FRAMEWORK FOR OPERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCTION FACILITIES: AN APPLICATION TO A PRIMARY UNIT OF A CRUDE OIL REFINERY

A Thesis

Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Chemical Engineering in

The Department of Chemical Engineering

by Sampath Yela B.Tech., Kakatiya University, 2004 December 2009

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to thank my research advisor, Dr. Jose Romagnoli for his patience, guidance and support over the course of this research. I will always be indebted to him. He was a constant inspiration, and his assistance and suggestions were very helpful towards the completion of this work. I would also like to thank the members of my exam committee, Dr. John Flake and Dr Francisco Hung for their efforts in reviewing and evaluating my research. I thank Dan Mowrey, Omar Galan and Rob Willis for their helpful insights and valuable suggestions throughout the course of this research. I would also thank the entire PSE group. It has been nice to work with you all and I won‟t forget the memorable moments that we shared together. I also gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Chemical Engineering Department for providing me a financial scholarship and support to finish my course. I would also acknowledge my friends Diwakar, Velavan, Raghava, Vikram and Shilpa for their wonderful help and assistance during the course of the project. Finally, I would also thank my family and friends for their support and encouragement.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................................ ii LIST OF TABLES ......................................................................................................................... vi LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................................................................... vii ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................ix CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND, PROJECT GOALS AND THESIS STRUCTURE .................... 1 1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Motivation ............................................................................................................................. 2 1.3 Background ........................................................................................................................... 3 1.4 Project Goals and Objectives ................................................................................................ 5 1.5 Thesis Organization .............................................................................................................. 5 CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................... 7 2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 7 2.2 Proposed Approach ............................................................................................................... 8 2.3 Multi-Layer Control Strategy ............................................................................................... 9 CHAPTER 3 SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT ......................................................................... 14 3.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 14 3.2 Simulation Software Architectures ..................................................................................... 15 3.3 Steady State Simulation ...................................................................................................... 16 3.3.1 Process Description ...................................................................................................... 18 3.3.2 Selecting the Unit Set................................................................................................... 18 3.3.3 Defining the Simulation Basis ..................................................................................... 19 3.3.4 Defining Feed Streams ................................................................................................. 19 3.3.5 Installing and Defining Unit Operations ...................................................................... 20 3.3.6 Model Validation ......................................................................................................... 23 3.4 Dynamic State Simulation .................................................................................................. 24 3.4.1 Equipment Sizing ......................................................................................................... 26 3.4.2 Control Valve Sizing.................................................................................................... 26 3.4.3 Defining Pressure Flow Specifications ........................................................................ 27 3.4.4 Installing Controllers ................................................................................................... 27 3.4.5 Analyzing the Results .................................................................................................. 33 3.5 Application Areas and Benefits .......................................................................................... 34 3.5.1 Process Design ............................................................................................................. 34 3.5.2 Process Control and Operability .................................................................................. 34 3.5.3 Safety Studies............................................................................................................... 35 3.5.4 Online Applications and Operator Training ................................................................ 35 CHAPTER 4 PROCESS OPTIMIZATION ................................................................................. 37 4.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 37 4.2 Optimization Framework .................................................................................................... 38 iii

...................2 Background ......................................................................1 Introduction ...................5...........................2 Process Description ............................................................................................................................3...................................................................................................... 86 7..................3...................................3 Types of Model ............................. 59 CHAPTER 6 TRAINING SIMULATOR ........................................2 System Architecture .................................................................................................1 Information Transfer ....................................................................................................................3 Optimal Transition............................. 58 5..................... 42 4.....5 Dynamic Modeling and Plant Wide Control ... 53 5...............................................1 Basic Regulatory Control Layer ........2 Linear Models ..........2....................................................4............................. 45 CHAPTER 5 MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL ... 67 6...............3.............................................................................. 74 7.......................... 40 4.............................. 96 7............... 103 iv .....................................3 The HMI Model .........................3 Software Architecture ....................................................................................2.................................................................................... 74 7.................................................................6 Installing the Atmospheric Distillation Unit ...... 76 7................... 49 5.....4.............................. 91 7.........8 Complete Flow Sheet Solution .................................................3 Steady State Simulation ......................................................3.................................4 Installing the 3-Phase Separator (Desalter)............................................................................................................................ .......................................7 Application to the Packed Distillation Column ....................... 77 7.......57 5...............1 Process Modeling ....................................2..........................................3...................................5 Role of Simulation in MPC Identification...........................................................................................5 Installing the Prefractionator........................4 Optimization Model ..............................................................................1 The Process Model ......1 Defining the Simulation Basis .................................................... 38 4......................................................................................... 86 7..........................................................................................3 Optimization Model .................. 52 5.. 77 7...............................2..................................6 Conclusions ................ 62 6........... 75 7...........3..................................... 80 7......... 66 6......................... 54 5................ 83 7.............................................................4 Limitations ....2..... 64 6.................................1 Non Linear Models ........................................... 68 CHAPTER 7 CASE STUDY OF THE CRUDE DISTILLATION UNIT .... 92 7............4.......................... 49 5....................................................5........................................................................................................................... 56 5................2 Environmental Analysis ....................................................................... 78 7..............................3............................................6 Building the MPC Controller ..................... 88 7........3 OPC Connectivity ........................................................................................1 Introduction ..............................3.... 82 7.....................................................................................................................................4 Process Optimization .......... 80 7.....................................2.........3................................................................7 Installing the Vacuum Distillation Column .........2 The Control System ............4...... 49 5........................................3 Environmental Assessment .................4 Case Study of the Packed Distillation Unit........................ 62 6.......... 80 7............................................... 38 4.............................................................................................................................5.......3 Installing the Preheat Train Exchangers ................................................................................. 64 6................... 83 7................................1 Introduction ............................................. 103 7.............................................2. 63 6..................................2 Integration and Data Transfer ...........................................................2 Developing Crude Oil Feed or Oil Characterization ...................................2 Model Predictive Control Layer ........................................3.........

...................................1 Conclusions ........................................................................... 105 8............................................................................................................................................ 115 v .........................................2 Future Recommendation ..........................CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK ..................................... 106 REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................... 105 8........................ 109 VITA ...........................................

.....................................2 Column specifications data ......................1 The summary of the production results .................6 Summary of the optimization variables ........................... 85 Table 7...............................................................................................1 List of controllers developed in the model ....................... 90 Table 7....................... 47 Table 5..... 46 Table 4.................... 60 Table 6......4 Price for different environmental loads ...7 Pairing of controlled and manipulated variables ............... 24 Table 3....................... 72 Table 7.......................3 Sustainable debits used for various environmental loads ........................................... 45 Table 4..................3 Steady-state model validation .....11 Transfer function matrix of the VDU MPC controller ................4 Basic regulatory controllers installed in the distillation unit ..........2 Performance specifications for prefractionator.... 98 Table 7................1 Assay data for Dubai and Masila crude .................................2 MPC Controller parameters used in the simulation ....................5 Summary of the product and utility cost used for the optimization.........2 Environmental loads used to compute environmental emissions .............. 88 Table 7.......... 42 Table 4... 20 Table 3.................. 99 Table 7...................... 99 Table 7......................................................4 The summary of decision and constraint variables in the optimization ................. 88 Table 7...................................................... 99 vi ........................LIST OF TABLES Table 3....................................... 31 Table 4........................................ ADU and VDU .............................................................10 Transfer function matrix of the VDU MPC controller .1 Transfer Function Matrix of the process............................................. 39 Table 4.. 79 Table 7..........................1 Feed stream specifications ...9 Transfer function matrix of the ADU and Preflash MPC controller .................................................. 60 Table 5.........3 Environmental loads for electricity generation from different sources .................. 23 Table 3....................................... 89 Table 7.............5 Summary of the product and utility cost used for the optimization.........................................................................................8 Transfer function matrix of the ADU and Preflash MPC controller ......... 94 Table 7....................................................................

.......... 33 Figure 3...... 65 Figure 6....7 Response plot for a set point change in bottom temperature..........................5 Tuning parameters recommended by the Control Station ...... 68 Figure 6............ 70 Figure 6.................... 63 Figure 6..........4 The Step Response Model ...................................................................... 24 Figure 3......................................................................................................1 Schematic representation of proposed framework .................... 71 Figure 6................3 OPC Architecture ..... 30 Figure 3..............................................6 Response plot for a set point change in top temperature ..............6 Response plot for a setpoint change in top temperature ...................................................................................................................................2 Multi-Layer control Architecture .........6 Overview of the HMI display used for the control..................................................................................................................................... 60 Figure 5.......5 Overview of the MPC controller developed ... 51 Figure 5........2 Main flowsheet of dynamic simulation ......................................................1 Main flowsheet of the steady state model ..................................4 FBs used to develop a PID control loop for the feed temperature ...................2 A Typical Distributed Control System (DCS) Architecture...........2 The basic block diagram of Model Predictive Control .4 Process data fit in the control station design tool .... 33 Figure 4...... 40 Figure 4.............2 Results from Excel spreadsheet ......................... 56 Figure 5....................................................5 FBs used to develop a simulated PID controller for feed temperature...................LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2........................... 32 Figure 3....... 32 Figure 3............................................. 10 Figure 2................................... 12 Figure 3..... 30 Figure 3.. 61 Figure 6.............1 System Architecture of the Training Simulator.........................3 Column sub flowsheet of the dynamic simulation .................................................... 56 Figure 5.......................... 72 vii .................. 53 Figure 5.......3 The Finite Impulse Response model ...........1 Overview of the optimizer spreadsheet ...........................................................................................................................................1 Principle of the Model Predictive Control............................ 47 Figure 5....................................................

...........5 Overview of the main flowsheet................................................................................................... SP_6)....12 Response plots of the controlled variables for a disturbance (SP change in feed temperature to Atmospheric column ......... 95 Figure 7.............................................................8 Response plot in DCS for a set point change in the feed flow controller .....................13 Response plots during the transition to the optimal conditions.................................................................. 82 Figure 7.................. 77 Figure 7............................. 102 Figure 7.................................................................. 97 Figure 7..9 Response plots of the Preflash bottom level and Reflux drum Level ........................................... 84 Figure 7......2 Overview of prefractionator column ................... 73 Figure 6.................................................................. 104 viii ...................................................................................................3 Overview of Atmospheric Distillation Column ........................87 Figure 7............. 84 Figure 7.....................11 Response plots of the controlled variables for a setpoint change (Diesel draw temperature...............................7 Main flowsheet of the plant model ................................7 Overview of the spreadsheet interface for OPC communication ............8 Step response plot of the Preflash top temperature ................... 96 Figure 7..............Figure 6........................... 93 Figure 7....... 73 Figure 7..............6 Optimization interface in Excel.......1 Process overview of the crude distillation unit.................... 81 Figure 7........4 Overview of Vacuum Distillation Unit ................ 100 Figure 7...................................10 Response plots of the key variables in ADU and VDU ...................

ABSTRACT This work focuses on the development of a methodology for the optimization. In addition to the basic economic variables such as raw materials and operating costs. the so-called “triple-bottom-line” variables related with sustainable and environmental costs are incorporated into the objective function. The process model is the core of the methodology. optimization and control systems. The model-based methodology proposed in this work. Subsequently the controllability of the plant for the optimum state of conditions is evaluated using the dynamic state simulations. The models are validated against the plant operating data to evaluate the reliability of the models. The methodologies of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Environmental Damage Assessment (EDA) are applied within the optimization problem. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. It enables them to apply engineering expertise to solve challenges unique to the process industries in a safe and virtual environment and also assist them to get familiarize with the existing control systems and to understand the fundamentals of the plant operation. an industrial case study of the primary ix . the methodology is extended further to develop training simulator by integrating the simulation case study to the existing Distributed Control System (DCS). Then it is followed by rigorously posing a multioptimization problem. control and operability of both existing and new production facilities through an integrated environment of different technologies like process simulation. Finally. Advanced supervisory control strategies like the Model Predictive Control (MPC) are also implemented above the basic regulatory control. The state of art simulation technologies have been used to model the plant for both steady state and dynamic state conditions. starts with the implementation of first principle models for the process units on consideration. Such an integrated environment not only creates opportunities for operational decision making but also serves as training tool for the novice engineers.

x .unit of the crude oil refinery and a laboratory scale packed distillation unit is thoroughly investigated. The presented methodology is a promising approach for the operability study and optimization of production facilities and can be extended further for an intelligent and fully-supportable decision making.

environmental emissions and unconventional feed stocks have created complex and sometimes conflicting challenges for plant operation. PROJECT GOALS AND THESIS STRUCTURE 1. from preliminary design to plant troubleshooting (Sundaram.1 Introduction The developments in technologies is expanding the boundaries and broadening the domain of what is technically and economically feasible to achieve in the application of model activities in manufacturing plants. 2005). The different simulation environments can now be seamlessly integrated with control hardware/software to offer broad spectrum of benefits. The recent advancements have broadened the definition and the role of process simulations. aimed towards a tighter integration between design and control to reduce capital and operating costs also add to the complexity. In addition. increasingly stringent fuel regulations. the use of process simulations is promptly becoming an integral part of the plant operations. In the engineering domain. The considerable developments that have taken place in process control. The field of simulation has widened from simple automation of design calculations to being the centre of „integrated engineering workflows‟ that assist a variety of decision making tasks. It is very important for a process engineer to respond quickly and efficiently not only to the challenges in the plant operation but 1 . growing concern over global warming. Companies must design and operate chemical processes effectively and efficiently so they may survive in today‟s highly competitive world. They allow the development of model-based strategies that enable greater sophistication of manufacturing operations. Manufacturing processes are facing more challenges today than ever before as a result of increased competitiveness and varying energy demands.CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND.

The complex plant operations and reduced training duration necessitate developing an effective training tool not only to understand 2 . They should be trained to make apt business decisions and also to take timely action to any deviation from the normal behavior of the process or in an emergency situation while meeting the objectives of designing and operating efficient. Therefore. The complex and multivariable nature of such processes make the design and operation of plant wide control systems a non-trivial task. it is possible to put forward a methodology that embraces the optimization and control of an existing production facility. they are subjected to the constant fluctuations in the raw material quality and sustained unknown disturbances in the process and also there are a priori limitations related with the capacity and performance of equipment units involved in the process.2 Motivation Chemical processes in particular the petroleum refining processes are becoming highly integrated and interactive. 1.also to the business change. On the other hand. optimize the unit for a given configuration with constraints on unit capacities and product pattern and to understand the fundamentals of plant operation. Existing production facilities present an interesting challenge from the operability point of view. The optimal operating conditions for a given processing unit are not unique. Considering the above limitations and environmental effects. there is a need of methodologies and training tools to assist the plant engineers in their tasks to assess different processing configurations of process plants. the corporations sought to develop young engineers through intensive training and apprenticeship but the bottom line thinking of today no longer allows such an approach. The process heat integration and optimization for the efficient use of energy & resources to increase the bottom-line have made the processes more complex. Therefore there is a need for an integrated approach that support the process engineers in general decision making processes. in the past. safer and profitable process plants.

Bretelle et al.3 Background Over the past decades the use of simulations has been widely accepted in chemical engineering for design and analysis of processes.the fundamentals of the plant operations but also to improve the ability to optimize the plant performance within the same environment. 1.. Historically the computation speed and the storage capacity have limited the use of dynamic simulations. The commercial process simulation has proven to be an important tool for plant design and operations. 1994 and Pantelides and Oh. Most dynamic models were developed by describing the system of algebraic and differential equations. However the greater share of process modeling was the steady state simulation and there were only limited applications of dynamic simulations and were only restricted to individual unit operations such as a distillation column or heat exchanger etc. 1993. Such integrated environment provides two fold advantages mainly to analyze advanced operational procedures and operator/student training. Some of the early industrial applications of dynamic simulations for process analysis and controllability have been discussed by Bretelle and Macchietto. One of the advantages of deriving such a model was the insight it provided into the fundamental behavior and structure of the process. using the basic principles such as the heat and mass balance concepts and thermodynamic equations. 1996. Developments in open-software architectures and information technology have enabled to integrate synergically different software components from heterogeneous sources to solve complex model-based problems. The accurate and realistic simulations allow engineers to use the integrated simulation environments to identify operational and physical constraints in a safe. troubleshooting of problems and also to explore opportunities to improve and optimize the plant performance. It facilitates a systematic. With the recent advances in the computer technology there have been a number of 3 . theoretical environment.

