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CHAPTER 1 The Problem and Its Background Introduction Being able to read is an avenue for personal and social growth. A child can fully view ever winding horizons and explores areas in the world of people, things, and events through reading. Indeed, the key to success is through reading; hence, proficiency in reading is vital to the continuous growth and development of the child. Corollary to this, as early as Grade one, the child must already be exposed to various low level but interesting reading materials that will capture his interest, motivate him to turn the pages, and later develop his love for books, and start to read. Obviously, highly contributes to the development of the child, especially in acquiring knowledge and the most needed learning that will help him become more competitive and language literature. In school, reading is the most important subject to be learned by the child. For this matter, a child will learn little in today’s world if he does not learn to read properly. In fact, Reading is both a subject of instruction and a tool employed towards effective teaching- learning process. It cannot also be denied that every teacher is in cognizance that skilful handling of Reading as a school subject is very vital and important especially to beginning readers to avoid frustrations in the end. Truly, the significance of Reading as a school subject cannot be refuted and underestimated. This made clear that proficiency in Reading is directly related to academic success. Furthermore, skills in reading is considered a fundamental factor,
a must, a need, which enables, helps, assists, and inspires the child to succeed in school, in his daily activities, in his career, and in his life as a whole. Nevertheless, despite all efforts exerted by the teachers in their desire to help their pupils read and comprehend, many just cannot cope and could hardly decode the printed words. Thus, this inability to read becomes one of the major causes of failure among them which leads to other problems that are either behavioural or personal in nature. Furthermore, to a pupil, the inability to read may lead him to nowhere, as disability in reading affects his achievements in school. He may find himself left out of school activities which make him inferior almost all the time. His socialization skills are also affected and he fails to appreciate the beautiful things life offers. Furthermore, as he grows older and progress through the grade, more interactions are founded greatly through the medium of being able to read the printed materials, however, with such reading disabilities emotional problems may crop up and lead to the pupil’s dropping out from school. In addition, when a pupil does not learn to read at the time it is expected of him, he suffers not only from the failure itself, but from the difficulty with all other subjects and activities in school that depend on reading competence. For this matter, Hasentah and Laughton (2002) suggested that diagnosing pupils properly especially those with reading disabilities is very important. According to them, evaluation and assessment will provide the teachers significant information that will assist them in the development of strength and remediation of weaknesses of their pupils. Corollary to this, Phil IRI is a very good material for diagnosing
reading abilities and difficulties of elementary grade pupils especially those in Grade One. However, their instrument must be prepared to assess both the reading and other factors emanating from the home, the environment and other biological factors. Foremost, the teacher must exert all efforts to explore everything she can, to help her pupils with reading disabilities, cope and overcome their failures, because all academic tasks can never be achieved when they perform ineffectively in reading. For this reason, a functional PHIL-IRI program becomes imperative to properly address the problem. This prompted the researcher who is suffering from the same problem every year to conduct the study.
Background of the Study In the lower elementary grades in Pulilan district particularly in Grade two, the presence of pupils with reading difficulties remain a problem to teacher and often times lead to frustrations. Reading, being a potent tool for understanding and mastery of other subjects and school activities must be the immediate and major concern of the teachers. However, despite teachers’ effectiveness, concerns, and dedication, it cannot be denied that there are really pupils who are retorted in reading and are usually educationally disadvantaged because of certain problems emanating from home, as a result of biological factor. A poor reader therefore becomes a poor learner, and all academic tasks can never be achieved whenever a pupil performs ineffectively in Reading. In fact, survey shows, according to Andasan
Nevertheless. considering that proficiency in Reading is the royal road to knowledge acquisition. DepEd Bulacan .4 (1996) in his study that more likely. When pupils do not learn to read at the time expected of them. they are unable to profit exactly from the classroom interaction they received. and essential to success in all learning areas. teachers often complain about pupils who go through Grade one without learning to read. the presence of slow and nonreaders. reading teachers in this district are now placed in a seemingly unpleasant situation because the complaint now is that “our pupils could hardly read English” and not only” our pupils could hardly speak English”.readers are those that become delinquent. hence. and misfit in the society. non. It therefore becomes impossible to teach pupils to read without sufficient understanding of how pupils actually learn to read. Furthermore. This perplexed the researcher who is also a reading teacher in one of the schools in Pulilan district. While it is true that if ever there is one fulfilment classroom teacher’s desire. potential and capacity differ from other pupils. This is indeed very alarming and has to be seriously and properly addressed not only by the teachers. This poses serious problems among teachers with non-reader pupils since. at times. they know that Reading seems to be the culprit in the low academic performance of the pupils. whose personality. it cannot be denied that each pupil is unique. become equally significant to those who are able to read. Cognizance of these. but by the entire educational system in the country. it is to find out that every pupil in her class will be able to read and comprehend. unemployed.
