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What You Should Know About
by WILLIAM HENRY CHAMBERLIN
Adapted from the series of sixteen articles published under the same title in Senior Scholastic and World Week.
WEBSTER DIVISION, McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY St. Louis New York San Francisco Dallas Toronto London Sydney
The Editors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the following individuals who served as consultants to Scholastic Magazines for the series of articles on which this hook is based:
SAMUEL M. BROWNELL, Superintendent of Public Schools, Detroit, Michigan RT. REV. MSGR. O'NEILL C. D'AMOUR, Superintendent of Schools, Norway, Michigan EUGENE LYONS, Senior Editor, The Readers Digest, Pleasantville, N.Y. J. W. MAUCKER, President, State College of Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa PHILIP E. MOSELY, Director of the European Institute, Columbia University, New York City HENRY L. ROBERTS, Professor of History, Russian Institute, Columbia University, New York City ROWLAND H. SARGEANT, President, Radio Liberty Committee, New York City JOHN W. STUDEBAKER, Vice President and Chairman of the Editorial Boards, Scholastic Magazines, New York City Cover: Sovfoto Maps by Bruno Junker
Copyright © 1965, 1964, 1962, by Scholastic Magazines, Inc. All rights reserved. 4th printing (revised) ......................................July 1965 55339 Manufactured in the U.S.A.
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Introduction 1. The Communist System 2. Karl Marx and the Start of Communism 3. From Lenin to Stalin 4. Purges at Home, Expansion Abroad 5. The Cold War Under Stalin 6. Coexistence With Khrushchev 7. The Many Shades of Communism 8. Life Under Communism in the Soviet Union 9. Education, Cultural Life, and Religion in the U.S.S.R. 10. The Communist Victory in China 11. The Communist Pattern of Conquest 12. Why Do Some People Become Communists? 13. The Might of Communism 14. The Free World's Response A Chronology of Communism Pronunciation Guide 6 11 16 25 31 37 45 54 59 68 79 88 97 102 109 117 118
(Study Aids follow each chapter) MAPS AND CHARTS Communism on the March Political Structure of the Soviet Union Communism Expands in Europe Divided Germany Comparative Purchasing Power, in Time Worked (U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.) Communism Expands in Asia
With Soviet help. It looks to both Red China and the U. although Communist.. Two Giants of Communism Since November 7. 1917.S. for economic help.R. the freedom of your country and of the other free countries of the world. Today that system provides the base upon which Soviet leaders draw in attempting to spread communism throughout the world. China — the China now led by Mao Tse-tung — is another Communist giant. and they will continue in force as long as the Cold War — the conflict between the Free World and the Communist World — lasts. has come under the dictatorship of Communist Fidel Castro. Expansion of U.S. 60 percent of which go to support immense armaments.S. Introduction Why Study Communism? Communism is more than a theory.S. In the last 10 years.S.S. East Germany. U. in southern Europe. the Soviet Union and Communist China. citizens pay billions of dollars in taxes each year. the Soviet Union has. 90 miles off the Florida coast of the U. incorporated as a Chinese "autonomous region" in 1951. Czechoslovakia. Mao's Chinese Communists seized power through civil war in 1949. Albania. Each of these two giants of communism. forged a strong economic system.R. and as the one about which most is known. the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has been the center of world Communist power. The Threat to the Free World Free people everywhere must be alert to the dangers of communism and be prepared to combat them intelligently. and North Vietnam and North Korea.000. Soviet military might has been built to a position second only to that of the U. Romania. If you do — and a careful reading of this book will give you a good start — you will be helping to safeguard your freedom. Yugoslavia and Albania. 1953. Using economic and political techniques radically different from those of the Western democracies. You owe it to yourself to learn all you can about communism. among them Tibet. have shown greater independence of Soviet authority. possesses its own "satellites" — countries whose foreign and domestic policies they largely control.'s influence over Hungary. These measures are needed to protect the country and the Free World from the threat of communism.000 Chinese live under their rule. Bulgaria. and Poland is strong. Today more than 700. although as the first Communist power. — a very close second indeed. Cuba.S. as the dominant Communist power in today's world. without fear. has also aligned itself with Red China. It is a fighting force that deeply affects the life of every one of us. according to some experts. in almost 50 years since the Bolshevik Revolution.East Berlin teen-agers join in a heroic but futile bid for freedom during the June. Red China has also extended its control into neighboring states. The U. This book will not limit its analysis of communism to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. when a group of Communist revolutionaries violently seized power in tsarist Russia. calling hundreds of thousands of young Americans into the Armed Services. and is getting it. we could make .S. Armed Forces has led to the first peacetime draft in the history of the nation. both now under Chinese-influenced Communist regimes. If in our decisions we are motivated by fear. revolt against Communist rule. the Soviet Union will be emphasized.
dangerous piecemeal surrenders. under the Communist yoke. By word and action. he told leaders of non-Communist nations how cities like Rome. Khrushchev was asked by reporters what he meant when he said. government has made its position clear: it will retaliate. will outproduce us in all kinds of goods. that . Thus American military might has so far deterred the Soviets from seizing West Berlin. Would they start a war to do this? The Soviets have often boasted of the destructive power at their command.S. against its will. Soviet leaders have made clear their determination to destroy our form of society and to put Communist governments everywhere." He replied he did not mean burial by bombs. but burial by political and economic victory. Soviet leaders are thoroughly committed to Communist doctrine and to the spread of communism throughout the world. Along with propaganda. When Nikita Khrushchev was the Soviet premier. He said that the Soviet Union. he thought. Athens. The propaganda effect will be so tremendous. and will thus become a shining example of the success of communism. or act rashly and perhaps end up using communism's own tactics. What has the Soviet Union been doing that arouses the concern of the United States and many non-Communist nations? Already nearly a third of the human race has been brought. These military threats are supplemented by other threats. "We will bury you. they rattle their rockets and flex their atomic muscles to frighten nations into doing their bidding. by 1980. and the Communist Chinese from invading Taiwan. But the U. and London could be reduced to ashes by his country's missiles. During his visit to the United States in 1961. outpost of the free Chinese.
act. because . Everywhere — and especially in the underdeveloped nations of Asia. when it comes to the important "living condition" of freedom for the individual. One of the most eloquent voices raised in opposition to communism was that of Winston Churchill. is told in a companion book (published by Scholastic Book Services. the reader should not assume that there are no shortcomings in the standard of living in many non-Communist countries. and are constitutional means provided by which they can make their will known? 3. 1964). Is there the right to free expression of opinion. and which we must ever be on the alert to defend and protect. the chief tests of freedom are whether citizens are permitted to think. the description of housing shortages in the Soviet Union should not be taken to mean that housing is adequate in every democratic country. Africa. On the other hand. April. The Soviet leaders thus hope to win the emerging nations to their side in the Cold War. and South America — Soviet agents and local Communists are working to unseat existing governments. Meanwhile. For example. and Khrushchev before them. and eventually to establish communism in them. Why study communism? A look at the front page of your daily newspaper will give you the answer: because communism affects your daily life — your present and your future. Since 1917. for individuals as well as for government officials? 6. there can be no dispute that the citizen of a democracy has rights denied the person living under communism. When living conditions in a Communist country are described. Like Lenin. Communist influences in their governments. He set down these seven tests of man's freedom under government: 1. That story. Is the ordinary citizen free from the fear that a secret police organization under the control of a single political party will pack him off without fair or open trial? In other words. Stalin. Soviet policy has long been to capitalize on the anticolonial feelings of the peoples of the new nations in order to bring to bear anti-Western. Will these courts administer well-established laws which are associated in the human mind with the broad principles of decency and justice? 5. Will the rights of the individual be exalted? 7. What You Should Know about Democracy — and Why. and work freely. In the chapters that follow you will see how communism denies those freedoms and rights we take for granted. Have the people the right to vote out a government of which they disapprove. strong voices from the democracies have warned the world of the danger. Are there independent courts of justice free from executive control. to opposition and criticism of the existing government? 2. prime minister of Great Britain during World War II. speak. and free from threats of mob violence and association with any particular political party? 4. they are working to promote communism. Seven Tests of Freedom The menace of communism to our freedom is not new. Kremlin leaders are not sitting back and waiting for the example of Soviet "progress" to take effect.nation after nation will be converted to communism. Will there be equal justice for poor as well as for rich. Democracy's Challenge This is a book about communism — not about democracy. when the Communists overthrew the first Russian democratic government (then only eight months old) and set up a Communist dictatorship.
What country was first taken over by the Communists? 3. What deterrents have kept the Soviets from seizing West Berlin and other areas of the world they would like to control? Questions to Think About 1. What did former Soviet Premier Khrushchev mean when he said to the United States. Pyramid. 1962. Animal Farm (fiction). ed. 1964. (ed. Robert C. 1. Whitney. Berkley. Richer. Why is it important to learn all we can about communism? Books to Read Paperback Books Cronyn. depends the fate of all mankind. Other Books Kirkpatrick. Taiwan tsarist satellites propaganda underdeveloped nations West Berlin Checkup Questions 1. Button. 1962... Decter.). Why do Soviet leaders support independence movements in many areas of the world? 3. Communist Blueprint for the Future. Ch. Richard. Holt. The Many Faces of Communism.). and Nelson. A Study of the USSR and Communism: An Historical Approach.).STUDY AIDS Words and Names to Understand Cold War Bolshevik U. Schwartz. Putnam. . What means are the Communists using in an attempt to spread their system throughout the world? 5. "We will bury you"? 2. Hoover. INTRODUCTION .S. Gunther.S. ed. Signet.upon a firm understanding of communism. its nature and its history. Jeane J. Inside Russia Today (rev. Oxford Univ. Orwell. Strategy of Deception. Alfred J. 1962.. A Study of Communism. World Communism. John. Farrar. Harry (ed.R. Moshe (ed. Collier.). What tests of man's freedom did Winston Churchill set down? 4. Button. A Primer on Communism (rev.). 1961.. The Profile of Communism. (ed. 1962. Lowenthal. 1961. Edgar. 1954. 1963. To what extent does the Soviet Union meet the seven tests of freedom? To what extent does the United States meet them? 4. George. George W. 1964.). Thomas P. Why is communism called a "fighting force"? 2. J.
The word democracy comes from two Greek words: demos. which controls the state. and the means of communication — newspapers. a system of control over the individual. falsification. When the Communists seized power in the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. According to the Communists. magazines. They have freedom to criticize the government openly and to disagree with its policies without fear of punishment. books. knows what is "best" for the people and acts as the "vanguard" of the people. including freedom of expression. 1. A totalitarian government is one which exercises total control." To bring the day of communism's triumph nearer. an economic system. The dedicated Communist is certain that his system is the "wave of the future. and other forms of art. they immediately set about tightening their grip on all phases of life in the newly proclaimed Soviet Republic. Even the job each person holds is controlled by the government. education. or violence — to advance his cause. The line between authoritarianism and totalitarianism is sometimes thin. a form of political organization. motion pictures. Within each group there are variations in the degree of power exercised by the government over the people. Communism is all-embracing — it is a dogmatic belief. A Totalitarian System The Communist system is the most totalitarian system in existence today. or permits individuals to campaign or agitate for a change.The Communist System The governments of the world today fall into three broad groups: democratic. totalitarian. meaning "ruler. This includes control of property. The people have the right to vote — to replace their leaders at elections. but his economic and social life as well. It exercises complete control over the lives of the people." and krator. Neither system gives the people the opportunity for a peaceful change of government. authoritarian. Communists use state power to control not only an individual's political life. and a world-wide conspiracy. theater. TV. The basis of Communist organization was and is the proposition that the Communist Party. their system is destined to take control of the entire world. An authoritarian government is one that is dominated by a single leader or a dictatorial group (the authority). As a disciplined agent ." A democratic government is a government by consent of the people. a form of government. Communism is a dogmatic belief. It usually permits private ownership of property. radio. but restricts freedom of political action. meaning "people. he will use any means — treachery. Both are dictatorships of one person or a ruling group that cannot be changed by the orderly process of voting by the people.
but the goal of communism — world domination — remains unchanged. Party membership is closely regulated to ensure obedience to top Party leaders. some 11. A candidate for membership is accepted only after Party . Communism is a form of political organization. The Party line.000.000. 2. Of the total Soviet population of over 226. may change from time to time as to method.000 are Party members. he is expected to follow the Party's orders rigidly and carry them out un-questioningly.000.of the Communist movement. or policy. The Communist Party controls all political life in Communist countries.
500 members. This applies to all laws. At present.leaders have checked his background and are satisfied that he is loyal to the regime. so his election is assured. 1962) expressed the official point of view on elections this way: Since the interests of the people and the Communist Party are one and the same. transportation. or legislative bodies. at home." For example.S. judicial. He is in charge of the Party Presidium (before 1952 known as the Political Bureau. He is chairman of the Council of Ministers. friends.S. or Politbureau). (March. In reality. Brezhnev. Membership in the Council of the Union is based on population. there is no reason for several candidates to appear on the ballot. It is his duty to report any breach of Party discipline by his fellow workers. The Supreme Soviet elects the premier and the Svipreme Court. "Elections" in Communist countries offer voters only one "choice. and collective farms. handles Party affairs between meetings of the Party Congress (held every four years). or family members. A member is expected to see that Party orders are obeyed in all his daily contacts — at work. The Soviet magazine U.R. however.S. Communist government is basically different from democratic government. In the Soviet Union. anywhere. which directs the various ministries (government departments). It carries out administrative." 3. a small group of members —11 in 1964 — who determine Party policy. appointments. Nominally. and legislative functions. Important officials are Party members. and actions of the various government agencies. a government in a Communist state is like any other government. Former Soviet Premier Khrushchev held both of these top posts — in government and Party — himself. That's what it said! . candidates for the Supreme Soviet and the local Soviets. he is subordinate in authority to Leonid I. At the top is the first secretary of the Party. economy. However. since all actions of the Supreme Soviet require prior Party approval." and two chambers: the Council (or Soviet) of the Union. Communism is a form of government. which. in the schools. in theory. and others. which has almost 1. and since there are no antagonistic groups or classes. On the surface. which controls the choice of Party secretaries (or leaders) all the way down to the local Party groups.R. it is merely a rubber stamp for Party policy.S. Deputies in the Council of Nationalities are selected on a geographical basis from the various republics that make up the U.. called "deputies. Kosygin. in that it serves merely as a "rubber stamp" for decisions that have already been made by Party leaders. The 22nd Party Congress met in 1961 and had 4. The first secretary also has charge of the Secretariat. subject to Party discipline. such as foreign affairs. first secretary of the Party. called "cells. the highest official of the Soviet government is Aleksei N.S. under Party supervision..R. and the Council of Nationalities.813 delegates. The Presidium directs the Central Committee (319 members in 1964). however. the highest lawmaking body is the Supreme Soviet of the U. and from smaller areas.S. Party organization is parallel to that of the government on national and local levels. are nominated at meetings of trade unions. schools. Party officials direct the choice of one nominee for each office.
Soviet Russia extends its influence through a network of 91 Communist parties throughout the world. The same is true in Poland. which has been set up to indoctrinate the people. In addition to controlling political and economic life. motion pictures. Quotas and prices of most consumer goods are fixed by the government. campaigns. trade unions in the U. and to serve as a disciplinary arm of the Party and government. and barbers. But the function of the Soviet trade unions — unlike those in free countries — is mainly to enforce production quotas.R. He loses many social-security benefits. however. At this meeting Khrushchev announced that by 1980 the Soviet Union would overtake the United States both in production and in standard of living. Through the use of all channels of communication — newspapers. literature. 4. 1961. crusades against religion. industry is 90 per cent owned and operated by the state. 6. Communist Party local groups — this agency carries on propaganda to support current government drives. No strikes are permitted. However. . the theatre. sets wages.S. assigns work. In Poland there are also independent craftsmen.Nikita Khrushchev. the state has complete control of the economy. the schools. a Soviet satellite. art. There are. and his accident and health insurance is restored only after he has worked at his new job for six months. magazines. such as shoemakers. 5. TV. Economic policies vary somewhat from one Communist nation to another.S. it operates underground. In countries where the Communist Party has been declared illegal. or pressure for increased production. These drives may take various forms. It is the government that determines the number of people to be trained for specific jobs or professions. Communism is an economic system. the government sets production quotas. addressed the 22nd Congress of the Soviet Communist Party in October. The management metes out penalties for tardiness and absenteeism. tailors. A worker may quit if he gives two weeks' notice. books. such as anti-U. the Soviet wage earner is still largely a pawn of the state. For all industries and for agriculture. The Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party has a special section called AGITPROP (Agitation and Propaganda). Communism is a world-wide conspiracy. including the United States.S. He pays a stiff price. Despite some relaxation of controls since Stalin's death. for example. where most of the peasants own the land they work. posters. Communism is a system of control over the individual. In Yugoslavia. In the Soviet Union. Communist governments make special efforts to mold people's thinking. music. then the Soviet premier. for quitting. farmers are no longer forced to give up their land and join government-run collective farms. radio. and approves promotions. to be sure.
Harry (ed. They sent delegates to international Communist Party meetings or congresses. Communism in Theory and Practice.R. Harvard Univ.R... then. The Nature of Communism. Robert V. The Soviet System of Government (3rd ed. Berkley. Dutton. At the October. George W.). of Chicago.? To what extent do the people of the Soviet Union have a voice in the government? How do trade unions in the Free World differ from those in the Soviet Union? By what means do the Communists attempt to control men's minds? Books to Read Paperback Books Borkenau.Until recently. 2. 1963. What is the goal of communism? 4. 1964. World Communism. pp. What are the three broad groups of governments in today's world? What is the role of the individual in each? 2. When the political climate is favorable. . Such. What are the obligations of a Communist Party member? 5. Djilas. F. differ from those in the U. of Michigan. Praeger. 1961. 1. Why is communism said to be "all-embracing"? 3. 1962. Hazard. ed. these agents may incite an armed uprising. there were delegates from Communist parties in 83 countries. Ch 2. provoking disturbances and riots. Schwartz. ed. The Soviet Union (rev.STUDY AIDS Words and Names to Understand authoritarian totalitarian Presidium Central Committee Secretariat Council of Ministers Supreme Soviet Party line collective farms Checkup Questions 1. 1962. Fainsod. is the nature of communism — a system that suppresses and intimidates the individual. all of these parties received instructions from Moscow as to their programs of action. Scholastic Book Services. Today some Communist parties (in North Vietnam. rev. Describe some of the restrictions on workers in the U. held every two years.S. How do elections in the U. What is the function of AGITPROP? 7. 1961 Party Congress in Moscow. Random House. 4. 6. Merle. Holt.). Why is Party membership so closely regulated? Questions to Think About 1. 1964. The New Class. Ebenstein. The Many Faces of Communism.. Ch.S. A Primer on Communism. or working quietly to influence elections. whose tasks may include recruiting local supporters.). instills in people a fear of saying or doing anything that might displease Party leaders. What are the duties of Soviet agents in foreign countries? 8.. 1957. 37-102. Univ. The work of the various Communist parties is supplemented by the activities of Soviet or Communist Chinese agents. William.). and Albania) owe their allegiance to the Communist leaders of China. keeps its leaders in power by means of dictatorship. and is committed to spreading itself throughout the world.S. How Russia Is Ruled (rev.S. John N. 1962. Milovan. CHAPTER 1 . Univ.S. 3. 1965. getting control of political organizations.. North Korea. Cronyn. leading to the overthrow of a local government and its replacement by a Communist regime. Other Books Daniels.
machinery — and those who worked with their hands. Marx heard of communism. and the means of public transportation. History according to Marx As Marx described history. a new and fateful word. the more discontented he became. Marx maintained that the workers do not receive the full return for their work because the capitalists keep the profit. meaning "belonging to all. stores. under which powerful men owned both the land and the people who worked it. in 1917." or take economic and political advantage of." The Manifesto called on workingmen everywhere to rise up in revolt against the owners and managers of factories. He predicted that this struggle would in time lead to a revolu- . a ruled majority. This led to slavery. He was an avid reader of philosophy and economics. Then some stronger individuals got control of the land and forced the weaker ones to work for them. Accordingly. At the age of 24 Marx went to Paris. Feudalism. Georg Hegel (1770-1831). and each man kept the fruits of his labors." Marx used the new word in the title and opening sentence of his first important writing. The slavery of the ancient Roman society gave way to the feudalism of the Middle Ages. a "class struggle" would develop between the "bourgeoisie" (the capitalists) and the "proletariat" (the wage earners). Engels and Marx were active in groups that believed in socialism — the idea that factories and other means of production should be owned and controlled by the government in the name of all the people. and studied at German universities." In the Manifesto and in his other writings.Karl Marx and the Start of Communism The intellectual spark that ignited the Communist Revolution in Russia. in the German Rhineland. the Communist Manifesto. was furnished by Karl Marx (1818-1883). He declared that it was the custom for a ruling minority in a country to "exploit. where he met Fried-rich Engels. derived from the Latin word communis. man had originally lived in a state of "primitive communism. in turn. Under capitalism Marx saw an inevitable struggle between those who owned capital — land. which he and Engels published in 1848. "You have nothing to lose but your chains. son of a wealthy factory owner. Marx represented the history of mankind as a series of changes from one form of "exploitation" to another. In Paris. factories. was replaced by capitalism. Marx was born in Trier. with local rulers controlling the lives of the peasants who worked for them and maintaining private armies to protect their property rights. and the more he observed the world around him." The land belonged to everyone. "Workers of the world. mines. His thinking along these lines was influenced by the ideas of the German philosopher. The Manifesto begins on this note: "A specter is haunting Europe today — the specter of communism. unite!" the Manifesto cried.
• The heart of Marx's doctrine — that poverty would become more widespread as wealth was concentrated in the hands of fewer and fewer people — has been completely refuted by the course of events in the United States and most of Western Europe.Karl Marx. (Millions of persons immigrated to America from Europe precisely for that reason. believed that all human development is shaped by material forces. whose theories form the basis of communism. because class distinctions were less rigid in the New World and opportunities for the individual to improve his economic and social status were not so limited. until finally they would revolt and substitute public for private ownership. Marx described the way this revolution was to be brought about in his most famous work. was not quite so bad as Marx painted it. Actually. Marx's writings had a lesser effect in the United States. as in China. where many of the hard-pressed factory workers or mill hands believed that Marxism supplied all the answers. that by the very nature of industrial progress the workers would be brought closer together. and that the poor would become poorer and more numerous. • Most historians agree that the capitalist system. He contended that capitalism carried the seeds of its own destruction. According to Marxist doctrine. as it existed in the 19th century. He declared that the rich would become richer and fewer. • Marx failed to make sufficient allowance for the idealistic impulses that move men. Communist revolutions have occurred only in countries where capitalism was in an early phase. as in Russia. and (4) the income tax. (3) minimum wage and hour laws. there is no God.) There were many fallacies in Marxism (Marx's theory). Das Kapital. tion in which the proletariat would triumph and overthrow the capitalist system. or in countries where capitalism had not even started to develop. Important causes for this are: (1) efficient production under the capitalist system. He did not take into consideration the vital force generated by man's religious feelings or the power of nationalism — his love of country. It was particularly felt in Europe. Marx's influence in the European Socialist movement continued to grow after his death in London. and these were proved by the course of events: • Marx was certain that the workers' revolution would come only after capitalism had reached its highest stage of development. (2) agreements between labor and management. it was later to undergo great changes because of three factors that Marx failed to take sufficiently into account: (1) the . in 1883. Moreover. where the living standard of the wage earner has steadily risen and extremes of high and low income have tended to level off. neither is there a soul.
as some historians claim. Even before World War I. and was prevented from taking an active part in politics because of the vast power of the central government under the tsarist autocracy. and (3) the increased power and influence of trade unions. Russia seemed — by Marx's own standards — to be a country poorly suited for a Communist revolution. which was illegally distributed in Russia. His interpretation of Marxism. Lenin was a dogmatic Marxist. and working conditions were bad. Even though Tsar Alexander II had abolished serfdom in 1861. where he lived for three years. The mass of the people had little to lose. At various times he lived in France. subsisting on the small sums his illegal Russian Social Democratic Party could spare for its representatives abroad. Lenin studied law at the same university. Also. or. about one fourth of the land — often the best land — was still concentrated in large private estates. living off his meager earnings from writings and translations. Wages were low. Petersburg. in Lenin's honor). He is better known by his assumed name of Lenin. In addition. The Russian middle class was small and weak. such as a revolution. But not so in Russia. (Most Russian revolutionaries used false names to throw the police off their trail. Lenin laid great stress on one phrase of Marx: "the dictatorship of the proletariat. The peasant in Western Europe. While still a young man. His older brother Alexander. and there was always the hope that their lot might be improved by a change in the system. The Russian Background At first glance." But he thought of it not in terms of dictatorship by . was one that Marx himself might not have approved. But there were factors that made Russia more vulnerable to revolution than other European countries.advance of scientific invention and technology. Germany. a student at the University of St. Next. was the only hope. the standard of living was much lower in Russia than in Western Europe. realizing that the facts of everyday life did not correspond with Marx's theories. most of these landowners were sharply distinguished from the peasants by habits. There the peasant class seethed with discontent. From the beginning. Lenin was arrested by the Okhrana (the tsarist secret police) and sent to Siberia. many members of the Russian educated class saw clearly the social injustice of the tsarist system. They felt that a sweeping change. some Socialists in Western Europe. instead. Later he went to Germany to publish a newspaper. the Industrial Revolution had only scratched the surface of Russia's vast natural resources. He had held his land for several generations. and some of the other countries of Western Europe. Iskra (The Spark). and standard of living. the huge Russian Empire included many non-Russian nationalities — Poles. The Rise of Lenin The man who did more than any other to translate the theory of Marx into the reality of the Russian Revolution was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (1870-1924). Switzerland. Although industry and mining were developing rapidly elsewhere at the end of the 19th century. and Britain. To begin with. but never practiced it. however. as Marx did. (2) the enactment of welfare and social legislation. Nikolai Lenin. was hanged for taking part in a plot against the life of Tsar Alexander III. and others — speaking a variety of languages and feeling more or less hostile to the tsarist state. was apt to be conservative in his point of view. and he looked with disfavor on riotous mobs and demonstrations in the big towns. education. Lithuanians. The industrial working class was very much smaller in proportion to the population than it was in Great Britain. Finns. he soon became a professional revolutionary. like the American farmer.) Lenin was the son of a district school inspector in the Volga River town of Simbirsk (later renamed Ulyanovsk. placed their hopes in evolution toward public ownership of the means of production rather than in revolution.
highly disciplined party of professional revolutionaries as the driving force of revolutionary action. it would be hard to say which group had more followers. The Russian Social Democratic Party at that time split into Bolshevik and Menshevik wings. The Mensheviks favored a moderate form of socialism.the proletariat. guarantees of personal and civil liberties. voiced a strikingly prophetic criticism of the application of Lenin's theories: The Party organization would . which excluded political and civil rights and liberties for other classes. Georgi Plekhanov. and a highly organized. attained gradually and through democratic means. universal suffrage. On other occasions he was in a minority. Lenin won the support of the majority. tightly disciplined political party — one can see the germ of the totalitarian government that has since developed in the Soviet Union. . for adoption at the Second Party Congress. all classes would be abolished and everyone would give according to his abilities and receive according to his needs. Actually. 1903. but rather as the dictatorship (of a minority party) over the proletariat and all other classes. As Lenin saw it. Most Marxian Socialists charge that Soviet communism has betrayed true Marxism. stitute itself for the organization. Lenin also emphasized the importance of building a secret. held in Brussels and London in July and August. The two terms come from the Russian words for "majority" (bolshinstvo) and "minority" (menshinstvo) and originated when." in 1905. At that point. and finally a single dictator would substitute himself for the Central Committee. when soldiers fired on a peaceful march of petitioners to the Tsar. Leon Trotsky (1879-1940). In these two ideas — the dictatorship of the proletariat. once the capitalist system was overthrown. this dictatorship would be set up and would continue until the final stage of Utopian communism was reached. Lenin increased the repressive power of the state. They contend that while Marx placed great stress on the development of the individual. at the Second Congress. one of the most famous of the Russian Marxist revolutionaries. Lenin's early concept of the developing revolution embraced many ideas that non-Socialist liberals would have supported. . and social legislation. Years before he was associated with Lenin in the Soviet government. These items were included in the original program of the Russian Social Democratic Party. such as: a freely elected constituent assembly. prepared by Lenin and an older Marxist. . or wage earners. substitute itself for the Party as a whole. said Lenin. then the Central Committee would sub- Hundreds were killed on "Bloody Sunday.