Several researchers have focused their work on integration of process design with plant control and operation. They are proving as an effective tool for implementing advanced process control projects (Alsop et. involving many interacting unit operations (Luyben et al.. 1996) The continual emphasis on energy efficiency and environmental protection. However..al. process integration creates unforeseen operational problems (Glemmestad et al.. al. 1994) and also poses a complex optimization problem. 1984) 4 . al. as the processes are required to be integrated. The most widely used simulators are Aspen HYSYS®. environmental objectives. Dynamic simulations are becoming predominant in the design and evaluation of plant wide control aspects (Manenti et. In general. 1999 and Papalexandri et. Bernardo et al. (Russel et al. analysis and optimization of chemical processes. al. There are several process simulation software packages available in today‟s market. 1980. 2000. Process design teams are forced to integrate their processes to satisfy economical. Aspen Plus®. 1999). together with increasing market competition has driven process engineers to develop methodologies for optimal design and operation of chemical processes. and UNISIM®. 2006). (Hwang et al. while at the same time maintaining the process within a satisfactory operational performance. The process simulations are now considered as state of art for the design. 2001 and Himmelblau et. There are several publications on the applications of multi objective optimization problems in chemical engineering. The optimization problem is no longer a problem of single objective function but has to satisfy multiple objectives that are potentially conflicting. Thus the importance of investigating the dynamic and steady state performance of plants has been realized and lead to the concept of „simultaneous design‟. Plant-wide control strategies play an important role in the design procedure... plant-wide control refers to the control of an entire plant.significant achievements in the design of simulation environments expanding the role of simulations in the manufacturing operations. 2006).. 1983 and Grauer et al. Clark et al..

constitutes the first step (operation layer) towards a multilayer approach for enterprise wide optimization.  Chapter 3 gives an overview of the simulation environment. It also discusses the basic steps 5 . 4. Consequently. This dictates the need for systematic methodologies to assists the production engineers to analyze the process behavior. 1.1. it is clear that process engineers are challenged with making timely decisions while meeting the business objectives of designing and operating efficient. These chapters focus on the fundamentals and detailed background of each subframework in the methodology using a demonstrative example of a packed distillation unit. the main objective of this work is to create a model-centric framework that supports various manufacturing operations and also to develop an overall integrated approach allowing all the objectives to be formulated and accounted for during the design and operation of the process plants. This framework is divided into main subframeworks where each of them will be presented in the followed Chapters 3.5 Thesis Organization This thesis consists of a total of eight chapters and is organized according to the objectives described above:  Chapter 2 presents a brief summary of the proposed integrated framework for operability assessment and optimal plant operation. This chapter introduces the basic concepts and applications of the process simulation. to optimize and operate the plant in a safe and efficient manner. This thesis presents a general proposed framework for such a methodology that incorporates economical. environmental and operational performances for assessing various levels of process integration for a given process. Furthermore and more importantly.4 Project Goals and Objectives From the previous discussions. 5 and 6. safer and profitable process plants.

involved in developing both the steady state and dynamic state models  Chapter 4 focuses on the process optimization problem and also discusses the increasing environmental awareness in the field of process engineering. The optimization framework developed is discussed thoroughly along with software architecture used to develop the optimization tool. 6 . atmospheric/vacuum distillation unit and the preheat trains.  Chapter 7 demonstrates the applications of the proposed framework to an industrial case study of the crude distillation unit which comprises the preflash unit. In brief.  Chapter 5 addresses the need for advanced process control methodologies and the concepts of the model predictive controller. This chapter reviews the contributions of the thesis and highlights the possible directions of future research by some recommendations. this chapter discusses the proposed sub-framework that deals with plant-wide control and dynamic evaluations concerns. This chapter describes the stepwise procedure in the implementation of the training simulators using the demonstrative case study discussed in the previous chapters.  Chapter 6 discusses the importance of the training simulators.  Chapter 8 summarizes the major issues discussed throughout the thesis and consequently draws the general conclusions. This chapter shows in a transparent way the stepwise procedure of the framework and its contribution to assessment and in improving the of the plant performance.

controllability and dynamic performance issues. The main principle of this approach is to develop a general decision making tool that helps the process engineers in evaluating the chemical processes for operational and environmental performances. a need to optimize and operate the process units more efficiently while satisfying the process constraints. environmental. In today's environment. assist in developing and implementing the advanced supervisory controls and also aid in environmental impact assessment. The proposed framework offers several benefits to the manufacturing industries and since it is developed using the standard tools it is a very cost effective approach. Simulation models are playing an increasing role in plant operations. It facilitates study of advanced operational procedures. The framework represents an overall stepwise procedure that takes into account all formulated aspects of optimal design considerations. Process simulation is the most effective way to improve process design and operation. It can be used to evaluate the effect of feed changes.1 Introduction Process industries today are facing newer challenges with increasing environmental regulations and global competitiveness. reliability. including economical. compelling to integrate different processes together for efficient use of energy and resources. It provides a safe and theoretical environment to study „what-if‟ scenarios and also to perform sensitivity analyses to identify the optimal design based on operating and business targets. which can lead to reduced emissions. better quality yields and safer operations. more throughput. upsets. heat integration.CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY 2. 7 . there is a need for every advantage to ensure the sustainable success of the business and consequently. and profitability. and equipment downtime on process safety.

safe and efficient plant operation. In addition to the traditional economic objectives like raw materials and operating costs. The methodologies of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Environmental Damage Assessment (EDA) are applied within the optimization problem. that is.2 Proposed Approach The model-based methodology proposed in this work. the controllability of the plant is evaluated using the dynamic state simulations in order to ensure plant safety management procedures. starts with the implementation of first principle models for the process units on consideration.2. objective function and constraints. The proposed framework is extended further to develop training environment by integrating the process simulation with the Distributed Control Systems (DCS) through the standard OPC interface. This is intended to complement the existing cost estimating practices with environmental costs for improved decision-making. Subsequent to the optimal solution. The primary objective of the training simulator developed in 8 . The EDA can supply the necessary information about the damage caused by the process to the environment. The LCA evaluates the environmental impact of a process from the raw material to a final product. The assessment of process controllability is of critical importance in view of the fact that optimal set points may be difficult to maintain under sustained disturbances or process variability. the influences of exogenous disturbances are not taken into account since these are mathematically feasible solutions only. Another equally critical concern is implementing model predictive control strategy (MPC) which can handle constraints and presents good robustness features against model mismatch and perturbations. At this stage. Then it is followed by rigorously posing the optimization problem. Secondly the steady-state simulation of the process is developed and validated against the plant data to evaluate the reliability of the model. the so-called triple-bottom-line constraints related with sustainable and environmental costs are also incorporated into the objective function.

This approach is motivating. broadening the domain of what is technologically and economically feasible to achieve in the application of computers to control industrial systems computers to control industrial systems. The process model is linked to Honeywell‟s Experion Process Knowledge System (PKS) ®. an industrial case study of the primary unit of the crude oil refinery and a laboratory scale of packed distillation unit is thoroughly investigated. through the OPC interface program.1 illustrates a schematic structure of the proposed framework. The conventional role of process control in industrial plants has been the implementation of control strategies through closed-loop 9 .3 Multi-Layer Control Strategy The availability of modern industrial computer control system architectures has made possible the expansion of the functionalities of the plant control systems. model predictive control strategy. The proceeding chapters in this thesis will describe in detail the main sub-frameworks.this work is to familiarize students with the basic plant operations and also to make them understand the control philosophy. facilitates understanding the practical implications and limitations of the theory. The present framework is implemented in Aspen HYSYS® and a user friendly front end in MS Excel® where the-state-of-art optimizer is implemented. Figure 2. It provides a realistic control room environment for effective training. Trainees are therefore able to develop good decision making skills as they experience and respond to different operating situations. The use of such simulators enhances learning by integrating the theoretical concept of textbooks with the physical nature of the lab. and helps prepare students for the challenges of the professional world. showing the different steps. provides hands-on experience. 2. To demonstrate the effectiveness and the components of methodology. optimization model and related environmental aspects. namely simulation environment. the inter-linking of the software packages used as well as the flow of data between them.

the 10 . 2005 established the objectives of a control system in modern manufacturing as: a) to enforce plant control strategy. the advances in computer technology allowed the expansion of functionalities that can be simply referred to as information management at the plant wide scale.automation. Figure 2. Today.1 Schematic representation of proposed framework Romagnoli and Palazoglu. b) to report plant performance and c) to provide a proper window to the process. The processing and reporting of plant information can be crucial for plant operations as well as planning activities. performing in a coordinated manner. this still remains to be the primary function of a control system. It is noted that the functionalities included in the control system strongly depend on the complexity of the control actions as well as the analysis and reporting demands of the plant operators. as discussed before. These activities are carried out using the control system technology that consists of a number of functionalities. However.

However. Level 3 Control: This layer is associated with the handling of abnormal operational conditions. more advanced functionalities would be implemented after the plant is fully operational. A typical example is a basic alarm system for the plant. An example of this could be the implementation of an advanced alarm management system. A typical application is in handling production rate changes in an optimal and coordinated fashion. The proposed framework allows the development and implementation of such a multilayer control strategy for advanced operation. The goal of these control layers is to manage the inherent complexity in the industrial control architecture. They are conceived not only to address the primary role of the control system but also to be able to accomplish the expanded role of modern control for advanced manufacturing. The control strategy then can be described through a hierarchical decomposition. This layer is aimed at the integration of the production process and to improve process efficiency and profitability. This layer is particularly important in integrated processes where coordination of different sections of the plant is essential. Level 2 Control: It is implemented sometime after the plant is in operation and a reasonable level of consistency in operation is reached. optimization and control of the existing or 11 . It is the foundation of the plant control system and the controllability of the process depends on it. 2005 a natural decomposition for a typical control application could be described in terms of different levels of control such as: Level 1 Control: This is the basic control layer utilized during the startup of the plant and allows the plant to be operated around the design conditions. referred to as the Control Layers or Hierarchical Control. Some of the basic functionalities are implemented from the beginning of the plant operation since they may be needed during normal operational procedures.engineers and the managers. Following Romagnoli and Palazoglu.

new production facilities. which form the upper layer in the control hierarchy above the basic regulatory control. feed forward etc. This layer determines the optimum set point trajectories of the plant given the production requirements and operational constraints. Moving up 12 . Monitoring Diagnosis . highly interactive and therefore necessitate the advanced process control strategies like model predictive controllers. Supervisio & n Optima Setl Points Optimal Trajectories Decision Support Proces Optimizatio s n O -line Model Predictive Contro -DMC n l (MPC ) Regulatory Control Plan Inputs/Outputs t Figure 2. Figure 2.2 Multi-Layer control Architecture The bottom of the control hierarchy is the basic process control such as the single loops and simple cascades that appear on P&IDs and provide the operator with the first level of regulatory control. Unfortunately. most process units in refineries and chemical plants are very complex. Simple processes can operate in a fairly stable fashion with basic process control.2 illustrates schematically the multi layer advanced control architecture implemented in this project using the software/hardware integration methodology described in previous section. and maintains the process operating near optimum efficiency by constantly adjusting the set points and responding to plant disturbances.

The systems become complex due to interactions between the various unit operations.the control hierarchy is the supervisory level which optimizes the operation of the process. 13 . Systems of this level are seldom used for direct process control. The uppermost layer in the control hierarchy is developed for decision support system with functionalities such as data processing. but rather for providing advice to the process operators. reconciliation. This layer comprises of the expert system. process monitoring. It acts as high level supervisory and attempts to optimize the overall plant. developed to support safe and consistent plant operation. It is difficult to formulate a comprehensive set of rules that deal with all process scenarios and therefore requires skilled human intervention. In most cases the systems of this level manipulate the set points of the advanced controllers and pass information to the process operator responsible for the status of the unit. fault diagnosis and detection of abnormal operating conditions etc.

The steady state simulation is now considered to be the state of the art for preliminary studies and plant design in the process industry. interoperability capabilities. The ability to mathematically model a process and its unit operations from first principles arguably dates back to the advent of the first computers powerful enough to perform complex computing operations. the increasing market competition. distributed communication protocols. However with the current state of art information technology. through detailed engineering design. Simulations are broadly classified into two types based on the behavior of the process model with respect to time: Steady state and Dynamic State. personnel training and plant operation. First-principles simulation models have also a proven track record in real time optimization (RTO) in many process industry segments. or to observe their fundamental behavior. and an open library/repository for providing a consistent set of simulator modules have broadened the functionality and use of simulation environments. The processing and modeling times involved then were hardly suited to study the transient behavior of the process. known as Speed-Up. Nevertheless. more stringent environmental 14 . multilevel abstract modeling. was proposed and outlined by Sargent and Westerberg (1964).CHAPTER 3 SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT 3. The first equation-oriented simulator. there has been a significant development in the field of modeling and simulation. The use of modular software development approach.1 Introduction Process simulation has been playing a significant role at each stage of the process life cycle starting from feasibility studies. Simulation studies have become an indispensable tool for process engineers to gain insight into the operation of manufacturing systems.

The final problem is represented by a system of non-linear algebraic 15 . In this work. usually the closure of the material and heat balance.  Sequential-Modular: In the Sequential-Modular approach the computation is performed unit-by-unit following a calculation sequence. Further. the final steady state solution is obtained by iterative calculations. The incoming streams have to be either specified as inputs. Aspen HYSYS models can be linked to Microsoft Excel® and therefore can be used to automate the engineering workflow. It offers a comprehensive library of unit operation models including distillation. In this approach.2 Simulation Software Architectures The architecture of any simulation program is determined by the computation strategy used in the software package. reactions. controller. There are a number of commercial process simulators available today. Aspen HYSYS® support modeling applications across the entire life-cycle of a plant. CAPE-OPEN compliant models are also fully supported. and reduced net profit margins are pushing enterprises towards process dynamic simulation. the model is obtained by means of conservation equations for mass. energy and momentum. or initialized as tear streams for units involved in a recycle. Finally the computation is terminated when both the units and the tear streams satisfy the specified convergence criteria.regulations. In such cases. heat transfer operations. The following section describes the three fundamental approaches that are commonly used to solve the system of equations (DAE/ODE) describing the process. Aspen HYSYS® is used for both steady state and dynamic state simulation of the processes being analyzed. and logical operations in both the steady state and dynamics environments. 3. from steady-state design to offline engineering studies to on-line operational models. Tear streams are modified after successive iterations by applying an appropriate convergence algorithm. This approach is dominant in steady state simulation software. rotating equipment.

These are usually specifications that a user must supply to run a simulation. These models are therefore independent of the time. Rigorous models are used at unit level. and no need for tear streams. solved globally.  Equation-Oriented: In Equation-Oriented (EO) approach all the modeling equations are assembled in a large sparse system producing Non-linear Algebraic Equations (NAE) in steady state simulation. intense programming and substantial computing resources are required. which are solved sequentially. feasibility studies. while linear models are used at flowsheet level. 3. This approach is more suited in dynamic simulation and real time optimization. The linear models are updated based on results obtained with rigorous models.  Simultaneous-Modular: This approach is combination of both Sequential-Modular and Equation-Oriented. The solution is obtained by solving simultaneously all the modeling equations. The difference between the total number of non-redundant variables in the system and the number of independent algebraic equations gives the degrees of freedom.3 Steady State Simulation The steady state simulations have been used extensively for the design. analysis and optimization of chemical processes.equations. However. The advantages of the equation-solving architecture include flexible environment for variable specifications and better handling of recycles. They also provide data for process flow diagrams in terms of material and energy balances. Such models are used at the early stages of a study for conceptual design. and stiff Differential Algebraic Equations (DAE) in dynamic simulation. detailed engineering and at the initializing steps for dynamic simulations which are used for evaluating the transient behavior of the system. Steady-state models use equations defining the relationships between elements of the modeled system and attempt to find a state in which the system is in equilibrium. 16 .

Defining Simulation basis 3. development of non library components (pseudo components). distillation columns 5. In general other software packages also follow similar approach for building the plant model. thermodynamic methods. Modern simulators allow the user to graphically configure the model as the process flow diagram as compared to other software packages like MATLAB®. Selecting the unit set 2. Most simulation programs provide features like pure component data library. simulation of 17 . The simulator's easy-to-create flowsheet environment allows process engineers to concentrate on engineering. physical and transport properties. unit operation calculations. 1. within the flowsheet for a wide variety of processing applications. Installing and defining the unit operations like preheat exchangers.These models usually consist of blocks of unit operations interconnected by the user and of physical property data for the chemical components of input streams specified by the user. such as rigorous column calculations. A minimum amount of information is required to input from the user in order to run the simulation. sizing and rating of heat exchangers and separators. and a user interface for program input and output. The various components facilitate simulation tools an extremely powerful approach to steady state modeling. In this methodology the steady state model of the process is used mainly for the optimization and to evaluate the plant performance. Installing the downstream unit operations For better explanation of developing the simulation model of the process. The following steps are used in developing a steady state simulation model. rather than computing operations like developing the heat and mass balance equations. Defining the feed streams 4. simulated laboratory test. In addition they also offer advanced features.

1 % mole basis) at approximately 80o F is preheated to around 145o F by exchanging heat with hot ethyl glycol stream in a feed preheater and enters the packed distillation column.laboratory scale packed distillation unit is considered in the following section. This is a small pilot unit designed to demonstrate the process of continuous fractional distillation. LSU. The feed is introduced between the two packed sections through a central feed distributor.3.2 Selecting the Unit Set HYSYS has the default unit sets like the SI. one stream is sent to the thermosyphon reboiler and the other is sent to storage via a bottom cooler. The sub cooled liquid is then collected in a reflux drum and a portion of which is fed back to the column as the overhead reflux and the remaining is sent as a product via a distillate cooler to the storage tank. Either you can modify the units of a particular property or can 18 . Distillation is the most extensively used separation technique in the petrochemical industry and can contribute to substantial part of plant operating costs. The bottom flow from the column is split in two streams. and a pump-back reflux system. The distillation unit is modeled in Aspen HYSYS® simulation software. The process considered is being installed in Unit Operations lab in the department of chemical engineering. The distillation column is 3” in diameter and constructed of Type 304 stainless steel.3 % and water 35.1 Process Description The distillation unit is designed to separate high purity methanol as the top product. The process requires enormous amounts of energy. However the unit set used in the simulation can be customized. The feed stream (Methanol – 48. The unit is equipped with a total condenser. The overhead from the column is sub cooled below 100o F in a condenser using cooling water as cold stream. It contains two packed sections. a partial reboiler. 2-propanol – 16. 3. Field units.24” protruded stainless steel packing. each of which is 3‟ 0” high and contains 2‟ 8” of PROPAK1 0. 3. both in terms of cooling and heating requirements.3.4 %.

tabular data. Multiple fluid packages can be used within the simulation by assigning them to different flow sheets and linking the flow sheets together. hypothetical components. 3. the field units are used. reactions. petrochemical and chemical fluids. HYSYS uses the concept of the fluid package to contain all necessary information for performing flash and physical property calculations. methanol.create a new unit. phase systems involved and availability of data. physical and transport property predictions for hydrocarbon. For the above problem.4 Defining Feed Streams Once the components and the thermodynamic package are selected the feed streams are defined by specifying the process conditions and the composition. The selection is based on the nature of process. non-hydrocarbon. This approach allows you to define all information (property package. components. One of the main assets of HYSYS is its strong thermodynamic foundation.3. If a library component cannot be found within the database. a comprehensive selection of estimation methods is available for creating fully defined hypothetical components. Selection of an inappropriate model will result in convergence problems and erroneous results. For the above process. interaction parameters.) inside a single entity. In order to define a stream in 19 . etc. compositions. include selecting the components and the thermodynamic fluid package.3. temperature ranges. The built-in property packages in HYSYS provide accurate thermodynamic. water and propanol are added from the pure component library and the Uniquac-ideal model is used in defining the simulation basis. 3. The selection of a suitable thermodynamic package is fundamental to process modeling for accurate predictions. pressure. Effects of pressure and temperature can drastically alter the accuracy of a simulation given missing parameters or parameters fitted for different conditions.3 Defining the Simulation Basis Defining a simulation basis.

