Environmental Management System

Dr. Suresh Jain Assistant Professor Department of Natural Resources, TERI University, 10, Institutional Area, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi-110 070 Email: sureshj@teri.res.in Web site: www.teriuniversity.ac.in


 Introduce students to the major environmental concepts and

issues confronting managers working in corporations, businesses, government, industries, and non-profit groups;
 Provide students with strategic and operational approaches

to environmental management that can be taken by business and society; and
 Introduce

students to the concept of environmental management systems and to ISO 14001, the international environmental management system standard.

ISO 14001 Overview
ANSI/ISO 14001 - 1996

4 EMS requirements
4.1 General 4.2 Environmental policy

4.4 Implementation and Operation
4.4.1 Responsibilities 4.4.2 Training 4.4.3 Communication 4.4.4 Environmental Management System Documentation 4.4.5 Document Control 4.4.6 Operational Control 4.4.7 Emergency Preparedness and Response

4.3.1 Environmental Aspects 4.3.2 Legal Requirements 4.3.3 Objectives and Targets 4.3.4 Establishing Programs

4.5 Checking and Corrective Action
4.5.1 Monitoring and control 4.5.2 Non-Conformance and corrective and preventive action 4.5.3 Records 4.5.4 EMS Audits

4.6 Management Review

.” • The organization shall define and document the scope of its environmental management system.1: General Requirements • The organization shall establish and maintain an environmental management system. • “The successful implementation of an environmental management system calls for the commitment of all employees of the organization ….Clause 4. the requirements of which are described in the whole of clause 4. This commitment should begin at the highest levels of management.

objectives and targets and environmental management programs. relevant laws and regulations and existing environmental procedures. Forms the basis for the environmental policy.Initial Review  Includes an inventory of all environmental aspects. 2004) .  (Source: Zobel & Burman.

John Brady) .Contd.  An environmental review is a systematic process to     determine the impacts of an organization on the environment. 2005: Ed. if possible (Source: IEMA Handbook. and which of them are significant understand which activities/ products/ services cause significant environmental impacts know the extent to which the organization is controlling its significant aspects and whether effective controls are already in place be in a position to develop objectives and targets for environmental improvement and implement additional operational improvements.

c) includes a commitment to comply with relevant environmental legislation and regulations. d) provides the framework for setting and reviewing environmental objectives and targets. implemented and maintained and communicated to all employees. scale and environmental impacts of its activities. and with other requirements to which the organization subscribes. b) includes a commitment to continual improvement and prevention of pollution.4. e) is documented.2 Environmental policy Top management shall define the organization’s environmental policy and ensure that it a) is appropriate to the nature. products or services. f) is available to the public .

communicated and implemented It reflects nature and scale of organization It includes commitment to continual improvement and pollution prevention It also includes commitment to regulatory and other requirements It should be communicated both internally and externally .About the policy  It is a statement of an organization’s intentions and principals in       relation to its overall environmental performance It provides a framework for the EMS objectives and targets It must be documented.

Three Pillars of Environmental Policy .

Environmental Policy Worksheet .

ISO 14001 EMS Model Continual Improvement Management review Environmental policy Planning Checking and corrective action Implementation and operation .

Planning .

e.3 Planning 4.4. . implementing and maintaining its environmental management system.3. significant environmental aspects). or new or modified activities.  The organization shall keep this information up-to-date. products and services within the defined scope of the environmental management system that it can control and those that it can influence taking into account planned or new developments.  The organization shall ensure that the significant environmental aspects are taken into account in establishing. and to determine those aspects that have or can have significant impact(s) on the environment (i. products and services.1 Environmental aspects  The organization shall establish and maintain (a) procedure(s)   to identify the environmental aspects of its activities.

the business criteria must not be taken into account. A significant environmental aspect is an environmental aspect that has or can have a significant environmental impact. Defining aspects is often a challenging task for an organization and while deciding on the aspects. products or services that can interact with the environment. • • (Source: Zobel & Burman. 2004) .Aspects and Impacts • Aspect is an element of an organization’s activities.