An armed uprising in December. The upper classes were aroused as news spread of court intrigues — particularly the influence of the self-styled "monk. The uprising in 1905 proved to be. in October. mutinies in the army and navy. Cossack troops opened fire and killed more than 500 of the unarmed petitioners. But the respite for the tsarist government was short. Father Capon. led by the Bolsheviks in Moscow. a large number of workers led by an Orthodox priest. a nationwide general strike. Petersburg Soviet (Russian word for "council"). the heir apparent. the police arrested the leaders of the St. and for a while the movement was checked. Rasputin's power over the government became so great that many in court circles were envious of him and thought him an evil designer. and. At first many liberals and some Socialists approved the war because Russia was allied with democratic Britain and France. He gained her favor by using his so-called healing powers on Alexis." Gregory Rasputin. a spirit of increasing unrest swept the Russian Empire. just a dress rehearsal for the Revolution of 1917. Gradually the government re-established order throughout the country. on August 1. as Lenin once said. but popular enthusiasm waned as casualty lists lengthened and German armies drove into Russian territory. The establishment of the constitution had the effect of driving a wedge between the liberals on one side and the revolutionaries on the other. seizure of landlord property. the government ordered the mobilization that preceded World War I. the center of revolutionary activity in the capital. The lawmaking body became the instrument of the aristocracy and property-owning classes. peasant riots. on the highstrung Tsarina Alexandra. 1905. When. About that time. the Duma. failed. The tsarist regime. after being in a state of deadlock with the first two Dumas. on January 22. There were whispers about a .The March of Revolution In the winter of 1904-1905. The election laws were revised in such a way that the third and fourth Dumas were quite manageable by the regime. 1916. This induced the Tsar to grant a constitution providing for a national parliament. approached the St. The revolutionary forces had become disorganized. three noblemen murdered him. felt strong enough to arrest some Socialist deputies. 1914. who suffered from hemophilia. An unpopular war with Japan sparked discontent. Petersburg Winter Palace with a petition addressed to Tsar Nicholas II. The aftermath of this "Bloody Sunday" was a rash of popular demonstrations. Russian tsarism may well have signed its own death warrant when. In December.
which had been brought to life again to coordinate the strike movement as in 1905. Since 1940 he has lived in the U. coup d'etat to save Russia from the weak Tsar and the strong-willed Tsarina. the Tsar was outside the city with the army. unorganized. At the time. as minister of justice. Leon Trotsky in the United States. when bread riots started in working-class districts of the capital. head of the provisional government. Of all the great revolutions in history.S. Alexander Kerensky. The majority of their deputies belonged to the more moderate groups — the Social Revolutionary and Menshevik parties. the fall of the 300-year-old Romanov dynasty was one of the most spontaneous. with a moderate Social Revolutionary lawyer. The provisional (temporary) government which followed was at first composed mainly of liberals. but with little success. After some hesitation. and eventually took shape elsewhere in the country and in the army. The Duma tried to assume leadership. The disturbances of early 1917 brought on the abdication of the Tsar in March. helping Russian emigrants and writing books about communism and the 1917 revolutions. As the tide of revolution rose. These Soviets were not at first under Bolshevik control. The disturbance occurred early in March. and Kerensky . It took what seemed to be a small disturbance to reveal how feeble the autocracy had actually grown. renamed Petrograd in 1914 (and now Leningrad). The leading revolutionaries were in prison or in exile — Lenin in Switzerland. reviews troops during the summer of 1917. Real power soon passed into the hands of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies. the liberals were unable to lead it. Similar Soviets sprang up in Moscow and other major cities. 1917. so Petrograd officials decided to use troops to suppress the demonstrations. and leaderless. but nothing happened. the troops refused to fire on the crowds. What had started as a local riot was now a revolution.Alexander Kerensky (right)..
the Bolsheviks took over. The Bolsheviks in Command The attempt of General Kornilov. Russia was defeated and exhausted by World War I (1914-1917). commander in chief of the armed forces. by armored railway car from Switzerland across Germany. Finns. The fall of the Tsar left a vacuum that the well-meaning but weak provisional government could not fill.In July. the Bolsheviks made a premature bid for power. and announced a program of "no confidence" in the provisional government. Lenin returned to Russia to lead the Bolshevik forces. The Germans were then at war with Russia. Above all. Lenin-inspired riots in Petrograd killed 400 people. In a dramatic move. was arranged by the German government. Latvians. Estonians. carried on with an administration made up partly of Social Revolutionaries and Mensheviks. Georgians) demanded self-rule. • The peasants began to divide up the lands of the big estates. and they knew that Lenin would act to end the war. to bring off a conservative coup d'etat to gain control. • The non-Russian peoples in the population (Poles. Petersburg on April 16. opposition to the "imperialist" war. Widespread social revolt took more extreme forms as the temper of the revolution mounted: • The armed forces refused to fight and began to disintegrate as the peasant soldiers returned to their villages. Actually. 1917. 1917. Ukrainians. Lenin arrived in St. • The industrial workers became more unruly and extreme in their demands on the factory owners. and allout social revolution. His trip. Lenin took advantage of the freedoms permitted under the Kerensky government in order to destroy the government. failed in September and speeded up the swing . Lithuanians. In the resulting chaos and demoralization.
For the first time in history a government made up of Marxist revolutionaries was in control of a huge country. Except for one shell fired from the cruiser Aurora. 6. toward the Bolsheviks.S. On November 6-7 the Communist Revolution. took over Petrograd with little bloodshed. the Bolshevik regime nationalized natural resources and land. much of which was to be turned over to the peasants for cultivation without hired labor. 5.Bolshevik troops storm the Winter Palace in Petrograd. and government seizure of the banks.) The new regime. than in Europe? What factors made Russia vulnerable to a revolution? What is meant by the phrase. the fall of Kerensky's government was accomplished with small arms. CHAPTER 2-STUDY AIDS Words and Names to Understand socialism "primitive communism" feudalism capitalism Bolshevik Menshevik Duma Romanov dynasty Checkup Questions bourgeoisie proletariat Marxism autocracy 1. 3. On what basis did Marx conclude that capitalism would give way to communism? What factors did he fail to take into account? . How did Karl Marx characterize the history of mankind? Why were Marx's writings less influential in the U. it proclaimed control of industry by the workers. Kerensky fled to the war front to rally troops to his support. urged by Lenin since July and carefully planned by the Bolshevik Party. with Lenin as Chairman of the Council of Commissars and Trotsky as Commissar for Foreign Affairs. but failed and left Russia. appealed to all participants in World War I for immediate peace negotiations and opened direct discussions with Germany for an armistice. "dictatorship of the proletariat"? What did Lenin envision as the final stage of communism? What took place on "Bloody Sunday"? What were the repercussions? What actions did Lenin take after he assumed power in November. (He has been living in the United States since 1940. 1917? Questions to Think About 1. Within Russia. 2. 7. 4.
Possony. 1960. Henry B. Stefan T. Harper. 13. Seton. From Lenin to Khrushchev. What was the first program of the Russian Social Democratic Party? Books to Read Paperback Books Decter. . Whitney. Moshe (ed. The Russian Revolution. Simon and Schuster. 1964.2. Louis. 1964. 1960.).).Watson. 2.. Lenin: The Compulsive Revolutionary. The Life and Death of Lenin. Ch. 1962. An Introduction to Marxist Theory. pp. Hugh. Mayo. 1958." Life. 1964. Alan. The Profile of Communism. Dutton. 1961. 20. Robert. 19-30. Thomas (ed. 1952. Origins of Bolshevism Harper. 1964. What did Trotsky feel would be the probable effect of Lenin's theories? 3. 1958... Other Books Dan. . Communist Blueprint for the Future. Oxford Univ. Payne. and Feb. 27. Jan. Moorehead. Articles "Russian Revolution. Theodore. Collier. Decline of Imperial Russia: 1855-1914. Harper. Kischer. Praeger. 3. Praeger. Regnery. The Life of Lenin.
His first step in establishing the dictatorship of the proletariat was to issue a decree expropriating — that is. and the United States and Japan. Murmansk. Great Britain and the United States sent troops to North Russia. and Vladivostok. and the Ukraine. then a senior commissar in the Red Army. Then. Lenin's program for nationalization of private enterprises met with great resistance. None of these powers — with the possible exception of Japan — had any territorial aspirations in Russia. head of the Red Army and War Commissar. The main centers of resistance were in Siberia and South . The result was civil war between the Red (Communist) Russians and the White (antiCommunist) Russians. now Volgograd) in the civil war. to South Russia. Directing operations is Stalin. Russia it appealed only to the poorer groups of the population. frequently interrupted negotiations were concluded. which was held at BrestLitovsk in Poland. and divided by class loyalties. things were going badly. he set about to end the war with Germany. the Baltic states. to eastern Siberia. and a nation torn by war and revolution. Some foreign aid was sent to the Whites. 1918. The intervention probably would not have occurred at all had it not been for the fear that the Germans might seize large stocks of Allied munitions and supplies that were stored in the Russian ports of Archangel. France. The Soviets held North Central Russia throughout the civil war. meanwhile. The Civil War On the domestic scene. To Germany the Soviet government ceded Poland. It never could have been enforced in a country with a high standard of living. On March 3. with Leon Trotsky. Lenin and Trotsky asked the Germans for a peace conference. taking over — the landed estates. This military intervention was on a small scale and involved little direct fighting with the Soviet army. the long. Even in A Soviet An artist's conception of the fall of Tsaritsyn (later Stalingrad.From Lenin to Stalin When Lenin seized power he faced a demoralized army.
A treaty signed at Riga on March 18.1919. armed resistance to the Soviet rule had been reduced to scattered peasant guerrilla operations. as did the leader of the White cause in Siberia. which marched to the very gates of Warsaw but were routed by a Polish counter-offensive and driven from the country. Denikin's lines were so thin and widely extended that the southern front quickly collapsed against Soviet military forces. May Day was selected by the Second International (see page 144) in 1889 as an international Labor Day. However. One of Denikin's generals. 1921. May Day is an official holiday marked by parades and speeches. But that same year the Soviets faced a new war: Poland invaded Russia and. Kolchak was finally captured and shot. 1920.Lenin speaks to Red Square crowds on May 1. Russia. The city was soon retaken by the Soviet armies. By the end of 1920. swept across the Ukraine in the summer of 1919 to Orel. . In the Soviet Union. the strongest of the White armies. a town less than 200 miles from Moscow. under General Anton Denikin. Admiral Alexander Kolchak. held out in the Crimea until November. ended the war. In the south. captured Kiev. Peter Wrangel. on May 6.
headed by Herbert Hoover. Money rolled off the government printing presses and became worthless. and a surprising number of "Nepmen" — private merchants and traders . although the death toll would have been much higher had it not been for the substantial amounts of food supplied by the American Relief Administration. Soviet troops finally put down the revolt on March 18. and a reform of the harsh laws controlling the peasants. Changes under the NEP In spite of these stringent controls. But the drastic Communist economic experiments had caused engineers and factory managers to leave the cities. Soviet Russia lived under a system of so-called war communism. Food and other goods were rationed. the Soviet economy did not revive after the civil war. The insurgents called for freely elected Soviets.War Communism During this period (1917-1921). the Kronstadt Naval Base. The sailors demanded abolition of special privileges for Communists. The uprising hastened Lenin's introduction of the New Economic Policy (NEP). Growing unrest exploded in a series of peasant uprisings and a revolt of sailors and workers at a former Communist stronghold. The state halted interest payments on bonds and stocks. Private apartments were subdivided on the basis of one family to a room. near Petrograd. in exchange for manufactured goods. Rich country homes were sacked and burned. No longer would he have to surrender all his produce. Freedom of trade inside the country was restored. and production dropped. The concession to the peasants led to other concessions. or converted to public use. freedom of speech and press — but only for Socialists and other radical groups. Cold and hunger were universal. The state took over production and distribution. Though hostilities had ceased. 1921. and working-class families were moved into the homes of the well-to-do. The result was starvation for the cities. Soviet troops were used as labor battalions in such tasks as felling trees. on March 1. Millions of persons perished in 1921 and 1922. The Kronstadt uprising was in no sense an attempt to restore capitalism. building roads. The system of making the peasant meet exorbitant and often unexpected production demands was replaced by setting a definite amount of grain which the peasant would have to give to the government. The peasants were ordered to turn in surplus grain and other foodstuffs. This gave the peasant more freedom in the use of the land and — what had been lacking during the years of war communism — an incentive to produce. Even so. they cut down on farm production. famine struck. When the peasants discovered that few consumer goods were to be had. All private land was seized. and war communism was abandoned. loading and unloading freight cars. People fled to the villages in search of food.
in which he warned of danger to Party unity from a clash between two of his colleagues: Trotsky and Stalin. and of all exports and imports. 62 per cent belonged to the Social Revolutionaries and to moderate Socialist parties. after his disability — a triumvirate of Stalin. Home building and the setting up of small factories were permitted. and about 13 per cent to parties with more conservative programs. The Soviet population never had a chance to decide in a free election whether it wanted the Communist system. Lenin urged that Stalin be removed from that post. Stalin turned against Zinoviev and Kamenev. The Assembly was promptly dissolved by the Bolshevik armed forces when it showed an anti-Bolshevik majority. — sprang up. In 1925. in the post of General Secretary of the Party. who had been ailing for several years. Immediately after Lenin's death — indeed. He characterized Stalin as a "rough and disloyal" man who. some people wrongly assumed that Soviet Russia was returning to capitalism. Grigory Zinoviev. had concentrated great power in his hands. Only one free election was ever held in the Soviet Union. headed by Premier . But even in these years of comparative economic freedom. he died on January 21. 1924. and Lev Kamenev took over Party leadership. began to show signs of physical exhaustion in 1922. The state retained full control of the big industries. After a series of paralytic strokes.Lenin and Trotsky watch a demonstration during the winter of 1920. Lenin composed a political testament. Lenin until his death spoke highly of Trotsky. second only to Lenin — and to force his dismissal from the post of War Commissar. and that was for a Constituent Assembly. A new currency was issued. communism had been forced on the people. 1918. They proved powerful enough to challenge Leon Trotsky — the most influential figure in the Revolution. on the pretext that their policy toward the peasants was "too harsh. which met on January 18.) Lenin's Successor Lenin. (Only about 25 per cent of the delegates were Bolsheviks. From the first. Although they often differed regarding the application of communism. Before his final breakdown. Stalin formed an alliance with the "right" or moderate wing in the Communist Party. When foreign capitalists were invited to invest in Soviet enterprises. the dictatorship of the Communist Party remained intact." To oust Zinoviev and Kamenev from office.
S. has this to say of Stalin: This was a man of incredible criminality. Norway. Bukharin. but by the government's decision to "teach the peasants a lesson" when they slacked off in raising crops. This. he thought only in terms of his program. France. of a criminality effectively without limits. When Stalin assumed power in 1928. in a so-called "left" opposition. often with technical advice from U. Industrialism and Collective Farming Under Stalin's dictatorship. Zinoviev and Kamenev. Forced collectivization of farms and stepped-up industrialization drastically lowered the already marginal standard of living. in turn. He sent millions of people to their deaths and into slave-labor camps in Siberia. and until his death in 1953 he was the absolute ruler of the Soviet Union and of the world-wide Communist movement. factories." In 1927. with the state dictating what crops they would raise and the prices they would be paid. Here they worked under strict control. Kennan. His policy of forcibly driving the peasants into collective farms took a toll of millions of lives in famine and desperate resistance. and children were herded into freight cars and sent to forced labor in lumber camps. and Mikhail Tomsky. Under his orders more than a million people were deported to forced labor camps from eastern Poland and the Baltic states. and eliminated their influence in the Party. Personal flattery was unwelcome to him. In southern and southeastern Russia millions of others died of starvation in 1932-1933 — a famine caused not by extreme drought. head of the Soviet trade unions. and German engineers.S. and Mexico. where he was murdered in 1940 by a secret agent of Stalin. Trotsky joined his old opponents. Even in the critical civil war days he permitted free debate within the ranks of the Communist Party. tremendous changes occurred in the practice and meaning of communism. In 1928 Stalin broke his alliance with Rykov. This was a time of severe belt-tightening for the Soviet people. Surplus grain in the past had come largely from the landed estates. he found that the peasants were not bringing enough grain to market to permit large-scale exports. Lenin. ruthless in achieving his ends. and Tomsky. deprived the government of money for needed imports. "A Man Without Pity or Mercy" The passing of power from Lenin to Stalin had marked a moral degeneration of communism. and thereafter led a life of exile in Turkey. and the development of the country's heavy industries under a series of Five-Year plans. By 1929 he had consolidated his power.Aleksei Rykov. women. from 1928 to 1953. Soviet economic policy was directed toward two goals: the replacement of individual by collective farming. diplomat and eminent scholar in Soviet history. but by force of personality. now swept away by the Revolution. This was crushed by Stalin with the aid of his new allies from the "right wing. The kulaks (well-to-do peasants) were outlawed. near the Chinese border. had a selfless devotion to his ideals. U. He had killed every one of his six associates in the Politburo. George F. and mines. Stalin broke the peasants' resistance by forcing them to pool their small landholdings into big collective farms. 43 During the same period new factories were erected. Pravda editor Nikolai Bukharin. Stalin. He dominated the Communist Party not by terror. Trotsky was exiled to Alma Ata. their land and property taken away. thought mainly in terms of building up his absolute personal power. Millions of men. a man apparently . The government struck ruthlessly. In 1929 he was expelled from the Soviet Union. on the other hand.
S. Mosely. Praeger. It has been stated that communism was imposed on the people of Russia. Lippincott. What basis is there for describing Stalin's rise to power as "ruthless"? 3. What concessions were made to peasants and merchants under Lenin's NEP? 4. Theodore H.. 1955. 1963. Dutton. Communist Blueprint for the Future. a man whose hand was set against all that could not be useful to him at the moment. (ed. David. Other Books Footman. Praeger." Why was it put into effect? 3. Thomas (ed. Soviet Union. Why Lenin? Why Stalin? A Reappraisal of the Russian Revolution. Seton-Watson. Hugh. From Lenin to Khrushchev. Dell. Whitney. 74-99. Von Laue. 1922-1962: A Foreign Affairs Reader. CHAPTER 3-STUDY AIDS Words and Names to Understand Politburo Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Riga treaty war communism Kronstadt uprising New Economic Policy (NEP) Constituent Assembly Five-Year Plans kulaks Checkup Questions 1. 1948. Three Who Made a Revolution. 1964. without pity or mercy. Civil War in Russia. Bertram. How was this possible? 4. Shub. Lenin. . 1962. Mentor. Why did policies under the NEP cause foreigners to feel that Russia might be returning to capitalism? Books to Read Paperback Books Kennan. a man in whose entourage no one was ever safe.). Philip E. Describe "war communism. 1960. a man who was most dangerous of all to those who were his closest collaborators in crime. George. Why did the U. Ch. 1962. (Mentor) New American Library. What were Stalin's economic goals? How did he try to attain them? Questions to Think About 1. and other countries intervene in the civil war between the Whites and Reds? How did this war end? 2. 1900-1930.foreign to the very experience of love. Russia and the West Under Lenin and Stalin. Why would it be difficult to bring about Lenin's program of government seizure of private property in a country with a high standard of living? 2. David. Wolfe. Praeger.). pp. 1962. 4.
no one was likely to join the movement for se reasons. torture. embezzlement. It is possible that the act was committed by Nikolaev either because of some personal quarrel with his victim or because of his disillusionment with the Soviet system. when a young Communist named L. as based on fraudulent evidence — are an awesome memorial to Stalin's all-powerful rule. The purges — finally exposed by Khrushchev. banishment to forced labor.1934. Many were now attracted to the Communist camp because of the privileges that came with membership in the ruling class. grueling cross-examination. in a speech at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party in 1956.000 members. Expansion Abroad Two important developments occurred in the Soviet. . the assassination was used as an excuse for killing hundreds of alleged White Russians who languished in prison. A few years later 170. when the former hunted revolutionaries became the new rulers. and the holding of any religious faith. During the 1930's the terror of the secret police system — midnight arrest.000 more were dropped. The second was made possible by the signing of the Nazi-Soviet pact in 1939. and for unloosing a reign of terror against suspected sympathizers with the banished Trotsky and his allies. execution without trial — descended with its full weight on the Communist Party itself. 46 Conditions changed in November. 1917. Then again.Purges at Home. Lenin and other leaders had been concerned about maintaining the Party's revolutionary idealism. Unum in the 1930's: the ruthless purges with which Stain decimated the ranks of the Communist Party. during which all members were strictly examined as to their ideas. As long as Communists were a small. and the subsequent outbreak of We War II. the murder may have been "arranged" by Stalin himself. Causes for expulsion included political disloyalty. harried by the police. drunkenness. head of the Leningrad organization of the Party. Whatever the facts. Nikolaev shot and mortally wounded Sergei Kirov. their social origin (workers were preferred as Party members). persecuted band. A purge ordered by the Eighth Party Congress in 1919 resulted in the expulsion of 100. and their behavior. One of the devices Lenin used to keep the Party pure was the chistka (purge). Stalin's Purges Under Stalin the chistka took a more sinister turn. The purges were touched off on December 1.) Not since the time of Ivan the Terrible (1530-1584) had so many high state functionaries been destroyed. Early Purges From the time the Communists seized power in Russia. Those who were found unworthy by the investigators were dropped from the rolls. (Hitherto such methods had been mainly reserved for persons suspected of anti-Soviet attitudes and activities. and the expansion of Soviet communism beyond the boundaries of the The first is one of the darkest and most mysterious pages in history. as Khrushchev intimated in a speech before the 22nd Communist Party Congress in 1961.
Nevertheless. Most of their judges soon followed them. For example. The Red Army was purged. Henrich Yagoda. led to the execution of former Premier Aleksei Rykov and of leading Communist theoretician Nikolai Bukharin. made an exhaustive examination of the alleged evidence of Trotsky's participation in the anti-Soviet plots. When the Allies captured Berlin in 1945 they were unable to find any documents concerning . in the lounge of the Hotel Bristol in Copenhagen — but there was no Hotel Bristol in Copenhagen at the time of the alleged meeting. staged in March. 1937. Thousands were expelled. A commission of inquiry. There were stories of secret meetings abroad. The most bizarre feature of this trial was the statement of a former head of the Soviet political police. resulted in 13 more death sentences. too. Voices of doubt were raised. Zinoviev. The second big trial. and some apparently false evidence. headed by the American educator and philosopher John Dewey. Marshal Tukhachevsky and seven high-ranking generals were arrested. or executed. Maxim Gorky. promising them parts of Soviet territory in return for their help in overthrowing Stalin. however. The last big show trial. one of the defendants told of meeting Trotsky's son. Communist sympathizers in the United States and other countries followed the "Party line" and hailed the gruesome spectacles as a triumph of justice. 1938. tried secretly by a military tribunal. Sedov." The charges of Nazi intrigues with the victims of the trials could never be substantiated. Khrushchev Denounces the Purges No word of doubt or criticism of these trials was permitted to be published in the Soviet Union. There was a notable lack of convincing evidence. imprisoned. Party members stand trial during Stalin's purges of the 1930's. among others. A leading Bolshevik. all sixteen of the accused "confessed" their guilt and were executed. The Dewey commission's verdict: "Not guilty.In August. in February. and 14 other prominent Bolsheviks were put on trial for plotting the murder of Kirov and trying to kill Stalin. Most of the victims were Communists who were charged with being supporters of Leon Trotsky. and executed by a firing squad. and several prominent Soviet officials. Kamenev. that he had poisoned the noted Russian author. Pyatakov. In 1937. "confessed" that he had met Trotsky in Norway and that Trotsky told him of making an agreement with the leaders of Nazi Germany. 1936. because of discrepancies in the evidence.
