The Standard Handbook for Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineers

List of Chapters:
List of Contributors Preface Section 1. 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.6. 1.7. Section 2. New Vision for Future Aerospace Vehicles and Systems Learning from Living Systems Revolutionary Vehicles Future Space Transportation Future Airspace System Needed: Intellectual Infrastructure Smart Vehicle, Heal Thyself Working for More Secure Airspace Engineering Mathematics, Units, Symbols, and Constants Part 2. Calculus 2.21. 2.22. 2.23. 2.24. 2.25. 2.26. 2.27. 2.28. 2.29. 2.30. 2.31. 2.32. 2.33. 2.34. 2.35. 2.36. 2.37. 2.38. 2.39. 2.40. 2.41. 2.42. 2.43. 2.44. 2.45. 2.46. 2.47. 2.48. 2.49. 2.50. 2.51. Derivative Maxima and Minima Integral Derivatives and Integrals Standard Substitutions Reduction Formulae Numerical Integration Vector Calculus Arithmetic Series Geometric Series Binomial Series Taylor’s Series Maclaurin’s Series Laurent’s Series Power Series for Real Variables Integer Series Fourier Series Rectified Sine Wave Square Wave Triangular Wave Sawtooth Wave Pulse Wave Fourier Transforms Laplace Transforms Linear Simultaneous Equations Matrix Arithmetic Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Coordinate Transformation Determinants Properties of Determinants Numerical Solution of Linear Equations

Part 3. Series and Transforms

Part 1. Trigonometric Functions and General Formulae 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 2.8. 2.9. 2.10. 2.11. 2.12. 2.13. 2.14. 2.15. 2.16. 2.17. 2.18. 2.19. 2.20. Mathematical Signs and Symbols Trigonometric Formulae Trigonometric Values Approximations for Small Angles Solution of Triangles Spherical Triangle Exponential Form De Moivre’s Theorem Euler’s Relation Hyperbolic Functions Complex Variable Cauchy-Riemann Equations Cauchy’s Theorem Zeroes, Poles, and Residues Some Standard Forms Coordinate Systems Transformation of Integrals Laplace’s Equation Solution of Equations Method of Least Squares

Part 4. Matrices and Determinants

5.2.1.57. Partial Differential Equations Part 6.58.56. 2.4. Process Laws and Combustion 3. 2. Basic Definitions 3.77. Units.52. 2.4. Balancing of Rotating Masses Part 4.73.14. Electrical and Electronic Principles 4. 3. 2. 5.21. 3.3.4. Physical and Chemical Constants 2. 3. 3.75. 3. Ordinary Differential Equations: Analytical Solutions 2. 2. 3. Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Systems 3.3. 2.69.71.7.24. 2. 5.60.70. 5. Circular Motion . 3. Strength of Materials Part 3. Differential Equations 2. Section 5.54.64.61.9. 4. Atomic Number Atomic Weight Density Melting Point Linear Coefficient of Expansion Heat Conductivity Electrical Resistivity Mechanical Engineering Principles Part 6.28. 2.10. 2.55.2.15.53. 2. 2.72. Balancing 3.16.67. Heat Transfer 3. 2.18.20. SI Units Derived Units Gravitational and Absolute Systems Expressing Magnitudes of SI Units Rules for Use of SI Units and the Decimal Multiples and Submultiples 2. Cycle Analysis Part 7. 2.12.66. 5.76. Statics of Rigid Bodies Part 2. 2. 5. Section 3. 3.6. 3. Introduction Basic Principles of Heat Transfer Analysis of Heat Transfer Use of Computers Heat Transfer: Nomenclature Section 4. 4.19.23.63.2. Heat. Mechanics of Fluids 3. 3. Notation and Definitions 2. 2. 5. 2.11.7.27.17. Basic Electrical Technology Electrical Machines Analog and Digital Electronics Theory Electrical Safety Computing Introduction Generations of Digital Computers Digital Computer Systems Categories of Computer Systems Central Processor Unit Memory Peripherals Output Devices Part 1. 3.22. Statistics 2. and Symbols Part 8. 5.The Standard Handbook for Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineers Part 5. 3. 3. Introduction Fluid Statics Fluid Flow Flow Measurement Boundary Layer Flow Pressure Transients Gas Flow Ideal Fluid Flow Conclusion Part 7. Random Vibrations Part 5. Linear and Angular Motion in Two Dimensions 3. 3.26.68.74. SI Quantities. Property Values.25. 2.5. 3. 2. 3.62. Introduction Averages Dispersion Skewness Combinations and Permutations Regression and Correlation Probability Probability Distributions Sampling Tests of Significance 3.1.8. 5. Linear and Angular Motion in Three Dimensions 3.3. Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems 3.6.1. Ordinary Differential Equations: Approximate Solutions 2.13. Abbreviations Part 10. Vibrations 3. Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 3. Principles of Thermodynamics Introduction The Laws of Thermodynamics Thermoeconomics Work.8. 4. 2.59. Conversion of Existing Imperial Terms Part 9.65.