1 Feed stream specifications Temperature Pressure Flowrate 82°F 14. pressure etc. The detailed modeling procedure of each section in the unit is described in Aspen HYSYS® operations guide. Table 3. The information in Table 3.7 PSI 2.1 is used to define the feed stream to the preheater. Each parameter specification will reduce the degrees of freedom by one.16.3. The following section describes the modeling procedure of the heat exchanger and the packed distillation column which are used later in the case study.).75 GPH Feed Composition [0. Propanol. The other conditions of the stream are estimated by HYSYS.5 Installing and Defining Unit Operations The commonly used unit operations are       Mixer Heat Exchanger Heater 3-phase separator Separator Refluxed absorber For each unit operation it is required to specify certain parameters to satisfy the number of degrees of freedom. flow rate and composition. The number of active specifications must equal the number of unknown variables to solve.49. vapor fraction.36] * Composition is expressed in mole % [Methanol.0.HYSYS it is required to specify two process variables (temperature. and Water] 3.0. Heat Exchanger Heat exchangers can be modeled in Aspen HYSYS using either a shell and tube or a 20 .

and exchanges information with the parent flow sheet through the connected internal and external streams. this option may be sufficient to model the heat exchanger. The active specifications should be equal to the number of degrees of freedom in order to run the column. In this model. the overall heat transfer coefficient. and the log mean temperature difference. and adding side equipment. It is a special type of sub flow sheet that contains equipment and streams. Packed Distillation Column Installing the column is the most difficult step in building the simulation model. For simple problems where there is no phase change and Cp is relatively constant. number of stages. draw and return stages and default specifications.e. HYSYS has a number of pre-built column templates that can be installed and customized by changing attached stream names. area available for heat exchange. It consists of a series of equilibrium or non-equilibrium flash stages and has many parameters. 21 . U is and the specific heats of both shell and tube side streams are assumed to be constant. There are different rating models available like     The End Point model The Weighted model Steady State Rating model Dynamic Rating – basic and detailed model The End point model uses the standard heat exchanger duty equation defined in terms of overall heat transfer coefficient. In addition to defining the inlet stream of the shell side (i. the pressure drop across both the sides of the exchanger and the tube side exit temperature are specified in order to solve the heat exchanger.cooler/heater configuration. The preheat exchanger in the PDU is modeled using the End point model. ethyl glycol). Each prebuilt column has unique degrees of freedom which have to be satisfied by defining the active specifications. This model treats the heat curves for both heat exchanger sides as linear.

As a starting point. The reflux ratio is defined as the ratio of the liquid returning to the tray section divided by the total flow of the products. surface tension. Therefore.2 gives the summary of the calculations used in the modeling. Component fraction allows specifying the mole. HETP is the "Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate" and is defined as the height of the packed column divided by the number of theoretical/ideal stages. The reflux ratio and reboiler duty are being 22 . Using the HETP method the equivalent number of theoretical stages are estimated for the given packing configuration and then adjusted to match the operating conditions. It is necessary to choose the specifications wisely in order to avoid the convergence failures. column component flow rate and column component fraction. or the total flow rate for any set of components for the flow leaving any stage. Aspen HYSYS has no provisions to simulate a packed column as such.There are more than 25 available specs like column reflux ratio.. a HETP approach is used in defining the equivalent number of theoretical plates for the packing being used. Avoid using conflicting specifications. and try using ranged spec rather than a fixed specification. the HETP factor is slightly adjusted to match the simulation results with the actual process conditions such as the temperature and pressure profile The distillation column is simulated using a prebuilt distillation unit operation template having a condenser operating in total reflux mode and a reboiler. In addition to the pressure specifications across the column. The column solves using theoretical stages of separation. Since the actual HETP is dependent on several factors such as the viscosity. The actual thermosyphon reboiler is modeled using the prebuilt kettle type reboiler available in HYSYS. Table 3. the pre built column has two degrees of freedom.. mass or volume fraction in the liquid or vapor phase for any stage. Component flow rate allows specifying the flow rate of any component. the operating regime etc. stage temperatures or duty specifications. manufacturer suggested HETP factor is used to estimate the number of ideal stages.

used as active specifications to run the simulation. The alternate variables that can be selected as active specifications are product flow rate, reflux flow rate, product purity etc. The condenser outlet is specified at be 86oF to consider the sub cooling effect of the condenser. Table 3.2 Column specifications data Manufacturer HETP * Modified HETP Ht of packing 2.5 in 2.66 in 60 in

No. of theoretical plates 60/2.66 ~ 24 *for n-heptane – methylcyclohexane system operating at similar condition Adding downstream unit operations As discussed before HYSYS uses sequential modular approach, the plant is modeled unit by unit in sequence. Therefore it is required to solve the distillation column before modeling any downstream units like the product coolers. The distillate and the bottom product cooler and the overhead condenser can be modeled as a cooler instead of a heat exchanger to simplify the model. The specifications used are the exit temperature and the pressure drop for each system. The overview of the steady state simulation model is as shown in Figure 3.1. 3.3.6 Model Validation The simulation model is the core of the methodology because it resembles the actual process. Any irregularities or mismatch in the model is reflected throughout the methodology and there is ample scope to arrive at the wrong conclusions. Therefore model validation is the important step in order to identify the accuracy of the model. This will also allow all current and future users of the simulation model to assess the significance of the apparent model inaccuracies, and better understand any limitations in extrapolating the model. The results obtained from the simulation model are compared with the actual plant data. The Table 3.3 summarizes the comparison between the actual and simulation results of the process. 23

Figure 3.1 Main flowsheet of the steady state model Table 3.3 Steady-state model validation Parameter Top Temperature( F)
o

Actual plant 153.5

Steady state model 154.5 170.5 1.90 86 145 1.42 1.66

Bottom Temperature(oF) 171.0 Reflux flow(GPH) Reflux Temperature(oF) Feed Temperature(oF) Distillate Flow(GPH) Bottom Flow(GPH) Distillate Composition Bottom Composition Feed Composition 2.21 86 145 1.3 1.8

[0.91,0.05,0.04] [0.89,0.04,0.80] [0.18,0.24,0.58] [0.20,0.22,0.58] [0.49,0.16,0.36] [0.49,0.16,0.36]

* Composition is expressed in mole % [Methanol, Propanol, and Water]

3.4 Dynamic State Simulation
The use of dynamic simulations has grown significantly over the last decade. In this context, dynamic process models are becoming key tools to improve unit yields, plant stability, 24

safety and controllability. These simulations allow the user to predict the dynamic behavior of the process and also assist in evaluation/design of the control strategies (Bezzo et al., 2004). The dynamic simulations are being used in development of training simulators and validation of safety systems. Dynamic models can be categorized as empirical and first principle models. Empirical models are based on black box model approach. The model consists of a number of regressions of the input/output responses. Examples of empirical modeling techniques include multivariable regression, neural networks and fuzzy logic systems. For processes where the underlying physical science is not sufficiently understood or if the process always operates within a well understood operating, empirical modeling techniques can be used successfully. However such models do have limitations in handling a wide range of operating conditions and pose issues if the process moves outside the operating conditions for which the model was regressed. On the other hand, the first principle models are those developed from the fundamental equations for the mass, energy and momentum balances; diffusive and heat transport; chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms; thermodynamics and phase equilibrium. The process is described in terms of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) or Algebraic Equations. Numerical integration techniques are used to solve these equations over time to predict the dynamic behavior of the process in response to various planned or unplanned disturbances to the process. HYSYS Dynamics™ Option provides a dynamic simulation capability fully integrated with the HYSYS environment, a steady-state model can be leveraged into a dynamic model which offers rigorous and high-fidelity results with a very fine level of equipment geometry and performance detail. A dynamic model can either be developed from the steady state model or directly in the dynamic mode with no prior steady state model. The following are the important steps involved in transitioning from the steady state to 25

4. the more the flow through the valve can be changed and better is 26 . Equipment sizing 2.4. Analyzing the results 3.dynamic state model 1.1 Equipment Sizing Appropriate equipment sizing is important for dynamic state simulation. Defining pressure flow specifications 3. The vessel holdup will not only affect the system's transient response but also affects the pressure calculations that are associated with the unit operation. Some good estimates of the gas and liquid holdups are sufficient to predict the realistic dynamic responses. HYSYS Dynamics permit a two-tiered approach to simulation with numerous options to supply different levels of equipment design and performance information. This means setting the percent valve opening and the pressure drop over the valve at steady-state design conditions. The dynamics model can be further expanded by incorporating detailed equipment and performance information. 3. Most valves are designed to be 50% open at design conditions. The design pressure drop of a valve is a tradeoff between dynamic controllability and steady state economics. It is not necessary to have all the details of the mechanical design of the equipment. the higher the valve pressure drop.2 Control Valve Sizing A critical part of developing dynamic simulation is control valve sizing. the basic design information is used and HYSYS Dynamics estimates reasonable defaults for the detailed equipment information. For the design activity simulation. HYSYS Dynamics provides modeling capabilities aimed at both process design and detailed design activity. Sizing is necessary so that the dynamic capacitance of the unit operations is available to the simulator. Installing controllers 4.

4 Installing Controllers HYSYS is capable and have inbuilt template of the following Control operations:      Split Range Controller Ratio Controller PID Controller MPC Controller DMCplus Controller 27 . This pressure drop is necessary because the flow in HYSYS Dynamics is determined by the pressure drop throughout the plant. In general.4.3 Defining Pressure Flow Specifications Before a transition from steady state to dynamic occurs. which mean higher energy consumption. the simulation flow sheet should be set up so that a pressure drop exists across the plant. However. The pressure and/or flow of a material stream can be specified in the flowsheet.4. To satisfy the degrees of freedom of the pressure-flow matrix. 3. Almost every unit operation in the flowsheet can be considered a holdup or carrier of material (pressure) and energy. you must input a certain number of pressure-flow specifications. one pressure-flow specification is required per flowsheet boundary stream. and pressure-flow relation equations make up a large number of equations in the pressure-flow matrix. resistance equations. A network of pressure nodes can therefore be conceived across the entire simulation case. A flowsheet boundary is one that crosses the model boundary and is attached to only one unit operation 3. The volume balance equations. Aspen HYSYS offers an advanced method of calculating the pressure and flow profile of a simulation case in Dynamics mode.the control. larger valve pressure drops require pumps and compressors with high discharge pressures. The Pressure-Flow (P-F) solver considers the integration of pressure flow balances in the flowsheet.

or Automatic While installing the controller. If a material/energy stream is chosen as an operating variable. The 0% corresponds to the Minimum value and 100% valve output corresponds to maximum value of the variable. the manipulated variable may be specified as an actual control valve position or a material/energy stream directly without building any valve. Input Controller Tuning Parameters.A controller can also be added before switching to the Dynamic mode but it is recommended to add them after. Manual. choose the mode of the controller. The maximum and minimum flow of the material stream is specified by clicking the Control Valve button on the parameter page tab of the controller property view.    Select Controller Action.   Select the Minimum and Maximum values for the Process Variable. Reverse or Direct. If a material stream is chosen as an operating variable. HYSYS varies the corresponding specification according to the calculated controller output. Size the valve . It also has an option of selecting different control algorithm like positional 28 . If desired. Once the Controller has been added to the Flowsheet:  Make the necessary connections for the Process Variable Source and Output Target Object. The use of specifying the operating variable as the material and energy streams simplify the dynamic model since there is no need to simulate the physical control valve. the material stream‟s flow becomes a P-F specification in the dynamic simulation case.controller range. Off. the maximum and minimum value of the stream (range) should be specified. The plant can be simulated more accurately by modeling the hardware elements of the control loop. Controllers can be added to the Flowsheet using the same methods as for other unit operations. This is not necessary if a valve was chosen as the Output Target Object.

and velocity form algorithm: the value of the manipulated variable is calculated and used directly in positional form. However HYSYS Dynamics is not capable of simulating such a condenser system with only a liquid exit stream and no vapor. The vapor exit stream from the tank is very small and is mainly nitrogen thus not affecting the other process conditions and other unit components. on other hand. Therefore in this model. we compute and use the change in the manipulated variable. This tailoring of the controller to achieve the optimum control performance is known as controller tuning. there is no vapor from the reflux drum. aggressive tuning will result in the overshoot or plant instability.4 below summarizes the basic regulatory controllers installed. Therefore the process performance deteriorates when the controller is poorly tuned.e.2 and 3. It is required that a separator/tank model in HYSYS has both vapor and liquid exit streams. for example tuning a controller too sluggish will not handle the process upsets. an inert stream. The choice of positional vs. the condenser is modeled for sub cooled conditions i. Figure 3. increase in energy costs and environmental emissions and in decrease of the plant capacity. for example. On the other side. In this study the default settings of the controller are used. Controller Tuning It is necessary to adjust the controller parameters according to the nature of the process. As mentioned in the steady state model. In the velocity form of the PID. Tuning a controller has severe impact on the process performance. velocity forms will have an impact on such issues as initialization. 29 . and also at the same time will take too long to reach the set point or the desired performance. Control schemes are configured within the same environment from a pre-built suite of function blocks.3 gives an over view of the main flowsheet and column sub flowsheet in dynamic simulation and Table 3. bump less transfer. nitrogen at approximately same process conditions is introduced into the system. this deterioration may be reflected.

3 Column sub flowsheet of the dynamic simulation 30 .Figure 3.2 Main flowsheet of dynamic simulation Figure 3.

tuning rules were defined for PI and PID controllers. TC LC LC FC TC The overall effect will be an increase in operating costs and a reduction in overall competitiveness. There are other tuning software available such as the APCON tool available in Mat lab which uses the closed loop tuning method i. The foremost step in this tuning process is to develop a process model that defines the relationship between the manipulated variable (input) and the process variable (output) response. Composition) TC Bottoms Temperature ( in effect.Table 3.e.4 Basic regulatory controllers installed in the distillation unit Variable of Primary Interest Controller Manipulated Variable Reflux Flow Re boiler Duty Distillate Flow Bottoms Flow Feed Flow Ethyl Glycol Flow Overhead Temperature ( in effect. a step change in the manipulated variable is introduced and the response of the controlled variable is recorded over the time. Composition) Reflux Drum Level (Total Reflux) Reboiler Level Feed flow rate Feed Inlet Temp. In this study. In general this curve is referred to as the process characteristics curve and can be represented using the first order plus time delay (FOPDT) model. HYSYS Dynamics has inbuilt auto tuning algorithm however the results obtained from this method could not provide adequate control for the application. In an open loop. Therefore proper tuning of a controller is important to reduce the process variability and to improve the efficiency. The response data is recorded in an Excel (CSV) format and is exported to Control Station® software to fit the process data and to obtain the process model along with the tuning 31 . There have been a numerous approaches available for controller tuning today. Zeigler –Nichols method. The first tuning method for defining the setting up controller parameters was defined in 1934 for a proportional-derivative (PD) controller and subsequently. the controllers are tuned using the control station® software.

5 shows the model parameters and the PID tuning parameter for the same controller.4 Process data fit in the control station design tool Figure 3. Figure 3.5 Tuning parameters recommended by the Control Station The advantages of using the Control station software is the ease to adjust the controller performance based on the nature of the process. For a conservative PID the recommended value for the user specified closed loop time constant is about 50 % of the process time constant. This is done by a user specified closed loop time constant. If the tuning parameters obtained by this process fail to provide satisfactory control due to presence of process interactions. Figure 3. they can be used as the initial estimates and are then tuned by trial and error method.4 shows the process data fit using FOPDT model for the bottom temperature controller in the control station design tool. 32 . It is equipped with a performance slide bar to adjust the controller performance from conservative to aggressive or anything in between. Figure 3.parameters.

6 and 3. SOPDT with Lead Time.7 Response plot for a set point change in bottom temperature 33 .5 Analyzing the Results Once all the unit operations are added and the dynamic performance specifications are specified.The data can be analyzed and plots for mean. second order plus dead time (SOPDT). Further analysis can be done be exporting the history values into the Microsoft Excel. SOPDT integrating. The response plots for a set point change in the top and bottom temperature controller are as shown below in Figure 3. FOPDT integrating.6 Response plot for a set point change in top temperature Figure 3.4. standard deviation.7 Figure 3. and SOPDT under damped. 3. the dynamic solver is started and allowed to run for certain time interval to propagate all the values. The data can be modeled with a library of dynamic forms including first order plus dead time (FOPDT). The results are analyzed by adding desired strip charts. and variance can be viewed.