The Soviet Union annexed Finland's Isthmus of Karelia. This pact is better described as a treaty to divide Eastern Europe between the Nazi and the Communist dictatorships. when German armies invaded the Soviet Union on a long front extending from Finland to the Black Sea.S. invaded their land. the Soviet government demanded a big slice of territory from Finland. Poland was to be divided along the line of the rivers Narew. The Finns refused. 1941. The real answer came on June 22.S. in June. The Soviet government congratulated Hitler on the capture of Paris and denounced England as "imperialist. and the Soviet attack on Finland in November of the same year. and the territory was finally incorporated in the Soviet Union.S. marked a new turn in Soviet foreign policy. — persisted for nearly two years.German "sphere of influence. Later this deal was modified. Lithuania. made this admission: Here among the delegates there are comrades—I do not wish to mention their names so as not to cause them pain— who for many years were in prison. the League of Nations expelled the Soviet Union from its membership. and German pressure on Turkey to allow Soviet bases on the Straits of the Bosporus. with the important town of Vyborg. . and the U. Hundreds of thousands of Poles were deported to forced labor in Siberia. and San. But Finland at least saved its independence. the Soviet Union occupied the eastern provinces of Poland with almost no fighting. A turning point in Soviet-Nazi relations was the visit by Foreign Commissar Molotov to Berlin in November. to discuss the possibility of Moscow's joining the Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis. 1940. For this act of aggression. Two weeks after Poland's military resistance was broken by the German invasion on September 1. It had already been foreshadowed by the so-called nonaggression pact between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. It contained a secret agreement assigning Latvia and Estonia to the Soviet and Lithuania to the . and established a naval base at Hango. Vistula. the placing of Bulgaria in the Soviet sphere of influence. concluded on August 23 of the same year. 1939. and that country was forced to conclude an unsatisfactory peace with the Soviets in March. 1939. so that Lithuania fell to the Soviet sphere and Germany got an enlarged share of Poland. Molotov never received an answer to these proposals. setting off World War II. Toward the end of 1939. in his summing-up speech at the 22nd •Congress of the Communist Party. 1961.R." It permitted the annexation of Bessarabia. although some individual Communists were so disillusioned by the pact with Hitler that they quit the Party. in September." Communist parties throughout the world parroted the Moscow line. the Finns defended themselves with great courage and skill. At the same time Romania was forced by threat of Soviet military action to give up Bessarabia and northern Bukovina. Molotov demanded a stiff price: the abandonment of Finland to Soviet conquest. They were absorbed by the U. and some of them confessed.R. in October.S. by the Soviet Union. The three small Baltic nations — Latvia.R.S. but none of the Western nations offered to help Finland.these matters in the Nazi archives. The German invasion of Poland. The uneasy alliance between the two totalitarian powers — Nazi Germany and the U. Though greatly outnumbered.S. 1940. and Estonia — were less fortunate. a province of Romania. Any illusion about the genuineness of the trials and the methods by which "confessions" were extracted was dispelled when Khrushchev. They were persuaded— by certain methods—that they were either German or British or some other spies.
perhaps the most important was Yalta. partly through the North Russian ports of Murmansk and Archangel. where Adolf Hitler committed suicide amid the ruins of what he had thought would be his "thousand-year empire. with the Americans and British invading Germany from the west. By April 29 they had fought their way to Berlin. the Baltic States.World War II Finland and Romania. Their overextended lines made them an easy prey to the pincer movements of the Soviet counteroffensive. and much of the Ukraine and central Russia. the United States. and the serious differences between the Soviet Union and the Western powers. From then on the Germans were on the defensive. The second big German advance. But the Germans occupied most of the Ukraine and held Leningrad in a strangling blockade. The German forces. in Germany (July-August. 1945). Britain and the United States concluded an alliance with the Soviet and sent them large quantities of military supplies. But Stalingrad was virtually destroyed. and Churchill agreed that . in the Soviet Union (February. and Potsdam. The shape of the postwar world was determined largely by the course of the war and by Stalin's determination to set up Communist-ruled states wherever his armies advanced. At that meeting. Stalin. By the spring of 1945." The Big Wartime Conferences Up to 1965 there had been no general peace treaty ending World War II. By the summer of 1944. 1945). the Soviet armies were on the shores of the Oder River. and Great Britain met three times. After months of fierce fighting. the Soviet Army had advanced deep into Poland and stood on the Vistula. took part in the war on the side of Germany. where it paused long enough to let the Germans destroy the underground nationalist Polish forces that rose in revolt against the Germans in Warsaw. These conferences were held at Teheran. partly by way of Iran. They took hundreds of thousands of prisoners in encircling operations around Kiev and south of Moscow. as did Italy and Hungary. Of these meetings. This was because of the division of Germany into non-Communist and Communist zones. That winter the Soviets stopped Hitler's forces outside Moscow. the German troops there were encircled and forced to surrender. reached Stalingrad (now Volgograd). Strategically. Yalta. in Iran (December. the war may have been lost by the Germans' failure to capture Moscow in the first drive. The Soviets regained most of the territory held by the Germans earlier in the year. Roosevelt. rapidly overran eastern Poland. 1943). paced by armored units. in the summer of 1942. previous victims of Soviet aggression. During the war years the leaders of the Soviet Union.
he had been fighting a separate war. Poland was to be compensated by German territory to the north and west of its former frontiers.S. the three powers also agreed to cooperate "in assisting the peoples of the former Axis satellite states of Europe to solve by democratic means their pressing political and economic problems. will be discussed in the next chapter. was a Soviet promise to enter the war against Japan "two or three months after Germany has surrendered." In return.) Under the Yalta agreement.R. Indeed. for separate aims of his own. the U." Another feature of the Yalta agreement. The Communist-dominated provisional government of Poland was to be "reorganized on a broader democratic basis" and was to be pledged to "the holding of free and unfettered elections as soon as possible.At Yalta." (The background of these conditions and their violations by the U.S. "broadly representative of all democratic elements in the population and pledged to the earliest possible establishment through free elections of governments responsive to the will of the people. was only gradually to be realized as the hopes for peace and cooperation gave way to Stalin's Cold War. President Roosevelt.S. British Prime Minister Churchill. was to receive South Sakhalin and the Kurile Islands. The full impact of Soviet ambitions." Temporary governments were to be formed. it became ever clearer that Stalin had no trust in any ally. in addition to port and railway facilities in Manchuria and the lease of Port Arthur as a naval base. the Soviet Union should receive the same Polish territory it would have gained as a result of its deal with Hitler. His ambitions for additional conquests were far from satisfied. in 1945. U. It was also apparent that he would not tolerate any democratic institutions in the countries his armies had overrun.S.R. not announced at the time. As the war ground to its close.S. and of the changed balance of power in Europe and Asia. and Stalin agreed on plans for a postwar world — plans which the Soviets later refused to carry out. . and that he believed that the defeat of Germany and Japan would make the Soviet Union the strongest military power in the world.
2. 4. How do the Communist purges illustrate the differences in legal procedure between Communist and free societies? Books to Read Paperback Books Koestler. Praeger. From Lenin to Khrushchev. Ch. 8 and 10. Librach. Praeger. Why was the nonagression pact of 1939 a new departure in Soviet foreign policy? 3. Chs. Byrnes. Rauch. Darkness at Noon (novel). 1960. ed. 7. 12 and 13. 7. 1961. 1949. Pares. Hugh. Why did prominent Bolsheviks "confess" their guilt during the purge trials. John A. 6. Random House. 1962. Seton-Watson. Signet. Other Books Armstrong. 15. George von. Bernard. and 8. What two important developments occurred in the Soviet Union in the 1930's? What. Russia. 5. and 17. Jan. Harper. 1947. Lawrence. The Politics of Totalitarianism: The Communist Party from 1934 to the Present. 1964. Speaking Frankly. despite a lack of evidence against them? 2. Mentor.was the chistka? How was it used in the 1920's? 1930's? How was Eastern Europe to be divided between the Soviet Union and Germany? What was the result of the Russo-Finnish War? What was the turning point in Soviet-Nazi relations in 1940? Why did Finland and Romania join Germany in World War II? Why has there been no peace treaty ending World War II? Questions to Think About 1. Chs. 22. 1961. Chs. 16. A History of Soviet Russia (rev.CHAPTER 4-STUDY AIDS Words and Names to Understand annexation League of Nations Teheran Conference Bosporus Yalta Conference Potsdam Conference balance of power Sakhalin chistka nonaggression pact sphere of influence Baltic States Checkup Questions 1. Mentor. 3. .). The Rise of the Soviet Empire. Praeger. Arthur. John. 1960. Chs. A History of Russia. 6. James..
000 Polish officers. The Cold War has not been entirely bloodless. and when the Polish government-in-exile requested a Red Cross investigation. the Katyn Forest.000 more were arrested.S. nor of more than 10. The Soviet army was keeping most of the German forces busy on the Eastern front. soldiers who died in Korea (see page 67 ). This election. all communication with the prisoners had ceased in April. The promises at Yalta of "reorganization" of this puppet government and of free elections were scrapped. After ousting the Germans.000 other missing Polish prisoners. and other U. policy was based on getting along with the Soviet Union at almost any price.000 other Polish war prisoners. and propagandist one.S. The Soviets accused the Nazis of the crime. to no avail. was set up. But circumstantial evidence of Soviet responsibility is overwhelming. became the center of an international sensation. driving out the Germans. had ever been found.R. the charge was dropped and never came to judgment. the Soviets had never attempted to account for the approximately 10. military clash. waited almost two years before holding a Polish national election in January. A "provisional Polish government.S. There was a special tragedy in Poland's fate.N. economic. It has not led to a direct Soviet-U. who must have been massacred in other places. U." with a hard core of Moscow-trained Communists. Two hundred people were murdered. Second. This was partly due to military necessity. but served rather to advance the political aims of the Communists.The Cold War Under Stalin In the spring of 1943. The War Years During the war years. indicating Soviet fear of a public discussion of the matter. 1939. murdered war prisoners. Third. Poland's subjection to the Communist take-over was the first of a series of events that led to the Cold War. One need only recall the number of U. Also. 1. It had been the first country to take up arms against the Nazis and the first victim of the Nazi-Soviet pact of August 23. 14 months before the Germans invaded Russia. The American people. the Soviet government broke off relations with the Poles. recognized the military value of their government's close cooperation with and assistance to the Soviet government. by and large." was the occasion for so much violence and fraud that it aroused protests from the Western powers. No trace of them. the U. some American military leaders wanted Soviet help in the war against Japan. As events were to prove. The Germans announced the discovery there of the bodies of some 4. the later invasion of Manchuria and North Korea by the Soviets was of no particular help to the United States in defeating Japan. many Americans who admired the Soviet people's heroic stand against the Germans transferred this feeling of . But the struggle has been largely a political. Moreover. and 5. First. although the Germans were officially charged with the murder before the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal.S. the Soviet authorities had never alleged to the Polish government that the disappearance of the officers might be due to the capture of their prison camp by the Germans. 1947. The men had been captured by the Soviet Army during its invasion of Poland in 1939.000 families were evicted from their homes — all for failing to acknowledge the "legality" of the Communist victory. Following the break in relations with the legitimate Polish government. which the Communist candidates "won. Japan's military strength by 1945 was much overrated. 1940. although Polish diplomatic representatives had made persistent inquiries.S. Finally. Soviet troops "liberated" Poland. near the city of Smolensk in western Russia. However.
. which meant they could control the police. wherever Soviet troops were in occupation at the end of the war. and the ministry of education. in which liberals and Socialists would be included along with Communists. After the war. there was a reawakening among Americans to the real nature of communism. The Soviet Union's violation of the agreement made at Yalta to conduct free elections in the nations freed from Germany's control was one of the first causes of the shift from wartime alliance to cold war.admiration to one of sympathy for the Communist system itself. The Soviet government followed a pattern that was repeated in country after country. which allowed them to inject their propaganda into the schools. The Soviet Satellites Within a few years. a bloc of Soviet satellite countries grew up in the part of Europe that had not been occupied by American and British troops. At first there would be a socalled anti-fascist coalition government. The Communists always kept control of two departments: the ministry of the interior. as the Soviet Union crushed the hopes of freedom in one nation after another in Eastern Europe and the Balkans.
) The Partition of Germany Along with the division of Europe into Communist-ruled and non-Communist countries. However. The Soviet Zone . for a time maintained a show of democratic institutions in its coalition government.One of the satellites. Missouri. Germany was informally partitioned. It renounced aid under the Marshall Plan (see page 181) when so instructed by Stalin. the Czechoslovak Communists in the coalition government brought off a bloodless coup in Prague. But this was not enough for Moscow. and always voted with the Soviet Union in the United Nations. According to the Potsdam Agreement of August. and Czechslovakia was drawn behind what became known as the "Iron Curtain." (This term was first introduced by Winston Churchill in a speech at Fulton. In February. Czechoslovakia. occupied Germany was to be treated as a single economic unit and democratic political parties were to be encouraged. it followed Moscow's lead in all matters of foreign policy. each to be administered by one of the four major Allies. in 1947. 1948. Meanwhile the country was divided into four zones of occupation. 1945.
The French were given a smaller zone in southwestern Germany. which was ruled by Communist methods. Berlin. Zone included Bavaria and parts of southern and western Germany.000 lived in the Soviet sector.S. 1961. The Russians had captured Berlin in May. it was necessary for the Western Allies to negotiate with the Russians regarding access to Berlin. Frankfurt. The U. About 2. 1945. Movement within Berlin was fairly free until the Soviets encircled East Berlin with a wall in August. During the fighting. The British took over northwestern Germany.consisted of the eastern part of Germany up to a line along the Elbe River and south to the northern frontier of Bavaria. and Stuttgart. About 1. acting on instructions from General Eisenhower. with the important cities of Munich. American troops had advanced some distance into the future Soviet Zone. Since the city was surrounded on all sides by the agreed-upon Soviet Zone of Occupation. Clay. with the industrial Ruhr and Rhineland area and the big port of Hamburg. the former German capital — which lay within the Soviet Zone — had also been partitioned into four sectors.000 people lived under free institutions in the three Western sectors.200. General Lucius D.500. agreed with the Russians that . in order to stop the tremendous outflow of refugees from East Berlin to West Berlin (see page 78).
and canal access to the city.Americans should enter their sector of Berlin more or less simultaneously with the withdrawal of American forces from the Soviet Zone. canal. road. and that Berlin would then become the capital of a Sovietized East Germany. supplies into the city. and other During the Soviet blockade of Berlin. there is limited civilian access to West Berlin from West Germany via rail. however. 1948. By early 1949 this airlift was bringing in 8. hope of preserving friendship with the Soviet government was still strong. General Clay expresses regret that he did not make free access to Berlin a condition for the withdrawal of the American troops. foodstuffs. At that time. In the spring of 1949 the Soviet Union called off its blockade. an amount equal to that formerly transported by rail and highway. a railway. Stalin used as an excuse for this action the decision of the Western Allies to issue new money in West Germany and West Berlin. Resistance in Berlin The Western position in Berlin was first challenged in June. The Soviets protested bitterly and closed rail.000 tons of supplies a day. In his memoirs. the status of the city was . and highway (see map on page 61). West Berlin was saved without a direct armed showdown by a gigantic airlift which carried fuel. Furthermore. U. and British planes air-lifted millions of tons of supplies to besieged citizens.S. Apparently the Soviets expected that the resulting hardships to the people would force a withdrawal of the Western forces from the city. Despite minor clashes and harassments. a counterblockade against exports of West German steel and coal to the Soviet Zone of Germany was making itself felt in East Germany. in a move to support the falling Deutschmark. In addition to the five military routes. Clay settled for the assignment to Allied use of a main highway. and three air corridors as a "temporary" arrangement.
encouragement.000. Communists were waging a devastating civil war with arms supplied by the adjacent Communist-ruled countries of Bulgaria and Yugoslavia. The Soviet Union built up North Korean military power and withdrew in 1948. through diplomatic exchanges.S. President Truman said: Totalitarian regimes imposed on free peoples. A significant landmark was President Harry S. the Soviets. and Tito closed his border to the Greek guerrillas. The government-controlled Soviet press also demanded the cession to the Soviet Union of the Turkish northeastern provinces of Kars and Ardahan.not seriously challenged for nine years. In the spring of 1946. until the death of Stalin in 1953. The Korean War When the Communists finally seized power in mainland China (see Chapter 10). The principal cause of this breach was Stalin's demand for a degree of direct Soviet control over Yugoslavia's internal affairs. 1947. It enforced an economic boycott and incited attacks by satellite states bordering on Yugoslavia. He officially maintained parliamentary institutions (which were not always fully observed in spirit) and a free economic system.S. with U. Truman's message to Congress on March 12. 1958. by direct or indirect aggression. 64 A contributing factor in the defeat of the Greek Communists was the breach between Marshal Tito's Communist dictatorship in Yugoslavia and the hierarchy in Moscow in 1948. by all methods short of actual war. which became its stronghold. asking for an appropriation of $400. until Soviet Premier Khrushchev. Byrnes and the ranking Republican in the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee.000 for aid to Greece and Turkey. Soon a grave challenge to international peace appeared in the neighboring peninsula of Korea.) American military and economic help was sent to Yugoslavia. which Tito rejected. (There is no common frontier between the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. in November. The United States helped the Greek government put down the rebels by sending military and economic aid and by ordering the U. leaving' a well-equipped army of peas- . launched an on-again. In Turkey.N. For several years. the United States had not been idle. Commenting on the dire consequences faced by the United States in the event of Communist takeovers in these countries. into areas of occupation by the Soviet Union in the north and the United States in the south. and the Soviets backed down short of war. delivered strongly worded speeches on the necessity of opposing further Soviet aggression. the Nationalist government fled to the island of Taiwan (Formosa). along the line of the 38th parallel. to overthrow Tito. This former possession of Japan was arbitrarily divided. The Turks stood firm. which made it easier for Tito to assert his independence. In Greece. the Soviet government attempted. This show of force convinced Stalin that the United States was not bluffing in its determination to prevent a Communist take-over in Greece. had threatened to take over the defense of the Dardanelles (a goal which Molotov had tried to achieve in his talks with the Nazis in 1940). supervision of elections in North Korea and set up an independent republic (the People's Democratic Republic of Korea). The Soviet occupation forces blocked all efforts to reunite the two halves of the country. Secretary of State James F. off-again crisis that was intensified in 1961 (see Chapter 6). Sixth Fleet into the Mediterranean. undermine foundations of international peace and hence the security of the United States. In South Korea the election was held and the veteran Korean Nationalist Syngman Rhee was elected President of the Republic of Korea. While the Soviet Union was tightening its grip on its satellite empire. stamping out the last remains of political independence. Arthur Vandenberg. In 1948 they refused to permit U.
Korea. after a U. 1950. Security Council. While only a handful of American prisoners chose to . Jacob Malik. they left only a lightly armed Korean military force for police actions and border patrol. sent small military units to Korea. In South Korea. Unanimous approval in this body was made possible only by the fact that the Soviet Union had "walked out" of the Security Council in a huff a short time before. led to the encirclement and rout of the North Koreans.American infantrymen "mopping up" through burning shacks of Sukchon. the United States concentrated on economic aid. and a successful advance into North Korea. There was some recovery. massive Red Chinese intervention (in November) changed the picture. At first the Reds swept all before them. the North Korean army crossed the 38th parallel in force. 1950. Just when all appeared to be going well for South Korea. Turkey. and the Philippines. and Seoul.N. ants and workers. and the U. On June 25. General Douglas MacAr-thur's successful landing at Inchon in September. in spite of the American military intervention which was ordered by President Truman with the authorization of the U. the capital. led to a reduction of military activity on both sides in the summer of 1951. But the brunt of the fighting fell to the South Korean and American forces. At first the South Korean and American troops were confined to a narrow perimeter around the southern port of Pusan.N. Greece. hinting that the Reds would be willing to end the fighting along the then established battle lines.N. which had fallen into the hands of the Reds a second time. delegate. The war was marked by swift shifts of fortune. Other members of the United Nations. France. When American troops withdrew in 1949. Conclusion of a formal armistice was long delayed because of Communist insistence that all prisoners of war be returned. attack late in the Korean War. A speech by the Soviet U.N. over the question of permitting the Communist rather than the Nationalist government to represent China in the United Nations. was retaken. troops were driven south to the 38th parallel. the recapture of Seoul. including Great Britain.
Seton-Watson. and the prisoners were given freedom of choice. 1962. Apr. Jan. "Long Look at Stalin. 1965. and about three fourths of the Chinese decided to go to Taiwan. Though a new leadership was in control in the Kremlin. Atheneum." Senior Scholastic. 5. Why did the Soviets want to force the Western nations to withdraw from Berlin? 3. Praeger. forces more than 150. 14 and 15. Scholastic Book Services. 1965.S.000 casualties. Chs. the majority of North Korean and Chinese prisoners in the hands of the U.remain in Red China (and most of these subsequently returned home). Roberts. Ch. 2. 7.. Pressure was eased after the death of Stalin on March 5. Librach. Articles "Cold War Collision Points. ed. Conversations With Stalin. How did the death of Stalin affect the Korean truce talks? Books and Articles to Read Paperback Books Isenberg. Scholastic Book Services. Harcourt. 1956. Henry L. 1953. 7. 9. forces did not wish to return to their Communist-ruled homelands. Stalin's Foreign Policy Reappraised. CHAPTER 5-STUDY AIDS Words and Names to Understand bloc Iron Curtain economic boycott U. Praeger. The armistice. 1964.N. How have political. Most of the North Koreans stayed in South Korea. 68 .D." E. 3. Oct. Ten Years After. signed in the summer of 1953. The Rise oj the Soviet Empire. Eastern Europe.1963. 1964. Hugh. Irwin. Milovan. Mentor. From Lenin to Khrushchev. and propaganda weapons been used in the Cold War? 2. 1965. economic. Ch. The Soviet Union (rev.). ended a war which had cost U. New fork Times Magazine. What actions by the Soviet Union after the war made Americans aware of the real nature of communism? How did the Soviet government gain control over the satellite states? How was Germany divided geographically after the war? What nations controlled the zones of occupation? What steps did the United States take to halt Soviet expansion in Europe after the war? Why was it so difficult to bring about an armistice in the Korean War? Questions to Think About 1. Russia and America. Other Books Djilas. 9. 1960. Security Council puppet government coalition government Checkup Questions 1. 4. Chs. Shulman.. the Cold War went on unabated. M. Crankshaw. 12 and 13.N.
he relinquished the Party post to Nikita Khrushchev. He became a Party member in 1918 and was educated in a Party school at Kharkov University. They took up residence outside the Kremlin.S. six or seven of whom were Jewish.R. *In January. Many persons who had survived imprisonment and torture were set free. tensions lessened too. There was talk of instituting "Socialist legality" — a sort of rule by law. Did Stalin die a natural death. were arrested on the basis of false accusations that they had plotted the murder of Party leaders and high army officers. the new Soviet rulers began to appear at embassy parties. under rather mysterious circumstances. he had risen under Stalin to high posts. In foreign relations. But in September. the long-drawn-out Allied negotiations for a World War II peace treaty with Austria ended. the great fortress-palace in which Stalin had maintained his headquarters and had kept his closest colleagues under vigilant control. one of the "old guard. He now held the offices of premier of the U.S. In 1955 Khrushchev and other Soviet leaders went to Belgrade to patch up relations with Tito's Yugoslavia. and first secretary of the Party. A young man of Cossack origin and an able administrator. Both Soviet and Western occupation troops were withdrawn. six months after Stalin's death. Soon after the Belgrade visit. Vyacheslav Molotov. a Georgian. or was he eliminated by highly placed lieutenants who feared their own destruction? Those who might cast some light on the matter have either vanished or dare not speak out so long as they remain in the U. like Stalin. as officially reported.S.S. nine leading doctors of the Soviet Union. an influential Stalin lieutenant. 1953. There was widescale release of prisoners in forced-labor camps and reduction of sentences of others. the dreaded dictator of the Soviet Union who had sent so many others to their deaths. Stalin's death was followed by the 1953 armistice in Korea. there was no constitutionally designated successor. a comrade who had also been a high Party functionary under Stalin. Whereas Stalin had kept rigidly aloof from social contacts with foreigners. who had headed the secret police since 1939.Coexistence with Khrushchev Joseph Stalin. died on March 5. This crafty peasant from the province of Kursk had been a mechanic before joining the Revolution at the age of 23. Reaction against Stalin The "doctors' plot"* was publicly declared to be a fraud and an injustice to innocent men. The Soviets consented to sign if Austria became a neutral state. Who was to inherit Stalin's power? Under the Soviet system. He was 73 years old.R. The immediate sequel to Stalin's death was the assumption of power by a group of three: Georgy Malenkov. 1953. Khrushchev's work in the Moscow Communist organization and his zeal in carrying out the purges during the collectivization program in the Ukraine won Stalin's favor. and Austria's . Although Khrushchev had done nothing to oppose the ruthless arrests and persecutions when Stalin was still alive. nor was there any machinery for holding a free election. he soon joined with others in a program designed to downgrade the deceased dictator. and Lavrenti Beria. At first it seemed that Malenkov had inherited Stalin's power." who had served as premier and foreign minister under Stalin.
" To be sure. Malenkov's successor. tightened his grip on the Communist Party. Khrushchev's defeated rivals were demoted or removed from office entirely — not killed. with its special military units and powers of investigation. but in general there was a difference between Khrushchev's rise to the supreme power and Stalin's. had become such a state within a state that. the chorus of praise that was heaped on Stalin during his life came to an abrupt end. the home front bristled with rivalries. . Although the country was now supposedly ruled by a group of leaders (instead of one individual). Khrushchev Downgrades Stalin At the 20th Congress of the Communist Party in 1956 the veteran Soviet trade minister. The first open break in this "collective leadership" was the arrest of Lavrenti Beria on June 26. while the ever more powerful Khrushchev. A number of Beria's henchmen were also executed. It is still not known what led to his downfall. After the fall of Malenkov. four years later. Khrushchev. Beria was executed after a secret trial some months later. arrest. This seemed to threaten the priority given to "heavy" industries producing Malenkov. However. Possibly his powerful political police organization. machines and war equipment. and punishment by secret courts. and Bulganin were still congenial in 1954. One theory about Malenkov's displacement is that he had a difference of opinion with the military leadership over converting more of industry to consumer goods. According to the official version. The next milestone on Khrushchev's road to power was the ouster of Malenkov as Premier in February of 1955. as first secretary. 1953. all-benevolent "father of the Soviet peoples. he was posthumously honored by having his embalmed body placed beside that of Lenin in the mausoleum in Red Square in Moscow. Khrushchev removed Bulganin.independence was restored. Nikolai Bulganin became premier. the new Soviet rulers felt uncomfortable in its shadow. shortly before Malenkov'souster as premier. His name was rarely mentioned in newspapers or speeches. Except in the case of Beria. Internal Rivalries While the Soviet Union was cementing friendships abroad. It is a measure of the terror which the very memory of Stalin inspired that almost three years elapsed after his death before there was any effort to challenge publicly the myth that he had been an all-wise. conflicts continued behind the scenes.
Anastas Mikoyan. The Poznan Riots In June. Khrushchev stressed the crimes that Stalin had committed against Communist Party members during the purges of the 1930's. had swelled to the point where the Poles demanded the return to power of Wladyslaw Gomulka. Khrushchev himself rushed to Warsaw with prominent Soviet leaders and ordered an alert to Soviet troops in Poland. that Khrushchev's attack on Stalin reached its final stage. in the Polish city of Poznan. Khrushchev said enough. It was not until 1961. The new "de-Stalinization" policy was one of the factors in the widespread unrest in the Soviet satellites in 1956. especially in foreign Communist parties. . hundreds wounded. One thousand arrests were made. broke the ice by voicing criticisms of Stalin. Troops were called out and blood was shed. however. with further denunciations at the 22nd Party Congress. This speech by Khrushchev has never been published in the Soviet Union. Forty-four of the rioters were killed. however. to arouse considerable disillusionment. and the removal of Stalin's body from the showcase tomb to burial in an ordinary grave. Gomulka was restored to power and an armed revolt was avoided. a strike against a food shortage and low wages turned into a riot. but the substance of what he said filtered out to foreign countries. These paled by comparison with the revelations that Khrushchev made to a closed session of the Congress. even among the local Party members. By October the dissatisfaction. Go-mulka was a Polish Communist leader who had been imprisoned because he wanted the Polish regime to be run by native Communists rather than by officials from Moscow and their local stooges.