10. The PC as a Controller Part 8.12. Interfacing of Computers to Systems 6.44.7. Introduction 6. Dimensional/Geometrical Measurements 6. Summary of Number Systems 6.1.45. Digital Interfacing Controller Output Interface Hardware Analog Interfacing Multiplexing Machine Tool Interfaces Robot Control Interfaces Signal Conditioning Analog and Digital Filtering Part 5. The PLC in Automation Systems The PLC Versus the Microcomputer Ladder Logic Programming Controlling Pneumatic and Hydraulic Systems 6.11.11. Networking of PLCs Part 9. Instrumentation 6.13.19. Flow 6. Measurement of Vibration 6.21.36. Microprocessor-Based Control 6.56.37. 5. Nonlinear System Elements (Method of Isoclines) 6. 6. Instrumentation.23.38. State Variable Transformations Part 1. System Architecture Bus Structure Memory Devices Input/Output (I/O) Structure Memory Map Part 3. 6.17. 6. Introduction 6.6. 6.49.12. Terminals Printers and Plotters Direct Input Secondary Storage Digital and Analog Input/Output Data Communications Computer Networks Internet Software Database Management Language Translators Languages Microprocessors.9.The Standard Handbook for Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineers 5.29. 5.25. 6. Temperature Measurement 6. Representation of Discretely Sampled Data 6.54.22.17. Section 6. 5. State Variable Techniques 6.31. PID Digital Control Algorithm 6. 6. 6. The z-Transform of a Closed-Loop System 6. 5. 5. 6.35.41. Serial Communication 6.2. Classical Control Theory and Practice 6.46. Application to a Second-Order System with A P + I Controller 6. 5. Safety 6.52. Stability in Discrete Time Systems Part 10.28.9. Bar Code Readers .16. Force/Weight Measurement 6.27. Proportional Control Using Digital Techniques 6.18.30.33.8. and Control Part 6. ASCII Code 6. State Variable Representation of Systems 6. Programmable Logic Controllers 6. Parallel Communication Part 4.3.34.32. 6.39.13. Pressure 6. Direct Digital Control Hardware Requirements Software Considerations Sampling Frequency in Digital Control Loops 6.24.50. 6. 6. 6. 5.20. 6. 5. Laplace Notation for Differential Equations-Frequency-Domain Analysis 6. 6.51. A P + I Strategy Using Digital Techniques 6. 6. The z-Transform 6. Sampled-Data Systems 6. 6.4.15.20. 5.16.5. Stability Criteria 6.48. Volume and Level 6.26.15. 6.43.53. Control Strategies Part 7.19. Speed Control 6.42.40. Microprocessors 6. 5. The z-Transform for a PID Controller 6.18.47.14. Mathematical Models of Systems-Time Domain Analysis 6.10. 5.55. Communication Standards 6. Gray Code Part 2.14. Application to a First-Order System with A P + I Controller 6.