Link Between Aspects and Impacts Examples .

Environmental Aspects Worksheet .

Techniques & data sources for identifying & evaluating environmental impacts .

Clean Air Act .Contd… (Source: Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. USA) .

Aspect / Impact Evaluation .


Identifying Aspects and Impacts Some Questions to consider: .

 The organization shall ensure that these applicable legal requirements and other requirements to which the organization subscribes are taken into account in establishing.2 Legal & other requirements  The organization shall establish. implement and maintain a procedure(s)   to identify and have access to the applicable legal requirements and other requirements to which the organization subscribes related to its environmental aspects.4. . implementing and maintaining its environmental management system. and to determine how these requirements apply to its environmental aspects.3.

operational and business requirements. an organization shall consider the legal and other requirements. at each relevant function and level within the organization. • When establishing and reviewing its objectives. its technological options and its financial. • The objectives and targets shall be consistent with the environmental policy.4. and the views of interested parties.3 Objectives and Targets • The organization shall establish and maintain documented environmental objectives and targets. . including the commitment to prevention of pollution. its significant environmental aspects.3.

Environmental Objectives/targets  Step 1:  Step 2:  Step 3:  Step 4:  Step 5:  Step 6:  Step 7: State the objective/target State the purpose of objective/target. (how does the objective/target support the environmental policy?) Describe how the objective/target is to be achieved. . Establish objective/target achievement program review format. Establish schedule for milestones and completion of objective and target. Designates departments and individuals responsible for the specific milestones. Designate the Objective/Target program leader. content and schedule.

Objectives and Targets Worksheet .

Objectives and Targets .

operational. be quantifiable have deadlines .Objectives and Targets Need to:      reflect the environmental policy and the identified significant impacts consider financial. and business requirements be specific and achievable where practicable.

Comparing objectives and targets Examples .

3. It shall include:  Designation of responsibility for achieving objectives and targets at each relevant function and level of the organization. products or services.  .  The means and timeframe by which they are to be achieved If a project relates to new developments and new or modified activities. programme(s) shall be amended where relevant to ensure that environmental management applies to such projects.4.4 Environmental management programme(s)  The organization shall establish and maintain (a) programme(s) for achieving its objectives and targets.

Environmental Management Programs Worksheet .

ISO 14001 EMS Model Continual Improvement Management review Environmental policy Planning Checking and corrective action Implementation and operation .

maintain and improve the environmental management system. organizational infrastructure. 4 Implementation & Operation 4. responsibility and authorities shall be defined.1 Structure & Responsibility  Management shall ensure the availability of resources essential to establish. Resources include human resources and specialized skills. technology and financial resources.4.4. implement. Roles.  . documented and communicated in order to facilitate effective environmental management.

 The organization’s top management shall appoint (a) specific management representative(s) who.Contd…. Reporting on the performance of the environmental management system to top management for review and as a basis for improvement of the environmental management system. implemented and maintained in accordance with this standard. responsibilities and authority for  Ensuring that environmental management system requirements are established. shall have defined roles.  . irrespective of other responsibilities.

4. have received appropriate training.2 Competence. .4.    It shall establish and maintain procedures to make its employees or members at each relevant function and level aware of The importance of conformance with the environmental policy and procedures and with the requirements of the environmental management system. The significant environmental impacts. of their work activities and the environmental benefits of improved personal performance. actual or potential. It shall require that all personnel whose work may create a significant impact upon the environment. training & awareness  The organization shall identify training needs.