For a few days the Soviet government took no action. The power of the secret police was curbed. The hated secret police were hunted down. Cardinal Wyszynski. It probably hoped that concessions . A new regime — still proclaiming Socialist aims. A spontaneous uprising of students and workers broke out in Budapest on October 23.S. in matters of foreign policy and international Communist activity. 1956. he had been imprisoned for his efforts in behalf of more self-rule for Hungary. Polish Communist leaders won a large measure of freedom of action. just before Soviet heavy artillery was called in to help crush the Hungarian rebellion in November. Peasants were permitted to withdraw from the collectives and set up their own farms again. The Polish people were somewhat pacified by the release from house arrest of their spiritual leader.Hungarian "Freedom Fighters" move into position outside Budapest. a veteran Hungarian Communist. The price paid by the Polish leaders for this milder form of communism was complete cooperation with the U. but pledged to restore democratic liberties and a multiparty system — began to take shape under Imre Nagy. The Hungarian Revolt Developments in Hungary were much more serious and tragic. War Minister Konstantin Rokossovsky and other Soviet citizens in top positions in Poland were recalled to the Soviet Union. 1956.S.R. Hungarian church leader Cardinal Mindszenty and other political prisoners were released. Like Gomulka in Poland. and spread rapidly throughout the country. as a concession to intellectuals and students. Freedoms of speech and the press were temporarily broadened.
withdrew their missiles from Cuba (see page 89). holder of high offices under Stalin. His killing blow was masked by treachery. Eventually Khrushchev. They favored cutting down on armaments and producing more consumer goods. and Lazar Kaganovich. ostensibly to discuss details of the Soviet military withdrawal. On November 4 the Soviet forces. He threatened to sign a peace . launched a massive attack on Budapest. when the Soviets. Khrushchev Consolidates His Power The year 1957 was for Khrushchev a year of crisis and of triumph. suspecting Zhukov of disloyalty. But after Stalin's death. The Berlin Dispute On November 27.S. a Communist once associated with Nagy. in line with Nagy's request. who had taken refuge in the Yugoslav Embassy. The Hungarian commanders never returned from this conference. 1957. with a free and prosperous economy. Khrushchev actually found himself outvoted in the Party Presidium in June. partisans of Malenkov.S. have shown that 98 per cent of West Berliners oppose communism — seeing its effects in East Berlin. Khrushchev reiterated his Berlin demands. In the years following. To West Berliners. was lured out by a safe-conduct pass and arrested on the spot by Soviet police. Khrushchev decided to strike. is protected by U. Stalin. in which Communists were allowed to take part. Neither Nagy nor Maleter was seen again. In 1958 he took over the top government post of premier. West Berlin. Their execution was announced in 1958. Here he was upheld. ousted the unsuspecting Marshal from his post while he was traveling in the Balkans. pressure. His new policies were unpopular. this is a guarantee against any attempt on their freedom by the Soviets or the East German Communist regime. Resistance was crushed. and his opponents expelled from the Presidium. demanding that it be made a "free city. in the Soviet bloc. 1962. like Poland. Nagy.. 1958. under strong U. and invited Pal Maleter and other Hungarian military leaders to a conference. From 1958 on. But when Nagy withdrew from the Warsaw Pact — a military alliance of Communist countries (see page 146) —and appealed to the United Nations to support Hungary's position as a neutral nation. and French troops. Protests and resolutions of censure in the United Nations were ignored by the Soviet government. British. A new puppet government. was set up under Janos Kadar. under cover of heavy artillery fire. The brief days of freedom in Hungary were over. which he had filled with his own men. including Molotov. But the West stood firm. the new Soviet premier made his first move to expel the Western powers from West Berlin. But Khrushchev appealed from the Presidium to the Central Committee. fearing that Zhukov was challenging his leadership. Since October. The Soviets pretended to remove their troops from Hungary. This reaction was stimulated by unrest in the Soviet satellite states. Resistance was growing to his scheme of decentralizing the top-heavy management of industry and developing uncultivated lands in Siberia and Central Asia. the Soviet drive was intensified at times." with all Western troops withdrawn. His opponents were a coalition of old Stalinists. the Berlin issue has remained quiescent. Zhukov became Minister of Defense and was back in the inner circle of the Communist ruling group. acceptable to Khrushchev. relaxed at others. had banished him from the government. Free elections. There is evidence that Khrushchev was indebted in part for his 1957 victory to the support which he received from Marshal Georgy Zhukov. one of the outstanding Soviet military leaders in World War II.to local self-rule would keep Hungary.
British. A striking and ominous change took place in the status of Berlin on August 13. mination to defend West Berlin.treaty with the "German Democratic Republic. 1960. he took no further action against West Berlin until after the U. and such negotiations would imply recognition. Although Khrushchev indulged in abusive tirades when President Eisenhower refused to apologize.. He declared that such a treaty would end U. built by Reds in 1961 to keep East Germans from fleeing to West Berlin.S. 1961. In 1958. This plane. during a brief meeting between President Kennedy and Premier Khrushchev in Vienna. But the West has refused to grant diplomatic recognition to the East German regime (now recognized only by Communist-ruled countries). Khrushchev had given the West six months to meet his demands.S. President Kennedy again pledged U. Presidential election that fall. was brought down while flying over the Soviet Union. and took other military measures.S. He dropped this time limit when the Western powers agreed to confer with the Soviets at Geneva. sent replacements to Europe. on a reconnaissance mission. at President Eisenhower's invitation." the Communist regime which has been imposed on Soviet-occupied Germany. deter- East Berlin masons work on the 25-mile Wall. He called up reserves. but Khrushchev later visited the U. in Paris. when the Communist authorities began building a wall. and a "summit conference" of heads of state of the Soviet Union and the three Western powers was set for mid-May. separating East Berlin from West Berlin. and French rights of access to West Berlin unless the West negotiated new rights with the German Democratic Republic. This meeting never was completed. because of Khrushchev's demand that President Eisenhower apologize for an incident involving an American U-2 plane. The . Khrushchev insisted on a settlement of the Berlin issue by the end of 1961. and repeated his former threats.S. The conference had no positive results. The Berlin dispute again became acute in June.
purpose of the Wall was to prevent a continuation of the mass flight of Germans from the Communist-ruled Soviet Zone to West Berlin, and thence to West Germany. The Wall violated the four-power agreements of 1945 and 1949, which had promised freedom of movement within the entire city. The United States reinforced its garrison in Berlin, and there were occasional shooting incidents as East Germans continued to try to escape. In October, Khrushchev called off his December 31 deadline for the signing of a peace treaty with East German authorities. But in the following period no progress was made on a Berlin settlement. East Berlin authorities renewed an old practice of sending up military planes to harass Allied flights to and from West Berlin, but there was no resultant damage or loss of life. The Arms Deadlock On another issue, limitation of armaments, there was also complete disagreement between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. A number of disarmament conferences had been held since 1958, but no concrete results were reached because of one overriding deadlock. The U.S. and the other Western powers maintained that disarmament could not succeed without an international system of inspection and control. The Soviets, while professing to favor sweeping disarmament, refused to permit international inspections on Soviet soil. Success seemed possible, however, in another phase of armament control: the testing of nuclear weapons. A conference between representatives of the three main nuclear powers — the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union — went on for almost three years in Geneva. Nuclear tests were suspended by the participants, presumably for the duration of the conferences. Then, on August 30, 1961, the Soviet government violated the moratorium and for several weeks carried on open-air tests. Some of the devices set off by the U.S.S.R. in this series of tests were of very high explosive power. After having tested the biggest bomb ever detonated, Moscow proposed that the major powers again accept an uninspected suspension of tests. In view of the Soviet action, however, the U.S., with British backing, began new atmospheric tests in the Pacific on April 25, 1962. President Kennedy said that the country was reluctant to resume testing, but that, without a policed test ban, the tests were necessary for Western security. The U.S., he said, would continue to work with the Soviets toward a test-ban agreement. For use in emergency, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. agreed in June, 1963, to set up a direct communication link (the "hot line") between the Kremlin and the White House. In August, 1963, a limited treaty, banning nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water (but not under ground) was concluded, and in October it was agreed in principle to ban nuclear weapons from space vehicles in orbit. Following President Kennedy's assassination, President Johnson assured Khrushchev that the U.S. would continue the policy of seeking better relations with the U.S.S.R.
Crises in the Congo and Cuba
In mid-1960 an internal power struggle in the new Republic of the Congo threatened to embroil the Soviets and the West in armed conflict. The Soviets supported Congo Premier Patrice Lumumba, who sought a strong central government; the West backed Congo President Joseph Kasa-vubu, who sought a loose federation of states. The U.N. rushed in troops to end the dissension. U.N. Secretary-Gen-
Premier Khrushchev looks on as (l. to r.) U.S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk, Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko, and British Prime Minister Sir Alec Douglas-Home sign limited nuclear test-ban treaty in the Kremlin, August 5, 1963.
eral Dag Hammarskjold, en route to the Congo in September, 1961, to arrange a cease-fire, died in a plane crash. U.N. troops were withdrawn in 1964, and Moise Tshombe, head of a secessionist government in Katanga, richest of the Congo's provinces, became head of the central government. But Congo rebels, supported by Red China and some African governments, hampered his efforts; many white foreigners, including Americans, were slaughtered in rebel uprisings. Even more dangerous was the threat of direct confrontation of Soviet and American military force when in October, 1962, President Kennedy exposed the presence of offensive Soviet missiles in Cuba. After a week of extreme tension, the Soviets agreed to dismantle the missile bases, but some Soviet troops remained in Cuba (see Chapter 7).
The Fall of Khrushchev
On October 13,1964, Khrushchev's 11 years of power were brought to a sudden end with a swift and bloodless coup in the Kremlin, and a terse announcement of his removal as Party and government head. No reason — other than poor health and advanced age — was officially given, but the Soviet press later attacked his administration, referring to "harebrained schemes" and "impulsive acts." His successors — Brezhnev, who became first secretary of the Party, and Kosygin, who took over as Soviet premier — were two of his former supporters. Western observers speculated that one cause for Khrushchev's downfall may have been the rapid deterioration of Sino-Soviet relations (see Chapter 10). But the new Soviet leadership has made no basic changes in this or other aspects of foreign policy. There has been a shift, however, in internal economic policy. Khrushchev had favored tightened Party control over agricultural and industrial production; his successors proposed that the Party give "general political guidance," leaving details to state management. Leather and textile factories are now to be allowed more freedom in responding to market demand, instead of being obliged to follow the orders of the higher planning authorities. Khrushchev had also cut down on the
amount of land allowed peasants on collective farms for private use; these cuts were repealed. His decisions were often impetuous — shortly before his ouster, for example, he had decided to expand considerably the Soviet chemical industry (see page 169). But in a planned economy, where there are no reserve resources, such sudden decisions may upset other industrial programs. These policies had earned Khrushchev enemies. Those who wished to end his leadership found ample material for criticism in his failure to frighten the Western powers out of West Berlin; the forced removal, under U.S. pressure, of Soviet missiles from Cuba; the poor harvest of 1963, blamed on his mismanagement; and the rift with Red China. 82 CHAPTER 6 - STUDY AIDS
Words and Names to Understand
"Socialist legality" "collective leadership"
demilitarized "free city" de-Stalinization international inspections system
1. What three men assumed power after Stalin died? 2. What changes in foreign policy were made by Khrushchev after Stalin's death? 3. What effect did Khrushchev's attack on Stalin during the 20th Congress have on the Soviet satellite states? 4. Describe the revolt against Communist rule in Hungary; in Poland. 5. What were the probable reasons for Khrushchev's ouster? 6. On what major issues are the U.S. and the Soviets deadlocked?
Questions to Think About
1. Why is there no provision under the Soviet system for political succession? 2. Why did Khrushchev try to downgrade Stalin and change his policies? 3. Why has "collective leadership" in the U.S.S.R. never been successful for very long? Might it be in the present case?
Books and Articles to Read
Paperback Books Brumberg, Abraham (ed.), Russia Under Khrushchev. Praeger, 1962; pp. 71-126. Crankshaw, Edward, Khrushchev's Russia (rev. ed.)- Penguin, 1960. Gunther, John, Inside Russia Today (rev. ed.). Pyramid, 1962. Schwartz, Harry (ed.), The Many Faces of Communism. Berkley, 1962; Ch. 14. Articles "Cold War Collision Points: Germany," Senior Scholastic, Oct. 7, 1964. "Revolt in the Kremlin," Time, Oct. 23, 1964. "The Kremlin Plays Russian Roulette: Fall of Khrushchev," H. E. Salisbury, New York Times Magazine, Oct. 25, 1964. "Why Khrushchev Lost His Grip," K. Lachmann, !7.S. News, Oct. 26, 1964. "Who Runs Russia Now?" U.S. News, Nov. 9, 1964.
. and the average worker or peasant on the other. So he skirted this difficulty by proposing a "dictatorship of the proletariat." or propertied classes. But whatever the shade. there have been many disagreements among Russian Communists. This caused many discontented groups to spring up within the Party. This theory of "permanent revolution" became known as "Trotskyism. There is the Soviet shade. was eager to get on with the revolution. Today it is Limited to a few small groups. would control the government." and created splits in the Communist movement throughout the world. Then and only then could the workers take over the vast system of efficient factories and productive lands. however. in the U. There were wide variations in the standard of living of Party leaders and Partyappointed factory and farm managers on the one hand.S. So. all hold fast to a system that subjugates the individual to the allpowerful state. once the Tsar was overthrown. During this period. Trotsky was convinced that the new order would collapse because of the strong desire of the peasants to preserve their private property. one should keep in mind that the essence of communism is what it has been all along: a tyranny over the people. Lenin. but a long period of capitalist growth seemed necessary before the country was ripe for a Communist revolution.The Many Shades of Communism There are shades of communism — variations in the way Communist systems are operated. Early "Heresies" Despite rigid Party discipline. the Tito shade in Yugoslavia. Trotskyism declined. Marx believed that the change to communism in a society could not take place until capitalism had reached a high state of development. The Bolshevik ideal of equality suffered a severe setback once the Bolsheviks had seized power in Russia. which affected the course of events after Lenin's death. however. There had been progress in the building of railroads and in manufacturing and mining. a sweeping revolution would push aside the weak Russian middle class and bring a group of revolutionary Socialists into power. and proceed to establish a society along Socialist (or Communist) lines." In this way he expected to skip the period of building up the economy under a capitalist system. that denies him civil rights and deprives him of the sense of human dignity. Trotsky agreed with Lenin that. Later "Heresies" Later there were more disagreements within the ranks of the Russian Communist Party. It dealt with the development of the Communist Revolution. arose between Lenin and Trotsky. after its leader's murder in Mexico in 1940 by a Stalin agent (see Chapter 3). One of these was the Workers' Opposition movement. which Marx said was necessary. the Mao shade in continental China. in tracing the changes that have taken place in the Communist governments as their leaders tried this and that means of securing their power. he believed.R. It developed within the ranks of the Communist Party during the years of war communism (see Chapter 3). the "bourgeoisie. (Marx used the terms "Socialist" and "Communist" interchangeably. according to the theories of Marx. reflected in the policies of Khrushchev. was a Communist revolution in countries that were industrially more advanced than Russia. Marx. The only thing that could assure the success of a Communist revolution in Russia. and now of Brezhnev and Kosygin.S. Both Lenin and Trotsky were in a way trying to revise the timetable set up by their supreme teacher. One early disagreement. But Trotsky foresaw a stumbling block: the peasantry.) Capitalism in Russia in 1917 was still in a very early stage of development. Its platform called for .
irrevocably lost its tie and community with the proletariat. a stand for which he was jailed. to accept Soviet dictation of Yugoslavia's internal affairs. In 1921 all factions within the Party were forbidden. so Tito's second in . Perhaps the most distinctive characteristic of Yugoslavian communism.more participation by workers in the management of the factories. From 1962 on there have been signs of increasing cordiality and cooperation between the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. however. after the rift with Moscow. Yugoslavia has received military equipment from the Soviets. but there seems to be no opposition group in the Soviet Union with a clearly defined program. and an end to special favors for Communist Party officials. Myasnikov's group was harassed out of existence by the secret police. The Bogdanov movement also withered on the vine. workers' councils were set up in factories. Stripped of all posts. while remaining a Communist dictatorship. . he was imprisoned several times for daring to criticize the Communist system. It is in the international Communist movement that differing shades appear in theory and action. Tito (Josip Broz). Since then. Tito's "Deviation" The first big break in the ironclad unity of international communism was the refusal of the Yugoslav dictator. Tito has been on the Soviet side more often than on the American. and the Workers' Truth. Yugoslavia. Although the Workers' Opposition was disbanded. Wrote Djilas: The Communist Party . Instead of having the state run the whole economy directly. after becoming the ruling party of the organizers and leaders of the state apparatus and of the capitalist-based economic life . a factory worker. because it strikingly foreshadowed the stand taken some 40 years later by the Yugoslav Communist Milovan Djilas. . As Tito was a rebel and "heretic" from the standpoint of Stalinism. For the first time since 1948. at one time a top Yugoslav Party official and one of the vice presidents of Yugoslavia. Its theoretical position is interesting. In the Cold War. has maintained its national independence. a reform of the inefficient bureaucracy. was its insistence that every country should find its own way to socialism. So thorough and ruthless were Stalin's purges in the 1930's of real or imagined "heretics" that even since his death there has been no convincing evidence of organized political opposition within the Communist Party. Peasants were allowed to withdraw from collective farms. with a solidly Communist-controlled economic system. offices. . speech has become a little freer and notes of criticism have penetrated a few novels and poems. its tradition persisted in such small splinter organizations as the Workers' Group. This led to a break between Tito and Stalin in 1948. and 90 per cent of them did. Today. Milovan Djilas. . and stores. led by an old Bolshevik named Bogdanov. headed by Gabriel Myasnikov. Yugoslavia has developed certain independent features in its economic system.
criticizing this retreat. Writes Djilas: Power is an end in itself and the essence of contemporary communism." Centers of Communism In Stalin's time. .command. a "paper tiger. Italian Communists published the memorandum — the kind of step that would have been impossible under Stalin. In 1964. installed in power. Milovan Djilas. Communist parties all over the world obeyed the Kremlin's orders. Djilas was expelled from the government and the Party in 1954. After Togliatti's death that year. . Khrushchev wished Romania to check its industrialization in favor of supplying raw materials to the other Communist countries. and the Communist regimes of East Europe were little more than provinces of the huge Soviet empire. Today Moscow's position is being challenged. President Kennedy ordered a sea and air quarantine on arms shipments to Cuba. Romania is an example. As the world watched tensely. second center of communism. reconnaissance planes discovered that the Soviets had installed offensive ballistic missiles in Cuba. called the U. With the help of Communist China. In April. 1962. Prepared to risk war to prevent the delivery of offensive weapons to the island. 1964. Togliatti drew up a memorandum sharply critical of Khrushchev's conduct of the Sino-Soviet controversy. Castro seeks to "export revolution" to other Latin American countries. and this tends to modify his militancy. that communism itself. By means of and through power the material privileges and ownership of the ruling class over national goods are realized. Power is almost exclusively an end in communism. Red China. the Soviets backed down and complied with the U.S. and personnel. repudiating the right of COMECON. became a "heretic" to Tito. Yugoslavia's successful defiance of Moscow also emboldened the satellite regimes to get rid of some signs of extreme subservience to the Soviets. and has been imprisoned several times since for his writings critical of communism. The Moscow-Peiping quarrel favored polycentrism. In October. Yugoslavia is another. The New Class. Tito has maintained that Moscow should not dictate the policies of national Communist parties nor interfere in the internal affairs of other Communist-ruled nations. Communist China is a new. Communism in Cuba A new center of communism since 1959 is Fidel Castro's regime in Cuba." Khrushchev replied that the "paper tiger" had "atomic teeth. the Romanian Communist Party. the economic association of the East European Communist . and a potent rival (see Chapter 10). because it is both the source and the guaranty of all privileges." a term originated by Italian Communist leader Palmiro Togliatti. absolute power over the international Communist movement was concentrated in Moscow. demand. He demanded that the Soviets dismantle the launching sites and withdraw their missiles. U. This breakdown into many centers of communism is known as "polycentrism. Djilas carried this reasoning further. arguing in his book. but Romania refused. So did the relaxation of terror in the Soviet Union after Stalin's death. and Cuba still a fourth center. was a new system of privilege and oppression. .S. With the victory of a Communist revolution in a country a new class comes into power and into control. But he also depends heavily on Soviet economic and military aid. bombers.S.
1957.S.. bloc.Cuba's Premier Fidel Castro appears to be in a good humor as he chats affably with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev (left) during a visit to the U. Laqueur. Why is there no organized opposition party in the Soviet Union? 3. . The New Class. 6.N. 4. "It is a sovereign right of each socialist state to . Praeger.STUDY AIDS Words and Names to Understand "heretics" "permanent revolution" "polycentrism" Checkup Questions Trotskyism Titoism Djilas 1.S." The growth of polycentrism does not change the character of the Communist regimes. No Party has . they may be expected to continue to vote with the Soviets against the U. Russia and America. a privileged place. 2. and more freedom in trade. Leopold (eds.. the Communist states no longer form a solid. These regimes retain strong political and economic ties with the Soviets. CHAPTER 7 . Why did Marx feel that capitalism must develop before communism could take over? 2. . 1964. or can impose its line or opinions on other Parties. in January.R.. "Power is an end in itself"? 4. Polycentrism: The New Factor in International Communism. But they now exercise a greater degree of internal economic independence. Henry. to dictate to its members. however. What is meant by the statement. went on to say. In the U. 5. Praeger.).. choose or change the forms and methods of socialist construction . How did Lenin propose to bypass the period of capitalism Marx felt was necessary? What did Trotsky mean by "the permanent revolution"? What was the Workers' Opposition movement? What was its platform? What brought about a breach between Stalin and Tito in 1948? What are the four centers of international communism today? In what ways are all Communist governments similar? Questions to Think About 1. 1962. and Labedz. unified bloc dominated by Moscow. In East Europe. Why has the Soviet Union permitted Yugoslavia to pursue an independent policy? Books and Articles to Read Paperback Books Djilas..S. Walter. to whom they would look for support against any rebellion by their own peoples. Milovan. 3. They continue to be dictatorships that deny political and civil liberties to their people. (Mentor) New . Roberts.
).1964. New York Times Magazine.. 15. New "fork Times Magazine. June. 28." Richard Hughes.S. pp. Leopold (eds." A." Business Week. Other Books Laqueur. Schapiro. The Future of Communist Society. Ch. "The Iron Grip Falters. The U. 10. Praeger.R. ." Nations Business.). and the Future. Shub.American Library 1956.1964. 1964. Walter. Leonard (ed. Communist Second. 1964.In and Out of Orbit. and Labedz. "Moscow's Satellites . Nov. Mar. "What Communist Breakup Means to Us. Praeger 1963pp. 232-252. 156-169.S. June 7. 1962. Articles "Mao: Nationalist First.
Many observers maintain that if the people were given the choice. or are reserved for a favored few. many Americans tended to downgrade everything about Soviet technology and production. the correspondent suggested. And why . was a trip to Soviet Russia.Life Under Communism in the Soviet Union Before the Soviets sent their first Sputnik into space. to the newspaper Sovietskaya Rossia. The Soviet achievements in space exploration and rocketry have been made by ignoring the needs of the Soviet people. and were ahead of the United States in putting a man into orbit. 1957). This sentiment has been voiced in letters sent to Soviet publications. the Russians must be outdistancing the West all the way down the line. which I've worn for four years. written by a Moscow factory worker. Now the pendulum has swung in the other direction. Not long ago a New fork Times correspondent in Moscow coined the word Sputnikitis. states: It is time we stopped fooling ourselves about Sputniks and jet airplanes. I have one pair. Let's come down to earth — to ordinary shoes. There the visitor would notice that many of the articles and services we take for granted are simply not available. He defined "Sputnikitis" as an inferiority complex — common among Americans — which came from the notion that since the Soviets were first to launch space vehicles (October 4. One letter. they would gladly exchange their space gains for a better standard of living. A sure cure for this illusion.
nails. overcoats. More troublesome is the scarcity of many items in everyday use. People often find it impossible to buy buttons.did they last that long? Because they were made abroad. needles. I manage to do quite well with a trolley car. The craving for consumer goods was demonstrated by thousands of Soviet citizens during the few weeks of the U. Soviet publications have criticized the clothing industry for not producing sufficient quantities and varieties of cotton dresses. living conditions in the Soviet Union have improved in recent years.S. writing paper. Such essential items as gloves. but I do want to live better and to have properly made clothes. guides at the exhibition reported: "It was almost: impossible for them [the Soviet . In many respects. and valenki (thick. But low quality is not the chief complaint.S. One of the Russian-speaking U. although the quality of most products is still inferior to that of West European goods. Shortages are even more acute in rural areas than in the cities. yet manufacturers are likely to have difficulty finding desired colors and fabrics. only to discover that it is just for display and not for sale. pens and pencils. exhibition in Moscow in 1959. felt boots) are in short supply in various rural districts during the winter months. and other everyday essentials easily found in most countries. Occasionally. the Soviet shopper sees something he needs in a store window.
. with plenty of bread. cabbage. and a fairly steady. butter." There is no starvation in the Soviet Union. fruit. potatoes. People now have enough to eat. and eggs. supply of meat and fish. though expensive. are plentiful only at certain times of the year. cereals. Vegetables. though.people] to conceive of an American worker with enough money to buy some of the ordinary things we had on display.
Guns versus Butter Although production of consumer goods is gradually increasing. because they have special stores for their exclusive use — stores well supplied with luxury and imported items." at which secondhand clothes. including armaments and various kinds of machinery. although prices are deliberately kept high by the government.Right: Tourists in Moscow's Red Square. The sign on the side of the store reads "Notions." . such as Czechoslovakian shoes and Chinese silk. But there are also other factors to be taken into account if one wishes to understand why acute shortages persist. who often lived on a fairly self-sufficient basis. Out of a population of about 226. however. in Russia before the Revolution there was a good deal of peasant and artisan hand production of clothes. and household utensils. Nearly every city has a "free market. Guides make sure that visitors see only what the Kremlin wants them to see. The Party leaders. This is not the case today. Second. nylon stockings. household utensils. Among the inconveniences endured by Soviet housewives are the long lines they must wait in to make their purchases. making what they needed at home. brooches.000.000 in the Soviet Union today. The Soviet newspaper Pravda reports that in some areas "it has reached the point where there are even queues for one's daily bread. do not suffer from shortages. City people are more dependent on factory production than the old-fashioned peasants. the emphasis remains on heavy industry." People in Soviet Russia usually have some money to buy things. at prices Muscovites wait in line to buy buttons. pins. the quality of Soviet production in consumer goods is so poor that frequent replacement of worn-out and broken goods is necessary. First. Third. sometimes three or four times a day. there has been a big movement of population from the country districts into the towns and cities. and trinkets. over 50 per cent are town dwellers — as compared with about 20 per cent in prerevolutionary Russia. shoes. and other items can be bought without waiting in line.