34 . certain process decisions require the knowledge of the transient response and interactive behavior of the process. they do cost additional capital and are often source of environmental emissions and safety problems. integrated and optimized with respect to high efficiency of raw materials and energy. operations. ecologic performance and operability properties. the simulation practices are playing an increasingly critical role in the plant design.2 Process Control and Operability Thorough understanding of the process is the first step in the design of a control strategy. The ability of the plant to adapt itself to external disturbance both planned and unplanned is the key to bottom-line.5 Application Areas and Benefits In the engineering domain. planning and optimization. Planned disturbances are mainly product switchovers. and advanced control strategies. such as process synthesis. While larger tanks give better control and operability performance. Though steady state simulations are more prominent in detailed plant design and feasibility studies. economic evaluation. 3. dynamic modeling.5.5. Therefore the dynamic simulation studies are also performed in conjunction with steady state simulation for sizing of critical units. 3.3. changes in the production targets whereas the unplanned disturbances are feed composition fluctuations. For instance the sizing of intermediate hold up tanks can have significant impact on the process operability of the downstream units. Process companies are using a various synergistic engineering technologies in combination with steady state process simulation. For critical applications dynamic simulations can be used to properly minimize surge capacity while providing sufficient attenuation of process disturbances.1 Process Design The modern design strategy consists of developing not only a unique design but also alternative case studies from which the optimal design case is refined.

Empirical modeling techniques in advanced process control strategies (APC) such as model predictive control algorithms are now standard in the process industry. evaluate. 3. 3. Distillation column relief system evaluations and compressor surge control are typical applications of process simulation. The use of dynamic simulation can identify the important operability and control issues leading to a better process design and a smoother operating plant. validated dynamic models in conjunction with limited plant testing can be used in model identification step and thus reduce the time and cost of the process identification step.5.5. Such control methods require information of transient responses of the process from known disturbances for their design and implementation. These models can be used to perform the hazop study or „what if‟ analysis.changes in ambient conditions and the utility loads. They can also be used to determine the critical variables that have a significant impact on the key process parameters which affect the profitability of the plant. Process identification step or step testing is done through extensive plant testing which is very expensive and time consuming. The use of rigorous. Dynamic simulations can also be deployed to develop.4 Online Applications and Operator Training Although operator training has taken many forms over the years. high fidelity dynamic model of the process.3 Safety Studies Process simulations can play a pivotal role in identifying potentially hazardous scenarios and the changes in the design and operation procedures to mitigate or avoid them. They can be used to evaluate. test and tune novel control strategies for both new and existing processes. They can also be employed to test and evaluate its performance prior to plant implementation. with direct connection to or emulation of the DCS 35 . the use of rigorous. test and quantify the performance of these emergency and relief systems.

accepting process operating data and „shadowing‟ the actual operation of the plant in real time. Configuration errors in the DCS control strategies can be quickly identified and control loops can be tuned prior to actual plant startup. Dynamic models running online. The dynamic model is linked to the DCS control system and is run.operational screens and control algorithms is highly demanding since it would emulate a life like simulation of the control room. can act as „soft sensors‟ for those critical process data. 36 . leading to substantial economic benefits. They can also used to estimate the key process operating data such as compositions that cannot be easily measured directly. leading to much smoother and quicker plant startups. emulating the actual operating process and used to test the control algorithms responses to various disturbances. In addition such integrated environment facilitates testing of DCS configuration and control strategy prior to putting it online for real operation.

A wide variety of problems in the design.. with the rising environmental concerns. manufacturing plants are forced to integrate different processes and to adopt new approaches to design and operate. product quality and profitability. Chemical plants were designed primarily to maximize reliability. construction. where a number of methods are primarily focused on the profitability of designed processes (Peters and Timmerhaus.. 1998). waste disposal and process safety have often been treated as secondary factors. The reason for such relatively simple optimization problems was due to the lack of advanced computing technology and also because of lack of stringent environmental policies. 1998. Issues such as toxic emissions. Such practices subsequently present new dilemmas for decision making and thereby pose a complex optimization problem and have to simultaneously satisfy environmental. Turton et al. Today.CHAPTER 4 PROCESS OPTIMIZATION 4. Traditionally. operation.1 Introduction The field of optimization pervades in engineering. and business. and analysis of chemical plants can be resolved by optimization. The failure of such traditional economic analysis methods to address environmental issues is well-documented (Jackson and Clift. Chemical engineering economics are well defined and developed in literature. and soaring global oil prices. This invariably needs some tradeoff between these objectives. science. economic and social goals. 1991. Biegler et al. improved performance means better profits. The following section briefly describes the new optimization tool developed along with the improved objective function used for optimization of plant control operations. the chemical processes are optimized based on a single objective function which is frequently accounted for the economic performance. This methodology allows process engineers to introduce the environmental costs in the process analysis for improved 37 . 1997). In plant operations.

There are several commercial simulation programs available today which offers detailed modeling and other advanced features. predicts the mass. For this study. The results obtained from this technique not only boost the profits by obtaining optimal design and operating conditions but also tackle the environmental issues related to emissions. A short description of the actions concerned to each of the steps is presented in the following section. This step can also be used to identify the process streams and other basic information regarding their role in the process (input/output. 4. The methodology comprises the steps of process modeling. transference of data. Considering the example of the Packed Distillation Unit in Chapter 3. energy flows and all other parameters and. 4. the computational resource to programming macros. at the same time. and optimization. by the prediction of environmental damage for different scenarios of study. The bridge code is programmed in Visual Basic Application (VBA). evaluation of the environmental damage.2.2. the summary of the main production results are presented in Table 4.decision-making. energy/material and product/by-product).2 Optimization Framework As mentioned earlier the main objective of the proposed framework is to integrate process analysis with the environmental damage assessment and to formulate improved objective function for advanced optimization of the chemical plants.1. these data are transferred to/from MS-Excel. Therefore modeling is the most critical part of this methodology.2 Integration and Data Transfer The steady state model. 4. It allows 38 .1 Process Modeling The objective of the process modeling is to perform inventory calculations and quantify the consumption of resources (including energy and utilities) and releases to the environment as close as possible to the real operation. Aspen HYSYS is used to model the process to obtain all the mass and energy information.

00 1.12 1.60 145. 39 . Also shown in the spreadsheet are the optimum values (column top and bottom temperature) sent to the MPC controller as set points (discussed the next chapter) to study the operability for the optimized conditions and the effects of transition. Microsoft Excel is used to extend the computational and optimization capability of the simulated process.90 0.Table 4.1 The summary of the production results Unit -Btu/hr Deg F GPH GPH --Btu/hr Btu/hr Parameter Reflux Ratio Reboiler Duty Feed preheat Temperature Distillate Flow Rate Bottom Flow Rate Distillate Mole Fraction(Methanol) Bottom Mole Fraction(Methanol) Condenser Duty Feed preheater Duty Value 1. 2001). particularly. Therefore the linkage between the HYSYS model and Microsoft Excel is bidirectional in nature.63 1156. Figure 4. This extracted data provides the basis for calculation of energy consumption and environmental emissions and is further used in optimization.97 0.84 the user to import and export any selected variables between the HYSYS model and Excel worksheet (Herrera. The proposed optimization framework is proven to be very cost effective as it has been developed exploiting the capabilities of the commercial software packages like Aspen HYSYS®. process data has to be communicated back and forth to the simulation model in order to obtain the optimum results. For every trial solution.1 is the overview of the Excel spreadsheet used optimization interface. within the context of the optimization framework. during the optimization method.12 9000.28 8646. Microsoft Excel (Premium solver add in) and Standard Visual Basic Applications.

3 Environmental Assessment The environmental objectives used in the framework are developed based on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Fava et al 1993). use and final disposal. quantified and expressed in terms impact indicators providing to the decision makers. since the extraction of raw materials. through manufacture. Impact Assessment and Interpretation (Heijungs et al. water and soil. LCA has given a lot of attention as an environmental indicator of chemical processes (Burgess and Brennan. Through all of these steps. 40 . The application of EDA technique provides consistent information about the type and extent of damage on environment. The methodology of LCA can be divided in four steps: Goal and Scope Definition. the environmental profile of the process in study. In recent years. environmental aspects regarded to consumptions of natural resource and releases to air.2. are identified.Figure 4. The LCA is a fairly new chain-orientated tool created to evaluate the environmental performance of a product.1 Overview of the optimizer spreadsheet 4.. Inventory Analysis. 1992. 2001).

These environmental impacts can be calculated in 41 . The amount of pollutants and the extent of environmental damage is directly related to the consumption of resources both raw material and energy. The extracted data from the model is used to develop the environmental model for the optimization. In this study. location. the environmental related costs. This information can further be used to study and categorize the impact on human health. It depends on several factors like plant capacity. to estimate the actual emissions to the atmosphere. The energy consumed could be either in the form of electricity. Therefore the total energy consumed has to be accounted. and nature of the process etc. two scenarios were chosen. carbon dioxide (CO2). The information related with these loads were provided by two bibliographic sources: ETH Report (Frischknecht. steam and fuel. and TEAM database (Ecobilan Group. considering the severity of their relevance in the main environmental effects. 1996). furnaces. included in the objective function are calculated. Sulfur dioxide (SO2). The main sources of energy consumption in any refinery or a petrochemical plant are pumps. and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were chosen as Environmental Load (EL). compressors. b) determination of scenarios and c) environmental damage assessment. 1998).The foremost step in developing the economic or environmental model is inventory calculation which includes the raw material and energy consumption. The manufacturing firms adopt different strategies to meet the energy requirement which is unique for that process. based on the several possibilities to obtain the steam and electricity required in the process. The use of scenarios during the environmental analysis allows comparing different alternatives in terms of system environment interactions. heaters and reboilers. natural resources and the ecosystem. Once the total environmental loads associated with material and energetic streams of the overall process are estimated. The eco-vector definition requires the assignment of environmental loads (EL). In this work. The following three steps are used: a) definition of the eco-vector.

2 Environmental loads used to compute environmental emissions Environmental Loads C02. based on the decision makers‟ preferences and on the nature of the optimization problem and the selected decision variables. discounted cash flow rate of return. such as operating expenses.terms of damage indicators by using weighting methods as discussed in Herrera et al. In this study. and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are chosen as Environmental Load (EL).. In defining the eco vector. the efficiency for Glycol Heating system is assumed to be 0. July 04 4. The data in Table 4. considering that the plant requires electric power and steam. maximizing throughput. Table 4. Ton/GWH SO2 Kg/GWH NOX Kg/GWH Fuel oil 657 1030 988 *special report of World Energy Council. and lower maintenance period. The conventional objective function (Eq. Referring to the PDU example. These profitability assessment techniques vary from simple measures to more advance and complex ones.2. taking into account their relevance in the main environmental effects.80. the production of which consumes natural resources and generates environmental emissions.1) 42 . The main goals of the process optimization are minimizing cost. increasing yields of valuable products. payback period and etc. the process engineers were more concerned about the economical and control objectives and have ignored the environmental aspects. operating profit. Traditionally.4 Optimization Model The process optimization has been a major quantitative tool in industrial decision making. carbon dioxide (CO2). capital cost.4. net present value. Then the quantity of each environmental load is estimated using the available correlation. 2000.2 has been used in computing the total environmental emissions. sulfur dioxide (SO2). rate of return. The net equivalent electricity consumed is then calculated in Giga Watt Hr (GWH).

Therefore TCA will 43 . monitoring emissions. fines. products.2) which would take into account the environmental effects into the optimization problem (Sengupta et al. 4. analysis. This methodology is developed by team of industrial firms that is broadly applicable to many industrial sectors. 2007). Therefore an improved objective function known as triple bottom line function is defined (Eq. compilation. Triple bottom line = Profit function – Environmental cost . 2000). TCA is defined as the identification. the environmental costs are becoming significantly higher and therefore have to be considered in the optimization criteria together with technical and economical evaluations. 4. etc  Sustainable Credits = Credit given to the processes that use CO2 The new objective function is based on Total Cost Assessment (TCA) methodology. This proposed framework is intended to complement the existing cost estimating practices with environmental costs for improved decision-making. the rising concerns on global warming and with implementation of emissions trading programs (“cap and trade”). 4.Sustainable debit + Sustainable credit. It provides the framework for not only decision making process but also for estimating baseline costs that have a much broader and potentially longer timeframe. The addition of the environmental aspects to the optimization adds to complexity of the problem because these are often conflicting with the economic objectives. utilities and energy.includes only the costs associated with the feed.2  Sustainable debit = Costs to the society to repair the damage to the environment by emissions  Environmental Cost = Costs required to comply with environmental regulations including permits.1 However. and use of environmental and human health cost information associated with a business decision (TCA Manual. Profit Function = Product Revenues – Raw material costs – operating expenses.

human health. The following section explains the model formulation with respect to the packed distillation unit discussed earlier. It is also assumed that there are no processes utilizing the emissions in the plant i. Potential future costs include potentially hidden impacts on the environment.3 The quantities of the pollutant that are calculated during the environmental analysis are used to estimate the associated cost.3 summarizes the information used for calculating the total sustainable debit associated with the process. Ton * Cost. The Eq. Objective Function = Product revenues – Utilities cost – Sustainable debit 4. 4. and ecology. future.4 . for example. pollution prevention alternatives. Sustainable debit = Σ Environmental load. Therefore the improved objective function being used in the methodology is reduced to the following equation. or market-based environmental options. manufacturing firms may find it more difficult to assess and measure certain environmental costs. $/Ton 44 4. It is assumed that the feed to the process is fixed and the environmental cost is estimated as a fraction of the feed cost. and improving future environmental performance requires paying attention to current and potential future environmental costs. environmental cost information is treated as just another cost of doing business. as well as internal intangible costs. as it is in product pricing or product mix. increasing revenues. In certain situations. When environmental accounting extends beyond conventional costs to include potentially hidden.e. In many of these decision contexts. contingent and image/relationship costs. the environmental cost information may play a unique role in the decision process.4 gives the expression used to compute the total sustainable debit for the given process conditions while Table 4. in waste management decisions. there is no sustainable credits associated with the process.contribute to improved long-term competitiveness such as reducing environmental expenses.

5 is the summary of the product and utility costs used in the optimization problem.Table 4. 4. is formulated with the Frontline Systems' premier spreadsheet optimization product. FD – Product flow rate.3 Sustainable debits used for various environmental loads Environmental Load CO2 SO2 NOX $/Ton 3.7$/hr.25 192 1030 Once the sustainable debit is computed. Table 4.62 * FB) – (QH * 4 * 10-6 + QC * 0.4 summarizes the results as well as the decision variables and the constraint imposed in the optimization problem. The value of the objective function is increased from 22. It is a compatible upgrade of the standard Microsoft Excel solver that greatly extends its speed and 45 . the optimization problem is subjected to other process and environmental constraints such as those on quality. the optimization technique. In addition to the constraints on the decision variables. gal FB – Bottom residue flow rate.Sustainable debit Where. the final objective function is computed using the following equation OBJ = (20 * XM* FD + 2. The results from the solver are shown in Figure 4. btu/hr It should be noted that the decision variables used in the optimization should be specified as active specifications in the steady state simulation case in order for the optimizer to manipulate the variables.75 * 10-6) . gal QH – total heating duty required. The Table 4. btu/hr QC – total cooling duty. heating and cooling duty specifications.3$/hr to 24.3 Software Architecture In the proposed framework. ε-constraint.2. Premium Solver Platform®.

the objective function is normalized. Moreover.90 Bottom Mole Fraction(Methanol) Condenser Duty Feed preheater Duty 0. Interaction with the HYSYS uses link and embed (OLE) Automation.88 0.97 1.66 0.04 0.63 1156.99 0.06 140.4 The summary of decision and constraint variables in the optimization Decision Variables Reflux Ratio Reboiler Duty Feed preheat Temperature Constraints Distillate Flow Rate Bottom Flow Rate 1.03 1138. This scaling is usually recommended in optimization problems to ease the comparison between the formulated objectives and to avoid the computational confusion that is due to different scale objectives.43 1. which is a characteristic of many chemical design problems.00 Minimum 1 8500 140 Maximum 1.20 10075.28 8646.4 0. It uses improved generalized gradient method (Frontline Systems.5 2.12 9000. and scaled between 0 and 1. In the optimization framework.30 10449.00 1. 2000) and is capable of solving large scale nonlinear and global optimization problems.problem solving capacity.12 1. Table 4. convex and non-convex. where 0 represents the best value and 1 represents the worst value of the objective. OLE is a tool that enables applications to expose information/data constructed within them to other applications to support automation. over the specified range of the assigned decision variables.6 15000 148 Distillate Mole Fraction(Methanol) 0.8 0 8000 850 1.84 The ε-constraint method is employed in the optimization formulation due to its ability of handing the two types of optimization problems.3 10000 1250 Initial value Optimal value 1. As mentioned earlier the data transfer between the HYSYS model and the spreadsheet interface is programmed in Visual Basic Application.75 1 0.60 145. the normalized objectives will follow the same path of 46 .

