topology Star A star topology is designed with each node (file server. The hub manages and controls all functions of the network. and peripherals) connected directly to a central network hub on a star network passes through the hub before continuing to its destination. This configuration is common with twisted pair cable & also used with coaxial cable or fiber optic cable. It also acts as a repeater for the data flow. PROTOCOLS . workstations. Physical topology should not be confused with logical topology which is the method used to pass information between workstations. Linear Bus Star Star-Wired Ring Tree Linear Bus A linear bus topology consists of a main run of cable with a terminator at each end.
Each computer then backs off and waits a random amount of time before attempting to retransmit. Fast Ethernet requires the use of different. the delay caused by collisions and retransmitting is very small and does not normally effect the speed of transmission on the network. coaxial. However. Ethernet uses an access method called CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection). Sometimes. When this happens a collision occurs. or tree topologies. the computer will transmit. allowed topologies. two computers attempt to transmit at the same instant. the Ethernet protocol has developed a new standard that supports 100 Mbps. With this access method. Fast Ethernet To allow for an increased speed of transmission. . types of cabling. it is normal to have collisions. The most common protocols are: ♦Ethernet ♦Token ring ♦FDDI ♦ATM ♦IP protocol ♦TCP protocol Ethernet The Ethernet protocol is by far the most widely used. This is commonly called Fast Ethernet. The Ethernet protocol allows for linear bus. Data can be transmitted over twisted pair. If some other node is already transmitting on the cable. the computer will wait and try again when the line is clear. This is a system where each computer listens to the cable before sending anything through the network. If the network is clear.A protocol is a set of rules that governs the communications between computers on a network. or fiber optic cable at a speed of 10 Mbps up to 1000 Mbps. and speed of data transfer. more expensive network hubs and network interface cards. star. These rules include guidelines that regulate the following characteristics of a network: access method.
separated by dots. the computers are connected so that the signal travels around the network from one computer to another in a logical ring. . It can operate at transmission speeds of 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. the data is captured by the receiving computer. Due to the increasing popularity of Ethernet. and the maximum value for an octet is 255.Token Ring The Token Ring protocol was developed by IBM in the mid-1980s. A single electronic token moves around the ring from one computer to the next. it simply passes the token on to the next workstation. 4. The access method used involves token-passing. At this point. 16. Each host on a TCP/IP network is assigned a unique 32-bit logical address that is divided into two main parts: the network number and the host number. The token then proceeds around the ring until it comes to the computer for which the data is meant. 32. In Token Ring. Each IP address has specific components and follows a basic format. 8. it attaches data to the token. the use of Token Ring in school environments has decreased. If a computer does not have information to transmit. Each bit in the octet has a binary weight (128. If a computer wishes to transmit and receives an empty token. and represented in decimal format (known as dotted decimal notation). 1). IP Addressing The IP addressing scheme is integral to the process of routing IP data gram through an internet work. These can be sub divided and used to create addresses for sub networks. 64. The Token Ring protocol requires a star-wired ring using twisted pair or fiber optic cable. The network number identifies a network and must be assigned by the Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC) if the network is to be part of the Internet IP Address Format The 32-bit IP address is grouped eight bits at a time. The minimum value for an octet is 0. 2.
0 are all subnets within network 171.2. more efficient use of network addresses.) IP Subnet Mask A subnet address is created by "borrowing" bits from the host field and designating them as the subnet field. Subnetting provides the network administrator with several benefits. Subnets are under local administration.0.16. and 172.4. however. The subnet mask.16. For example. 172. 172. including extra flexibility.3. A given network address can be broken up into many subnetworks.16. and the capability to contain broadcast traffic (a broadcast will not cross a router).1.0.16.IP Subnet Addressing IP networks can be divided into smaller networks called subnetworks (or subnets). has binary 1s in all bits specifying the .0.16.0. The number of borrowed bits varies and is specified by the subnet mask Subnet masks use the same format and representation technique as IP addresses.0. (All 0s in the host portion of an address specifies the entire network. 172.
Subnet mask bits should come from the high-order (left-most) bits of the host field. it forwards the frame to the destination IP address.0 that specifies eight bits of subnetting is 255.2 = 6 hosts per subnet. the router extracts the IP destination address from the incoming packet and retrieves the internal subnet mask.2.255.2 = 30 subnets possible. Various types of subnet masks for Class B and C subnets The default subnet mask for a Class B address that has no subnetting is 255. while the destination network number remains. while the subnet mask for a Class B address 171.2 = 254 hosts per subnet. This causes the host portion of the IP destination address to be removed.16. First. The router then looks up the destination network number and matches it with an outgoing interface. with 28 .0.248.255. and binary 0s in all bits specifying the host field.0 that specifies five bits of subnetting is 255.network and subnetwork fields. It then performs a logical AND operation to obtain the network number.255. with 23 .2 (1 for the network address and 1 for the broadcast address) = 254 subnets possible.0. and the appropriate subnet mask.With five bits available for subnetting 25 . the subnetwork) address. Finally.255. Specifics regarding the logical AND operation are discussed in the following section .168. The reason for this is that eight bits of subnetting or 28 . The subnet mask for a Class C address 192.255. How Subnet Masks are Used to Determine the Network Number The router performs a set process to determine the network (or more specifically.0. The reference charts shown in table 30-2 and table 30-3 can be used when planning Class B and C networks to determine the required number of subnets and hosts.0.