 The potential consequences of departure from specified operating procedures. training and/or experience.. .Contd….  Personnel performing the tasks which can cause significant environmental impacts shall be competent on the basis for appropriate education.  Their roles and responsibilities in achieving conformance with the environmental policy and procedures and with the requirements of the environmental management system including emergency preparedness and response requirements.

documenting and responding to relevant communication from external interested parties. the organization shall establish and maintain procedures for   internal communication between the various levels and functions of the organization. .  The organization shall consider processes for external communication on its significant environmental aspects and record its decision. If the decision is to communicate.3 Communication  With regard to its environmental aspects and environmental management system.4. the organization shall establish and implement a method(s) for this external communication.4. receiving.

description of the main elements of the environmental management system and their interaction. and reference to related documents. description of the scope of the environmental management system. determined by the organization to be necessary to ensure the effective planning. objectives and targets.4 Documentation  The environmental management system documentation shall include      the environmental policy. including records. and documents. documents. including records. . required by this International Standard.4.4. operation and control of processes that relate to its significant environmental aspects.

Level 4: Proof These are the organization’s record. organization charts.Document Hierarchy for ISO 14000 Level 1: Environmental Management System Manual Environmental policy. policies for each clause. What the firm does to meet Level 1 policies Procedure for each clause. indexed to Level 3 Level 3: Practices These are process procedures and work instructions by which work is accompanied.Proof . indexed to Level 2 procedures Level 2: Environmental Procedures. 1 Policy 2 Procedure 3 Practice 4 .

 The organization shall establish. ensure that documents remain legible and readily identifiable. implement procedure(s) to       and maintain a approve documents for adequacy prior to issue. .5.4.4. ensure that documents of external origin determined by the organization to be necessary for the planning and operation of the environmental management system are identified and their distribution controlled. ensure that relevant versions of applicable documents are available at points of use.4.5 Control of documents  Records are a special type of document and shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements given in 4. ensure that changes & the current revision status of documents are identified. review and update as necessary and re-approve documents.

Records .examples .

4. in order to ensure that they are carried out under specified conditions. including contractors. and stipulating the operating criteria in the procedure(s). implementing and maintaining procedures related to the identified significant environmental aspects of goods and services used by the organization and communicating applicable procedures and requirements to suppliers. objectives and targets. . objectives and targets. by    establishing.6 Operational Control  The organization shall identify and plan those operations that are associated with the identified significant environmental aspects consistent with its environmental policy. implementing and maintaining a documented procedure(s) to control situations where their absence could lead to deviation from the environmental policy.4. and establishing.


4.7 Emergency preparedness & response  The organization shall establish. after the occurrence of accidents or emergency situations. . in particular. where necessary. revise its emergency preparedness and response procedures. accidents and prevent or mitigate associated adverse environmental impacts.  The organization shall respond to actual emergency situations and  The organization shall periodically review and.4.  The organization shall also periodically test such procedures where practicable. implement and maintain a procedure(s) to identify potential emergency situations and potential accidents that can have an impact(s) on the environment and how it will respond to them.

ISO 14001 EMS Model Continual Improvement Management review Environmental policy Planning Checking and corrective action Implementation and operation .

 The organization shall ensure that calibrated or verified monitoring and measurement equipment is used and maintained and shall retain associated records. The procedure(s) shall include the documenting of information to monitor performance. on a regular basis. . applicable operational controls and conformity with the organization's environmental objectives and targets. implement and maintain a procedure(s) to monitor and measure.1 Monitoring & measurement  The organization shall establish.5 Checking 4.4.5. the key characteristics of its operations that can have a significant environmental impact.

evaluating the need for action(s) to prevent nonconformity(ies) and implementing appropriate actions designed to avoid their occurrence. . recording the results of corrective action(s) and preventive action(s) taken.3 Nonconformity. corrective action & preventive action  The organization shall establish. determining their cause(s) and taking actions in order to avoid their recurrence. implement and maintain a procedure(s) for dealing with actual and potential nonconformity and for taking corrective action and preventive action.4. The procedure(s) shall define requirements for      identifying and correcting nonconformity(ies) and taking action(s) to mitigate their environmental impacts. and reviewing the effectiveness of corrective action(s) and preventive action(s) taken. investigating nonconformity(ies).5.