2 Results from Excel spreadsheet 47 .75 XM . maximization or minimization.5 Summary of the product and utility cost used for the optimization Product Name Distillate Bottoms Feed Duty Reboiler Duty Feed Preheater Duty Condenser Duty Price ($/Gal) 20 * XM 2.7 Price ($/MMBtu) 4 4 0.6 0. Table 4. and at the end of the optimization process.Mole fraction of methanol Figure 4. the restored objective values are displayed in the original scales to the decision-maker.optimization.

This search loop between the optimizer in Excel and the model in HYSYS continues until a global optimum point is found. 48 . These variables should be as active specifications in the HYSYS model so that the optimizer is able to manipulate the values of these variables. the objective function and the other variables. the optimizer waits till the model is converged and then the new process information is imported back to the spreadsheet to recalculate the target value i. The above optimization process is repeated for different bounds of the constrained objectives to develop the entire Pareto optimality set of solutions. within the feasibility and constraints regions and export the decision variables to the model in HYSYS. During this step.The selected process parameters are assigned as the decision variables of the optimization problem. The optimizer searches over each process variable‟s space.e.

The control systems become more effective by integrating all aspects of automation and decision making such as measurements. is the most prominent among all the exiting advanced control strategies. environmental. The use of MPC concept has now spread wide and covers a broad spectrum of industries such as food processing. metallurgy. plant capacity.1 Introduction The scope of the control systems in process industries has been broadened from the basic regulatory control to advanced control strategies to ensure the competitive edge in the face of dynamic market conditions. 1997). MPC has the ability to operate without much expert interference for relatively long periods of time. Thus the implementation of such integrated systems are demanding advanced control strategies with the ability to integrate and satisfy several criteria such as economic. optimization and the logistics. safety. It is ideally suited for multivariable control operations where all interactions between manipulated variables (MVs) and control variables (CVs) are taken into account. Model Predictive Control (MPC). 5. In modern refining and petrochemical industries there is a strong correlation between the plant control performance and the financial performance condition of the industry. control. pulp and paper and aerospace and defense industries (Qin and Bagwell.CHAPTER 5 MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL 5. Such systems also facilitate in efficient use of energy resources and to reduce environmental emission. and the product quality.2 Background MPC was initially developed to meet the specific control objectives of the petroleum 49 . MPC is an efficient and integrated solution to complex process control problems involving inverse responses and extensive process delays.

The future control action is determined by posing an optimization problem with the objective of minimizing the prediction error subject to the constraints. 1994). 1978. the thought of ideas for MPC had started since the 1960‟s (Garcia et al. Gevers and Wertz. 1962. Soeterboek. 1995). The future control sequence is computed at the current time. 1993. make preemptive control moves. Propoi. The optimization problem is generally solved via a numerical minimization algorithm using the current plant operating conditions as the initial state but only the first control move in this sequence (at time k+1) is applied to the plant. MPC refers to a family of controllers in which there is a direct use of an explicit process model to forecast the future behavior of a plant. The first model predictive control algorithm was Model Predictive Heuristic Control and was successfully implemented on a Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU) main fractionators‟ column in a polyVinyl Chloride plant (Richalet et al. 1989). The correlation between the closely related optimal control problem and linear programming were recognized first by Zadeh and Whalen. 1994. 1963 had suggested the core of all MPC algorithms the moving horizon approach.. 1992. The MPC fundamentals and its applications are thoroughly discussed in several textbooks (Bitmead.refineries and power plants. 1997) mainly due to its extended benefits over traditional controllers (Garcia et al. the control algorithms have gained both academic and commercial interest. There are a wide variety of MPC algorithms that have been developed over past decades. Clarke. Camacho &Bordons. k.. 1992 and Oguinnake. However. 50 . In general. Warren. With the rapid increase in the use of MPC. Tinham. 1995. MPC has become a standard control practice particularly in petrochemical and refinery industries (Qin and Bagwell. 1989). Berber. There have been several papers published in the last two decades describing the successful applications of the model predictive control algorithms in process industries (Richalet et al. and optimize plant performance. 1990. 1978). Over the past decade.

1979). 1992).Therefore MPC is supposedly a perfect real-time optimal control model equipped with process integration capability (Camacho and Bordons. the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) (Clarke et al. The basic elements of MPC methodology are illustrated in Figure 5. 1998). (Soeterboek. 1982). 1987). There are a number of MPC algorithms namely LMPC algorithm. 51 . These algorithms differ from each other in applied model structure and the solution of the cost function of the optimization problem (Henttonen 1992).1 and can be defined as follows Figure 5. the Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC) (Cutler and Ramaker. The name “Model Predictive Control” arises from the approach in which the control strategy is computed.1 Principle of the Model Predictive Control  An explicit dynamic model (mostly linear empirical models) is used to predict the dynamic behavior of a plant over a certain future time interval normally known as the prediction horizon (P). 1983) and the Internal Model Control (IMC) (Garcia and Morari. However. Quadratic-Program Dynamic Matrix Control (QDMC) (Cutler et al. the fundamental structure of the MPC algorithms is common for any kinds of MPC strategy. At the present time k the behavior of the process over a horizon p is considered.

u(k−1). For a discrete time model this means it predicts the output state of the process from yˆ(k +1) to yˆ(k + H) based on all actual past control inputs u(k).  The moves of the manipulated variables are determined such that the predicted response has certain desirable characteristics i.. 5.e.u(k − j) and the current state y(k).Using the model the process response to changes in the manipulated variable is predicted.3 Types of Model As discussed the model is the essential element of an MPC controller. plant measurements are used to compute the prediction error ε (k) between the plant measurement y (k) m and the model prediction yˆ(k). a sequence of control action moves (Δu(k|k-1)… Δu(k+m|k-1)) to be implemented over a certain time interval. However when linear models are not sufficiently accurate because of nonlinearities. The basic block diagram of MPC is illustrated in Figure 5. the process can be represented by 52 ... At time k+1 the entire computation is repeated with the horizon moved by one time interval and therefore the algorithm proceeds forward in time. as discussed before only the first move of computed control action sequence is implemented. This strategy is often referred to as receding horizon strategy  As mentioned before the key to the MPC strategy is the plant model to predict the dynamics of the process and since no model can constitute a perfect representation of the actual process.. known as the control horizon (m) is calculated by optimization of specified objectives such as the deviation of predicted output from set point over the prediction horizon and the size of control action adjustments in driving the process output to target plus some operating constraints. These models are most often linear empirical models obtained by system identification. The ε (k) obtained is normally used to update the future prediction.2. However.

. the MPC utilizes a nonlinear model directly in the control application. 1998). Georgiou. 1988 53 .. This is mainly due to the difficulty in developing an accurate nonlinear process model and the computational problem associated with the Non-Linear Programming (NLP). 1999 and J. 1989.. the number of NMPC applications are limited (Qin and Bagwell. The issues of feasibility of the online optimization. Qin and Bagwell. Rawlings. 1999. (Garcia et al.2 The basic block diagram of Model Predictive Control 5.a nonlinear model i. NMPC strategies are mainly applied to processes such as high purity distillation column (Fruzzetti et al. More detailed information about the MPC formulation.3. 1999). Maciejowski.1 Non Linear Models Although the need of Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) is well recognized and various types of NMPC strategy have been developed. 2002) Figure 5. 1997. 1997 & 2000). NMPC refers to the MPC algorithm that employs a more accurate nonlinear model in control applications (Henson. Camacho and Bordon.e. 2000. future prospects and implications from both the academic and commercial perspective are reviewed in several research papers. et al. stability and performance for both the linear and nonlinear MPC are discussed in several papers (Morari and Lee.

the models of choice in early industrial MPC applications were time domain. Ramaker.3.. however. step or impulse response models (C.. 5. Richalet et al. Zheng.g. artificial neural networks) or a high fidelity model based on fundamentals such as mass. Aspen Technology Aspen Target. 1980) due to the ease of understanding provided by these models. These include Hammerstein model (Fruzzetti. The models developed using the fundamental laws are normally in the form of differential and algebraic equations such as the ordinary differential equations (ODE) or partial differential equation (PDE). 1997). and energy balances. Gillette. L. R. wide operating conditions and large disturbances are common. Pavilion Technologies Process Perfecter and Continental Controls Multivariable Control (MVC) The nonlinear models may be in the form of either an empirical data fit (e. J. the derivation of first principles model is normally expensive and difficult to maintain (Piche et al. and collocation model (Jang and Wang. species. Therefore the use of this modeling method is limited to the operating region where the model has been identified.2 Linear Models Historically. Prett and R D. Various kinds of empirical models have been utilized in NMPC design. input/output.. Ricker and Lee. Volterra model (Maner et al.. 1997). 1978 and D. M. et al. 1995. 2000) and often yield a model of very high order due to rigorous modeling (Lee. The empirical method relies only on the process data available and requires no understanding of underlying physical phenomena of the system. In addition the linear models can be developed relatively easy and 54 . 1997). 1995) and semi-batch reactors where frequent product grade changes.and Ravi Srinivas et al. 1980). Some of the commercial NMPC products that are available in the market are: Adersa Predictive Functional Control (PFC). 1998). Many of NMPC studies based on the fundamental model had been reported within last decade (Patwardhan and Edgar. 1996). This kind of model is globally valid due to its natural characteristic. 1990. Cutler and B.

also provide acceptable results when the plant is operated in the neighborhood of the operating point. Most Linear MPC algorithms use one of the following models to predict the dynamics of the process depending on the context. Finite Impulse Response model In FIR model, the output at a discrete time step k is expressed as the following function of input states (Eqn.5.1). The model is illustrated in Figure 5.3. This model has certain advantages from a practical implementation viewpoint as it eliminates the need to specify the time delays and therefore even complex dynamics can be represented with equal ease. However the use of this model is limited to only stable process y(k) = State Space Model State space model is the common technique of model representation. The system to be controlled is described by a linear discrete time model. The state-space models have several advantages including easy generalization to multi-variable systems, ease of analysis of closed loop properties, and on-line computation. The state space models are expressed as x(k) = A x(k-1) + B u(k-1) y(k) = C x(k) Step-Response Model The step-response model is used in DMC algorithm originally proposed by cutler and Ramaker, 1980. A Step Response model is usually expressed as Y(k) = 5.3 5.2 5.1

Where ai is the step-response coefficient and the last term represents the steady state bias. The model horizon N defines the memory of the model where 55 (k) – u(k-1) . The values of

ai at different intervals are obtained by using the unit step response for the process at sampling periods Figure 5.4. . ai = 0 for i <0 and N is the settling time of the process. The model is illustrated in

Figure 5.3 The Finite Impulse Response model

Figure 5.4 The Step Response Model

5.4 Limitations
However, there are some practical limitations related with MPC in terms of stability and robustness. The need for an optimal control solution to improve performance in multiple dimensions involves a higher level of mathematical and computational complexity in derivation of control law. The MPC are highly dependent on the model and therefore the performance of 56

these controllers is directly related to the accuracy of the model. Any inconsistencies between the actual process and the model used for prediction will affect the control performance severely. The Lundstrom et al., 1994 reported a few limitations of DMC including it may perform poorly for multivariable plants with strong interaction. The other drawbacks related to operation, high maintenance cost, lack of flexibility of MPC are argued in several papers (Hugo, 2000).

5.5 Role of Simulation in MPC Identification
Traditionally, MPC implementation is a tedious job that involves extensive operator interference. Industrial experience has shown that the most difficult and time-consuming effort in an MPC project is model identification. The model identification is done by a series of lengthy step tests. Each step test requires the operator to make a step move and allow the process to settle to reach a new steady state. The response data is then analyzed and is used to develop the model. However, the quality of collected data depends on the technical competence and experience of the control engineer and the operator as well. This procedure is repeated for every manipulated variable. Because such deliberate step tests are quite expensive, disruptive, invasive and time consuming (may extend to several months in case of a large unit), a significant incentive exists to minimize the step tests, if not eliminate them entirely (Hokanson, D.A et al, 1992). This approach has other drawbacks such as it is often required to perform aggressive testing to determine a signal to noise ratio for process model identification and also certain external disturbances cannot be included in the model. Recently, there is a growing demand for more efficient model identification methods and some APC vendors started to respond on this demand. Some effort has been made in model identification by several MPC vendors to utilize modeling and simulation tools. The actual process is simulated using the state of the art simulation tools and the step tests are performed in the simulation environment. The use of this approach based on steady and dynamic state simulations to develop the necessary models avoid disruptive and costly step testing to the extent feasible (Umesh et al, 2008)

57

The following are the control parameters that can be adjusted in the HYSYS A.. In most problems the number of inputs will be equal to the number of outputs. The proper dynamic model of the process should be available before building the MPC controller. A step change of 5% is introduced in each of the MV and the CV‟s are monitored. the other configuration parameters can also be defined.6 Building the MPC Controller HYSYS is capable of performing advanced control strategies such as the Model Predictive Control (MPC). a square system. Prediction horizon: This value determines how far into the future the predictions are made when calculating the controller output.5. The model should run with no errors and instabilities. 2. i. In addition to the control interval. Once the number of inputs and outputs are known some basic modeling is required.e. 3. C. The default is 50 and the maximum is 100. The following is the summary of steps to install and run the MPC controller in HYSYS. B. It is bounded by the length of the step response. Add the MPC controller and input the required information to configure the controller using the model data obtained in the previous steps. A step response data can be used to represent the models between the inputs and the outputs. 1. The foremost step is to determine the number of inputs and outputs there are in the control problem. A multivariable open loop test can be performed to obtain the step response data for the selected controlled and the manipulated variables. Step response length: This is the length of the step response that will be used in the controller calculation. Control horizon: This value represents the number of controller moves into the future 58 .

When the value is small the controller essentially sees a pure step as the set point is changed. The main objective of the process is to obtain the required purity or composition in both the distillate and the bottoms of column. Gamm_U and Gamma_Y: These are weighting functions associated with the optimization problem that is solved to produce the controller output every control interval. Using the step response data obtained the model transfer functions are developed by exporting to control station software. the tray temperatures are used to infer the composition.e.that will be made to achieve the final set point. A multivariable open loop test is performed to obtain the step response data for the selected controlled and the manipulated variables. How ever since there are no online composition analyzers to measure composition of the streams. there will be four process models to be determined. Per the method of Moore. the column‟s top and bottom temperature are chosen as the controlled (dependent) variable. A step change of 5% is introduced in each of the MV and the CV‟s are monitored. the top tray temperature was used to represent the top product composition and bottom tray temperature was used to represent the bottom product composition. D. The value is bounded by the prediction horizon. The reflux flow and reboiler hot stream flow are chosen as manipulated (independent) variables. These models are based on percent changes in input PVs and percent 59 .. i. 5. E. Reference Trajectory: On set point changes this value represents the time constant of a filter that acts on the set point. a filtered set point can be used for the control.7 Application to the Packed Distillation Column Referring to the packed distillation unit modeled. Since we have a 2x2 multivariable process.

14.1 summarizes the transfer function matrix while Figure 5.5 gives an overview of the MPC controller developed for the process.0.1 Transfer Function Matrix of the process MV/CV CV1 .45.112.2.2 gives the summary of control parameters used in developing the MPC controller.0.0 Reference Trajectory 60 1.changes in the corresponding Ops.5 Overview of the MPC controller developed Once the model information is defined in the controller.0] CV2 – Bottom tray temp [-0.5. Table 5.0.2340.0 .0] [0. Table 5.2. the control parameters are adjusted. Table 5. Table 5.Top tray temp.32.278.1. MV1-Reflux flow MV2 – Reboiler duty [-0.0.0.0] * Transfer Function is expressed as: [gain.288.33] [0.0 Gamm_U and Gamma_Y 1. time constant (min).2 MPC Controller parameters used in the simulation Control Parameter Step response length Prediction horizon Control horizon Value 50 25 2. delay (min)] Figure 5.

Hence. the results from the steady state optimizer are exported to MPC controller. The response plot for a set point change in the top temperature is shown Figure 5. in the proposed methodology.6 Response plot for a setpoint change in top temperature 61 . Figure 5. the optimal conditions achieved from the optimizer can be validated for the operability and controllability. The MPC controller then provides the set points to the basic PID controllers installed in the column environment. The controller is evaluated by installing the strip chart for the selected variables.6.It should be noted that.

The advent of advanced modeling environments has significantly increased the role of simulation in the plant operations. planning and supply chain domains and in other engineering areas. an important factor in using simulated training programs is the ability to train the inexperienced operator on abnormal and emergency scenarios that are seldom encountered in real life. The accurate and realistic simulations allow engineers/students to broaden the limits of a plant‟s capability and identify operational and 62 . 1996. with the industrial case studies analyzed by Bretelle and Macchietto. aerospace and military industries.. 1993. Bretelle et al. Besides the governmental regulations. They were mainly used for accident prevention and were limited to a single unit operation or a small section of the plant. The high capital investment and lack of sophisticated modeling techniques have limited the scope of these simulators in process industries. Therefore the training simulators justified for simply “training” are now paying for themselves in other engineering benefits prior to operator training. However with the advances in the field of information technology. 1994 and Pantelides and Oh. high-fidelity training models which are capable of being utilized for engineering applications prior to training. The training simulators use process models to produce a real time dynamic representation of the plant. The analysis of unsteady conditions performed by tools based on dynamic models can be dated back to the 1990s.CHAPTER 6 TRAINING SIMULATOR 6. verify control configurations and perform operability studies. The training models can also be used to validate process designs. there are now fewer limitations for developing detailed.1 Introduction Training simulators have been widely accepted as the most effective method for training in the many industries especially nuclear.