Standard Atmosphere and Height Measurement 10. 9. 9.4. Introduction Part 1. Airplane Performance 10.24.5. Fundamentals of Potential Flow 10.20.16.11. 9.16. Multiple Degree of Freedom Vibration 9. 7.4.14.12. Aeroelasticity 9. 7. Airfoil Geometric and Aerodynamic Definitions 10.5.10. MDOF Vibration-Setting Up Equations of Motion-Rayleigh-Ritz Method 9.57.6. Section 8. Aerospace Structures Part 1.1.15. 7. The State of Transition Matrix Section 7.9. Properties of Materials 9. 7.12.11.19. Helicopters 9. Aeronautical Propulsion Newton and Propulsion Turbojets and Propellers Thrust Equation Engine Cycles Gas Turbine Engines Ideal Engine Cycle Analysis Goals of Cycle Analysis General Procedure for Cycle Analysis The Turbojet The Turbofan The Turboprop Gas Turbine Component Technology Real Gas Properties Ramjets and Scramjets Reciprocating Engines Aircraft Engine Emissions and Fuels Engine Noise Rockets and Launch Vehicles 9. 7.13. Test Verification. 7. Structural Considerations 9.11. Aeroelastic Design Part 5.4. Noise 9. Airspeed and Airspeed Measurement 8. Aircraft Airworthiness Certification 9. Incompressible Flow over Finite Wings 10. Structural Dynamics 9.7.25. Spacecraft Structures 9.7. Wing Geometric and Aerodynamic Definitions 10. 7.5.9. Compressible Flow over Finite Wings Part 2.23. Launch Vehicles Section 9. Rocket Science 8. Aerodynamics 10.26. Global Stiffness and Mass MatricesElement Assembly 9.9. 7.15.3.21.2. 7. Smart Materials Part 3.17.3. Incompressible Flow over Airfoils 10.29.7. 7. Satellite Qualification and Flight Acceptance 9. 7. Propulsion Systems 8.8. Materials and Processes 9.32. Mechanical Requirements 9. Qualification. Fundamentals of Vector Fluid Dynamics 10.10.27. Structural Analysis Finite Element Analysis Beams Tubes Plates and Shells Real Structures Stress Concentrations Composite Structures Structural Tests Part 4.1.1.22. Shock Wave Relationships 10. MDOF Free Vibration-Lumped Mass Models .13. 9. 9.6. 7. Compressible Flow over Airfoils 10. 7.2.28.3.2. Aircraft Loadings Part 2.The Standard Handbook for Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineers 6. 7. Composites 9. Elementary Boundary Layer Flow 10. Introduction 9. 9.10.8.14. Metals 9. 9.3.12. Setting Up Equations of MotionFinite-Element Approach 9. Manufacturing of Spacecraft Structures Section 10.1. Space Mission Environment and Mechanical Loads 9.17. 7.13. Aerodynamics. 9. Role of Spacecraft Structures and Various Interfaces 9.18.31. Analytical Evaluations 9. 7. and Flight Acceptance 9.30.2. 7. Project Overview: Successive Designs and Iterative Verification of Structural Requirements 9. Performance and Stability and Control 10.8.6.