The average Soviet citizen spends 3 to 5 per cent of his wages or salary for rent. and fixtures are of poor quality. There has been so much flaking of mortar from the sides of new buildings that the officials have ordered a wire net spread around many of the buildings to protect passers-by from falling mortar. Doors and windows are warped. In the cities. the vast majority of families do not own their homes. television sets. The aim of Soviet planning is to have an apartment for each family. and so is the scarcity of adequate housing. utensils. the greater the pressure for more. he wants to have one overcoat for everyday wear and one for Sunday best. This shortage has continued to plague most Soviet citizens. But in August. American jazz records. there are black markets. radios. Official estimates show that since 1955 buildings have been going up at a fast rate in the larger cities. Comrades. and the rents are low.000 new dwelling units per year. . operated furtively from suitcases. The Soviets are now turning out around 2. shoes. The older housing typically consists of one room to a family of five. 1960. Khrushchev himself indicated an awareness of this when he said: A man has one overcoat. High rents are not the problem. Addressing a group in Siberia in 1961. with 20 or 30 people sharing a single toilet and kitchen. They pay rent to the state. and even foreign currencies change hands. The housing shortage was considered the number one problem by Soviet citizens responding to a questionnaire distributed by the youth newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda and published in its October 7. Since 1953. Then when he begins to live better. issue. but this has only whetted the appetite of a people long deprived of comforts and luxuries. despite the vigilance of the police. through which religious articles.000. if it had five rooms or less.higher than in the government stores. new apartment buildings are being put up so fast that the construction is often faulty. The Soviet government now finds itself assailed by a new problem: the larger the supply of goods. Until recently the law allowed a Soviet citizen to build and own his house. An average new apartment consists of two rooms with its own kitchen and bathroom. and refrigerators. That is only natural. Today. many families are doubled up in the same apartment. Poor quality is. In addition. there has been a fairly steady and noticeable increase in the supply of clothing. But where are we going to get them? Housing Problems In the Soviet Union. but even at this rate it will be many years before there will be enough housing for the people in the cities.
materials. 1961. Most peasants live in log or clapboard huts called izbas. They seek family privacy.The housing problem constantly plagues city dwellers. and implements — belongs to the state. bus and trolley transportation is readily available . labor. the government announced that all single-family homes in towns and cities would be gradually abolished. The principal difference between a kolkhoz and a sovkhoz is in ownership. artists. This prefabricated building consists of 60 two-room apartments. Instead of individual homes. For most Soviet families the biggest single desire is for an apartment — in many cases. All of the property on a kolkhoz. But in cities. however. produce. Today a substantial number of well-paid people still have country homes. and for most of them a car is out of the question (in 1963 there was reported to be one private car for every 350 persons). promised that every city family would be "adequately housed" in a two-room apartment by 1970. only a small number of privileged people (Party leaders. In rural areas. cooperative apartment houses are being erected. financed partly by the tenants. belongs to the kolkhoz. even before the government decree. just one room — that they can occupy by themselves. The sovkhoz is strictly a state enterprise whose property — including livestock. and others) could afford the luxury of a private house in a city. and sometimes a few livestock. Transportation Many Soviet citizens will probably never have a chance to fly in a Soviet jet airliner. 1962. and which as yet have not been affected by the decree. and land were often difficult to come by. housing is primitive by Western standards. In practice. where they live in the summer or on weekends. including the land. because the government can convert collective farms to state farms at any time. To do so would require a very large transfer of materials and manpower from building factories and making armaments to building new houses at a rate far greater than the present one. and accounts for more than 80 per cent of Soviet agricultural production. The Party program adopted in October. Actually. or dachas. writers. The peasants are grouped together in either kolkhozes (collective farms) or sovkhozes (state farms). which have no plumbing and are heated by large stoves that burn charcoal. Each peasant family is allowed a small plot of land for its personal use. the distinction is almost meaningless. Almost half the Soviet population now lives on collective farms. though. And even then.
Moscow's attractively decorated subway is famous. in produc- . This was a pledge to catch up with and surpass the U.000 miles of paved road in the Soviet Union.and cheap.000 in the U.S.S. Perhaps the most spectacular of these promises was the Party program for the next 20 years. announced in October.S.. Utopia Postponed Since the Soviets give machine and weapons production priority over better food and clothing.600. especially in remote areas. In 1962 there were only 190.S. as compared to 2. the leaders must resort to promises of a brighter future. 1961. Rail — and especially highway — mileage is small for so vast a country as the U.R. This is to some extent made up for by air service. and mostly concentrated in European Russia.
4. Soviet leaders are continuing to funnel so much money and manpower into heavy industry and armaments that they are unable to meet consumer needs. Chs. Gide. The disastrous grain harvest in 1963 forced them to purchase a billion dollars' worth of wheat abroad (including the U. Return from the USSR. 1961. 1964. Abraham (ed.. 5. How realistic is the Party's promise that Soviet Russia will surpass the United States in material comforts by 1980? Books and Articles to Read Paperback Books Brumberg. Cronyn.). CHAPTER 8 . New Party chief Brezhnev admitted that Soviet farm production still is not sufficient for the needs of the people. What factors account for the shortages in Soviet Russia? Where are the shortages most acute? 2. Shorter working hours still remain a dream. . 153-321. 1962.).S. Describe the housing problem in the Soviet Union. rather than the individual. ed. McGraw-Hill. and 11. How do you account for the low quality of housing and consumer goods in the Soviet Union? 3. Agricultural failures were probably one of the reasons for Khrushchev's ouster in 1964. 1962. Questions to Think About 1. Russia Under Khrushchev. Inside Russia Today (rev. pp. Andre. Thus the Soviet citizen can look for little immediate improvement in his everyday life. Gunther.STUDY AIDS Words and Names to Understand standard of living consumer goods Checkup Questions "free market" kolkhoz sovkhoz Pravda 1.Little motor traffic plies Norilsk streets during the snow-filled Siberian winter. Dutton. tion of some consumer goods. A Primer on Communism. What is a "free market"? How does it differ from a "black market"? 3.). The Communist Party will still decide what goods he can buy and at what price. Why does the Soviet government emphasize the group. Praeger. 3. John. such as food and clothing. The scene is along the main street in March. But two years later the Soviets suffered a serious setback in their economy.10. in its sports programs and other activities? 2. George W.
31. 1964. The Soviet Union (rev. 1965. and 13. Mar. Grossen." E. Berkley. Scholastic Teacher.Pyramid. 11. ed.. "My Russian Journey. Schwartz.). 7. Oct.). 6. Ch. L. Harry (ed. 1964. 1962. 1962. 1964." H. The Many Faces of Communism. "Quality of Life Behind the Soviet Statistics. . 17. Fortune. Chs. Scholastic Book Services. Articles "Russia's New Bosses Reshape Its Industry." Business Week. A. Apr. 6. Grunwald.
Cultural Life. Immediately following the Revolution. not as a free human being. At secondary-school level in particular. It was much easier to remove Stalin's body from its place of honor beside Lenin's in the Kremlin tomb than it will be to remove the tributes to him from textbooks. and the authority of the teacher was made supreme. Soviet education has undergone several changes. but also language. and the teacher's union. there was an attitude of wide permissiveness. Rigid discipline was instituted. Rewriting the Textbooks One of the first tasks of the Communist regime was to arrange for the rewriting of textbooks to present the Bolshevik (Communist) point of view. Soviet leaders have recognized the importance of indoctrinating the young in Communist ideology. after Khrushchev's secret speech before the 20th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party.Education. The new History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Students were encouraged to organize their own councils to participate in the management of the schools. inspectors of the ministry. Stu- . Schoolteachers are under constant surveillance from local Party leaders. but as an obedient subject of the regime. This policy has been continued to the present day. it requires only the deliberation of a few top officials to decide what may and may not be taught. history. much time formerly spent on Russian literature. Since all schools are under centralized control. No examinations were given. Actually. to make sure that official Communist doctrine is followed in the classroom. Under Khrushchev there was yet another change — a shift in emphasis from the study of the humanities to practical studies. Soviet Educational Philosophy Strict control of what may be printed in textbooks is just one means of molding the minds of the young. and other texts. Denial of the dignity and freedom of the individual is part and parcel of Soviet education. Not only were history books involved.R.S. made few references to Stalin. Since the beginning of Communist rule in Russia in 1917. the revision of textbooks was begun in 1956. issued in 1959. geography. All teaching is directed to ensure that the individual will serve the state. This policy was changed shortly after Stalin came to power. and Religion in the U. A more recent problem of the regime has been the revision of textbooks to reflect the new interpretation of Stalin's place in Soviet history. The Communist regime has always regarded the education of the youth as the cornerstone in establishing a firm foundation of a powerful Communist state.S. but a revision had to be published in 1962 to include denunciations of his tyrannical rule. and social studies is now being devoted to "polytechnical" courses leading directly to jobs. and what may or may not be printed in textbooks. Since the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution.
Some go to school part time and work part time. The School System Indoctrination in communism begins for many children as soon as they are able to talk. Because in most families both parents work. Nevertheless. farms. dents do not have the opportunities to develop to their full potential. and push them to get as much as they can under the restrictions that prevail. Here. Children enter elementary school at the age of seven and are required to attend for eight years. Soviet education has a special purpose — to train the young to fill the quotas in industry. and the subsequent decline in the birth rate). and services determined by the Soviet government. qualified students go on to secondary school. A law passed in 1958 provided for a gradual change-over from the 10-year to an 11-year school program.A school in Moscow: After the required eight years in elementary school. and other places employing many workers. where specialized courses prepare them for skilled work in factories. Parents imbue their children with the importance of education. day nurseries have been set up at factories. Pupils who do not qualify for further formal education after the eighth year are put to work or assigned to trade schools. Only about one fourth of the students who enter the elementary school complete the secondary school program. In these day nurseries loyalty to the leaders is taught in the kinds of games the children play. science. in addition to gaining a general education. paid tuition fees. they are trained on the job in industry and receive a certificate when they graduate. But in 1964 the 11-year system was cut back to the former 10-year one. about 12 per cent are admitted to the universities and professional or military institutes. enumerating the labor skills they have acquired. in the direction of their interests and abilities. Of those who do. students at all levels. including the nursery schools. Today no . the desire for an education is real among all the people. and offices. Because of the serious Soviet shortage of young workers (as a result of the loss of men in World War II. government offices. Until 1956. only students of outstanding ability may continue for two more years in the secondary school.
ruled by a small clique that oppresses the working classes and provokes war for the enrichment of the capitalist class. Komsomol. The picture of pre-Communist Russia. Throughout his schooling. and the teaching of these subjects. Racial discrimination in the United States is wildly exaggerated. their own government has told them something quite different about life in America. for children from 10 to 15. indoctrination includes study of "Conditions of Workers in Capitalist Countries" and "The Struggle of the World Masses against the Imperialist Warmongers. In the fourth grade. Parents still have to pay about 25 per cent of the cost for maintaining a child in nursery school. They cannot imagine that so many people can have so high a standard of living. the Soviet child is given a false picture of life in the United States. The applicant must have the approval of the Communist Party's youth organization. and no reference is made to the progress that is being made in overcoming it. and poor medical care for all but the wealthy. even in the universities." Exceptions may be made for students with outstanding talents. After all. Soviet students are exposed to Communist doctrine. as presented in the schools. At university level." though. The accomplishments of the American democracy are either ignored or misrepresented. there are other requirements. for those from about 15 to 27.tuition fees are charged. he must first complete one or two years of "productive labor. hopeless poverty. however. Although university admission is on the basis of merit. standard of living is described as nothing but a mirage for the vast majority of Americans. Soviet students learn nothing of the power of the people in a democracy to change their government officials. ." In both courses the United States is pictured as the chief villain among capitalist nations. for training in critically undermanned professions. for children from school age to about 9." For students whose marks are "good" or "excellent. is the Russia of the 1880's and not that of 1914. The high U.S. but when told the truth many refuse to believe it. The United States is described as a land of high unemployment. Also. the student receives a set sum of money for living expenses. Soviet young people are subjected to more forms of indoctrination. Communism in the Curriculum At all levels of schooling. Much of this is done through government-sponsored youth organizations: the Octobrists. by which time Russia had made noteworthy gains in public education and industrial development. Scientific and technological education is emphasized to prepare an increasing number of students for high-paying jobs in science. which does not allow for any "treats. The Soviet people are curious about life in America. and the Komsomol (or Young Communist League). Youth Organizations Away from school. indoctrination consists chiefly of comparing the "advantages" of the Communist system with the "backwardness" of prerevolu-tionary Russia. additional payments are made to keep incentive high. low income for working people. the Pioneers. engineering. to certify his loyalty to the regime. In the first three grades.
free vacations.) Physical Fitness The Soviet government lays great stress on its physical-fitness program.Komsomol members applaud opening speaker at 14th Komsomol Congress. The Union of Sports Societies and Organiza- . or for too much enthusiasm about Western ideas or clothes. These youth groups. This has led to dismissal of instructors suspected of a lukewarm attitude toward any of the dogmas of the Party. A good Komsomol record has other advantages. when of age. and are expected to report to the authorities any political heresy on the part of faculty members. The purpose of the Communist groups is different. such as admission to a university. Members are trained to accept a strict discipline that requires them to report any disloyalty to the regime. The Octobrists and the Pioneers include more than 90 percent of the children in their respective age groups. Their aim is to indoctrinate — to train people to obey the orders of the regime and to follow the principles of Communist doctrine. or appointment to a government job. held in Moscow's Kremlin Palace in 1962. by being admitted to the Communist Party. active in all universities. Their program also includes study of Communist Party theory and its application to everyday Soviet life. (Another organization vigilantly on the lookout for heresy on the part of faculty members is the Communist Party itself. award of a scholarship. Komsomol units are active in secondary schools and universities. and the ruination of their careers. although they engage in sports and social activities. the only way young people can participate is to join Communist-led organizations. It often expels members for critical comments about the regime. No competing groups are permitted. cannot really be likened to youth organizations in other countries. even if it involves their own parents. The Komsomol is more selective. for going to church. Members of the Komsomol who have a record of loyal devotion to the cause may ultimately be rewarded.
collectives. These spectacles feature gymnasts engaging in vigorous exercises and stunts. and military. and the Communist Party encourage participation in active sports through a program directed by the trade unions and the Komsomol. tions of the U. Back in 1925 a resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party stated: .S. schools.000 sports clubs in existence in factories. In sports.R. Through group activity. offices." Thousands of Soviet athletes participate in the annual sports parades on Physical Culture Day.Massed Soviet soldiers form a platform on which gymnasts build a pyramid. state farms.000 in 1959 to 50. It also gives Party officials another means of controlling him. the state stresses the group as the unit of society. Their goal has been to raise the number of participants from 20.000. Kremlin leaders consistently stress "collective" effort in all undertakings.000. impressive floats. There are 200.S. the individual can be indoctrinated with Party ideas and observed by the Party regulars. which are encouraged by official publications as "a means of improving health and raising labor productivity. Workers take part in group exercises at their plants in the program of on-the-job calisthenics. trade-union and police organizations.000 in 1965. including even sports. This minimizes personal characteristics and tends to submerge the individual in the Communist collective. and gigantic banners proclaiming the ideals of peace and Party loyalty. In recent years the Soviet Union has won numerous honors abroad for the prowess of its athletes in the Olympic games and other international contests. as in most other activities in the Soviet Union.
at the theater. among others. During Stalin's time some of Shostakovich's music was banned from public performance. was persecuted when his book was published in Italy. and what they may hear on the radio. Dimitri Shostakovich and other leading Russian composers were forced to make public apologies for "deviating from Socialist realism" in their music. whose novel Doctor Zhivago gave a realistic and critical account of the Bolshevik revolution. Soviet encouragement of originality and experimentation seems to be confined to science. are enjoying a partial relaxation of government controls over poets and writers—for the time being. He and Yevtushenko. an editor of a leading Soviet literary magazine. and trade union organizations through which the working and peasant masses are drawn into social and political life.. TV script writer or newspaper reporter would be Yevgeny Yevtushenko has been criticized by Party conservatives for his poems. No playwright. Moreover.Physical culture must be considered . what they may see at the cinema.. he was not permitted to go to Sweden to accept the Nobel Prize for Literature. in spite of any attempts to quiet him. Alexander Tvardovsky. Control of Cultural Life What Soviet citizens may read. Though there is strict censorship. He has said. and on TV. . the censor's task is actually very simple. however." and not merely follow the Party line. has aroused controversy by advising young writers to tell "the full truth about life. soviet. are all carefully selected to further the purpose of the Communist regime. SOVFOTO likely to submit any writing that remotely suggested doubt as to the supremacy of the Communist system. as a means of rallying the broad masses of workers and peasants to the various Party. one of which protested Soviet anti-Semitism. that he would continue to speak out against abuses in Soviet society. The' late Boris Pasternak.
1961. the shabby merchandise. you have seen dresses you cannot order. There is also a limited exchange of "live" artists — dancers. Under Khrushchev.Modern art is frowned on by Soviet authorities. my friends. red tape. and the favoritism practiced by minor officials. .S. made out of fabrics you cannot buy. instrumentalists.S. with President Kennedy in the United States. which were written before the Communist Revolution. American jazz artists could not have appeared in the Soviet Union. highlighted by a glittering reproduction of the first Sputnik. the trumpeter. The Soviet exhibition in New York City a few years ago. however. the ones from the free nations are few and far between. Religion Survives against Heavy Odds Communism preaches atheism. Do the Soviet people enjoy the controlled cultural fare offered them under the censorship of a government authority? Foreign observers of Soviet life report that the Soviet people tend to ignore the subtle political propaganda and enjoy public performances for their artistry. orchestras. clarinetist and orchestra leader. It makes jokes about the long lines at the stores. For example. They become a safe subject for criticism only after they have been attacked by some other top official. and singers. In the areas of fiction. and Benny Goodman. Khrushchev's son-in-law and then the paper's editor. oppose religion because they do not recognize any authority beyond the state. the most popular plays are the old Russian classics. There has been one notable exception to the policy of keeping the Soviet people from reading views contrary to official Communist doctrine. Although imported motion pictures are popular. is never the Communist system or the top Party or government leaders. was notable for its dull art display — a roomful of Victorian-style landscapes and patriotic. have an agreement to exchange ten motion pictures a year. denies the existence of God. the Soviet newspaper Izvestia published an interview conducted by Aleksei Adzhubei. poster-like portraits. and inefficiency. At the Moscow Art Theater. In November. Under Stalin. The United States and the U. drama. or Western plays (usually selected to picture the seamy side of capitalism). and declares that "religion is the opium of the people. The target of the criticism. and motion pictures there are signs of public boredom with the relentless barrage of Party propaganda. Goodman took a 19-piece orchestra and a female vocalist to the Soviet Union in the summer of 1962." (self-criticism) is tolerated. stage. TV. in all countries.R. such as Louis "Satchmo" Armstrong. the door was opened to a few." Communists. the Soviet humor magazine Krokodil publishes cartoons lampooning bureaucracy. A certain amount of what the Soviets call samo-kritika "And so.
a powerful force in Russian life for centuries and one of the major Christian organizations of the world.000 churches in operation before the Revolution.Nevertheless. however. has traditionally worked out church problems and policies with the Patriarch. outdoor posters. since 1917. of the 54.000 were permitted to remain open. appointed by the government. In February. in schools. The Synod. For all its efforts to discourage religious belief. and the Russian Orthodox religion became the official faith. antireligious campaigns were renewed. who is responsible to the government body called the Council on Affairs of the Russian Orthodox Church. there are today many people in the Soviet Union who hold to the religious beliefs their families have held for generations. Though Soviet young people. because the government wished to have all possible support for its war effort. Teachers suspected of holding to their religious beliefs were closely watched for signs of violating the regime's orders prohibiting any favorable references to religion. 116 When the Soviet Union became involved in World War II. and in many instances actively engage in Soviet propaganda against the United States. Organized groups of young people were released from school from time to time to participate in demonstrations against churchgoers. To continue to be "tolerated. The tsarist governments subsidized the Russian Orthodox Church. the Soviet government's campaign against religion has varied in intensity. orders were issued to start closing the churches. Soviet authorities relaxed their antireligious activities. . Today the Orthodox Church and other church groups are merely tolerated by the government. a group of high-ranking Orthodox Church officials. keeps an eye on all religious activity in the country. just a few months after the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia. their parents — unless they are Communists — usually hold firm to their faith/in God. are under the same restraints concerning freedom of speech as anyone else. Over the years. At the same time it continued its propaganda campaigns against religion through the press." Orthodox Church officials and clergy cannot oppose government policy. By 1930. This group. The head of the Orthodox Church is the Patriarch. After the war. but all of its decisions are kept in line with policies dictated by the Council. There was a reopening of many churches and seminaries. The Russian Orthodox Church Most of the Soviet people who hold to a religious faith belong to the Russian Orthodox Church. It can be said that the Orthodox Church officials and the Soviet government officials have an "understanding" which permits the church to exist as long as it does not interfere with government policy and decisions. Many of the closed churches were converted into museums where religious statues and relics were displayed as objects of curiosity. have been taught in school to cut themselves off from religion. and in theaters. the radio. and otherwise persecuted — even executed — many of them. Of course it is no longer "official. 1918." since the Communist Party (and thus the Soviet government) has made all too plain its opposition to religion. to suit the immediate objectives of the regime. It still exists in the Soviet Union. only about 5. even though the opportunity to worship publicly may have been denied them because of closed churches. and has not as yet dared take the extreme measure of closing all churches and eliminating the clergy. the Soviet government has not been able to extinguish it. The government nationalized church property. restricted the clergy to the holding of services.
235 Roman Catholic parishes exist throughout the U. with about 512. Moslems. and some 1. as well as in some of the other Soviet satellite nations. More than a million Lutherans live in Latvia and Estonia.According to figures supplied by the Russian Orthodox Church to the World Council of Churches. government antireligious campaigns do not succeed to the degree that they do in the Soviet Union. (In 1959 there had been an estimated 480.500.000 priests serving 20. With atheism a part of every child's education. Ninety-five per cent of the Poles are said to attend church regularly.000 adult members in some 5. But appointments of high church officials must be approved by the government. a sect whose antimilitary point of view is unpopular with the Soviet government. and Buddhists — all targets of government attack. and religious training is now permitted in church schools.000 Orthodox parishes in the Soviet Union today.R. Other Religions Other religious groups in the U.S.S. Lutherans.000 congregations. According to estimates based on the latest Soviet census. In Poland. . churchgoers in the Soviet Union are officially frowned upon. Most of them are Roman Catholic.) In 1962 the only seminary in the whole country for the training of rabbis was closed. There is some activity by Jehovah's Witnesses. Jehovah's Witnesses. Baptists. is also under severe pressure by the Soviet regime.000 Jews in the Soviet Union. at the beginning of 1965 there were over 2.S.S. Many church leaders jailed by Stalin were released under Khrushchev.000 people in the Soviet Union. Roman Catholics. Jews. Only 90 synagogues served them. the traditional religion of some 25.000. include the Old Believers (a branch of the Orthodox Church). The Baptists constitute a significant group in the Soviet Union.R. to which the Russian Orthodox Church was admitted in 1961. A Russian Orthodox priest blesses the traditional Easter cakes. Islam. there are about 30.
The word "Jew" must be stamped on all internal passports carried by Soviet citizens of the Jewish faith. Among the acts carried out were the closing of 180 churches in the Volynsk Region of the Ukraine "upon the demand of the workers. and their writers imprisoned or executed. An issue of Komsomolskaya Pravda. and Stavropol. When the state of Israel was established in 1948.S. the publication of Yiddish books suspended. there were 36 Buddhist monasteries with 16.000 lamas before the Revolution. the present Soviet government still treats Jews as possible security risks and maintains the bans on Jewish cultural institutions. where it is the religion of the majority of the population.S. The journal gave a short survey of the fate of Buddhism in the three territories of the U.S. However. under a regulation requiring that a citizen's "nationality" be shown. called for the punishment of parents who teach their children to believe in God. Although the death of Stalin curbed the acts of terror. in a 1960 issue of the Soviet periodical Nauka i Religiya (Science and Religion). In spite of the uprooting of many houses of worship in U. whatever their religious faith may be.) Now there are two monasteries and the number of lamas has dwindled to fewer than 100. where it was received by both the Premier.R. Pentecostal. After the Revolution the Bolsheviks denounced anti-Semitism as being incompatible with the Communist ideals of brotherhood. Reports from Moldavia indicate the closing of 25 churches and a number of Orthodox monasteries there.S. In mid-1960 a Soviet Buddhist delegation visited Cambodia. has suffered under the Communists. However." Three seminaries. with little or nothing being done by the regime to check it. were closed. All of this gave the impression that Buddhism enjoys full freedom and an honorable status in the Soviet Union. Soviet persecution of Jews was intensified. the official newspaper of the Komsomol. millions of persons still hold to their religious faiths. In Tuva ( c'entral Siberia) there are now about 100 lamas and no evidence of monasteries or temples remains. In the Kalmyk Republic ( north Caucasus). before the Revolution. Prince Sihanouk. only one Buddhist temple remains. Saratov. with the sentencing of the former Archbishop of Chernigov to eight years' imprisonment for "speculation" and "expropriation" of parishioners' funds. The Soviet press and radio carried numerous reports of anti-religious activity in 1961. The Yiddish theater was done away with. in the cities of Kiev. Arrests of members of Orthodox. Stepping Up the Attack Attacks on all religions are again on the increase. useful work. often at the risk of disciplinary measures by local Communist Party officials. in the 1930's the Stalin regime restricted the number of Jews who could hold prominent positions. and the diversion of hundreds of monks and representatives of the clergy to "general. and Jehovah's Witnesses sects were reported. In Buryatia (in eastern Siberia). and the Cambodian Minister of Religion. The intensity of the present antireligious campaign is an indication of the regime's concern with the recent increase in . the real situation was described.R. too.000 lamas (Buddhist priests.. as compared with 22 temples and more than 4. as Stalin reportedly suspected that those who lived in the Soviet Union were really loyal to the new state. The Fate of Buddhism Buddhism. They worship in family groups at home.Anti-Semitism There are many reports of a revival of anti-Semitism in the Soviet Union. and the sentencing of a group of Jehovah's Witnesses to seven years' imprisonment." as well as mass closings of churches in the Chernigov Region.