Nonconformance and Corrective Action .

Non-conformities .

CAR  Corrective Action Request  It provides brief details of the nonconformity to which the corrective action relates and provides information on what needs to be done.  It identifies the person who needs to undertake the corrective action and also provides a time-scale to complete it. .

5. 4.4. implement and maintain a procedure(s) for periodically evaluating compliance with applicable legal requirements.2 The organization shall evaluate compliance with other requirements to which it subscribes.5.2.5. • The organization shall keep records of the results of the periodic evaluations.1 Consistent with its commitment to compliance.2.1 or to establish a separate procedure(s). .5. the organization shall establish.2 Evaluation of compliance 4. The organization may wish to combine this evaluation with the evaluation of legal compliance referred to in 4. • The organization shall keep records of the results of the periodic evaluations.2.

5.4. retrieval. protection. . and the results achieved. implement and maintain a procedure(s) for the identification. identifiable and traceable.4 Control of records  The organization shall establish and maintain records as necessary to demonstrate conformity to the requirements of its environmental management system and of this International Standard.  The organization shall establish. storage.  Records shall be and remain legible. retention and disposal of records.

and – provide information management.4. and has been properly implemented and is maintained.5.5 Internal audit • The organization shall ensure that internal audits of the environmental management conducted at planned intervals to: – system are determine whether the environmental management system • • conforms to planned arrangements for environmental management including the requirements of this International Standard. on the results of audits to .

ISO 14001 EMS Model Continual Improvement Management review Environmental policy Planning Checking and corrective action Implementation and operation .

4.6 Management review

The organization’s top management shall, at intervals it determines, review the environmental management system, to ensure its continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness. The management review process shall ensure that the necessary information is collected to allow management to carry out this evaluation. This review shall be documented. The management review shall address the possible need for changes to policy, objectives and other elements of the environmental management system, in the light of environmental management system audit results, changing circumstances and the commitment to continual improvement.

Linkages among EMS audits, corrective action & management review

Roadmap for EMS Development

.Examples of environmental initiatives by companies leading to business improvement Century Pulp and Paper a) Water Conservation Measures  Reduction of water consumption (reclamation of unbleached thicker backwater)  Re-circulation of water at RGP Chip Wash Plant and Chipper  Conservation of fresh water being used as sealing water by recycling b) Energy Conservation Measures  Optimisation of energy in pumps. After that. Dry pith from bagasse pulp mill is burnt in coal-fired boilers. water and chemicals consumption  Extra pith burning in place of coal  Improving boiler and equipment efficiency c) Waste Minimisation Programmes  A systematic approach to solid waste disposal is adopted. fans  Reduction in steam. the thickened sludge is disposed to paperboard manufacturing units. Effluent sludge is segregated and thickened. Lime sludge is recalcined in a rotary lime kiln to obtain lime instead of dumping as landfill.

Contd.) 520 222 56 13 Lacs (8 Crore.75 5.25 Quantified Benefits Power Savings Fuel Savings Lubricant Savings Savings in Waste Disposal costs Total Annual Savings (In Rs lacs.) . Cost Benefit Analysis for implementing ISO 14000 System Costs Consultancy and Certification fee Miscellaneous costs Total Rs in lacs 6.50 12. 11 Lacs per yr.

insulation of ducts. use of high efficiency motors and variable speed drives. process flow improvement by introduction of capacitor bank. reconditioning of Dust Extraction System of Shot blasting machine at foundry . b) Energy Conservation Measures Optimise kiln loading.Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited a) Water Conservation Measures Reuse of wastewater generated from filter press operation for other miscellaneous uses and recirculation of cooling water at jiggering and kiln areas. c) Air pollution control measures Introduction of wet scrubber for standardised glazing Dust Extraction System.