45. Physical Architectures of Avionics 11.1. The Spacecraft Environment 11. Aircraft Environment 11. Conclusion Part 9. Introduction 11.21. Electromagnetic Compatibility 11. 11.20.15.22. Active Instrumentation: Space Lidars 11.25. Introduction Background of EM Coupling EM Environment and EMC Standards EMC Tools Engineering Method Conclusion . Radiowave Propagation in the Terrestrial Environment 11.44.20. 11. 11.32.26. The Electromagnetic Spectrum 11.13. Aircraft Flight Control Systems 11. Antennas and Power Budget of a Radio Link 11.19. Foreword Flight Control Objectives and Principles Flight Control Systems Design Airbus Fly-by-Wire: An Example of Modern Flight Control 11. 10.43.9. Aircraft Dynamic Stability 10.5.39. Introduction to Radar 11.16.49. 10. Other Atmospheric Hazards 11.50. Passive Sounding from Space Part 10. Photovoltaics 11.41. 11.18. Launchers and Airplanes 11.14. 11.23.17. 11. Effects of the Space Environment on Spacecraft. 11.3. 11. The Solar Array Part 8. The Energetic Charged Particle Environment Part 3. Space Borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) 11.4.46.16. Future Avionics Part 11. 11. Aircraft Response to Controls and Atmospheric Disturbances Section 11.10. Development of the Linearized Equations of Motion 10. 11.7.24.35. Solar Radiation 11.24.37.40.36. Spacecraft Sensors and Instrumentation 11.11. Optical Fibers and Lasers 11.19. Management of the Electromagnetic Spectrum Part 2. Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of Fixed Wing Aircraft 10. Typical Flight Profile for Commercial Airplanes 11. 10. Introduction to the Space Environment 11.18.22. 10. Spectro-Imagers 11.6.42.48. 11. Introduction to Avionics Requirements for Avionics Physical Architecture Avionics Logical Architecture Avionics Example: The Airbus A320 Flight Control System 11.8.28.51. Aircraft Stability and Control 10.14.The Standard Handbook for Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineers 10. Drag and Drag Power (Power Required) Engine (Powerplant) Performance Level Flight Performance Climbing and Descending Flight Turning Performance Stall and Spin Range and Endurance Takeoff and Landing Performance Airplane Operations Part 5. Historical Background Basic Principles Trends in Radar Technology Radar Applications to Aeronautics Overview of Military Requirements and Specific Developments 11. 10. Other Microwave Instruments 11.29.17. Optical Fiber Theory and Applications 11. The Ionosphere Part 4. 10. On-Board Software Part 3. Overview of Radar Applications to Space Part 6. Specific Laser Systems Part 7.25.26.12. 10.34. Radiowaves in the Vacuum 11.47.2. 10. 11. 11.27. In-Space Computing 11.38. The Atmosphere 11. Calculation of Aerodynamic Derivatives 10. Some Control Challenges 11.21. 11. Space Borne Instruments 11. Avionics and Astrionics Part 1.27. Photovoltaic Cell 11.30.31.33. 11.15. 11. Lasers 11.23. In-Flight Computing 11. Engineering of Avionics System 11.

Planetary Landers 15. 15. 12.8.33. 14. 12. Orbital Spacecraft 15. Health Care Part 8. Introduction Air Conditioning (ATA 21) Electrical Power (ATA 24) Equipment/Furnishings (ATA 25) Fire Protection (ATA 26) Flight Controls (ATA 27) Fuel (ATA 28) Hydraulic Power (ATA 29) Ice and Rain Protection (ATA 30) Landing Gear (ATA 32) Lights (ATA 33) Oxygen (ATA 35) Pneumatic (ATA 36) Water/Waste (ATA 38) Airborne Auxiliary Power (ATA 49) Avionic Systems 15.18. 12.4. Platform Technologies 15.5. 15. 12. 13. Nutrition and Sanitation Part 9. 12. Spacecraft Part 1. 13. 13.2.3. 15.25.16.7. Aeronautical Design 13.5. 13.7.10. Definitions Introduction Overall Approach Government Regulations Conceptual Design Military Aircraft Design Commercial and Civil Aircraft Design Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Commercial Aircraft Operating Costs Unmanned Air Vehicles Lighter-than-Air Vehicles (LTA) V/Stol Air Vehicles Performance Section 14.11.13. 15. Transfer and Supply Vehicles and Upper Stages 15.The Standard Handbook for Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineers 11. 13. 13.8.16.54.15. Development of Avionics System 11.4. Space Suits 15. 15. 12. 12.23.14.19.22. 12.31. 15.13. 15.7. Parabolic Flight Aircraft. Space Stations 15.4. Launch and Reentry Vehicles 15. 12.5.34. 15.6.3. Orbital Laboratories 15. Attitude Control Part 3.1.21. Communications Satellites Satellite Navigation Meteorology Earth Resources Satellites Military Satellites Satellite Instrument Packages Part 5.4.11.12. Manned Planetary Bases Part 6. 13.20. 15. Discussion of Selected Human Factors Principles 15.14.3. Overview Planetary Mission Instrument Packages Space Laboratory Rack Systems Space Medicine Experiments Exposed Payloads Sounding Rocket Payloads Section 13. Spacecraft Structure 15. and Drop Towers 15. 14. 15.2.29.1. Design Guidelines 15.10. EVA Suits Section 15.9. Thermal Control . Introduction Part 2. Human Factors 15. Payload Management 15.13. 15. 13. Future Avionics Functions Section 12.27.12.32.9. 12. Orbital and Mission Spacecraft and Space Stations 15.6. Mass Drivers. 12. 13. Planetary Orbiters 15. 12. Advanced Development Methods 11. 12.17. 15. Astrodynamics 14.35. Energy Beam-Assisted Vehicles.24.11.6.53.10. 13.15. Pressure Suits 15.30.1.3.2.12. 13. Satellites 15.1. Sled.9. Reentry Vehicles Part 4.26.28. 12. Solar Cells 15.2. 12. 14. Orbital Mechanics Orbital Maneuvers Earth Orbiting Satellites Interplanetary Missions Part 7. 15. 13. Semireusable Launch Vehicles Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs) Sounding Rockets Guns. Aircraft Systems 12. Substantive Overview 15.8. Manned Interplanetary Spacecraft and Landers 15.52.