The use of simulated environment for training facilitates understanding fundamental plant operations and improves their ability to optimize plant performance with the same simulation tool. the cost of these training models has reduced considerably mainly because there has been a significant improvement in the computing cost /performance ratio.physical constraints in a safe and theoretical environment. The training simulators are now considered as the state of art for training and plant trouble shooting.1 System Architecture of the Training Simulator 63 . Such practice enables operators to exercise best practice methods for safe and efficient plant operation.1 Figure 6.2 System Architecture The various components present in the training simulator are the process model. In recent years. the control system and the visual interface (HMI). The control system can be either the actual controller module or an “emulated” controller that represent the control system. 6. The information is exchanged between the process model and the control system through the use of standard Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control (OPC) technology. The overall architecture of the training simulator is shown in Figure 6.

but also the dynamic behavior for nondesign operations including process upsets and emergency conditions..2. pumps. and Emergency Shutdown Systems (ESDs). Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). reactors etc.). many major units can be modeled. food & beverage. fired furnaces. The detailed description of the dynamic simulation is provided in Chapter 2. The main function of a DCS is to monitor and control the various field devices that are distributed across the network. The DCS was first introduced in 1975. pulp & paper. These include such compressors. Honeywell‟s TDC 2000® and Yokogawa‟s CENTUM® DCS were released independently during the mid-1970s. The market for DCS has been steadily growing and currently there 64 . heat exchangers. Through the use of appropriate process modeling tools. refining and petrochemical.2 The Control System These systems normally include a Distributed Control System (DCS). The overall fidelity of the model should ensure that operators can be trained to observe and respond correctly to a variety of operating conditions..6. unit operations are parameterized to match the exact features of the plant to produce a real time dynamic representation of the unit.1 The Process Model The process model is crucial part of the simulator. The control system can be either the actual controller or the simulated controller software which emulate the plant's actual control strategies into modules that can be used within the training simulator without the need to buy an additional DCS. pharmaceutical. 6. US-based Bristol also introduced their UCS 3000 universal controller in 1975. For a typical plant. The model should be accurate enough to reproduce not only plant responses due to disturbances around the normal operating conditions. The use of high-fidelity simulated operator stations can considerably reduce the capital investment on training simulators. Distributed Control System: It refers to the type of automated industrial control system and is extensively used in process based industries like oil & gas. etc.2.

The control functions are distributed among different control processors often configured in redundant pairs. A typical industrial plant can have thousands of input/output points (analog and digital). multiple control loops. ABB. and derivative (PID) control. integral. data collection. Today‟s controllers have extensive computational capabilities and can generally perform logic and sequential control in addition to proportional.2 A Typical Distributed Control System (DCS) Architecture 65 . and reporting capability. The most prominent are Honeywell.are about 35 DCS manufactures available in the market. The general architecture of the DCS is shown in Figure 6.2 Figure 6. A server and/or applications processor may be included in the system for extra computational. DCS use decentralized elements or subsystems to control distributed processes or complete manufacturing systems. several safety interlocks and program sequences. Yokogowa. and Invensys. They employ proprietary networking and communication protocols to communicate between the various components.

The control module is the component where the control strategies are executed. The operating personnel can visualize the schematic representation of the plant being controlled. The visual displays consist of line graphics and schematic symbols with proper animation to represent the condition or state of different process elements like the pump. controller. pressures. to provide trending and history of process data. DCS performs various tasks such as data collection. the operators are provided with graphical representation of the processes along with the real time information of the operating parameters. valves) on the plant.2. management information such as 66 . The DCS also forms the interface between the plant and the operating personnel. alarms on the screen and thereby enable the operator to act accordingly. Control functions are often supplied through a library of the templates called function blocks and the control strategies are built using the graphical engineering tools called control builders. thermocouples and send output signals to final control elements such as control valves. It provides all the necessary process information like the temperatures.g. Typically. It communicates with the I/O modules using a communication protocol. Typical components within the control environment are the control modules and the input /output (I/O) modules. The HMI system usually presents the process information to the operator.The DCS reads the input from the transmitter or a sensor stores the information in a database and performs the control logic. The output/command from the controller is sent to actuators (e. trending and alarming which are useful for monitoring and to control the plant in a safe and efficient manner. An HMI is linked to the control system and software programs.3 The HMI Model The Human Machine interface (HMI) is the only component which has direct contact with the student/operator. I/O modules provide the terminal and processing power to accept input signals from the transmitters. It is the front end of the training simulator. in the graphical form. 6. flow rates.

emergency control actions.3 OPC Connectivity Once the process model and control system components are configured.3. they have to be linked. thereby eliminating the need to have extensive knowledge about the data source. such as its internal configuration and communications protocols. Training simulators can either use the actual DCS console connected to the training simulator or an emulation of the operator's console. It is also expected that the server will consolidate and optimize data accesses requested by the various clients to promote efficient communications with the physical device. OPC consists of a series of standards that define interoperability among different automation and control applications. The simulation variable in the process model is to be linked to the corresponding I/O point in the control system representation or the actual controller. The flow of information between the model and the controller is described in Figure 6. other business and office applications. OPC server and OPC client. data returned by the device is buffered for asynchronous distribution or synchronous 67 . There are mainly two components involved. OPC is fast and can handle the very large data transfer rates required for this application. Therefore it provides data from a server and communicates the information to any client application in a standard way. For inputs (Reads). The exchange of data and commands is based on Object Linking and Embedding for process control (OPC) technology. OPC defines a standard interface for allowing applications to access data from a variety of process control devices. OPC server provides the standardized interface for OPC client to query data and OPC client provides an interface to request and write data to an OPC server. logistic information and detailed displays.maintenance procedures. The controller reads the information from the simulated variable and performs the necessary calculations accordingly and returns the output again to the simulated variable. 6. field systems.

3 OPC Architecture 6. the C300 Process Controller. The controllers implemented are removed as they are controlled using the Honeywell‟s C200 controller. The current system is configured for C200 controllers 68 . Figure 6. the OPC Server updates the physical device data on behalf of OPC Clients.collection by various OPC clients. The Control System In this work. the Application Control Environment (ACE). For outputs (writes). Multiple controller modules are available with Experion® to provide the ultimate flexibility: the C200 Process Controller. the C200 Simulation Environment (SIM-C200) and the C300 Simulation Environment (SIM-C300). Honeywell‟s Experion® Process Knowledge System (PKS) is used as the control system. The simulation time is adjusted to the real time basis to synchronize the real controller and the simulation. The Process Model The dynamic state model developed in HYSYS is used to represent the plant dynamics.4 Case Study of the Packed Distillation Unit The above methodology is implemented on the packed distillation unit example discussed in the previous chapter and the results of each step are discussed below.

fixing PV values. making it ideal for integrated regulatory. PIDA: Regulatory control function blocks with the primary feature of setting the PID loops for this particular control scheme AOCHANNEL: Analog Output Channel block provides a standard analog output signal for operating final control elements and then performing the necessary control actions on the 69 .with modules supporting LSU‟s existing system. and e-Server. and limiting maximum and minimum alarm values. a Field bus Interface Module. and HART input and output modules. Other key features include OPC interfacing. The C200 controller along with any other controller modules in Experion ® uses the Control Execution Environment (CEE) software that provides an execution and scheduling environment where control strategies are configured from a rich set of standard and optional function blocks using a single builder tool. sequential. logic. The function blocks are interconnected via “soft wires” to develop the control strategies.4 is an example of the actual PID controller used to control the feed temperature in the packed distillation unit. Control Builder. C200 process controller is a compact and cost-effective solution with direct I/O connections. DACA: Data acquisition block with the primary functions of filtering. It is used to fetch PV data from an associated IOMODULE block and to provide an appropriate PV parameter status. The definitions of the function blocks used are as follows AICHANNEL: Analog Input Channel block provides a standard analog interface to control function blocks. and batch control applications. Microsoft Excel Data Exchange. It provides the comprehensive handling of the I/O and covers continuous. sequential and advanced control functions through a library of function blocks. Figure 6. Each function block has a specific function and is inbuilt in the Honeywell software. fast logic.

70 . other function block). The NUMERIC_IN block is used to receive the input data from HYSYS model and NUMERIC_OUT block is used to send the output back to the HYSYS model. Figure 6. in our case study the actual plant is being replaced with the process simulation and there are no physical devices such as the transmitter or a control valve.physical plant devices. It also supports a configurable access lock which determines who can write a value to the block (such as operator. Therefore these function blocks cannot be used and have to be replaced with the Numeric Function block as shown in the Figure 6. However.5. This block provides storage for a floating-point value which is accessible through the PV configuration parameter. engineer.4 FBs used to develop a PID control loop for the feed temperature The AICHANNEL and AOCHANNEL used in the control strategy are the standard analog interface to control data to/from the physical plant devices such as the transmitters and control valves.

6. OPC Connectivity The OPC defines a standard interface for allowing applications to access data from a variety of process control devices. HMIWeb technology offers the benefit of fully integrated data delivery using standard Internet technologies such as HTML and XML.02 is used to develop the application. a web-based architecture supporting integration of human machine interfaces (HMI). This specification is an interface for developers of OPC 71 . robustness.5 FBs used to develop a simulated PID controller for feed temperature The HMI Model Experion® PKS uses patented HMIWeb technology. The OPC Data Access Automation Interface Standard Version 2. and performance with state-of-the-art web graphics capabilities. and business data. The overview of the graphic display used to control the process and the controller face plate are shown in Figure 6.Figure 6. This advanced interface solution combines consistent and secure access. application.

Figure 6. Table 6.8 is the response plot for the simulated feed flow controller in DCS. The process parameters are recorded in the history and are trended using the standard Honeywell features. The front end for the application is Microsoft Excel.6 Overview of the HMI display used for the control clients and OPC Data Access Servers. Table 6.7. The application is programmed in Visual Basic Application.1 List of controllers developed in the model FIC300 Feed Flow Rate Control TIC350 Feed Preheater Control TIC305 Distillate Composition Control TIC340 Bottoms Composition Control LIC310 Reflux Drum Level Control LIC330 Bottoms Level Control 72 .Figure 6. The overview of the spreadsheet interface developed is shown in Figure 6.1 summarizes the controllers implemented in the DCS.

Figure 6.8 Response plot in DCS for a set point change in the feed flow controller 73 .7 Overview of the spreadsheet interface for OPC communication Figure 6.

1 Introduction The petroleum refining processes are highly complex and integrated. including:  Process feedstocks. diesel. It provides opportunities for implementation of advanced control strategies to achieve optimal process operation. the proposed framework is implemented on the case study as described in Chapter 2 to Chapter 5 and the results are discussed. The crude oil distillation (CDU) is the most important process for petrochemical industries because it produces a wide range of products. kerosene. used to separate feedstocks into a variety of products with different specifications  Product specifications given in terms of stream properties such as distillation temperatures. the modeled CDU process will be described in detail together with the simulation environment for both steady and dynamic state. naphtha. The crude oil distillation unit discussed in this work covers the preheat trains (where the feed exchanges heat with the pumparounds and column products) and three main distillation columns: preflash. such as gasoline. atmospheric crude distillation unit (ADU).CHAPTER 7 CASE STUDY OF THE CRUDE DISTILLATION UNIT 7. pour point. sulfur content. which consist of complex and wide-boiling mixtures of hydrocarbons. and vacuum distillation unit (VDU). and octane number The dynamic and multivariable nature of the process coupled with stringent quality and environmental constraints make it difficult to operate the process units steadily and safely. whose exact compositions are unknown  Highly-coupled and heat-integrated fractionation units. flash point. In this chapter. It is also one of the most complicated operations in any refinery as they have unique characteristics that set them apart from other chemical processes. 74 . etc. Thereafter.

where some of the lighter components get steam stripped. The desalted crude is then pumped through another preheat train where it is heated with the Diesel product and pump around stream and is routed to prefractionator column. The crude is preheated to around 135°C to 140°C. The feed is then heated in the furnace to a temperature of around 650oF (varies with crude) and is being fed to the main atmospheric distillation unit. The pre-topped crude from the column bottom is routed through a third preheat train. Kerosene-1 product and Kerosene Circulating Reflux. HVGO circulating reflux and VR are used to heat pre-topped crude. Heavy Naphtha Circulating Reflux. The removal of the lighter fraction decreases the vapor load on the main atmospheric distillation unit. The heat from the pump around and the product streams is recovered in the crude preheat trains. by exchanging heat with hot streams from ADU viz. The hot streams from vacuum distillation unit.7. The overflash is controlled at around 3. It consists of several trays and packing for vapor liquid contact.5.0 volume percent of the crude oil. The flash zone liquid flows into the stripping section. Diesel. The crude distillation column is a typical fractionation column with an overhead condenser and side strippers.0 . The crude from storage tanks is preheated by exchanging with the atmospheric/vacuum column products before entering the desalter. The lighter fraction.2 Process Description The crude/vacuum distillation is the foremost step in the petroleum refining process. The cold reflux for condensing the products is provided by the overhead reflux and the pump arounds at different sections. The unstabilized overhead liquid product from the 75 . The heated crude oil enters the column flash zone where it comes in contact with the stripping vapors from the bottom stripping section and the liquid reflux (overflash) from the tray above. Naphtha (IBP -110°C) is recovered in the prefractionator column as the overhead product. where the salts present in the crude are removed in the water phase.

condenser is routed to the stabilizer section for further treatment. The blending of different stocks is normally done to obtain the required product yields and also to meet the process constraints. Heavy Vacuum Gas Oil (HVGO) and Slop distillate (SD). The process flow diagram of the crude distillation unit is shown in the Figure 7.1. For this study a crude oil blend 75 wt% -Masila & 25 wt% . 76 . called Vacuum Residue (VR). The topped crude is distilled under vacuum into four different cuts namely Vacuum Diesel Oil (VDO). The simulation of petroleum processes is unique and challenging due to the complex and dynamic nature of these processes such as the complex feed stocks. The topped crude from the column bottom is routed to the vacuum unit furnace. highly coupled and integrated processes and stringent product specifications and environmental regulations. The hot oil from the furnace is transferred to the flash zone of the vacuum distillation column maintained below atmospheric pressure by the steam ejectors. The un-condensed gas (if any) is routed to the refinery fuel gas system or fired in the crude heater. The flash zone liquid. 7. The transfer line temperature at the furnace outlet is maintained at around 750oF (varies with crude properties) to avoid excessive cracking. The detailed information about refinery process modeling is provided in Gerald. The crude assay data is presented in Table 7. The distillate products are drawn from the trays above the flash zone according to their boiling range.3 Steady State Simulation The refinery process simulation is developed using Aspen HYSYS. Light Vacuum Gas Oil (LVGO). L.Dubai crude is selected. is routed to storage as LSHS/FO or to a Bitumen unit. The products are steam stripped in the side strippers with the stripped vapors being routed to the main column.1. 2000 and Aspen HYSYS user guide. The following are the important steps used in the development of the steady state model. The purpose of this unit is to make feed of required quality to be processed in Fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU).

n. equation of state which is recommended for the petroleum components. n-pentane and hexane are added to the pure component library. i-butane. Since the exact composition of the crude is unknown and is defined in terms of distillation temperatures the feed developed is a combination of pure library components (lighter components) and pseudo components. The pseudo components are the theoretical components that are not readily available in the component library and have to be defined. propane. methane. The data from the pure component library are used to represent the defined light components in the crude oil.Figure 7.2 Developing Crude Oil Feed or Oil Characterization The data from the crude assay is used to define the petroleum pseudo-components. It is required to input the laboratory 77 .1 Defining the Simulation Basis The foremost step is the selection of lighter components and the appropriate thermodynamic method. i-pentane.3.1 Process overview of the crude distillation unit 7. 7.butane.3. The lighter components. The thermodynamic fluid package selected is Peng Robinson.

The Weighted Exchanger Design model is selected for the Heat Exchanger Model. the accuracy of the property prediction is improved. or Watson K Factor. The UA specification is the product of the 78 . So the heat exchangers are first modeled using the fictitious pump around streams to preheat the crude. the pumparound streams are considered to be the flowsheet recycle streams. Each crude type is characterized separately and finally the required crude oil blend is defined and installed into the flow sheet. 7. so the crude stream may be carried through the heat exchanger. density. TBP distillation curve. In HYSYS. viscosity @ 10 & 50 deg are used in characterizing the oil. the light end composition. these stream conditions can be used as initial estimate for the fictitious pumparound streams. In this study. the UA of the exchanger is specified to meet the degrees of freedom. In addition to defining the pressure drop across both the tube and shell side. This approach is more realistic but adds instability to the calculations since it removes the pumparound coolers from the column sub model. If the columns are not simulated.3.3 Installing the Preheat Train Exchangers It is more efficient to solve the crude and vacuum columns independently from the preheat train. It is necessary to provide estimates for these streams. These streams will be then replaced and linked with the actual product streams from the column. If the crude and vacuum columns are simulated independently prior to the heat exchangers then since the product streams are calculated. The calculated TBP data by HYSYS for the given crude is compared to the input data to identify any inaccuracies. This is possible since the inlet temperatures to each of these columns are defined by the furnace.distillation curve (TBP or ASTM data) and any bulk property such as Molecular Weight. Density. It should be noted that the more the information is provided to the simulation. The estimates will be replaced when the crude/vacuum calculations have been completed and the streams become available. the crude oil stream composition and the appropriate conditions are used to define the stream.