The Changing Soviet School. Why is it necessary for the Communists to "rewrite" history? 2. Current History. et al (eds. Haggerty. James J.). Raymond A.. and Music in Russia. How does the Soviet regime discourage the practice of religion? Questions to Think About 1. "The Soviet School Reform. And this is being done. What has the Communist Party to fear from the popular practice of religion? 3.1964. How has Soviet education changed since the Revolution? 5. Other Books Kolarz. Vintage. What types of criticism are permitted in the Soviet Union? 4. Guerney. 1960. F. . 1962.). Bereday. "Word to the Wise: Clues to Freedom Permitted Under Brezhnev and Kosygin. 1960.): Religion and the Church in Russia. George Z. Barnes. Bauer. Praeger. Literature in Russia. 28. Bernard G. (Anchor) Doubleday. the Soviet leaders have had to face up to a basic fact of human life: religious belief cannot be stopped by the issuance of orders. 1960. Architecture. 1960. 16... 1964. Describe the Soviet school system. Mar. Spacecraft. 2. Articles "Return from Russia.. Vintage." Hans Rogger. 1963. Hough-ton Mifflin. Painting.). Full propaganda force is being used to keep teen-agers out of church. (ed. A History of Soviet Literature: 1917-1962. George. Mifiukov." W. What is the main purpose of youth groups in the Soviet Union? 3. But there is no doubt that this toleration is a temporary expedient. Vera. and Pennar. How the Soviet System Works. What picture of the United States is given in Soviet schools? 6. Ciszek. It can be discouraged by bringing up young people in ignorance of religion. Why has the Soviet government been unsuccessful in its efforts to discourage the practice of religion? Books and Articles to Read Paperback Books Alexandrova. Outlines of Russian Culture (3 vols. et al.. Anthology of Russian Literature in the Soviet Period from Gorki to Pasternak. Nov. and that the ultimate goal is to eliminate religion as a force in the Communist society.. Paul. Scholastic Book Services. 1962. Jaan (eds. 1964. But many young people have been attending anyway — some perhaps to find out for themselves just what a religious service is like.church attendance.STUDY AIDS Words and Names 1o Understand Pioneers atheism Russian Orthodox Church samo-kritika Izvestia Yevgeny Yevtushenko ideology Komsomol Octobrists Checkup Questions 1. America. CHAPTER 9 . The Politics of Soviet Education." Newsweek. Nov. even though the regime tolerates a limited number of open churches. 1960. St Martin's. For all of their efforts to discredit religion. Walter. Jr. Religion in the Soviet Union. Bereday.
Although the leaders in both China and Russia were Marxist intellectuals and professional revolutionaries.The Communist Victory in China Communism won an important victory when mainland China was overrun by the Chinese Communist armies in 1949. it was the industrial working class that . A Peasant Guerrilla Movement Communism in China came into power by a path different from that of communism in Russia. In Russia. proclaimed the establishment at Peking of the "People's Republic of China" and appointed Chou En-lai as Premier and Foreign Minister. Lenin. and Stalin. The Chinese Communist leaders professed to follow the same masters: Marx. On September 21 of that year Mao Tse-tung. the Chinese Communist leader. The Chinese Communist victory took place 32 years after the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and was to some extent an outgrowth of the latter. the revolutions took quite different forms.
Students at Peking's Petroleum Institute exercise to commands from a loudspeaker. Not only did the Kuomintang reject Soviet help. and from that time on the Kuomintang followed a consistent anti-Communist line. For a time the chief Soviet agent. Britain. following the overthrow of the Manchu dynasty. took over the Kuomintang. the son of a wealthy farmer and a student of Marxism. The Communist agents from the U.S. they had tried to attract students and other groups. held considerable influence in the higher councils of the Kuomintang. which was centered in Shanghai. communism was a peasant guerrilla movement and the Chinese Reds got control of wide areas of the countryside before they were able to capture the large cities. completely repudiated his Marxist beliefs and devoted himself until his death to harmonizing the interests between the working classes and the capitalists. Chiang Kai-shek. workers. Mao was to become the leader of the Communist Revolution. the Chinese Reds worked mostly among guerrilla bands in remote rural areas. In China. to further the cause of the new independent republic. Under the leadership of Mao Tsetung.S." (Much foreign capital — from Japan.000 by 1962. Sun Yat-sen died in 1925. In 1924 Sun Yat-sen. William's book. was instrumental in delaying the Communist take-over in China by 22 years. Michael Borodin. But that . One reason for this was that China was basically an agricultural country. An interesting but not widely known fact is that an obscure Brooklyn dentist. made up the rank and file of the Party. Dr.R. and (2) to get control of the rising Nationalist People's Party or Kuomintang. Working-class participation was slight. after reading Dr. and it was the big cities where they worked — Moscow and Petrograd — that were first captured by the Communists. and in 1927 his disciple and closest aide. General Chiang purged the Communists. Soviet agents flooded China. Hankow. following the lines of Soviet communism. This party had been organized by the revolutionary leader Dr. In the 1920's. Maurice William.) In 1945. and his aides helped that body with military and financial matters. The number of factory workers was proportionately much smaller than it had been in Russia when the Communists seized power in 1917. and Canton. and other countries — had been invested in Chinese industry. but the Chinese Communist movement itself seems to have maintained only slight contact with Moscow. organized the Chinese Communist Party in Shanghai in 1921. Earlier. The Social Interpretation of History.000. One of the members of this original group was 31-year-old Mao Tse-tung. They had two objectives: (1) to set up a Chinese Communist Party. Everyone— students. even farmers—must perform exercises twice a day. and the small group of Party members was to grow to 17. defeated Japanese troops withdrew from China. Sun Yat-sen in 1912. at the end of World War II. as a revolt against the wealthy classes of China and foreign "imperialists.
friendly China was desirable to American security in the Far East.S. Japanese occupation. The Communists said they would bring unity. In this struggle the United States supplied weapons. directly and indirectly. . At this time the United States sent General George C. American public opinion. had admired and respected Chiang Kai-shek. The indirect influence took the form of stressing defects and weaknesses of the Nationalist government. ammunition. when the Soviet Union occupied Manchuria. A column of women athletes. With Japan made militarily helpless. later U.S. Americans sympathizing with them said that the Communists were "agrarian reformers. disappointed many U. to China to try and get the Chinese Nationalists and Communists to cooperate peacefully and govern China jointly. was strongly influenced. and other material to Chiang's Nationalists. They gobbled up one region after another. in favor of the Red Chinese. part of the annual May Day celebration in Peking. Marshall. Americans who considered the Nationalist government unresponsive to the needs of the Chinese people did not face up to the fact that the fall of Chiang would mean a Communist take-over. The successes of the Communists were partly due to the discipline and the indoctrination of their soldiers. Whether the United States should have done more to help the Nationalist government is still a matter of hot debate on which there may never be full agreement. Soon heavy fighting broke out between the Nationalists and the Communists. However. the Kuomintang. and governmental corruption that the task of restoring order proved beyond the power of Chiang Kaishek. marches past Tien An Men Square. The corruption and undemocratic tactics of the Chinese Nationalist Party. plundering. And at first the Nationalist armies won important victories against the Communists. medicines. In 1948 the tide of the Chinese civil war began turning in favor of the Communists. throughout World War II. Secretary of State.country was so exhausted by eight years of war. a reasonably strong. In addition. The Communists promised to take land away from rich landowners and divide it up among peasants who had little or no land. Currency inflation and the widespread lack of efficient local government helped to intensify Communist guerrilla activity." and shouldn't be called Communists at all. citizens who. But perhaps even more important was the skillful Communist propaganda among the people of the villages and towns. food. They did not realize that in the long run this might be worse for China — and for the interests of the United States — than the Nationalist regime with all its faults. He did not succeed. it took over large quantities of arms which in turn were handed over to the Chinese Communists. during the decisive years 1945-1949.
The U." and said. He called the island "an integral part of the Chinese state. where the Nationalist government still has its headquarters. To keep the Chinese Communists from invading Taiwan.S. But the danger of a full-scale war is always present. "Taiwan's unlawful occupation by American troops should be terminated. a U. disorder. A number of somewhat more independent centers of Communist authority began to emerge (see Chapter 7).S." Sino-Soviet Relations Earlier evidence of friction between Moscow and Peking culminated in a major public dispute in mid-1963. Chiang and 2. fleet stands guard in the strait between mainland China and Taiwan. Mao has threatened again and again to seize Taiwan by force and destroy the Nationalists. and plenty to a China that had undergone years of fighting. among Asian Communist parties in particular. when Khrushchev sent a note to all heads of government calling for an end to war to settle territorial disputes but describing Taiwan as a different case.000 of his Nationalist followers fled to the island of Taiwan (Formosa). and hunger. Mao's claim was supported by the Soviets in early 1964. The rivalry between the two countries for leadership of the international Communist movement resulted in waning Soviet influence. The United States has also supplied the Nationalists with modern jet planes and other aid to strengthen their island fortress. For a time there was an impression among European Com- . while what was once a unified and disciplined Communist bloc disintegrated.order. By the end of 1949 the Communists had conquered all of mainland China. ships have orders to fight should the Communists launch an attack on Taiwan.000.
In 1959 Khrushchev was guest of Mao (left. . The discord. the bulk of Soviet technicians were withdrawn from China — a serious loss." maintaining that war is not necessarily the only means of achieving Communist world domination. clapping. in the world-wide Communist Revolution. and Soviet aid to Albania was stopped. But these speculations proved false. but the leaders of Red China stress the fact that. also. But the following year. and big photo). Instead of adopting a softer line than that of the Soviet Union. and its leaders have violently attacked Yugoslavia's Tito. toward the end of 1960. the two were at odds. sent the Albanians funds and wheat. despite its poverty. In the summer of 1960. It demands absolute Communist conformity. In the Cold War. Red China is much more uncompromising than the Soviet Union. China. The Soviets have advocated "peaceful coexistence. however. munists that Chinese communism was less rigid and ruthless than the Soviet brand. Each side made some concessions. When the rugged little Balkan satellite Albania began to defy the Kremlin's leadership. Red China has taken an extremist position." There also have been differences in foreign policy. was covered up in a resolution adopted at a conference of 81 Communist parties in Moscow. war is practically inevitable — although they imply that the war would be started by the "imperialists. berating him as an "opportunist" who has strayed from the true Communist path.
Embassy in Moscow in March.S. and their response was lukewarm.Khrushchev obtained the signature of Red China's President Liu Shao-chi to his pet formula of coexistence." For the first time there was a serious split in the international Communist ranks. They continue to slap Khrushchev in the face and reveal the bankruptcy of his ridiculous theories prettifying imperialism. although most experts think it will take many years for the Chinese to create an effective delivery system. There were vehement denunciations of the United States. and Albania. The Chinese won the backing of Communist parties in Japan. . calling them tools of "U. . The mob — mostly Red Chinese students — battled Soviet troopers when they tried to restore order. All the resources at the disposal of a large state have been set in motion to wage a struggle within the Communist movement. A Soviet statement in October. and gained partial sympathy in Castro's Cuba and in the Italian. imperialism. In 1964 Khrushchev tried to muster sup- Anti-American demonstration in front of U. 1963. French. Indonesia. .S. North Vietnam. 1964." But Soviet Russia went along with China in a statement to the effect that the change to communism might require violence. But most Communist leaders feared the result would be a split in the world Communist movement. with the Chinese press heaping personal abuse on Khrushchev." and condemnation of the Tito regime. The Chinese Communists refused to endorse either of these attitudes. Bitterness increased in 1963 and 1964. Burma. The Soviet Union's number one position among the Communist-ruled nations was acknowledged. China's hand was strengthened when that country successfully detonated its first nuclear bomb in October. backfired. . This was marked by two events: Khrushchev's rebuke to the Albanian Communist Party. Only the Soviets were credited with "successfully carrying on the fullscale construction of a Communist society. ." port for a Moscow meeting of Communist parties to be held in December. In September. referred to "serious differences being used in Peking to unfold a campaign against the fraternal parties. ." The Chinese replied with heavy-handed satire: "The United States imperialists have not become beautiful angels in spite of Khrushchev's Bible reading and psalm singing. 1965. the Soviet-Chinese rift appeared again at the 22nd Congress of the Soviet Communist Party in October. North Korea. Khrushchev's ouster later that month brought a lull in . a declaration of all-out war against "colonialism. 1961. Pravda accused China of harboring claims to half a million square miles of Soviet territory (formerly Chinese) in eastern Siberia. New Zealand. However. and Belgian parties. and his continued exposure of the crimes of Joseph Stalin.
S. Two months later the Chinese Reds ordered a cease-fire and offered to negotiate.000 square miles farther east. India agreed. China occupied some 12. The long shadow of Communist China's power has also fallen over Southeast Asia. they again invaded a peaceful India. the dispute was still unsettled.000 of them. But the Chinese Reds began to aid . the colony was divided into four countries: Communist North Vietnam. military aid. which asked and received U. Chinese Premier Chou En-lai visited Moscow.the public attacks. North Korea was the first to fall under Red China's influence and is now a satellite of that country (see Chapter 5). When the Tibetans revolted in 1959. there is danger that Chinese pressure may force the Soviets to behave in a more warlike manner than they otherwise might. Indeed. In October.000 square miles of India's northwestern territory and claimed 51. and neutral Laos and Cambodia. 1962. It would be a mistake to attach great hopes to the rift between the two totalitarian giants. Also in 1959. In 1951 Red China seized control of Tibet. By early 1965. the Chinese killed an estimated 90. In 1954. China helped Communist rebels take over part of the colony of French Indochina in the early 1950's. What unites them is still stronger than what divides them. but this led to no apparent agreement. Communist China's Imperialism Communist China has been at least as aggressive as the Soviet Union with respect to the seizure of foreign territory and the extermination of independent nations. The Chinese are too far behind the Russians in military and economic strength to risk an all-out break. proWestern South Vietnam. if the Chinese first moved out of the territory they had seized in 1959.
Peasants were permitted to till their own individual plots in their spare time. In 1963-1964. Millions of peasants were herded into sprawling farms called "communes. Both have purchased wheat from the "capitalist West. the war was rapidly intensified." there were staggering crop failures. thus posing the threat of an enlarged war. however. renewed its commitment to help the South defend its freedom. Neither country has solved its farm problems. of South Vietnam's President Ngo Dinh Diem. enabling it to carry on a guerrilla war against South Vietnam. In the spring of 1965. "Viet Cong" guerrillas from the North gained control of large areas in the South. Agricultural organization in China today approaches the Soviet collective-farm pattern. Dissatisfaction with life in the communes and lack of incentive for farmers caused a serious drop in morale and a drastic decline in farm production. the food situation improved somewhat. planes bombed Viet Cong supply depots in North Vietnam and Laos. and the iron-fisted rule of the Communists became more oppressive than ever. with much more authority to run their own affairs. and often execution. the U. Opponents of the regime were subjected to "brainwashing. listen to the Central Committee's latest instructions.S. criticism of the government mounted. Red China is faced with mounting problems at home. off the southeast coast of Asia. Factory and farm workdays were lengthened to 12 or 14 hours. ." imprisonment. They also gave strong military and economic support to their satellite. Some of them stem from the "Great Leap Forward. members of the Nanyuan People's Commune. To counter sharply stepped-up Viet Cong aggression." a campaign begun in 1958 to make Red China a leading industrial and military power. It soon became apparent." Communes now serve mainly as a form of local government. Red China warned it might aid North Vietnam with Chinese troops. largely because the communes were reorganized into smaller production brigades. that the "Great Leap Forward" was a failure in spite of industrial gains. When U. Thousands of starving Chinese refugees flooded into the British colony of Hong Kong. but the U. Troubles at Home Even as it pursues its plans for conquest abroad. outside Peking. in an internal coup. confusion followed the overthrow. Here. In 1963." where they lived in regimental fashion and marched to and from their daily work in the fields.S.Communist rebels in Laos to overthrow that country's government. increased its military support. For three years following the "Great Leap Forward. With millions of Chinese on the brink of starvation. North Vietnam.S.
Bulletin (Institute for the Study of the U. Praeger. Sino-Soviet Conflict. 1964. .CHAPTER 10 Words and Names to Understand STUDY AIDS Kuomintang Manchu dynasty "agrarian reformers" Viet Cong communes brainwashing Checkup Questions 1.S. Articles "Russia. 1964. 1964. 1963. Schwartz. Current History. The Two Chinas.S. In what ways did the Chinese and Russian revolutions differ? 2. Lippincott. U. Today. 2. Donald S." Nikolai Galay. "China in the World Today" (special issue). 1964. Chu-yuan.). Zagoria. Stevens.S. 23. 1956-1961.R. 1964. What were the primary reasons for the Communist victory over the Nationalists in 1949? Why was a strong. and Commissars: A History of Chinese-Russian Relations. 1964.? 4. David. Penguin.. Moscow and Chinese Communists. News. Why was Red China's "Great Leap Forward" a failure? Questions to Think About 1.. Peking. Mandarins. Robert C. Oliver. Floyd. Stanford Univ 1963. China. Sept. Mao Against Khrushchev. How was American public opinion influenced in favor of the Chinese Communists during the years 19451949? 3.R. What are the chief points of disagreement between Communist China and the U. Scholastic Book Services." F. Edward. Atheneum. B. New Cold War: Moscow v. Other Books Cheng.S. What territory has Red China seized? Where*has it helped set up other Communist regimes? Where is it aiding Communist rebels? 5.S. 1964. 1964.S. Nov. Harry. friendly China important to American security in the Far East after World War II? Why does Red China feel it so important to take over Taiwan? Why has there been increasing friction between Red China and the Soviet Union in recent years? Books and Articles to Read Paperback Books Bell. Economic Relations Between Peking and Moscow Praeger. 3. Tsars. 4.. Crankshaw. the U. "The Moscow-Peking War Flares Up. North. May.
trade. operated by both Soviet Communists and local Party members. The plan was clever. These included direct authorization for mutiny and treason. Hungary. As Soviet Russia's Red Army pushed back Hitler's forces and advanced from the Volga to the Elbe. Now Communist controls. Communist parties throughout the world were ordered to give aid to "revolutionary liberation movements in colonial lands. At the beginning. they set down a blueprint of Communist expansion with world domination as its goal. the Chinese Communists rallied to support Sun Yat-sen's Kuomintang in 1924." to help them throw off "imperialist" control. The Comintern set out to accomplish this. But the Communists were arvbitious. Communists were instructed to support non-Communist revolutionary movements while retaining their own organizations. for example. worked with the revolutionary National Congress. . . In Asia. 217 delegates from 41 countries attended the Congress. and Eastern Germany." The Grand Strategy The Communist strategy. Bulgaria. The following year. They further outlined the plan of world conquest and adopted 21 rules for admission to the Comintern. In China. where Communist groups should be formed in every military organization.The Communist Pattern of Conquest On the second day of March. It regarded as the most likely targets for Bolshevik-type revolutions the industrial countries of Western Europe and North America. as the world now sees. They had been called by Lenin and Trotsky to organize the Comintern (Communist International) — a union of Communist parties throughout the world. which at the decisive moment should be of assistance to the Party to do its duty to the Revolution. There were only 35 voting delegates present. . they also began to stir up trouble in the less advanced countries of Asia and the Middle East. For example: Persistent and systematic propaganda must be carried on in the army. a small group of men met in Moscow to plan a world revolution. where industry was almost nonexistent and the working class still weak. The majority were obscure revolutionaries who happened to be in Moscow and who had no authority to speak for political groups in their native countries. Estonia. it brought with it Communist political and economic control. were clamped down on the other occupied countries. and two fifths of Poland had been annexed by the Soviet Union before Hitler's attack. uses many devices to gain its ends: force or threat of force. Czechoslovakia. With World War II came holocaust and upheaval. too. Millions of people were torn loose from their old moorings. propaganda. subversion. 1919. the main ambition of the Communist Party was to duplicate the Russian Revolution of 1917 in other countries. and the secret police. In addition. all Communist parties were required "to create everywhere a parallel illegal apparatus. Puppet regimes were set up in the reshaped Poland and in Romania. . Each Party desirous of affiliating with the Comintern should be obliged to render every possible assistance to the Soviet Republics in their struggle against all counterrevolutionary forces. The Indian Communist Party. Latvia. Lithuania. Nevertheless. because they were the most advanced industrially. the one-party system.
The effect of this treatment is a quick shift from fear to hope. but all my friends who have made a realistic assessment of the international situation think so. Not only I myself. on March 4 of the same year: Analyzing the atmosphere which has arisen in the world in relations between peoples and governments. telling the Supreme Soviet (Parliament) on January 14. Others stab with the cruel precision of a bayonet. the secret police. Some are disguised and do not seem like weapons at all. moreover. I am firmly convinced that all the conditions now exist for the preservation and strengthening of peace. Here is Khrushchev the threatener. One method of psychological warfare used by the Soviets is a strategy of intermittent terror. some are blatant. the next day soothing reassurances. The greatest Communist victory since the Bolshevik Revolution of 191/ was the establishment of Communist rule in mainland China in 1949 (see Chapter 10). the Soviet leaders wielded their control over almost one hundred million people of east-central Europe. 1960: War would begin in the heart of the warring countries. not only during the first days. Some of these appeals are subtle. speaking to the Soviet-Indian Friendship Society. A good illustration of this method may be found in the following two contrasting statements made by Khrushchev. not a single major industrial or administrative center. the soothing peace lover. World War II made possible the expansion of communism in yet another continent — Asia.One-party rule. Other propaganda techniques include appeals to group interests and prejudices. state ownership of industries. in the bloody aftermath of World War II. . The Methods of Communist Propaganda Communist propaganda has an arsenal of weapons at its command. such as anti-imperialism. anti-Semitism. Thus. And here is Khrushchev. They blow hot and cold: one day fierce threats. there would not be a single capital. while he was Soviet premier. A favorite method of the Communist propagandist is the "Big Lie" — based on the proposition that the masses will accept a monstrous falsehood more readily than a small one. anti-Catholicism. Party monopoly over information and education. not a single strategic area which would not be subjected to attack. Some strike with the impact of a sledgehammer. but during the first minutes of war. which utterly confuses foreign public opinion. and the herding of peasants into collective farms were put into effect everywhere. within a span of two months.
General Assembly by Prime Minister Macmillan of Great Britain. Khrushchev employed this technique repeatedly in dealing with the Western powers over Berlin. and on many other occasions. has been distorted to mean rule through police terror. to play. Khrushchev took the "hard" line: the Soviet Union would sign a treaty with its puppet regime. in June. ." "freedom. calling off his December 31 deadline for the conclusion of the peace treaty. along government lines." Communists are fond of using such phrases as "peaceful coexistence. Communist activities are described in glowing terms.N.S." which originally meant peaceful state control of production. And in a "democracy" only one party appears on the ballot. to think." In fact.R. And it is accused of "warmongering" if it tries to hold lines of defense against Soviet expansion. The nations under Soviet control are called "people's democracies" or "people's democratic republics. One of the trademarks of Soviet propaganda is a familiar principle of advertising: the use of repetition to produce a desired image." "elections. Then. in an attempt to force the Western Allies out of West Berlin. the so-called German Democratic Republic. In his talk with President Kennedy in Vienna. In the U. For example. during the autumn of 1961.S. is always called "imperialist" and "colonialist." have been corrupted by Soviet misuse. Khrushchev changed tactics. the U.S. He hinted that the Soviet Union and the Western powers could negotiate an agreement on the status of West Berlin without dealing with the East Germans. On the other hand. and its satellites the popular slogan — the catch phrase — assails the eyes of newspaper readers and blares from the radio and TV." although it has neither empire nor colonies. "Socialism. 1961. telling the citizens to work. a whole list of words. such as "peace." and they grandly describe the Communist system as "the wave of the future. The incident took place four months after the collapse of the 1960 summit conference in Paris.Premier Khrushchev "registers his displeasure" during an address to the U. rather than to think for themselves. "Education" means teaching the young to parrot the Communist line. Both at home and abroad the Soviets have a special vocabulary.
and various European countries revealed that these operations were invariably helped by local Communists or persons who were emotionally attracted to communism. among other nations. Every Communist citizen of a non-Communistic country is bound by Party discipline to work for the downfall of his own government. A free society. The espionage organization established in Japan by Richard Sorge. The Communists who betrayed nuclear-weapons secrets. The many exposures of Soviet spy rings operating in the United States. guarantees through its constitution. must tolerate freedom of thought and . a study of Soviet propaganda. right of privacy. The notorious Canadian spy ring which was exposed by Igor Gouzenko. policy in Vietnam. 1965. Behind him (/. Japan.. Dunham states that "The Kremlin has fashioned out of propaganda the most powerful non-military weapon of national aggression the world has ever known. if it is to remain free.S. a German Communist in the guise of a Nazi journalist.Addressing a meeting at the Kremlin. on April 19." Subversion and Infiltration One of the reasons Soviet espionage is so formidable and so difficult to detect is the ability of Soviet spy rings to recruit foreign agents. people like Klaus Fuchs and Alan Nunn May in Great Britain and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg in the United States.A. and r. First Secretary of Soviet Communist Party. and Yumzhagiin Tsedenbal. were not Soviet citizens. was composed of Japanese and Germans — not of Soviet Russians. The question of how to deal with persons whose allegiance is directed to a foreign government is not a simple one for free societies. In Kremlin Target: U. Donald C. Mongolian premier and Communist Party leader.S. It is of the utmost importance for the U. was made up of Canadian citizens.) are Leonid Brezhnev. in Moscow.S. Soviet Premier Aleksei Kosygin denounced U. a Soviet citizen employed as a code clerk by the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa. For the very steps that the government must take to prevent such individuals from occupying positions of authority may at the same time suppress their freedom of speech. government to keep Communist Party members and sympathizers from infiltrating government posts or other positions where they may threaten the safety of the nation. Canada. including members of the Canadian Communist movement. and other basic rights which the United States.
They believed that an orderly series of changes. was organized in Paris in 1889 and established its headquarters in Brussels. 1943. the Communist parties of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The Third International. Second. along with those of France and Italy. or Communist Information . to realize the aims of his Communist Manifesto. Through it he hoped to bring together the working people of all lands. could slowly improve social conditions. brought about the end of the Comintern on May 22. It was disbanded after a congress held at Philadelphia in 1874. by legal. Among the targets are The New York Times and Spanish editions of Reader's Digest. is also known as the Communist International. but the Comintern reversed its position when Stalin signed the treaty of nonaggression with Hitler in 1939. diplomatic. from time to time. and scientific secrets. The First International. These groups are important in Socialist and Communist history. The International Organization When Marxists talk about socialism and communism.expression. the Communist Party was ordered to organize new trade unions. they often speak of the First. This strategy changed Cubans stage a propaganda assault on North American publications during a Havana carnival. Some of its members wanted to revise some features of Marxism. or Comintern (see page 137). During the 1930's Communist parties abroad joined other groups to oppose Hitler and Mussolini. depending on world conditions and on the local conditions in the various countries. but it was badly weakened by its failure to prevent World War I. In some countries. After the war. The local Communist Party might be friendly with Socialist and labor parties one day and denounce them as "bourgeois" the next. This International still exists. met in Poland and organized the Cominform. democratic processes. in others it was told to join unions already in existence and try to convert their leadership to Communist ideas. The Comintern met throughout the 1920's and 1930's to direct the strategy of the world revolution. But it is under no obligation to commit suicide by permitting conspirators in the service of a foreign power to make free with its military. But its members could not agree. Most European Socialist parties joined it. The Second International. and Third Internationals. World War II presented serious obstacles to the direction of Communist parties from an international center. was founded by Marx in 1864 in London. This. sometimes called the Socialist International. created in Moscow in 1919 by the Bolsheviks after their victory. originally named the International Workers' Association. in addition to Stalin's desire to improve relations with the Western Allies.