Introduction Spatial Distribution of Space Debris The Collision Risk The Geostationary Orbit Long-Term Evolution of the Space Debris Environment and Mitigation Measures Section 17.21. Origin of the Moon Orbital Parameters Lunar Geography Lunar Geology Physical Surface Properties Lunar Surface Environment Part 5. Aviation Law 17. 16.27.34. The Solar-Terrestrial Energy Chain 16.15.27.18. 17. 16. Space Debris 16.28. Electrical Phenomena in the Atmosphere Part 2. 16.35. 16. 17.6. 16.25. 17.8. 16. Exploration Part 6. The Sun-Earth Connection 16.30. 17.The Standard Handbook for Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineers Section 16. 17.39.20. 17. 17. Sun-Earth Connections and Human Technology . 16.4.7. 17. 17.24. 16. 17.4. The Sun and the Heliosphere 16.3.17. 17. Structure and Dynamics of the Magnetospheric System 16.9. 17. 16.16. Orbital Characteristics 16.26. The Solar System 16. 17. 17.32. 16.11.1. Satellites 16. Federal Agencies that Regulate the Aviation Industry The Roles of an Aviation Safety Professional in Aviation Law FAA Regulatory Compliance Accident Investigation Litigation Support Litigation Avoidance (“Preventive Medicine”) The Engineer as a Technical Witness The Engineer as an Expert Witness The Engineer as Architect of Demonstrative Evidence Aviation Product Liability Conclusion Part 3. 17.7.8. Background The Plasma Environment The Neutral Gas Environment The Vacuum Environment The Radiation Environment The Micrometeoroid and Space Debris Environment 16. Earth’s Environment and Space Part 1.13.9.16. 16.33. The Near-Earth Space Environment 16.12. Physical Properties of the Planets 16.2. Surface and Subsurface 16.5.29. Conclusion Part 2. 16. Solid Geophysical Properties and Interiors 16. Summary Part 7. 17.24.23. 16.22. 17. Organizational Safety Program 17.1.26. 16. Space Age Discoveries Part 4. The Moon 16.10.12. 17. Aircraft Safety Part 1.38.2.14. Introduction Safety Concepts Accident Causation Principles of Safety Management The Accident-Prevention Process The Elements of an Organizational Safety Program 17. Introduction 16.37. Mars 16. 17.6.19.21.22.20. The Earth and Its Atmosphere The Earth in Space Properties of the Earth’s Atmosphere How the Earth’s Atmosphere Works Atmosphere Dynamics and Atmosphere Models 16. 17. 17. 16.S. 16.36.13.11.25.28. Importance of Atmospheric Coupling 16. 17. Introduction Federal Statutory Law State Codes Regulations The Common Law Industry Standards The Scope of Aviation Law FAA Enforcement Administrative Actions International Treaties/ICAO Aviation Business Disputes U. 17.5. 16.23.18. 17.14.17.10. Search for Life on Mars 16. 16.19. Atmosphere 16. Dynamics of the MagnetosphereIonosphere-Atmosphere System 16. 17.15.3.31.