Contd. . which in turn reduces green house gases emission. d) Waste Minimisation Programmes Recovery of solid waste generated at grid washing Crushing and reuse of rejected ceramic tiles e) Mitigation of Green house Gases Energy efficiency studies have been conducted on kilns furnaces. dryers & boilers and implemented efficiency improvement programme to reduce specific fuel consumption.

Contd.48 11.1 Lacs per year . Miscellaneous Costs Total Annual Cost (in Rs. Savings in Waste disposal costs Resource Savings Savings through Recycling Total Annual Savings( in Rs Lacs ) 15.84 Lacs Quantified Benefits Power Savings Fuel Savings Lubricants Savings Rs.64 2.0 30.0 14. 100.05 0.2 40. Lacs) 3.6 00.65 Rs. 19. Cost Benefit Analysis for implementing ISO 14000 System Costs Consultancy Fee Training fee Certification fee (per 3 years) Investment on Environmental Pollution control Equip.02 2.0 00.3 Rs.

s cooling water after cooling through heat exchanger and cooling tower. Utilization of cooling tower blow down and side stream filter for dust control. . Saving of raw water by using Organic Section Effluent as dilution water for spent wash in bio-methanation plant. Reductions in cooling tower blow down by adopting state-of-art treatment from Ion Exchange (India) Ltd. compressor’s and blower.VAM Organic Chemicals Limited a) Water Conservation Measures Recycling of vacuum pump’s.

Contd. air was being used to attain the pressure and in the process air was vented. super heater was installed before acetaldehyde reactor. The procedure was modified to use nitrogen during start-up for pressure without releasing anything from the system. In order to avoid alcohol condensation and consequent draining. b) Energy Conservation Measures Energy audit for steam and condensate recovery systems was carried out. During the start-up process. not been shown here. Gains from improvement in condensate recovery system have. c) Waste Minimisation Programmes WMP was developed to stop the process leakage to minimise the wastage of materials. however. Its recommendations are being implemented in phased manner. . resulting in the loss of material.

16 per yr.in lacs) 258.9 42. In lacs 3.) Miscellaneous Cost Total Quantified Benefits Gains from measures involving adoption better work practices Gains from measures involving modifications Acetaldehyde & Acetic Acid Plants Total Rs.76 lacs 230.Contd. Cost Benefit Analysis for implementing ISO 14000 System Costs of implementation Consultancy Fee Training Fee Investment on Environmental Pollution Control Equipment (installation/Monitoring etc. .40 lacs 489.48 Annual (Rs.9 36.98 0.7 0.

Prevention of Pollution Hierarchy .

because the company is more energy efficient. By redesigning and modifying its dust collection system. . This project lowered the company’s operating costs and reduced emissions at the local power plant.Pollution Prevention  Pfizer Global Research & Development (formerly Warner- Lambert Parke-Davis) has a pollution prevention program that shows that improving the environment and the bottom line can go hand-in-hand. For example:   By replacing chillers and redesigning chilling systems to be more efficient. without compromising the effectiveness of the dust collection system.000 in energy savings. Also. the company replaced its 100-hp motors with 40 hp motors. the company has realized $250. it has reduced emissions from its local power supplier.

Resources – Installing Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-Step Guide (first edition) Christopher Sheldon and Mark Yoxon.asp?foldername=20050228&filename=ne ws&sec_id=4&sid=71 – – – – – .downtoearth. 2001. David L Goetsch and Stanley B Davis.E. Environmental Management Strategies. Gabriele Cronale. ISO 14000 Environmental Management.smetoolkit.org. Prentice Hall. 1999.org/india/en/content/en/279/Creating-anEnvironmental-Management-System-EMShttp://www.. Prentice Hall PTR Publications. First South Asian Edition 1999.in/full6. http://www.bis.in/cert/emscert. P.htm (ISO 14000 in India) http://india. Earthscan Publications. The 21st Century Perspective.org.

Nokia .in/hclesafe_ipr.HCL http://www.com/A41403031.nokia.Case Studies http://www.html.hclinfosystems.

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