Communists proclaimed themselves to be ardent defenders of peace and democracy. It set out to destroy Socialist and peasant parties in Eastern Europe.S. It supported the Communist coup in Czechoslovakia which brought that country under Soviet domination in February. such as the Marshall Plan. 1948. 5. however.S. to offset West Germany's membership in NATO in 1954 (see page 178). Mob of youths protests U. The dissension lasted until the death of Stalin. quite the reverse is true in non-Communist lands where Communist parties exist legally. Czechoslovakia.S. the U. But when Hitler and Stalin signed their secret treaty in August. and began to divide up Eastern Europe between them.I. building in Djakarta.S. December. and as long as Stalin denounced Hitler.000. 2. After reconciliation with Tito. Demonstration at U. borders. 4. The Cominform set up headquarters in Belgrade.S. Communists throughout the world disagreed over the expulsion of Tito. Hungary. even if Hitler won. These Communist parties loyal to Moscow faithfully follow every twist and turn of Soviet foreign policy. the U. It expelled the Yugoslav Communist Party for defying Stalin's attempts to dominate Yugoslavia in June. forgot their attacks on Hitler and blamed Britain and France for starting World War II. The name was changed. activities in Europe. Poland. support of Congo government. With a membership of 3. was the Warsaw Pact.Bureau.R. Communists. Bulgaria. and East Germany.S. and many in countries outside of the Communist bloc resigned from the Party. The war became an "imperialist war.S.S. the Soviets justified an arms build-up there.000. Shortly after its inception the Cominform took the following actions: 1. like Communists all over the world. The U. This last act backfired. In the years before the United States entered World War II. announced on April 17. It established a joint military command over the Soviet Union. that the Cominform had been dissolved. Yugoslavia." from which America must hold aloof. 1948.R. 1939. and started on its first job: to consolidate strength among the satellite states along U. Communist Parties in Non-Communist Countries Although organized opposition is not permitted in Communist-ruled countries.S. In its place. By making East Germany a full member of the pact. 3. 1956. a Soviet-inspired agreement signed in 1955. and against war and fascism. 1964. namely to promote communism throughout the world. Romania.S. Communist Party turned another somersault the day after Hitler invaded the Soviet . Albania. but the purpose was the same. the U. One example is the behavior of the Communist Party in the United States. It carried on propaganda against U. It ordered Communist parties in France and Italy to organize strikes against the government. Indonesia's Communist Party is the largest in any nonCommunist country. in 1953.S. and to keep Western influence out of Communist countries.
The AFL-CIO leadership is vigilant about keeping Communists out of office. until 1962 they had a working alliance with a party of left-wing Socialists led by Pietro Nenni. the Soviet Union can use its foreign trade as a life-and-death threat to Communist countries under its influence. the Communist Party (PKI). Communist influence has been able to feed on social unrest. It has received President Sukarno's public endorsement as a legitimate participant in the nationalist movement. which a great many did. elections. the U. Communists took up the defense of each Soviet aggression. but rarely succeed in doing so. on extreme social contrasts (a few very rich. In Indonesia. In Italy. Because they are such a large minority. Similarly.S.S. giving the two groups together about one third of the vote cast. even if it means repudiating the "line" established only a few weeks before. however." and "colonialist. many very poor). Nenni and the Socialists decided to participate directly in a center-left government. From that moment on American Communists declared the war was being fought for "democracy" and "justice.S. one out of four Italians voted Communist. and the conflict of purpose between the United States and the U. have a firm grip on many local administrations and on the trade unions. They try to gain control of some of the trade unions. largest outside the Communist bloc.000 members. policy as "imperialist. their vote makes it difficult to form a strong. 1964. attacked U. In Western Europe. the Communist vote has fluctuated from 25 to 28 per cent of the total. Just as the war came to an end. A small group of Party members or sympathizers. Individuals in the U.Union. Party has remained in the hands of a group that is ready to follow any instructions from Moscow. Broken Treaties and Promises The chief obstacle in the way of reaching a satisfactory and lasting settlement with the Soviet . sometimes even a single person. to be about 10. although he is a moderate Socialist of strong anti-Communist views. may influence the policy of an organization whose members or employees are predominantly non-Communists of unquestioned loyalty to their country. Membership in the U. Communist Party who could not stomach these maneuvers had no choice but to quit the Party. Giuseppe Saragat required the votes of the Communists for his election as Italian president in December. drawing away from their old Communist allies." "reactionary. The state monopoly on foreign trade makes it possible to shift orders from one country to another for political purposes in a series of rewards and punishments: now offering trade as bait. Since 1928. 1963. though support of Communist candidates has declined since General de Gaulle's election as president in 1958. In April. communism has attained a strong base of operations in Castro's Cuba. dump certain commodities on the world market and sell them below prevailing prices in order to create an economic crisis. in June. In the Western Hemisphere. 1941. for example. Communists usually poll a little over one fifth of the national vote. The Italian Communists. now cutting it off as a reprisal.000. This can prove most effective against a country that depends primarily on the export of a single commodity. and on fanning the flames of the traditional envy and fear of the United States. Later that year.S. became evident. In France." and they urged the United States to enter the war immediately. They may.S. In other Latin American countries.000.I. only the French and Italian Communist parties show real political strength. civic groups." and denounced the United States as exclusively responsible for the Cold War. and other organizations.R. has an estimated 3. the Soviets can use foreign trade to political advantage.B. the U. steel-fortified borders. stable government. Communist Party is estimated by the F. Manipulation of Trade In addition to the bristling.S.S.
Great Britain. Why has Soviet espionage been so widespread throughout the world? 3. How do Communist parties in non-Communist lands react to the constant changes in Soviet foreign policy? Give examples. renewed April 4. 1921 Treaty of nonaggression and neutrality with Lithuania. January 21. February. August. Are the more industrially advanced nations better targets for Bolshevik-type revolution than the less advanced nations? 2. 1932 Poland invaded by Soviet forces and partitioned with Nazi Germany. How effective were the actions taken by the Cominform after its formation? Books and Articles to Read . renewed April 4. sealing off East Berlin from the rest of the city Soviet resumption of a series of powerful atmospheric blasts on September 1. September 28. 1934 Lithuania forcibly annexed August 6. providing for freedom of movement between East and West Berlin Erection by Soviet puppet government in East Germany of a wall. July 25. Here is a list of ten solemn treaties concluded by the Soviet government and broken at the first convenient opportunity: Treaty or Pledge Recognition of the independence of Georgia. and propaganda warfare methods. May 7. unfettered elections in Poland.Union is the complete indifference of its rulers to their own pledged word.1961 Statement by Khrushchev in August. 4.1939 Treaty or Pledge Treaty of nonaggression with Latvia. Give examples of Communist psychological. CHAPTER 11 . How can a free society meet the threat of Communist infiltration without suppressing basic freedoms? 4. September. February 5. 1940 Treaty of nonaggression with Poland. Questions to Think About 1. 1932.STUDY AIDS Words and Names to Understand Comintern psychological warfare Checkup Questions treason Warsaw Pact Cominform infiltration 1. that the Soviet Union would never be the first to resume nuclear testing It is this habitual bad faith by the Soviets that makes it difficult for the Free World to place any reliance upon a paper agreement with them. providing for free. 1945. 1920 How and When Broken Georgia invaded and forcibly annexed to the Soviet Union February 11. 1945 Systematic violation of this treaty by giving aid to Chinese Communists Agreements of 1945 and 1949 with the United States. May 4. and France. 1932 Soviet troops invade Finland November 30. 1939 Yalta agreement with United States and Great Britain.1934 How and When Broken Latvia forcibly annexed August 5.1932 Esfonia forcibly annexed August 3. 1926.1940 Treaty of nonaggression and amicable settlement of disputes with Estonia. economic. and democratic institutions in East European countries Systematic and persistent violations of these promises leading to transformation of Poland and other countries occupied by the Red Army into one-party dictatorships Treaty pledging support only to Nationalist government of China. 1959. How did World War II make possible the expansion of communism in Europe and Asia? 2. How effective have the "intermittent terror" and "Big Lie" techniques been as Cold War weapons for the Communists? 3. 1940 Nonaggression treaty with Finland.
Viking.).). J. Schapiro. Oct. 1 Led Three Lives. Helen. The Soviet Union. 1964. Farrar.Paperback Books Hoover. Harcourt. Samuel P. 1963. "Soviet Union. Jeane J. Herbert. 1964" (special issue). Nov.. and Huntington. 1951. Edgar. Political Power: USA/USSR. Kirkpatrick. Scholastic Book Services. Neither Five Nor Three. . (ed. The Strategy of Deception." Philip E. Pocket Books.. 1959.. Foreign Affairs.. 1963. Articles "Soviet Policy in the Developing Countries. Other Books Brzezinski. 1964. Current History. Mosely. 1965. Maclnnes. Masters of Deceit. Leonard (ed. 1964. 1952. The USSR and the Future. Grosset & Dunlap. Philbrick. Praeger. Zbigniew K.
7. Yearning for short cuts to an ideal society. Having a too-rosy picture of life under communism in such "utopias" as the U. impatience with the gradual. why do some peasants in an Oriental country like South Vietnam help Communist guerrillas. (This state of affairs is most likely to occur after an unsuccessful war. Here are 10 reasons why some individuals are attracted to communism: 1. (Some persons become attracted to communism because they have no deep understanding of their spiritual faith. The problem is complex because the motivations of individuals toward communism vary considerably from country to country and from one period of history to another. Why do some fairly well-to-do.S. and a desire to be on the winning side. 3. it is not always in the poorest countries that the roots of communism strike deep. of seeing one's spiritual and material values disappear. Resentment toward social backwardness and real or alleged corruption in government. and its threat of death or the concentration camp for objectors.) 5. The two greatest victories of communism — in Russia and in China — both followed the devastation and disruption of prolonged war and invasion. Mistaking communism for a system that stands for "peace." the righting of wrongs.) Exceptions to the Rule These ten causes do not always explain communism's appeal for some people. and giving the "underdog" his chance.R. A conviction that communism is certain to win. yet Communists are influential in France but scarcely exist in . Poverty. But it is not so easy to understand why individuals become Communists of their own free will in countries that have the democratic system. and psychological conditions in North America and Western Europe are quite different from those in the economically retarded lands of Asia. with no hope of improvement.) 4. or because they misunderstand the true nature of communism. Loss of religious faith. 8. The economic. France is a richer country than Ireland. with its far-flung organization of secret police. 10. (Such misconceptions are fostered by Communist propaganda publications in nonCommunist countries and by carefully guided tours of Communist countries.or should know that tens of thousands of their fellow villagers have fled from intolerable conditions in the Communist-ruled northern part of their divided country? Some of the Reasons There is no simple answer. to take a different case. Ignorance and illiteracy. Racial or social discrimination. orderly democratic process. A widespread sense of being uprooted.Why Do Some People Become Communists ? It is easy to understand why a country submits to Communist rule where the Red Army has marched in and set up the Communist system. 2.S.) 9. even though they know . Africa and South America. For example. and China. 6. social. educated people of middle-class origin betray political and scientific secrets to Communist agents in the United States or join Soviet spy rings in Canada? Or. (The inability to read or write makes an individual susceptible to Communist word-of-mouth propaganda.
in its social. there had been steady improvement in the workers' situation as new ma- Weary Russian soldiers taken prisoner outside Warsaw wait to be transported deep behind German lines in World War I. economic. Even the emancipation of the serfs by Tsar Alexander II. though far ahead of Asia. The explanation may be that life in Ireland is comparatively tranquil and stable as contrasted with the tumult in France in recent decades. who toiled long hours under difficult conditions for little pay. chines increased productivity and reduced hard labor. did not make the serf the equal of the landlord in education. Nor would it be accurate to assume that Communists belong only to the underprivileged groups of the population. wealth. In the United States. communism has drawn more support from the fairly well-to-do and the professions than from the poorer groups. Thus it is apparent that people who become Communists do so for a variety of reasons. a succession of crises in Algeria. 154 and educational development. infiltration. Russia's Vulnerability Tsarist Russia was especially vulnerable to violent social revolution because it was less advanced than the rest of Europe.Ireland. Industrial workers. There were extremes of wealth and poverty rooted in the old Russian system of landowning nobility and peasant serfs. resulting from foreign invasion and occupation. In other countries. in 1861. on the other hand — the class on which communism originally placed its greatest hopes of support — have taken the lead in antiCommunist demonstrations in the United States. and other disturbing events. and opportunity. such as sharecroppers and migratory farm laborers. Other Russians who were ready for revolution were the industrial workers. Although the majority of the peasants did not understand Marxism. But since industrial development . they could easily be won over to a program of avenging old wrongs and dividing the big estates among themselves. Let us now take a look at the two great Communist revolutions and see how they attracted their followers.
The people lived with the threat of recurrent famines. and other non-Russian peoples. and Western European standards. plus regimentation and inefficiency under the Communist regime. In the 1960's drought. For centuries the Chinese have suffered periodic famine. and others who desired political and social change. The chief cause of Lenin's support was the war weariness of the Russian people. The last prop to the old way of life was removed with the overthrow of the tsars. Finally.did not start in Russia until the end of the 19th century. productivity and wages lagged behind U. under the tsarist system. Still another contributing factor in the revolutionary trend was the discrimination practiced by the Russian autocracy against Poles. which could be achieved only by making war against the majority of the Russian population. The first condition for a climate sympathetic to communism was met: poverty with . Lithuanians. has aggravated the situation. Poverty and want were so widespread as to be indescribable. World War I disrupted everyday life and brought suffering to the Russian population. Thus Russian workers as a class were more susceptible to revolutionary propaganda. The well-meaning but rather weak liberals and moderate Socialists who held power for the few months between the downfall of the Tsar and the coming of the Communists could not control the tides of upheaval that were playing into Lenin's hands. Another factor that accounted for the appeal of communism in Russia was the absolute power of the tsars.S. The resulting widespread discontent among the affected groups made them more ready to accept revolution as the means of correcting this evil. of bringing about needed reforms through peaceful evolutionary means forced Russian intellectuals. to advocate extreme revolutionary methods. How the Communists Came to Power in China The Chinese Revolution took place in a country devastated by war (see Chapter 10). Many who supported the Bolsheviks did so because they wanted the war to end and because they did not anticipate the ultimate goals of the Russian Bolshevik Party. who had been the symbol of authority for centuries. The impossibility. notably the peasants.
changing world and domestic conditions cause the popularity of communism to fluctuate. for centuries the peasant had owed his allegiance to whatever warlord or other local authority happened to be in power at the moment. In any country. in certain areas and at certain times. In non-Communist countries. the old "class-war" antagonisms seem to account for the persistence of Communist strength. the growing prosperity of Europe has largely weakened the prospect of a Communist attempt to seize power by violence. hard core of Communists retains influence within some of the trade unions. for political influence. which does not exist in the United States on a large scale. For example. However. "Why do people become Communists?" the answers are almost as varied as the number of people concerned and the times and places in which they live. In Russia before 1917. Another condition that existed on every side was illiteracy. . Sometimes the intense fellowship of a Communist or near-Communist group temporarily meets the needs of a lonely and psychologically uprooted individual. this picture changes radically. is likely to dictate application for membership. Persons who joined the Communist Party under such circumstances were ready to face severe consequences for their convictions. Postwar Soviet expansion disillusioned many potential sympathizers. Why do some individual Americans become Communists or active defenders of the Communist cause? Acute poverty. lengthening bread lines and the pinch of unemployment caused some educated people to seek in communism an answer to America's economic problems. a small. Dissatisfaction with some aspect of life in the United States may be another motivating cause for the individual who is unable to make a logical point-by-point comparison with conditions in Communist countries. death was the penalty for Communist activity. He may require assurance that communism is in a position to supply all the answers. The appeal of communism hit an all-time low in 1956 with the publication of Khrushchev's secret report outlining the bloody crimes of the Soviet state under Stalin and the suppression of the Hungarian popular uprising. is seldom the answer. any change was an improvement. It has been fashionable among intellectuals in both countries to strike a strong antigovernment pose.no hope of improvement. and the reasons are varied. which was also supported by the Communists. a revolutionary faced prison and exile if he fell into the hands of the police. Communism in the West In both France and Italy. The government was fluid. 011 the other hand. So he accepted the gun and the bowl of rice and followed the Communist organizer. for social advantages — rather than idealism. But once the Communist Party is in power. a feeling of challenging established conventions. In the United States. At home. These events were followed by some desertions of disillusioned intellectuals from the Communist parties of the West. And so to the question. Then membership in the Party is the road to power and privilege. there is obviously a great difference between the motives which impel people to become Communists before and after the rule of the Communist Party is established. Personal ambition — for a better job. historical events are closely connected with a person's decision to join the Communist Party. but it has been a long time since the British Communists have mustered strength enough to elect even a single member of Parliament. in the 1930's the appeal of communism rose as idealistic young men from the Western democracies rushed to Spain to help the Loyalist cause. regardless of the government in power. To him. For young people there may be a sense of novelty and adventure. Communists are even more isolated from national life than they are in Britain (see Chapter 11). In China. The uneducated peasant was a ready subject for mass indoctrination with slogans and promises. Other persons who dream of a Utopian society like to believe that such a society exists in the Soviet Union or China. In addition. are displeased with their government. for one reason or another. there is the "protest" vote by non-Communists who. One must seek further. For example. In Great Britain. or both.
Soviet Man and His World. / Rediscover Russia. What factors made tsarist Russia vulnerable to communism? How were conditions similar or dissimilar in China? 2. Scholastic Teacher. Inside Russia Today (rev. The God That Failed. Klaus. 1964. (Duell) Meredith." E. Overstreet. Ch.1964. 1963. 1962. Lippincott. 1964. Why is education such an important weapon against communism? Books and Articles to Read Paperback Books Bell. ed. Levine. 1962. Russians. Bantam. Oliver. Praeger.). The Soviet Union. Other Books Gruliow. Day by Day. Scholastic Book Services. Why are the Communists more influential in France than in Ireland? 3. Grossen. Why did many people join the Communist Party in the 1930's? Why did many leave it in the post-World War II period and in 1956? 5. Scholastic Book Services. 17. The Two Chinas. Apr. Norton. Articles "My Russian Journey. 2. For what reasons do some Americans become Communists? 4. Leo. 1965. 1964. . Mehnert.). Isaac D. Gunther. 4. Harry and Bonaro. Which causes given for the appeal of communism to some people seem to be most important? Give reasons to support your answer. Why are Soviet leaders concerned over growing European prosperity? 4. John.CHAPTER 12-STUDY AIDS Words and Names to Understand underprivileged groups Checkup Questions "class war" Loyalist 1. Richard (ed. The Iron Curtain. L. 1960.. With what group in Britain have Communists retained some influence? Questions to Think About 1. Pyramid. Grossman. Why have industrial workers in the United States often taken the lead in anti-Communist demonstrations? 3.
S. and ballot.. or that Communist China will.) Elements of Communist Strength In view of what has happened. It is a strength that arises out of the totalitarian nature of a government that has the weapons to compel its people to do what the self-appointed rulers demand of them. when that country has developed a delivery system for its newly acquired nuclear weapons. Bulgaria. Laos. through a mistaken or a wrongly interpreted report. or that a nuclear war may be triggered by accident. including the right to express their will by speech. government offered a plan to the United Nations for international control of atomic energy. when the United States was still the sole possessor of the A-bomb. and the other Communist regimes are told that U. The Soviet leaders at that time knew full well. It has been pointed out in earlier chapters how the Soviet Union and Red China reach out with every means. What is it that gives Soviet and Chinese communism power over so many people? Here are seven of the main elements of Communist strength: 1. as they do today. The proposal was approved by all members of the U. (It has happened only 90 miles from the U.S. . and how Communist agents operate on a world-wide scale in an effort to undermine independent nations and prepare them for a Communist take-over. but rejected by the Soviet bloc. would agree to outlaw the A-bomb.The Might of Communism The anxiety of the people of the Free World over the possibility of a nuclear war is based not on the fear that the United States will start such a war. provided the U. But the people of the Soviet Union. with rights guaranteed by law. it is folly to underestimate the power of international communism. You have seen how the Soviet Union.R. where the people are recognized as individuals. It was willing to surrender its atomic secrets to an international authority. leaders are warmongers and a threat to world peace. the U. writing. and other once independent nations in its grip.S.S. that the United States would not start a nuclear war. Poland. Suppression of Dissent or Resistance. Strength enables communism to keep a firm grip on a large part of Eurasia. communism is a system of rule that is very difficult to shake off. holds Hungary. but that the Soviet Union will. To say that a people discontented with communism can rid themselves of it and try something else makes about as much sense as to say that an animal caught in a steel trap is there of its own volition. This is quite a different kind of strength from that of a democracy. With its intensive development of the twin instruments of propaganda and terror. mainland —in Cuba. including the threat and use of force. and almost everyone is spied on. and South Vietnam.N. and is happening in places like Berlin. There can be no organized resistance when Communist Party groups are placed everywhere. In 1946. through sheer military power. Red China. to draw small independent nations into the Communist network.S.
it is still less than half of the U.S. Democratic governments cannot get out of step with public opinion in their countries. Behind the Iron Curtain little criticism is uttered in public. Nor is the government under any compulsion to consider the needs of the individual as a consumer. piecework methods of payment. capable scientists may leave the government service because they are offered higher salaries in private industries. since it directs the production of goods most needed to carry out its domestic and foreign policies. 1964. differential wages. Hostile Soviet propaganda against a foreign nation is like a faucet: it can be turned on and off at will. But in Communist-ruled countries public opinion is what the government says it ought to be. rate. Suppression of Complaints. In total. and other projects. According to the most reliable estimates.S. Control of War Potential. has been slipping back to a growth rate lower than that of the U.S. 2. Control of Public Opinion. 3. and public opinion is often slow to change and make adjustments to new dangers. or because they prefer to work for pure science. Scientists in Communist countries do not have this freedom. In the rough game of power politics. there are practical advantages in being able to move swiftly and to reverse course without warning. There are no free trade unions to defend him against intolerable working conditions and excessive demands on his working capacity. Soviet anniversary parade. The only mass demonstrations are those that the government itself organizes. But Soviet expenditures on preparations for war are probably higher than comparable U. expenditures. formerly showing impressive annual gains. Soviet communism in its present form — with its free use of capitalist incentives. The Communist economy is a militarist's dream. Soviet or Chinese communism is well adapted to the preparation and implementation of war. The individual peasant or factory worker in the Soviet Union and China is pushed to the limit of his endurance. It also makes possible the use of the best-qualified scientists in research for nuclear development. In free societies. Citizens of Moscow or Peking may make jokes in public about the long lines at the stores or the . There is no reason to expect that it will collapse from sheer incompetence. A Workable Economic System. Soviet industrial output. It makes possible a tremendous concentration of national effort on military goals and the swift development of the heavy industries. 5. 4. equal sharing of everything — is not practiced in any Communist-ruled country at the present time. missile improvement. But it is important to remember that communism — in the sense of equal pay. bonuses for those executives who achieve high output — has proved a workable economic system.Rockets on display in November 7.
inferior quality of overcoats. For proof. defense installations. from North Korea to South Korea. Such individuals often gain confidence and a feeling of worth from being told what to do. Defense in Secrecy.S. space centers and nuclear reactors. however. Finally. or the horrors of war. and where industrialists some times disagree with government officials.S. where U. In spite of the strict controls in Communist-ruled countries through government regulation of newspapers. and other means of communication. It claims to give purpose to their lives by solving all their problems: social. The rest of the world does not actually know the precise location of the space centers from which Soviet cosmonauts are launched into space. TV. many persons living in such countries do not accept communism. rallies. and personal. 6. 7. economic.S. Soviet military authorities can easily locate on any map the well-known U. which is second nature to a Communist government. one needs only to look at the mass flights of refugees: from East Germany to West Germany. These are never mentioned in Soviet newspapers and magazines. social events. Emotional Appeal. from Red . and many major U. Communist agents frequently take advantage of weak individuals in other countries and persuade them to acts of espionage. serves as a military advantage. Exodus from Communist Countries. Weaknesses in the Communist System It would create a false impression. Communism may appeal to some persons who are socially maladjusted or who lack selfconfidence and are perhaps afraid of freedom. where national policies are openly criticized. Secrecy. The consequent outward calm that appears to characterize Communist countries gives the impression that their citizens are more closely united than those of the Free World. special study courses. to list these elements of strength without pointing out some offsetting weaknesses of communism: 1. and other activities. is for the most part an uncharted area about which little information is given out. radio. This is in sharp contrast to Project Mercury at Cape Kennedy. but nothing is known of the names or locations of similar Soviet sites. communism seems to fill a psychological need for many people by filling their days with meetings. astronauts are launched for all to witness. There are no sitdowns at rocket-launching sites. no drawn-out discussions about fallout shelters. The Communist empire. It is far harder to penetrate Soviet than American security measures. but it is most unlikely that they will complain publicly about the burden of armament. and in spite of secret informers and a strong secret police organization. stretching from the Pacific Ocean to the River Elbe. where strikes may occur in defense industries.
2. One of the very strengths of the Communist system contains an inherent weakness. When there is no safety valve permitting persons to express their opinions honestly and frankly. big issues are decided in free elections. China to Hong Kong and Taiwan. loss of job.Hong Kong residents pass food to refugees from China. They may fear imprisonment. perhaps transfer to another part of the country. Free societies have always been more progressive than others in promoting the well-being of their citizens. and in censoring their own newspapers. from Russia itself after the 1917 Revolution and during World War II. radio. there is also no certainty on the part of the government officials as to how popular their regime really is. Just as a person who reaches out to individuals around him enriches not only his own life but the lives of others. 4. A glaring fault of communism is its basic lack of what might be called "political legitimacy." In free countries. It has been pointed out that persons under Communist rule are not likely to disagree openly with government policy. and other media. These mass flights speak too clearly to be misunderstood. This uncertainty is reflected in the nervous fear which Soviet authorities show in eliminating politically critical books from foreign exhibitions in Moscow. The deliberate isolation of peoples under Communist rule from all but the most limited contact with free countries carries its penalties. economically and socially. Distrust of the People. in forbidding the sale of nonCommunist foreign newspapers and jamming foreign radio broadcasts. Because colony is overcrowded. from Hungary after the 1956 rebellion. they are being sent back home. so does a society which reaches beyond itself to help other societies promote its own development and growth. and there is a constitution that prescribes what is to happen if the chief executive is suddenly removed from office by death or accident. No Constitutional Succession. Isolation from Other Societies. 3. in limiting social contacts between Russians and foreigners. Communist-ruled .