Maintenance Steering Group -1 (MSG-1) Decision Logic 18.35.14. Why Investigate Accidents and Incidents? 17.2.1.41. 18.43.51. 18.3.39. Introduction 17.33. Power-by-the-Hour (PBH) 18. Aircraft Structural Corrosion 18.22.38. National and International Regulations 18. FAA Certification Part 3. 18.38.12. Developing the Maintenance Program Proposal 18. Airplane Parts 18. 18. 18. 18. 18.3 (MSG-3) Decision Logic 18.31. Zero Accidents: The Quest for Better Prevention 17.40.8. 18.34.39. 18. Aerospace Paints and Protective Coatings 18.44.34.33. Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) 18.29. 18.4. Summary Part 2. 18.2 (MSG-2) Decision Logic 18.36. Accident Investigation 17.32. 18. Airplane Maintenance Design Service Objective (DSO) Airplane Aging and Maintenance Cost Airplane Functionality Total Operating Cost Direct Operating Cost Maintenance Cost Scheduled and Unscheduled Maintenance Maintenance Cost Comparison Turnaround Time (TAT) Passenger Yield Discretionary Maintenance High Cost of Airplane Components Component Reliability Schedule Reliability Fix or Fly? Economics of a Maintenance Event Part 5.16.40. 17. 18.46. Summary Section 18.35.23. 18.50. Introduction Thermodynamics of Corrosion Aircraft Materials Types of Aircraft Material Corrosion Part 5.36. Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation 17. Maintenance Programs 18. 18.42. 18. 18.17.37.28.30. 17. The Need for Data-Driven Processes 17. Line Replaceable Unit (LRU) and Shop Replaceable Unit (SRU) 18. Operations Specifications Part 4. 18.32. 18.41.42.15.24.25. Background 18. 18. Risk Management 17. In-House or Outsource? 18.10. 18.47.20. Conclusion Part 4. 18.37. 18. Aircraft Maintenance Part 1. The Role of an Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineer in an Investigation 17. 18.29. The Economics of Maintenance 18. 18.31.18. 18. Inorganic Coatings Anodizing Chemical Conversion Coatings Plating Thermal Spray Coatings Organic Finishes Primers Topcoats Specialty Coatings Sealants Corrosion Inhibiting Compounds Changes Due to Environmental Regulations Maintenance .44.The Standard Handbook for Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineers Part 3.13. Maintenance Steering Group . Maintenance Risk 18.27. Maintenance Program Requirements and the Historical Development of Aircraft Maintenance Theories 18. The Importance of Investigating Incidents 17.48. 17.26.45. Flight Operations Quality Assurance: The Pursuit of Knowledge 17. Hazard Identification: The Pursuit of Information 17.30. 18.43. 18.49.19.7. 18. Accident Analysis Data 17.9. Maintenance Steering Group .21.6. 18.5. Systems Approach 17. 18.11. Introduction Risk Management Guidelines The Risk Management Process Summary 18. Airplane Lease (Dry Lease or Wet Lease?) 18. Airplane Maintenance 18.

70.69.79.68.72.63.56. Testing 18. Cleaning 18. Engine Condition Monitoring (ECM) 18. Rating Environmental Deterioration (EDR) 18. Maintaining Structural Safety 18.64.74.75. Introduction 18. Crack Detection 18. ETOPS Maintenance on Non-ETOPS Airplanes Index follows Section 18 .67.78. Balancing 18. Summary Part 9.The Standard Handbook for Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineers Part 6.82. Use of EDR/ADR Systems Part 7.71.52. Rating Accidental Damage (ADR) 18. Preface 18.65. Methods of Inspection 18.54. Maintaining Aircraft Certified Damage Tolerance Using MSG-3 Process 18. Summary Part 8.57.61. Maintenance Human Factors 18. Extended Twin Operations (ETOPS) 18. Regulatory Requirements Regardiig Maintenance Human Factors 18. Standards. Structural Maintenance Program Development 18. Rating Fatigue Damage (FD) 18.53. Airframe Maintenance 18. Definition 18. Shop Processes 18.73.62. Human Factors Principles.66. Maintenance Human Factors in Maintenance Product Design 18. Maintenance Program Requirements for ETOPS 18. and Tools 18.58.77.80. Comments about the ETOPS Maintenance Program 18.59. Maintenance Human Factors in Aircraft/Component Design 18. Engine Maintenance 18.60.76 Maintenance Human Factors in Aircraft Maintenance Program Applications 18.55. Additional Requirements 18. Introduction: What Is ETOPS? 18.81. Engine Condition Monitoring (ECM) Program 18. Impact of Combined Fatigue and Corrosion Damage 18.

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