02 0.3 1.9 63.29 0.4 509 74.3 -9 iso-Butane n-Butane 0 0.8 56.9 58.5 0. °C 20 5.8 427 59.8 73.8 53.2 0 0.05 0.3 Dubai Crude Density at 15 °C.4 1.28 5.9 482 70.6 81 83.7 149 15. 79 .4 182 17.09 0.09 4.39 1. kg/m3 868 Component wt % vol % °C ° API 31 Ethane Propane Viscosity. cSt at 10°C Viscosity. since the solution path involves a triple trial and error procedure.1 550 80.9 342 48.5 78.Table 7.1 538 78.53 14.05 0.4 550 79.14 0.9 20.29 15 1.3 82.8 34.4 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient and the Total Area available for heat transfer.86 0. cSt at 50°C Pour Point.22 0.7 260 30.1 Assay data for Dubai and Masila crude Masila Crude Properties Light End Analysis TBP distillation wt % vol % Density at 15 °C.6 362 53. The use of UA specifications instead of end point calculations greatly increases the calculation time for the exchangers.2 wt % vol % 149 12.9 -30 iso-butane n-Butane 0. kg/m3 874 Component wt % vol % °C ° API 30 Ethane Propane Viscosity.36 1. cSt at 50°C Pour Point. °C 22 7.86 19.6 232 28.2 33.3 15 32 93 0.45 0.23 0.8 371 52. cSt at 10°C Viscosity.

Table 7. Since the trays are the actual trays in this case the efficiencies have to be adjusted. Therefore the packing section is converted to the equivalent number of theoretical trays using the HETP approach with the available packing correlation.3. The flow rate of each steam varies with the product drawn. The actual column comprises of both trays and packing. The water phase is considered as the pure phase and thereby we neglect any effects of salt in both water and oil phase. 2000.6 Installing the Atmospheric Distillation Unit The crude column simulation configuration is shown in Figure 7. A calculation block can be used to set the proper flow of another water stream based on the desired residual water content of the treated crude oil. The prefractionator column is simulated using 30 actual trays using the efficiencies defined in Gerald.4 Installing the 3-Phase Separator (Desalter) In this case a 3-phase separator is used to simulate the Desalter. 7. as the stage efficiency is set to one. The stripping steam is fed to the column bottom to strip the light fractions from the topped crude.L.3. It can also be simulated using a component splitter. The refluxed absorber with a 3-phase condenser is used to simulate the column. with feed entering the 12th tray from bottom. The condenser is considered as a separate stage and is not included in the 80 . By default HYSYS uses theoretical stages. The material streams are created to represent the stripping steam used in the column and the side strippers.5 Installing the Prefractionator The prefractionator column simulation configuration is shown in Figure 7.2. The atmospheric crude column is simulated as a Refluxed Absorber first and then the side equipments such as pumparounds. A 3-phase separator in general is used to separate the feed into vapor light liquid and heavy liquid (aqueous phase).7.3. side strippers are added.3.2 summarizes the performance specifications used to define the columns. 7.

The sub-cooling effect of the condenser is taken into consideration by defining the reflux stream to the desired temperature and the vapor coming from the condenser to zero. Pumparounds help to improve 81 . In addition three pumparounds are defined by adding the pump around coolers each for the Heavy Naptha. kerosene-I and Diesel. Adding the side operations to the column Side Strippers are added to the column in order to improve the quality of the four products (Kerosene-I & II. Diesel. and AGO). distillate and the over head vapor are specified to run the column. the product flow is specified to meet the degrees of freedom. In addition to defining the pressure across the column.2 Overview of prefractionator column number of stages. The side stripper is simulated using the prebuilt side operations available in the simulation. In some cases the column also consists of side rectifiers. For each stripper. The steam is specified to enter at the bottom of the side stripper and the vapor from the top of the stripper is fed to the column again.Figure 7.

3. Each pumparound cooler has two degrees of freedom which are defined by specifying the flow rate and the pumparound duty. The outlet streams from the exchangers are linked to the distillation unit. However this approach of putting the column sub-models within recycle loops greatly increases the number of calculations for any given case. They operate by drawing a liquid stream from one stage cooling it. 7. The pumparound coolers are used in first place to run the column.Figure 7.4. The pumparound streams are used to exchange heat with the crude oil feed stream. The vacuum column consists of different types of packing to account for the lower pressure drop across the 82 . and pumping it into a higher stage. this process adds to the reflux between these two stages. The fictitious pumparound streams defined in installing the preheat trains are replaced with the actual pumparound streams and the products from the column.7 Installing the Vacuum Distillation Column The vacuum column simulation configuration is shown in Figure 7.3 Overview of atmospheric distillation column the column‟s efficiency. In effect.

4 Process Optimization Modern refining industries have become an extremely competitive business. 7. A theoretical tray is used to represent the column flash zone. 7. The deteriorating quality of the crude oil and the increasing product specifications together with the stringent environmental regulations are forcing the refiners to become more efficient to survive financially. 83 . In this approach the pump arounds are considered in the column mathematics and not as recycle operation. The actual packing from the PFD can be translated to the theoretical trays using the HETP approach. This allows the use of a feed trim heater to adjust the feed temperature as needed for the initial calculation attempts. with a small stream (wash oil) pumped back over the bottom packing. The complete flow sheet solution is shown in figure 7. all the HVGO is withdrawn from the collector tray. The bottom product is used to exchange heat with the incoming crude to ADU in the third preheat train. In this model. The feed tray “trim” heater is useful in establishing an initial solution. the wash oil and bottom recycle are taken care by setting up a recycle unit operation.8 Complete Flow Sheet Solution Once the vacuum column is defined the HVGO pumparound and the VR product is used to replace the fictitious pumparound streams used in the third preheat train and the flowsheet is solved. The pump arounds are handled within the column sub model.5. The complex heat integration schemes and the interactive nature of the process due to the presence of pump around and side-strippers make it difficult to operate at the optimal conditions. The solving of vacuum column is often difficult because of the conflicting performance specifications. In the actual column. The huge capital expenditure involved in the refining operations creates good opportunities for optimization. If the trim heater duty is large. the furnace operating data or the composition of the topped crude are inaccurate and need to be reconciled.column.3.

5 Overview of the main flowsheet 84 .4 Overview of the vacuum distillation column Figure 7.Figure 7.

1232 106. kg/hr Kerosene-2 steam rate. m3/hr Diesel rate.872 2194. deg C Vacuum distillation column VDU feed Temperature deg C Vapor to ejector.79 6022.1926 171. m3/hr LN rate.23 95 6000 85 . m3/hr Bottom steam rate. m3/hr Kerosene-2 rate. Kg/hr Atmospheric distillation column Vapor rate. m3/hr Light Naptha ASTM 95% cut.303 390 394. ADU and VDU Prefractionator Vapor flow rate. m3/hr LVGO rate. m3/hr LVGO P/A rate.2 Performance specifications for prefractionator. m3/hr Kerosene P/A rate.776 21.031 330.2264 177. Kg/hr ADU feed temperature. m3/hr SD rate.41 372 3. m3/hr HN P/A rate. m3/hr HN steam rate. Kg/hr Bottom steam rate.57 61.5086 98.662 3229.602 3000 0 12. m3/hr VDO rate.3 997. m3/hr Kerosene-1 rate. kg/hr Kerosene-I steam rate.367 654.Table 7.6416 16. m3/hr HN rate. m3/hr Diesel P/A rate.22402 20. m3/hr HVGO P/A rate.0525 27. deg C Bottom steam rate. m3/hr HVGO rate.6767 110. Kg/hr 398 5. Kg/hr Diesel steam rate. m3/hr VDO P/A rate.5738 46.

It is estimated that crude oil cost account for about 85.2 Environmental Analysis Considering that the plant requires electricity and steam. The process parameters including the decision variables. This change in feed composition often results in inferior crude unit performance and reduces the unit‟s run length. The foremost step in the environmental analysis is the inventory calculations mainly the energy and steam consumption of the process. The total heat duty of the process which is the sum of the crude and vacuum furnaces is calculated and the total steam consumption is calculated by summing the stripping 86 . recent crude oil price fluctuations and increased economic pressure further emphasize the importance of optimizing crude unit performance. the constraints and the energy and utility consumption used in the environmental analysis are imported to the spreadsheet. In addition. 7. the production of which consumes natural resources and generates releases to the environment. The bridge code is written in Visual Basic Application (VBA).4.1 Information Transfer The information transfer between the simulation model and the environmental analysis is made using a spreadsheet as interface (Fig 7. The process modeling step included in the framework is the developing the steady state model of the plant which is discussed in the previous section.6). 7. The main sources of emissions in this process are the process heaters and utility boilers.4.90% of the total operating cost and therefore a wide variety of crude blends are processed depending on the cost and demand of the various products. It allows the user to import and export any selected variables between the model built in HYSYS and Excel worksheet. The following section describes the formulation of the optimization problem and the results of each step in the methodology. Therefore the optimal conditions vary depending on the crude selected and optimizing the operation of the crude unit is essential to maximize a refiner‟s economics.

The net equivalent electricity consumed is calculated in Giga Watt Hr (GWH). In this study. sulfur dioxide (SO2).3. It is assumed that a portion of the net energy required is obtained by using the overhead gas of the prefractionator as the fuel in the furnace and the balance is met from fuel oil.e. Then the quantity of each environmental load is estimated using the available correlation in Table 7. ADU and VDU. The heat duty of the stripping steam @ 245oC is calculated using an enthalpy of 13. 87 . Heat to power ratio of 1.steam used in the product side strippers and the bottom stripping steam used in the columns i.6 Optimization interface in Excel The total energy and steam consumed in the process are then converted to the net equivalent electricity to estimate the emissions released. carbon dioxide (CO2). Figure 7. and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are chosen as Environmental Load (EL). prefractionator.25 and an efficiency of 70% for the cogeneration plant is assumed in the computation of the net equivalent electricity.5 MMKJ per ton of steam.

The environmental cost is estimated as a fraction of the feed cost and hence is ignored in the optimization model.3 Environmental loads for electricity generation from different sources Environmental Loads C02.4 Price for different environmental loads Environmental Load CO2 SO2 NOX 88 $/Ton 3. Therefore. the optimization model is simplified by assuming a constant throughput.e. It is also assumed that there are no processes utilizing the emissions in the plant i. Ton * Cost. For this case study. July 04 From the above data it is evident that the use of fuel gas in the furnace reduces the emissions to a greater extent but at the same time aiming at more fuel gas i. 7.Table 7.4. only the sustainable debit for the process is used in the optimization model which is computed using the Eq.1 while Table 7. 7. $/Ton Table 7.3 Optimization Model The optimization model is performed within Excel® using the information transferred from HYSYS based on the operating profit. Sustainable debit = Σ Environmental load.e.4 shows the price for different environmental loads used in the calculation of sustainable debit.1) . the vapor from the prefractionator has a negative impact on the column economics as it reduces the quantity of the Light Naptha.25 192 1030 (7. there is no sustainable credits associated with the process. Ton/GWH SO2 Kg/GWH NOX Kg/GWH Fuel oil 657 1030 988 Fuel gas 439 1 1400 *special report of World Energy Council.

Objective Function = Product revenues – Utilities cost – Sustainable debit (7.2) In addition to the constraints on the decision variables. stripping steam flow rates and the feed temperature to the ADU and VDU.2 while Table 7.6 summarizes the results as well as the decision variables and the constraint imposed in the optimization problem. pumparounds. the optimization problem is subjected to process and environmental constraints such as those on quality.5 Summary of the product and utility cost used for the optimization Product LN CN HN kerosene-1 Kerosene-2 Diesel VDO LVGO HVGO SD VR Duty Condenser duty Furnace duty Price ($/m3) 300 225 240 265 285 250 250 200 200 165 165 Price ($/MMKJ) 4 75 89 . This formulation is performed based on the calculation shown in Eq. The Table 7.The decision or the manipulated variables in the optimization problem are mainly the flow rate of the products. Table 7. 7.5 summarizes the product and utility used in the optimization model. It should be noted that the decision variables used in the optimization should be specified as active specifications in the steady state simulation case in order for the optimizer to manipulate the variables. heating and cooling duty specifications.

79 6022. deg C HN steam rate.00 398.00 390.00 395.19 3217.00 335.00 180.00 168. Kg/hr VDU feed Temperature deg C Vapor to ejector.01 378.00 652.03 330.00 95.00 61.14 12.Table 7.60 . m3/hr Optimal value 3. Kg/hr Bottom steam rate.68 110.00 18.54 5987.00 19. m3/hr HVGO P/A rate.00 21.00 15.66 3229.23 6009. steam rate.00 2000.00 1000. kg/hr Kerosene-2 steam rate. m3/hr LVGO P/A rate.05 27.00 27.00 90 Constraints (Min) 4.50 18.00 2000.00 14.00 5.30 390. m3/hr HN rate.00 Initial Value 3.70 45.51 98.00 63.00 4.00 105.00 175.00 654.6 Summary of the optimization variables Constraints ( Max) 3. Kg/hr LN rate.57 61.00 8000.00 325.00 329. m3/hr LVGO rate. m3/hr ADU feed temperature.78 21.87 2194.00 8000.00 24.41 398. m3/hr Diesel P/A rate.99 393.00 4500.00 5.00 394. m3/hr Pre flash btm.37 372.60 104.00 6. m3/hr Kerosene-1 rate.00 177.41 405.00 390. Kg/hr Kerosene-I steam rate.00 23.00 44. Kg/hr Diesel steam rate.00 4000. m3/hr Diesel rate. m3/hr Kerosene-2 rate.02 12.00 410. m3/hr HVGO rate.22 20.00 4000. m3/hr VDO P/A rate.60 109.00 500.00 385.50 16.00 1000.00 387.00 372.00 174.30 96.10 171.00 107.00 Decision Variables Vapor flow rate.30 997.00 385. m3/hr Kerosene P/A rate.00 26. m3/hr HN P/A rate. m3/hr VDO rate.00 49.00 112.57 46.00 99.00 5000.23 177. m3/hr SD rate.00 300.12 106.00 30.13 2183.64 16.19 20.00 102.19 171.00 58.23 6053.04 993.00 10.

The last stage of the proposed framework is developing the overall plant-wide control strategy and its validation based on the entire plant‟s dynamic behavior. The dynamic model of the plant is developed and the controllers are installed. according to its dynamic performance.  Then. It is well known that integrated processes involving energy integration and recycle loops greatly impact the performance of the individual units and consequently the whole plant. This layer includes the PID controllers and forms the Level I in the multi layer control architecture. As discussed. reduced energy consumption etc. The development of the plant-wide control system is performed into two main stages as follow:  First. These processes are significantly interactive and often provide unique challenges to the plant personnel. minimum holdup. It is also very difficult to understand the behavior of these processes. In addition to the interactive nature the control of these processes is a difficult task due to the excessive settling time.5 Dynamic Modeling and Plant Wide Control As mentioned earlier. This stage is performed and evaluated. resulting in increased throughput. This allows operation of the process closer to plant constraints including product specifications. the advanced control strategy. The design features also include the process recycles. two layer control strategy has been implemented in HYSYS. improved product yield pattern. the petroleum refining processes are highly complex and integrated in nature. and safety valves which further add to the complexity. Model Predictive control layer is implemented above the basic layer. as a first step to make sure that the basic designed process is controllable. where a large number of variables are required to be controlled. The advanced 91 . The use of the large number of trays in the column and large hold up volumes. the basic regulatory control layer is implemented.7. the settling time following a process change or disturbance spans several shifts.

process control, MPC is configured above the basic regulatory controls which include the PID controllers. The MPC receives the set point from the steady state optimizer and manipulates the set point of the PID controllers installed in either the main or column sub flowsheet in order to achieve the objectives. Moreover, a rigorous dynamic model was used to implement and validate the developed plant-wide control structure and to test the overall dynamic performances of the plant. MPC improves control of critical variables of processes, which are interactive in nature. 7.5.1 Basic Regulatory Control Layer The steady state model developed is modified and transitioned into dynamic state by specifying the additional engineering details, including pressure/flow relationships and geometry. A dynamic model can either be developed from the steady state model or directly in the dynamic mode with no prior steady state model. The control objectives of the process are identified and valves are added to the flow sheet to achieve basic regulatory control. Each control objective represents a degree of freedom for control. The equipment dimensions including the column details such as tray parameters are specified. The tray sizing utility is used to estimate the missing sizing parameters. The pressure flow specifications are added across the flowsheet. In general, one pressureflow specification is required per flowsheet boundary stream. It should be noted that the pressure drop across the flowsheet is user specified in the steady state but in the dynamic mode it is calculated using dynamic hydraulic calculations. Therefore complications arise in the transition from steady state to dynamics if the steady state pressure profile across the flowsheet is very different from that calculated by the dynamic pressure-flow solver. First the basic control schemes are configured using the pre-built suite of function blocks for the PID controller. Once all the unit operations are added and the dynamic performance specifications are specified, the integrator is run for few minutes so that all the values can propagate through the column 92

flowsheet. The desired face plates and strip charts are added to evaluate and tune the performance of the controllers. Figure 7.7 is the overview of the main flowsheet of the dynamic model developed for the basic regulatory control. Table 7.7 summarizes the basic PID controllers configured with the control and manipulated variables. Controllability Study To study the plant controllability and to understand the dynamic behavior of the process let us consider the prefractionator section of the unit which is less complicated than the Atmospheric and Vacuum distillation columns. The prefractionator column is the upstream unit of the ADU. The pairing of the controlled and the manipulated variables for the prefractionator controllers are shown in Table 7.7. This column itself is interactive in nature and a set point change in one of the controller will affect the other controllers.