But since the American economic base is . will produce nearly twice as many industrial goods as are now turned out in the whole non-Communist world.countries have no such machinery for free elections.S. In some cases it favored industries manufacturing for individual consumption. Exhibition in 1959. and housing production. The question of who is to take the dictator's place can be decided only by a free- Visitors examine book collection (previously thinned out by Soviet officials) at U. 1961. Premier Khrushchev declared that by 1980 the Soviet Union would be producing 250. thereby giving the Soviets the world's highest standard of living-Such sweeping claims for a distant target date are obviously hard to verify.000. They were again revised in December of 1963. and total farm output three and a half times. meat. not for military or heavy industrial needs. But in December. It was decided to reduce the investment in the chemical industry and improve the supply of some consumer goods instead. Reliable estimates for 1964 indicated that.000. The period of change-over creates uncertainty among the people and may cause even more reversals in foreign policy than usual. and shake-ups in all departments of the government. Soviet Economic Goals At the Communist Party Congress in October. and Soviet economies grew at a rate of about 5 per cent.S. Soviet industry. He further claimed that by then the gross national product (all goods and services produced in a year) will have increased five times. Under this plan. the mysterious disappearances or public execution of high officials. months or years may elapse before the new dictator emerges. 1964. industrial production six times. $46-billion capitalinvestment program which stressed the expansion of the chemical industry in order to double farm output in 1970. Khrushchev had to lower the production goals of consumer goods as set. following Khrushchev's ouster. another change was made. As has been shown. when Khrushchev announced a new seven-year. The new regime seemed to be cautiously experimenting with more flexible planning and with giving more regard to the consumer. he said. for-all in the top ranks of the Communist Party. shoes. Soviet plans and goals have frequently been revised in the past.000 tons of steel per year (in 1964 it produced about 94. one of the rare times Russians have had access to Western publications. cotton cloth. both the U. only two years before.000 tons) and 50 per cent more electrical power than all other countries now generate. for 1970 — notably on milk. with allowances for price changes. The decision may involve a struggle between the army and the police.
total. This proportion. Soviet production is between 45 and 50 per cent of the U. Especially in steel and electricity. Soviet military production is much closer to that of the United States.S. is negligible as compared with American or Western European totals. U.S.S. the U. Soviet output of such things as automobiles. telephones. The economic status of the Soviet Union in 1980 will depend as much on what happens in the non-Communist countries as on its success in meeting its high goals of output and worker productivity.R.S.much larger. output grew much faster than that of the U. On the other hand.S. According to recent estimates. gain in output was over $30 billion. and television sets A tube-rolling mill in Dnepropetrovsk. The Soviet calculations may all be upset if the United States and Western . as against about $15 billion for the Soviets. in western Russia. does not follow through in everything. however.
1962." M. 28. Scholastic Book Services.. But neither the Soviet Union nor Communist China has created a general standard of living that would seem desirable or even tolerable to most people in Western Europe and North America. Harry (ed.S. 3. 28. How does communism seem to fill a "psychological need" for many? 3. agricultural shortages still represented one of the regime's most pressing problems." it was impossible for the U. represents a distinct asset in terms of military power. Eastern Europe. In June.). Why is secrecy so important to a Communist government? 2. pp. As usual.S. 1962.S. New York Times Magazine.S." Edward Crankshaw. Yale Univ. The New Class. Achilles' Heel of Red Economy The present development of natural resources and production of durable goods in the U. T. Indeed. Ch. Praeger.? 6. and Articles to Read Paperback Books and Pamphlets Bergson. The Many Faces of Communism.R. Abram. agriculture may be called the Achilles' heel of all Communist economies. Are free societies or Communist societies more easily organized for war? Give reasons to support your answer. Mar. and. Khrushchev said that since the United States was engaged in an arms race and "harboring plans for a surprise nuclear attack on the Soviet Union. Isenberg. after serious food shortages. Ch.R. the West was blamed. What changes in Soviet economic plans followed Khrushchev's ouster? Questions to Think About 1. "Communism: The Nature of Your Enemy. Apr. George. 3.. John K. the Soviet regime announced sharp increases in prices of meat and butter. 1964. A Primer on Communism. What he did not say was that Communist priority given to guns over butter — here applied literally and dramatically — exposed again to the world a selfimposed weakness in the Soviet economy. Current History. Milovan. Jessup. Why is it so difficult to organize resistance to communism in Communist countries? 2. CHAPTER 13-STUDY AIDS Words and Names to Understand Eurasia piecework power politics "political legitimacy" gross national product economic growth rate Checkup Questions 1. Irwin. "New Trend in Russia: Creeping Capitalism. 1964. to a lesser extent.." U. "Trends in the Soviet Economy. 1965. Does the denial of freedom of expression tend to strengthen or weaken a Communist regime? Books. Button. 1957. and Editors of Life. News. pp. Schwartz. Sept. 1965. 1964.S. What evidence is there that many people living under Communist rule do not accept it? 5. Pamphlets.Europe — the latter under the stimulus of the Common Market (see page 181) — move ahead rapidly during the next two decades. In 1963. What capitalistic devices do the Communists use to make their economic system workable? 3. Nov. Economics of Soviet Planning. Djilas. In 1965.S. Articles "Comparing Economic Systems. Red China. Berkley. Florinsky. Cronyn. How does the Soviet industrial output compare with that of the U.. * Pamphlet. 1962." * Time." Senior Scholastic. 39-61. to divert funds needed for agriculture from defense and heavy industry. 1962. 18. 124-163. 4. Inc. . "Russia Discovers the Customer Is Always Right. Soviet grain crop failure (20 per cent below the 1962 level) forced purchases abroad of around one billion dollars' worth of wheat and other feed grains. 1961.
a model democracy patterned on our own constitution. Communist diplomacy. employs methods of intimidation and . should be carefully studied. nor the legislative. like Nazi diplomacy in the past. • There should be a careful balancing and distribution of authority between the federal government and the states. The challenge posed by the Communists falls into five principal areas: 1. Khrushchev. Need for Courage and Unity Two very important elements in the struggle to remain free from Communist domination are courage and unity. and that the basic ideals of the Founding Fathers are a living heritage. as modified and applied by Stalin. The first condition of remaining free is to remain strong — militarily. there was an American Revolution. • The powers of government should be limited and divided. Some of these pressures are subtle and sophisticated. An understanding of these ideas will help the student see both the weak and strong points of the Communist doctrine. The challenge of infiltration and subversion The Free World's greatest task is to meet these challenges and respond to them effectively. The challenge of a great military power 3. others are crude and belligerent. before the French Revolution. and Mao. nor the judicial branch of the government may abolish. Schools and colleges in the United States should never allow it to be forgotten that before the Soviet Revolution. • Instruments of government should be so devised that no individual and no institution may acquire predominant power. Ignorance of the nature of communism can only help the Communists. spelled out with precision in the U. The challenge of communism as a doctrine 2. they add up to a many-sided challenge — one of the most serious the Western world has ever faced.) Ideas are properly met by ideas. Constitution — the following may be considered as primary: • All legitimate power derives from the consent of the governed.The Free World's Response The Communists. analyzed in careful detail in the Federalist Papers. (Recall the fate of Czechoslovakia. morally. The challenge of economic competition 4. Sources of National Strength Even a society where ideal justice prevailed would not be able to check the onward march of communism if it let down its military defenses. The ideas of Marx and Lenin. Among these ideals — proclaimed in flaming rhetoric in the Declaration of Independence. economically. • There are certain inalienable rights which neither the executive.S. which in 1948 fell victim to Soviet threats of force. But tanks and airplanes and bombs and rockets can be withstood only by equal or superior weapons. The challenge of propaganda 5. as we have seen. Taken together. are applying constant pressures against the Free World. From such knowledge is born strength.
in line with President Eisenhower's declaration to the American people that "There will be no appeasement. If this proposal were followed. threatened to use rockets and missiles against countries that do not bow to their will. and the Soviets have not withdrawn formally from their position that Western troops should leave West Berlin. One of these time limits was May 29. Luxembourg. are opposed to communism — under the domination of Communist-ruled East Germany. West Berlin would be transformed into a "demilitarized free city. there was no withdrawal from Quemoy — and there was no war. according to the election returns. Khrushchev came out in support of his Chinese allies." As it developed. To be sure. I do not think there will be any war. As early as the Suez crisis of 1956. Soviet advances in rocketry have placed in the hands of the Soviet leaders what they regard as a useful means of intimidation. has taken a firm stand on maintaining the political independence of West Berlin and the right of the Western powers to keep their troops there and enjoy free access to the city. he did authorize the building of the Berlin Wall on August 13. Since that time. 1959. This crisis was handled very coolly and realistically. the Soviet government.blackmail. began to threaten London and Paris with obliteration. the other was December 31. 1961. . Late in the summer of 1958. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization brings together men of many countries. He dispatched a note to the U. in agreement with the leaders of Britain and France. and Holland train during NATO maneuvers in Belgium." severing all connections with West Germany. in notes to Great Britain and France. in public and in private. the Soviets have repeatedly. when Red China began its heavy bombardment of the offshore islands of Quemoy and Matsu. Twice Khrushchev attempted to force a Western retreat and surrender on the issue of West Berlin by setting a time limit for concluding a peace treaty with his own puppet regime in East Germany. On both occasions he backed away when he met firm resistance. government so offensive and threatening in tone that President Eisenhower refused to accept it. Both the Western powers and the West Berliners regard this as a thinly disguised scheme to bring West Berlin — where at least 98 per cent of the people. 1961. The United States. Here troops from Belgium.S.
then Greek premier. and moral — among the Western powers. History. Constantin Karamanlis. looking back over the past 15 years. from the time of Pericles to the time of Hitler. The second imperative is a maximum degree of unity — political. and Khrushchev's successors — have demonstrated their belief in and mastery of the old rule of statecraft: divide and rule. replied that although the Soviet Union might have the physical force to destroy the Acropolis. economic. to make an appeal to one non-Communist government and a diametrically different appeal to another — this is the very essence of the Soviet diplomatic offensive. Khrushchev threatened to blow up the Acropolis if Greece remained loyal to its obligations under the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. military. we see encouraging signs of progress toward military and economic unity in the community of anti-Communist nations. arising from differences in national interests and from conflicting views as to the best tactical approach to the problem in hand. Stalin. it could never destroy the ideas of liberty for which the Acropolis stood. Complete unity in the West is still far from a reality. . in the hope of buying peace. Still. the Soviets have been much more moderate since President Kennedy's firm stand in the 1962 Cuba crisis.In the summer of 1961. continue to crop up. The Soviet leaders — Lenin. To try to take advantage of differences among adversaries. has shown that more often than not appeasement (which may be defined as retreating before force or threat of force) can never lead to peace with honor. whether this thrust comes from Moscow or from Peking. Yet. Disagreements among the Western Allies. it would be the beginning of the decline of the West to yield to threats and to make concessions. Though apparently regarding such threats as the normal way of carrying on negotiations. Thus steadfast courage must be the first imperative of the West in facing the aggressive thrust of communism. It can only lead to war with dishonor. Khrushchev.
Denmark and Norway.S. and Turkey set up. In recent years. In addition. left the alliance after a revolution that put a neutralist regime in power. and Laos — are under SEATO protection. except for Spain and four neutral powers: Switzerland. and New Zealand signed a treaty known as ANZUS (for the initial letters of the three nations).S. such former European neutrals as Belgium and the Netherlands. Thailand. have decided that collective security through a defensive alliance offers a better prospect than an attitude of neutrality. pledging mutual protection against any common danger in the Pacific area. Vietnamese soldiers are in camouflaged uniforms.S. Accordingly.000. In 1958. whose capital. Australia. Iraq. Pakistan. Austria. In 1951 the Chinese Communists took over Tibet and put pressure on Burma and Laos. Two other alliances unite Western powers. after defeating the French colonial rulers. although they are not members of the pact. Sweden.S. Pakistan. New Zealand. and France to form the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) in 1954. and Ireland. Following their experience in the last war. combat units are maintained in Germany. Free World nations have united in a number of pacts designed to serve as a barrier against Communist expansion. reversing the stand it took after World War I. Communist guerrillas spread terror in rubber-rich Malaya. Iraq. Faced with Communist penetration into Southeast Asia. Iran. it is now a 15-nation pact among all Western European countries outside the Iron Curtain. bases from which planes and missiles can be ordered into action within minutes. The United States is not a CENTO member. U. Baghdad. however. To prevent Communist expansion into this region. Cambodia. a mutual defense pact called the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO) — also known as the Baghdad Pact. Great Britain. these countries too have joined NATO. The Rio Pact was signed in 1947 by the United States and 20 republics of Latin America. In 1954 the Communists swept into power in North Vietnam. These alliances form the heart of the Free World's defenses against communism. Member nations are pledged to aid any other member in the event of an armed attack against one of them. but cooperates with CENTO in matters of defense. In 1965 military support was increased still further (see page 134). One of the strongest and most effective of these alliances is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Checked by NATO in Europe. the Communists eyed Southeast Asia for new conquests in the early 1950's. a hole was ripped in this barrier. Britain.000 a year. CENTO nations also cooperate to help raise educational and economic standards. As early as the 1950's. . Much of the muscle for this defense system is supplied by a globe-girdling belt of U. Set up in 1949 to provide for a mutual defense against an aggressive Communist system.A U. the Philippines. The United States. METO linked with NATO members to the West and SEATO members to the East to form a barrier of anti-Communist nations around much of the Communist bloc. Marine captain (right) shows South Vietnamese marines how to use a flame thrower in exercises held near Saigon. Three other Southeast Asian nations — South Vietnam. military and economic aid to the South Vietnamese has been at the rate of $500. the United States joined with Australia. the Soviet Union began making threatening moves in the oil-rich lands of the Middle East. Communist forces stepped up their penetration of South Vietnam to the extent that the United States government was compelled to send some 15.000 military advisers and technicians to that country to help check Communist advances. is now fully committed to the defense of Europe. The Military Response Since the end of World War II. METO moved its headquarters to Turkey and became known as the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO). had been METO headquarters. In 1951 the United States. in 1955. Some of the best U.
after the U. Today the area is riding the crest of a surging boom that has brought a spectacular era of prosperity." The goal of the EEC (which came into being January 1. vitally needed transfusions of economic aid were poured into the war-shattered countries of West Europe in order to help them get back on their feet and thereby resist Communist subversion.S. Great .S. the richest free-trade area in the world. Only three years after World War II. In 1948." under which these six nations abolished among themselves all tariffs on coal and steel. the U. This will mean a free-trade area of well over 175. the Iron Curtain had fallen across the heart of Europe. and Luxembourg. First came the "coal and steel community. Now they have established a more ambitious project: the European Economic Community (EEC).S. In 1947. Albania. centering around a core of six nations: West Germany.000. Under the Marshall Plan. 1958) is to abolish all tariffs among member nations by a gradual process that will be completed by 1970. It had a threefold purpose: to stimulate European production.000 to aid Greece and Turkey in their defense against Communist aggression. Italy. U.000. and promote international trade.The Economic Response As the Free World was arming against communism's aggressive thrusts.000 people. and Yugoslavia in the years immediately after World War II. at President Truman's request. or "Common Market. Congress appropriated $400. In recent years Western Europe has also been moving toward a new economic unity. a year later Czechoslovakia was the victim of a Communist coup. Belgium. Poland and Hungary fell to the Communists in 1947. Secretary of State George C. Marshall presented a dramatic plan for aiding European nations. Fearful that Soviet expansion might engulf the war-weakened nations of Western Europe. As a result of billions of dollars worth of Marshall Plan aid. the United States embarked on an unprecedented program of aid to its anti-Communist allies. Bulgaria. the West European countries were able to rebuild their economies. France. It is well to remember that the Communists took over the countries of Romania. strengthen and stabilize European currency. it also used many economic weapons to parry the threat from Moscow. The Marshall Plan was administered by an agency known as the EGA (Economic Cooperation Administration). the Netherlands.
S. which transmits programs to the Soviet satellites (with the exception of East Germany). and other specialists working in the United States and abroad. and printed material concerning life in the United States. "Voice" transmissions are beamed throughout the world. of "propaganda" as something that is false. Actually.S. photographs. Austria. The official agency is the U. Britain sought admission in 1961. propaganda is information released by a government or an organization for the purpose of presenting its official point of view. The two private agencies engaged in the propaganda battle are Radio Free Europe.Volkswagens roll off an assembly line in Wolfsburg. incorrectly.000. and annual production continues to rise. Meanwhile six other nations (Norway. which .LA. Volkswagen has built almost 9. Since World War II. Switzerland. and Portugal) announced that they too would seek to associate with the EEC. American propaganda assumes various forms in the continuing battle of words with the Communist nations. It employs experienced journalists.S. and Radio Liberty. in West Germany. The Propaganda Response The battle to influence people and win friends is also one of words. France insisted on certain changes — unacceptable to the British — in Britain's economic relations with the Commonwealth and the U. though they are not heard inside the United States. They maintain libraries and information centers in foreign countries and supply foreign newspapers with news. The U. Sweden. also sponsors Voice of America radio broadcasts. but France blocked her entry. Some persons tend to think. government agency.S. public relations representatives. Information Agency. Denmark.000 vehicles. It is centered in three large groups —one an official U. France blocked British entry again in 1963. the others sponsored by private organizations.
dramatic presentations. and broadcasts by former citizens of Communist countries who speak directly to the people. Infiltration and Subversion Communism menaces the Free World on still other fronts. 200 once resided in what is now the Soviet Union. It is on the air 24 hours a day. . which are planned and prepared in Munich.R. When the political climate is favorable. and other employees. whose task it is to undermine free democratic institutions and to provoke disturbances and riots. Communist censorship often keeps the truth from the people. in their native tongues. including one in the United States. countries. or distorts it. they may incite an armed insurrection. Such broadcasts may include religious services. All are based on presenting the facts about events inside and outside the Communist Of Radio Liberty's 400 announcers. using both news accounts and political commentary. script writers.S. Radio Liberty uses Russian and 16 other languages spoken in the U. Thus. and sports. using 17 transmitters located in Western Europe and Taiwan to send its programs. The Soviet Union extends its influence throughout the world through a network of over 90 Communist parties. and Taipei. The work of the Communist parties in foreign countries is supplemented by the activities of Soviet or Red Chinese agents. presentation of musical or literary programs. In countries where it is outlawed. Each party receives instructions from Moscow or Peking for its program of action. the Communist Party operates underground. leading to the ultimate replacement of a local government by a Communist regime.S. New York.beams programs to the Soviet Union. These stations — and the Voice of America — present taped programs of events originating in the United States and other Western democracies. vigilance against Communists who may be countrymen is still another necessity in this Cold War age.
1964. Sept. It is assumed that one of the most effective ways of opposing communism is to create an ever better social order within free societies. What organizations have been formed to block Communist expansion? 5. Therein lies a basic criticism of communism as a political system. Communism. in its brutality and insensitivity to human rights and liberties. Walter. Jan. George A. press. The Future of Communist Society. 1964. What is the purpose of the Common Market? 6. How have the Soviets used intimidation as a means of diplomacy? 4. What five areas of challenge are posed by communism? 2. Peking. has given the peoples under its rule no such freedom to correct its built-in abuses. The War Called Peace. where the freedom of the individual has been upheld for centuries. 1965. 1964." Marshall I." Senior Scholastic. but the nations of the Free World also have the responsibility of guarding democracy at home. Leopold (eds. Articles "A Balance Sheet of Soviet Foreign Aid. Other Books Overstreet. Prentice-Hall. Laqueur. discrimination and prejudice still exist." Senior Scholastic. But this is the aim of a free society under any circumstances. it is unfortunate that some people are prone to interpret this course too literally.Democracy at Home Answering the challenge of communism abroad is important. 3. Ideal conditions do not exist anywhere in the world. Lensen. Goldman. 1965. and in Great Britain. 11. Rise of the Soviet Empire: A Study of Soviet Foreign Policy. 1961. "What's Happening to the Cold War? East-West Relations.). How might the free nations best combat Communist propaganda? Books and Articles to Read Paperback Books Crankshaw. New Cold War: Moscow v. Russia's Eastward Expansion.. Jan. What are the primary ideals of our free society? 3. Tsars. Mandarins. 4. Radio Liberty. 2. "New Scramble for Africa. Norton. Lippincott. Edward. and Labedz. Harry and Bonaro. 1963. 1962. Nov. Current History. Feb. Harry.. Questions to Think About 1. 16. and assembly will ultimately make it possible to eliminate such abuses and defects without resort to violence. Foreign Affairs. Librach. and the United States Information Agency. Even in the United States and France. However. Describe the operation of such agencies as Radio Free Europe.1964. 1964" (special issue).. speech. 1964. How effective have the Communists' "divide and rule" tactics been? What factors have caused the United States to reverse its pre-World War II policy of isolation? Will a successful Common Market benefit the Free World? Give reasons for your answer. Under Communist rule—where there are no free elections. . asserting that we have no right to resist communism until and unless we have created a perfect society in our own country. Praeger. CHAPTER 14-STUDY AIDS Words and Names to Understand Marshall Plan Common Market SEATO CENTO NATO Rio Pact METO ANZUS Checkup Questions 1. or free speech—prospects for peaceful change and reform are at best very difficult and uncertain. Penguin. and Commissars: A History of Chinese-Russian Relations. This contention is clearly absurd. "The Soviet Union. with their strong traditions of liberty and equality. Schwartz. Praeger. or free press. But the basic freedoms of voting.
orbits first man-made satellite 1960 Sino-Soviet dispute made public 1961 Communist-built wall divides Berlin 1962 Crisis over Soviet missiles in Cuba 1962 Dispute between Soviet Union and Communist China deepens 1963 Partial nuclear test-ban treaty signed 1964 Khrushchev deposed as Soviet leader 1964 Communist China detonates its first nuclear bomb 1965 Crisis in Vietnam deepens.S. Latvia. Churchill) in Soviet Union 1945-1948 Soviets impose Communist rule on eight East European nations 1948 Tito-Stalin break (first split between Communist nations) 1948-1949 Soviet blockade of West Berlin 1949 Communists conquer China mainland 1949 Soviet Union explodes its first atomic bomb 1950-1953 Korean War 1953 Death of Stalin 1953 Revolt in East Germany crushed by Soviet troops 1955 U.A Chronology of Communism 1848 Marx and Engels publish Communist Manifesto 1864 Marx helps organize the First International 1867 Marx publishes Volume 1 of Das Kapital 1889 Followers of Marx organize the Second International 1903 Russian Social Democratic Party split into two groups: Bolsheviks (led by Lenin) and Mensheviks 1914-1917 Russia suffers heavy defeat in World War I 1917 Tsar Nicholas II of Russia gives up his throne 1917 Bolsheviks seize control of Russia's capital 1918-1920 Civil War in Russia.S. as Reds step up aggressive acts .S.R. also Estonia.S. Roosevelt. armies defeat Germans at Stalingrad 1945 Yalta Conference (Stalin.S. Lithuania.S. and northern Romania 1941 Nazi Germany invades Soviet Union 1942-1943 U.S.R. and satellites set up Warsaw Pact 1956 Khrushchev denounces Stalin at 20th Party Congress 1956 Hungarian rebellion crushed by Soviet troops 1957 U.R. ending in final Bolshevik victory 1919 Lenin sets up the Comintern (Third International) 1921 Lenin starts the New Economic Policy (NEP) 1921 Chinese Communist Party organized 1922 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics organized 1924 Death of Lenin 1928 Collectivization and First Five-Year Plan initiated in U. 1933 United States recognizes Soviet Union's Communist regime 1935-1939 Stalin's purges 1939 Soviet Union and Nazi Germany sign nonaggression pact 1939-1940 Soviet Union takes over parts of Poland and Finland.S.R.
Alexander (keh-RYEHNskee) Khrushchev. Lev (KAH-meh-nyahv. uh (unaccented a as in sofa). Dag (HAM-arshuld. ih (as in ill). a (as in cat).Pronunciation Guide The pronunciation of difficult words in the text is given in parentheses following the entries below. lyeh-aw-NEED) Bukharin. Cardinal (vuh-ZHIHN-skee. Nikolai (boo-KHAH-reen. Aleksei (koh-SIH-gheen) Kuomintang (gwoh-min-dahng) Laos (lous. aw (as in soft). kun-stan-TEEN) Rykov. oo (as in food). Konstantin (ruh-kuhSAHV-skee. s (as in sit). nee-ku-LIE) Bulganin. Principal sound equivalents: ay (as in ale). gree-GO-reey) Rhee. nee-KEE-tah) Kiev (KEE-yev) Kirov. Adzhubei. ur (as in urn). / (as in joke). If the whole word is in lowercase letters. MEE-lohvahn) Fuchs. to rhyme with "house") Lenin (Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov) (LYEH-neen. Georgy (ZHOO-kawv) Zinoviev. Georgi (plyeh-KAH-nohv) Quemoy (kee-MOY) Rasputin. Syngman (ree. t (as in tin). Michael (boh-rah-DEEN) bourgeoisie (boor-zhwah-ZEE) Brest-Litovsk (BREST-lee-TAWVSK) Brezhnev. Nikolai (bool-GAH-neen) Chiang Kai-shek (jahng kie-shek) Chou En-lai (joe en-lie) coup d'etat (koo dayTAH) Dalai Lama (dah-lie LAH-mah) Djilas. Wladyslaw (goh-MOOLkah. STAY-fahn) Zhukov. g (as in go). sehr-GAY) Kolchak. Lazar (kah-guh-NOHveech. IM-reh) Plekhanov. Anastas (mee-kohYAHN. Nikita (khrooshCHAWV. Georgy (mah-lyehnKAWV. Milovan (JEE-lahs. Gregory (rah-SPOO-teen. k (as in keep). ow (as in out). z (as in zone). un-DRAY) Hammarskjold. Grigory (zee-NAW-vyev) . gheh-ORE-gheey) Mao Tse-tung (MAH-oh dzuh-doong) Matsu (mah-TSOO) Mikoyan. ch (as in chair). YAH-nahsh) Kaganovich. dahg) Hango (HANG-yoo) Hegel. VLAH-dee-slahv) ' Gromyko. YOH-seepbrohz) Togliatti. ie (as in pie). Klaus (fooks. Georg (HAY-gel. eh (as in end). u (as in up). The system followed here uses only one diacritical mark and translates each syllable into the nearest common English equivalent. Aleksei (ahd-zhoo-BAY. Imre (nahj. LA-zur) Kamenev. Leonid (brezh-NYOV. Syllables set in capitals are accented. Father (gah-PAWN) Gomulka. vyah-cheh-SLAHV) Nagy. SING-mahn) Rokossovsky. lyev) Katyn (kah-TEEN) Kerensky. Andrei (gru-MEE-koh. ah-nah-STAHS) Molotov. gay-ORG) Kadar. klows) Capon. ah (as in arm). Aleksei (rih-KAWV) Sputnik (SPOOT-neek) Sun Yat-sen (soon yaht-sen) Synod (SIN-ud) Taipei (tie-pay) Taiwan (tie-wahn) Teheran (teh-heh-RAHN) Thailand (tie-land) Tito (JosipBroz) (TEE-toh. the stress on each syllable is approximately equal. oh (as in old). Vyacheslav (MAW-law-tuv. ah-lek-SAY) Belgrade (BEL-grayd) Bolshevik (BOHL-sheh-veek) Borodin. ah (as in odd). Sergei (KEE-ruv. ee (as in eat). pahl-MEE-roh) Vietnam (vee-et-NAHM) Vladivostok (vlah-dee-vah-STAWK) Wyszynski. vlah-DEE-meer eelYEECHool-YAH-nuv) Liu Shao-chi (lyoo show-gee) Malenkov. Palmiro (toh-LYAH-tee. Stefan. Janos (KAH-dahr. 06 (as in foot). Alexander (kahl-CHAHK) Kosygin.
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