We were given : Ten computer Ten 3com LAN card Twenty two RJ 45 connectors UTP cable One 12 port switch One multimeter Screwdriver Windows 98cd Crimping tool What we have done : Φ Analyzing the Location we saw the location of the lab where we have to connect the system in network. As the networking here was in structured form so we have to keep in view that every thing done should be in structured way. Six . Three. Initially we consider following points for the location Location for Switch Location of wall mounting Location of power point Location and sequence of computer Φ Checking connection of power supply and wall mounting We check the voltage between earth and neutral with the help of multimeter which must be less than two Volts . As we use only four wires for communication in patch chords thus we connect One .Two.CASE STUDY Our aim was to establish a LAB of e-learning for the students of MASS INFOTECH through wire networking. We check the voltage between phase and neutral with the help of multimeter which should be 220 Volts.
We made the patch chords as per the lucent standards followed by MASS TNFOTACH. The lucent standards is as follows : Orange white Orange Green white Blue Blue white Green Brown white Brown after that we crimp the chords with connectors . CMOS battery and confirm that each and every system is ready to be assembled. ΦInstallation of network card We plug the network card in PCI bus and connect the system Start the system.Cables in wall mounting accordingly Φ making of patch chords We cut the UTP cable as required. Φ assembling of system We check the RAM. computer will deduct the new hardware device Which is 3comm network card? We load the driver of 3COM NIC card and Microsoft client We loaded TCP/IP protocol .
0. 255.0 Then we give the address of DNS server . We install TCP/IP protocol & give the IP address to each computer as per given . We give the IP address to each system as per given Subnet mask of each of them were of class A i.255.e.
networking adapters and systems that meet the requirements of leading original Equipment Manufactures (OEM’s) in the industry. The work of computer hardware engineering’s is to research. with networking knowledge a hardware engineer can become internet Engineer and be responsible for managing and maintaining the networking architecture for an organization’s website and Wide Area Network (wan) connectivity. 2. chipsets. also will increase the demand for computer hardware engineers.0. responsible for design. digital/analog components and firmware into motherboards. 5. design & develop. 4. Computer Hardware Engineers are expected to have favorable job opportunities as this field will open the largest number of doors to fulfilling and high-paying careers.1 (in DOS prompt) we ping the with server RESULT: Each of the system are in network and PINGING with our network with no loss CAREER PROSPECTS IN COMPUTER HARDWARE 1. Another option is that of a network security analyst. upgrading and customizing increasingly complex systems. Then we restart the system and check whether each of the system is in network or not (by PING command ) c:/>ping 127. supervise manufacture and installation of computers related equipment and implementing solutions. Consulting opportunities for computer hardware engineers would grow as business need help managing. 3. . implementation and maintenance of network and computer security policies. In India. apart from being a PC support specialist. Another major responsibility of computer hardware engineers is to integrate advanced microprocessors. a technology that uses computers to control other devices such as applications or cell phones. Growth in embedded systems.0.
They also specialize in evaluating third party products and integrating new software/hardware technologies into an existing network environment or to build a new environment. Daily activities include monitoring network performance. Network(service) Technician Network technician tends to focus more on the setup. such as diagnostics or monitoring utilities. Service technicians in particular often travel to remote customer sites to perform “field” upgrades and support. Vague or overly bombastic titles often fail to describe the actual work assignments of a person in this field. evaluating vendor products. each with different average salaries and long-term potential. The basic job titles one sees for computer networking and networkingrelated positions include. technicals and programmers. Network administrator Network administrator is responsible for analysis. CAREER PROSPECTS IN NETWORKING Several types of positions exist in networking. • Network Security Analyst • • • • • . Unfortunately. Network/Information Systems Manager They supervise the work of administrators.Thus the hardware industry can be a solution to the unemployment in the country as it has the potential of generating a million jobs every year. All this makes hardware industry an attractive career option. installation and configuration of company networks. and one should possess a clear understanding of these. job titles in networking and in information technology (IT) generally. security testing. troubleshooting and repair of specific hardware and software products. Network Programmer/Analyst They generally write scripts that aid in network analysis. engineers. often lead to confusion among beginners and experienced folks alike. and so on. Bland. Network(system) Engineer Network engineers focus primarily on system upgrade. troubleshooting problems and maintaining network security. Network/information systems managers also focus own longer-range planning and stragracy considerations.
They basically check the unauthorized of the network by any external user. develop. such as voice mail. Some engineers also engage in research and development of new equipment. except line Electrical power-line installers and repairers Telecommunications line installers and repairers About 12 percent of the industry’s employees are professional workers. and the expansions of existing structures. These include computer-assisted engineering programs for schematic cabling projects. who may not understand sophisticated communications systems. Engineers plan cable routes. test and debug software products. Televommunicatons specialist coordinate the installations of these systems and may provide follow-up maintains and training . modeling programs for cellular and schematic cabling project. and programs for telephone options. installers and repairer Telecommunications equipment installers and repairers. central office and PBX equipment installations. and design systems that meet their customers’ needs. Network systems and data communications analyst design. electronic mail. and call waiting. modeling programs for cellular and satellite systems. and solve other engineering problems. Many of these are specific and technical personnel such as engineers and computer specialist. OCCUPATIONS IN THE INDUSTRY • • • • • installers • • Computer Support Specialist Electrical & Electronics Engineers Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technicians First-line supervisors/managers of mechanics. Specializing in telecommunications design voice and data communications systems.The work of the security analyst is basically confined to the security solutions in large networks. and integrate communications equipment with computer networks. They have closely with clients.
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