Figure 7.7 Main flowsheet of the plant model 93

Table 7.7 Pairing of controlled and manipulated variables No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Controlled variable
Crude-I flow Crude-II flow Desalter abnormal pressure Desalter pressure Preflash column top temperature Preflash column pressure Preflash reflux drum level Preflash bottom level Atm. column feed temperature Atm. top temperature Atm. column pressure Atm. Reflux drum level HN product flow Kerosene-1 flow Kerosene-2 flow Diesel flow HN PA flow Kerosene-I PA flow Diesel PA flow Atm. Bottom level Vacuum column feed temp. VDO flow LVGO flow HVGO flow SD flow VR flow VDO PA flow LVGO PA flow HVGO PA flow Wash oil flow VR bottom level VR recycle flow

Manipulated Variable
Crude-I flow Crude-II flow Desalter vent flow Desalted crude flowrate Preflash reflux flow Preflash vent flow Preflash drum flow Preflash bottom flow Atm. heater duty Atm. Reflux flow Reflux drum vent flow Reflux drum product flow HN product flow Kerosene-1 flow Kerosene-2 flow Diesel flow HN PA flow Kerosene-I PA flow Diesel PA flow Atm. Bottom flow Vacuum heater duty VDO flow LVGO flow HVGO flow SD flow VR flow VDO PA flow LVGO PA flow HVGO PA flow wash oil flow VR flow VR recycle flow

Type
FC FC PC PC TC PC LC LC TC TC PC LC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC LC TC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC LC FC

94

this disturbance propagates toward the Atmospheric and Vacuum distillation column and the pressure and temperature controllers adjust their corresponding process variables as shown in the Figure. Figure 7. It should be noted that the disturbances across the column is spread over a time i.e. The downstream of the prefractionator is the third preheat train followed by the ADU. 95 . As mentioned previously the prefractionator is used to reduce the vapor load in the atmospheric distillation unit and to separate the Light Naptha from the crude. however only the response of the key affected variables are shown here. To analyze the process behavior.8 Step response plot of the Preflash top temperature Furthermore. Because of the plant size. Similarly. the responses of the other variables are plotted in the Figure 7.9. is the effect of the disturbance on the variables associated with VDU will be slower than compared to the ADU variables indicating the presence of the high settling time due to the high liquid holdups or residence time. the disturbance will spread over the entire plant through the heat exchanger network. As discussed earlier these processes are highly integrated and interactive in nature. 7.8 is the step response of the top temperature controller. there are a large number of possible variables to be plotted.10 Figure 7.To demonstrate the dynamic behavior of the plant a set-point change is introduced in the top temperature controller of the prefractionator unit.

The control variables include mainly the tray temperatures which correspond to the product qualities. The MPC controllers developed are 96 . These advanced strategies also provide stable unit operations in the wake of disturbances. Therefore. the effects of the disturbances on the integrated processes and how it is amplified and propagated over the entire plant is demonstrated.9 Response plots of the Preflash bottom level and Reflux drum Level This dynamic analysis could go on for many pages demonstrating many interesting behaviors in this complex and integrated plant. 7.2 Model Predictive Control Layer The primary objective of the controller is to maximize the high valued products and to maintain all the controlled variables within the limits. From the above discussion it is clear that the control of such systems is often difficult and needs more advanced control strategies to achieve a satisfactory control performance. it shows the importance of a satisfactory and integrated plant-wide control structure to keep the designed processes within the required operability region.Figure 7. From the above discussion. However and through these dynamic simulations. the key message is to show that the process under the proposed plant-wide control structure is operable and controllable as it holds the system at the desired optimal operating conditions (set points) and shows good disturbance rejection capabilities.5.

10 Response plots of the key variables in ADU and VDU 97 .Figure 7.

15 -0.02. CV4-Kerosene-1 draw temp.0 -0.040.35.017.3.6.0.35. The transfer function matrix of each evaluated unit is developed using the Loop-Pro®.2. The manipulated variables are the product and the pumparound flow rates.7.6.10.25 -0.6.3.92.1.25.032.0.8 and 7.071.1. MV1-Pre temp.55 PA MV4-Kerosene PA flow 0.75 0. The controlled and the manipulated variables are identified for each controller.0 0. These responses are then used to identify the relationships between the process inputs and outputs through process identification tools.2.53.0.6.76.11.1.0 -1. CV6-Diesel draw temp.11.995. Table 7.0 1.6.5. The implementation of MPC involves generation of a dynamic model of the process and configuration of the controller.001.86 -0.4.6.4.7. is linked with spreadsheets in Excel which is used as a data historian of each individual controlled variable response for a step change of each process input.62 -0.0.2.65 0. CV3-HN draw temp.059.15 -0.22.097.19.0 -0.8 1. The MPC controller for the ADU has 6 controlled and 9 manipulated variables.0.06.simplified and the effects of disturbance variables are neglected.2.13 98 . model identification software.051. Step tests are conducted in the unit and process data collected during the testing period is used for modelling.28.064.8 -0.7. manipulated variable.7.1 -0.44.2.28.092.1.2.3.8.0 -0.5.0.2.1.25.23. Table 7.32.434.38.11.21.85 -0.005.778.0. 1.8 Transfer function matrix of the ADU and Preflash MPC controller MV/CV CV1-Preflash top temp.25.976.0 -0.027.92 flash MV2Atm.40.058.24.column top temp.1.73.3.1. CV2 -column top temp.2.2. CV5-Kerosene-2 draw temp. The simulated model.0 -0.5 MV3-Diesel flow -0. The controlled variables are mainly the draw temperatures which represent the ASTM distillation temperatures of the products.46 -0.18.45.47 -0.93 -0. Two independent MPC controllers are developed one for the ADU including the pre flash and the distillation column and the other for vacuum column operation.0 -0.0.25.83.0 -0.388.3.020.82.056.46. 0.3.6.020. in HYSYS.17.5.55 -1 MV5-HN PA flow 0.047.08.5.8.0.1. Therefore a reliable dynamic model of the process should be available to install the MPC controller.45 -0.1.9 summarizes the transfer function matrix of the ADU MPC controller.1.955.26.

0. CV4-HVGO draw temp.04.33 -0.26.7.27.36.0.08.08 99 .29.0.100. Table 7.2.33 -0.11.72.32.139.5.063.05.7.12.89 -0.0. CV3-HN temp.0.007.26. CV2 -VDO temp. CV3-LVGO temp.841.9.14.41.1.18.0.5. CV5-Kerosene-2 draw temp.28.33 0.19.6.6.0.05.108.0.1 -0.044. draw CV4-Kerosene-1 draw temp.14.67 0.9.077.0.49.5.0 1.88.3.18.16 0.0.4.0 0.0.16 -0.0.45.35.35 -0.14.19.09. CV6-Diesel temp.7.0.0.15.5.303.11 Transfer function matrix of the VDU MPC controller MV/CV CV1-column top temp.3.5.06.29.48 MV7-HVGO PA flow -0.75.0.33.12.0.6.507.36.01.0.7 0.12.7.76.0 1.6.6.01.0.10 and 7.2.26 -0.0.4.88.41.33 0.10 Transfer function matrix of the VDU MPC controller MV/CV CV1-column temp.2 0.0. CV3-LVGO draw temp.33 MV6-LVGO flow -0. MV5-VDO PA flow -0.3.08.08.28. Table 7.0 -0.55.54.6 -0.553.0.0.41.42. top 0. CV4-HVGO temp.7 -0.32.0 Table 7.12 -0.1.4.20.11.6.1.03.Table 7.673.0 MV6-HN flow MV7-Kerosene-I flow MV8-Kerosene-II flow MV9-Diesel flow CV2 -column top temp.54.0.6.08.13.575.0.172.31.2.0.98.341.33.0.1.05.05.644.27.45 -0.582.03.0.49.05 -0. CV2 -VDO draw temp.26.5 0.055.8.42 0.5.33 0.27 -0.56.0.98 -0.073.0 0.5.376.117.0. draw The MPC controller for the Vacuum Distillation Unit has 4 controlled and 7 manipulated variables.0 0.98.0.33 0.8 0.0 -0.0.03. top draw draw draw MV1-VDO flow -1.5.11 summarizes the transfer function matrix of the VDU MPC controller.45.17.03.3.42.1.35 0.6.05.03.64 0.34.0.7.25.096.0.98.0 0.14.12 draw MV2-LVGO flow -0.6.48.8.29.20 -0.3 -0.03.55.25.354.179.5.0 0.5.87.8.0 draw MV3-HVGO flow 0.0 -0.15.9 Transfer function matrix of the ADU and Preflash MPC controller MV/CV CV1-Preflash temp.4.2 -0.5 -0.0.61.5.3 -0.30.0 draw MV4-SD draw flow 0.09.0 -0.0 0.5.0.0.

Controllability Study To demonstrate the performance of the MPC controller and to study the process behavior the controller (ADU) is subjected to the following disturbances 1. the response plots of the key variables which include the other controlled variables in the MPC controller are recorded. SP_6) 100 . Following each disturbance.11 Response plots of the controlled variables for a setpoint change (Diesel draw temperature.11 shows the response plots of the key parameters and the controller output for a set point change in Diesel draw temperature. 235 260 258 233 256 231 PV_1 PV_2 254 252 250 229 227 248 225 0 50 100 150 200 Time(Minutes) 250 300 350 400 246 0 50 100 150 200 Time(Minutes) 250 300 350 400 290 380 288 378 286 PV_3 PV_4 376 284 374 282 372 280 0 50 100 150 200 Time(Minutes) 250 300 350 400 370 0 50 100 150 200 Time(Minutes) 250 300 350 400 Figure 7. A set-point change in the diesel draw temperature (SP_6) 2. Figure 7. A perturbation on the feed temperature to the Atmospheric column.

101 .12).Figure 7. a step change is introduced in feed temperature to Atmospheric column and the response behavior is recorded (Figure 7. It shows the ability of the MPC controller to reject the disturbances.11 Cont’d 445 580 578 443 576 574 441 PV_5 PV_6 572 570 568 566 439 437 564 562 435 0 50 100 150 200 Time(Minutes) 250 300 350 400 560 0 50 100 150 200 Time(Minutes) 250 300 350 400 110 100 90 80 OP % OP_1 OP_2 OP_3 OP_4 OP_5 OP_6 OP_7 OP_8 OP_9 70 60 50 40 30 20 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Time(Minutes) It should be noted that the MPC controller manipulates the basic controllers in an orderly fashion and reaches the new set point while maintaining the other controlled variables at their respective set points with minimal variations. To demonstrate the controller performance for any disturbance.

12 Response plots of the controlled variables for a disturbance (SP change in feed temperature to Atmospheric column 102 .235 254 233 252 231 PV_1 PV_2 250 229 227 248 225 0 50 100 150 200 Time(Minutes) 250 300 350 400 246 0 50 100 150 200 Time(Minutes) 250 300 350 400 290 380 288 378 286 PV_3 PV_4 376 284 374 282 372 280 0 50 100 150 200 Time(Minutes) 250 300 350 400 370 0 50 100 150 200 Time(Minutes) 250 300 350 400 445 579 577 575 441 PV_6 443 573 571 569 PV_5 439 437 567 565 0 50 100 150 200 TIme(Minutes) 250 300 350 400 435 0 50 100 150 200 Time(Minutes) 250 300 350 400 Figure 7.

5. Figure 7.12 Cont’d 120 724 100 OP_1 OP_2 80 OP % 722 720 PV OP_3 OP_4 OP_5 OP_6 OP_7 OP_8 60 718 716 714 712 710 40 20 OP_9 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Time(Minutes) 0 50 100 150 200 Time(Minutes) 250 300 350 400 7.Figure 7. The controlled variables used in the MPC controller are actually the calculated variables in the optimized steady state model. It was noticed that improved energy efficiency generally increases plant complexity and may have significant impacts on the process operability and/or controllability.6 Conclusions In this chapter. shows the multi layer control architecture along with the benefits in a transparent way. and through the integrated framework. The case study.3 Optimal Transition As discussed the MPC controller receives the set points from the optimizer developed earlier using the steady state model. ADU and VDU. a rigorous dynamic model was used to implement 103 .13 shows the response plots during the transition to the optimal conditions. The optimization layer forms the Level III of the Multi layer architecture proposed in the Thesis. The MPC layer developed will allow the smooth transition to the optimal conditions with minimal deviations from the desired set points. Moreover. 7. the proposed framework is implemented and demonstrated on an industrial case study of primary unit of the crude oil refinery which includes the preflash.

and validate the developed plant-wide control structure and to test the overall dynamic performances of the plant. M PC-I 575 525 475 425 375 325 275 225 0 50 100 150 Time 200 250 300 350 PV_1 PV_2 PV_3 PV_4 PV_5 PV_6 PV MPC-II 700 650 600 550 PV_1 PV_2 PV_3 PV_4 PV 500 450 400 350 300 0 50 100 150 Time 200 250 300 350 Figure 7.13 Response plots during the transition to the optimal conditions 104 .

recycle streams and opportunities for implementation of the advanced control strategies.CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK 8. The main objective of this thesis was to develop an overall framework that assist the process engineers to evaluate and/or retrofit their designed or operating processes respectively allowing all relevant considerations to be formulated and accounted. heat integration. and operational considerations within an improved optimization framework. In this thesis. Another important problem addressed in this work is the formulation and implementation of multi-layer (hierarchical) operational architecture which includes a model predictive control strategy (MPC) that can handle constraints and presents good robustness features against model mismatch and perturbations. environmental. that incorporates economical. Modeling and simulation forms the core of the methodology. 105 .1 Conclusions The area of optimization and controllability of the manufacturing plants is still an open and challenging research field in the process systems engineering. The optimization framework takes into account the sustainable cost to repair damages done to society. The study explains the various aspects of the methodology and the importance of each step in a transparent way. complex dynamics. an integrated methodology has been developed and implemented. This case study features many unit operations. The selected case study provides the necessary challenges to highlight the potential benefits the framework can provide to the plant personnel. The developed integrated framework was validated through its application to a large-scale industrial complex case study. atmospheric and vacuum distillation column along with the preheat train. The process considered is the primary section of the crude distillation unit which include mainly the preflash.

Nevertheless. Dynamic evaluation and plant-wide control were integrated within the framework to assess the operability and controllability of the plant. Complex plants are highly integrated. it is clear that there are still a number of potential areas that could be addressed and considered for further investigations. The incorporation of environmental considerations converts the single economic optimization problem into a multi-objective optimization problem with conflicting objectives. Plant-wide process control forms the final stage of the process synthesis. even without heat integration. Some of the future potential areas to be addressed are outlined below: 106 .cost to comply with regulations. the simulation models both steady state and dynamic state models can be used for further economical. environmental and operational evaluations.2 Future Recommendation Despite the great deal of effort and the significant advances that have been achieved in this thesis. 8. The proposed integrated framework was developed as a generic openended assessment methodology where a number of issues could be readily incorporated to extend the scope of the work reported in this thesis. through mainly recycled streams. A two layer control strategy has been developed. The developed framework utilizes the capabilities of existing commercial software (Aspen HYSYS and Microsoft Excel) to presents a clear view to the decision maker for the interactions between the designed processes and the environment and the trade-offs between the economic and environmental objectives. design and operation assessments. Finally. the methodology is extended to develop the training simulators which are ideal to train students and operating personnel with the industrial control systems. The advanced model predictive control strategy forms the superior layer above the basic regulatory control layer. A rigorous dynamic model is used to implement and validate overall dynamic performances of the plant.

however. This thesis can be extended further to develop and implement decision support system for enterprise-wide optimization problem which would consider the medium to long term strategies which is necessary to thrive the business in this competitive world. In the optimization. the use of multi-objective optimization has been increasing exponentially in recent years. further studies on alternatives approaches such as Generic or evolutionary Algorithms (GA) could prove extremely useful to obtain the global optimal solution. 2002). generalized reduced gradient method was selected as solver strategy. the key parameters are only partially known where there is significant uncertainty regarding their future values.. The optimization of chemical processes under uncertainty has received considerable attention in recent years. there are inherently uncertainties associated with both the plant model as well as the environmental model. 2. however. This.1. This layer actually forms the uppermost layer in the control hierarchy as discussed in Chapter 4. In this study. The majority of chemical engineering problems involve multiple objectives which are required to be considered simultaneously. As a consequence. These approaches are potentially attractive and are expected to become even more accepted in the future due to some of their comparative advantages. The long term strategic layer consists of problems such as retrofit/capacity expansion of facilities while the medium term layer includes problems such as production scheduling and logistics planning. would naturally increase the computational complexity (Bhari et al. There have been several advances in the design and planning under uncertainty that allow top level management to study the impact and to take appropriate decisions (Barbaro and Bagajewicz. 1996) 3. 107 . A natural extension in the formulation proposed in this thesis is the incorporation of uncertainty in the formulation of the optimization problem. Furthermore.

Finally. 108 . The methodology can be extended to other refining processes such as the fluid catalytic cracking unit or reformer to derive a complete refinery modeling. as the proposed integrated framework was developed to be a generic assessment methodology.4. further case studies could be investigated and considered in future studies.

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Kochi. in August. He received the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Chemical Engineering from Kakatiya University. 2006. in 2004. Sampath Yela is from Warangal. India. Andhra Pradesh. India. He then joined the graduate program at Louisiana State University (LSU). India. He received his Intermediate degree from Government Junior College. Andhra Pradesh.VITA Mr. Warangal. in 2000. Kerala. Hyderabad. Andhra Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh. He got his secondary education from Warangal Public School. Later he worked as the manufacturing engineer for two years in Kochi Refining Limited. India. Baton Rouge. 115 . India. Warangal. This thesis completes his requirements to receive the degree of Master of Science in Chemical Engineering.

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