1. Dep Ed.1 age.4 highest educational attainment.8 number of seminars attended in Reading? 2. Specifically.4 pupil factor. it tried to answer to the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the Grade two teacher in terms of: 1. 1. 1.5 major field of specialization. Cristo Elementary School.3 3. What is the extent of the implementation of Phil –IRI Program in English 3.3 civil status. and teacher factors? .6 present position. How may the following factors affecting reading skills of Grade two pupils in Sto.1 parent factor 3. Bulacan during the school year 2011-2012.2 sex.5 Statement of the Problem The study attempted to determine the extent of implementation of the Phil-IRI Program and performance in English of Grade two pupils in Pulilan District.2 home factor 3. Bulacan be described in terms of: 3. 1. and 1. 1. 1.7 years in service. Dep Ed.
. Do the following independent variables significantly related to the performance of Grade two pupils in English? 5. Bulacan during school year 2011-2012. Cristo Elementary School. 5. home factor. major field of specialization.1 profile of the Grade two teachers. years in service. Likewise it included the profile of the teacher respondents in terms of age. It also included the factors affecting the reading skills of Grade Two pupils described in terms of parent factor.. The respondents of the study are the Grade Two teachers and their pupils with reading disabilities. sex.3 factors affecting reading skills of Grade II pupils. present position. civil status. It included the item statements on the extent of implementation of the PHILIRI Program among Grade Two pupils. pupil factor and teacher factor.2 extent of implementation of Phil-IRI in English. Scope and Limitations of the Study The study focused on the extent of implementation of Phil –IRI program and the English performance of Grade II pupils in Sto. highest educational attainment. Ed. and 5.6 4. The performance in English of Grade Two pupils are also included. Is the Phil-IRI program significantly related in identifying the performance in English of the Grade two pupils? 5. Dep. and number of seminars attended in Reading.
the theoretical framework. More importantly. remedial measures maybe instituted. Results may also redound to a better and more sympathetic understanding between parents and teachers as regards their children with reading disabilities. research hypothesis and definition of terms. hence. conceptual framework. CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies This chapter presents the literature and studies read and reviewed by the researcher.7 Significance of the Study Results of the study will help Grade Two teachers understand pupils with reading disabilities which they may use in formulating guidelines and remedial measures to help them. home. the synthesis. pupil and teacher factors to the English performance of grade two pupils. Findings of the study may also serve as basis for in-service trainings of teachers to further upgrade their competencies. the research paradigm. Result may also yield significant information as regards the extent of the implementation of PHIL-IRI Program and the effects of the parent. . results may benefit the Grade Two pupils with reading disabilities because their problems will be properly and timely addressed.
Since gender roles are culturally constructed. and then it is called gender stereotyping. however.8 Related Literature and Studies Age On age Galicia (2002) found out that age was a factor in feelings of emotional exhaustion and fatigue. It is also a determinant in the world of work. These gender roles change overtime and vary across cultures. they can be changed. other causes. Men and women are born with similar capacities and potentials. they tend to be slightly more satisfied with their jobs. better adjustment. As workers grow older. the society still defines specific roles to each. Sex Padlan cited in the study of Pates (2003). like lowered expectation. and. oftentimes performance is affected by age. that sex is a socio-cultural dimension of being a man or a woman. These are exceptions but the general trend is higher job satisfaction goes with advantage age. There are number of reasons for this. The work performance of older and younger workers is the same in some cases but in typical situation is wherein infirmities are associated with age. Civil Status . When a person is judged according to the attributes expected of males and females.
plus all in-service trainings that he attended will likely enhance and increase his teaching efficiency as well as his effectiveness. it has been found that education and performance of teachers greatly affect the quality of pupils produced. According to Bautista (2006). widow. teaching experience if any. married. One of the main qualifications of a teacher is educational attainment. Thus. Educational Attainment Clemente (1996) define educational attainment as the academic preparation of a teacher. and other studies related to his line of specialization. workshops and conferences that will enrich his qualifications. Besides. He must attend seminars. civil status plays significant roles in job performance. It points out that being married or single affects teacher’s performance. . he must have a strong desire to grow professionally while in the service. In many cases. Tagulao (2006) also concluded that civil status is a predictor of the institution’s performance.9 This refers to the state of being single or unmarried. his educational qualifications. She further implied that married teachers tend to have greater understanding and anticipation of time management. or widower of the teachers involved in the study. which includes the particular degree he had acquired in college.
The development of research in various fields of education changes in the various methodologies. then education can truly prepare pupils for life in democratic society.10 Gonzales (1997) emphasized that teachers must be competent in their craft so that they can improve and help their pupils attain higher levels of intellectual and social competence. Teachers who continually teach certain subjects through the years are expected to demonstrate competence in teaching a particular subject. it widens perspective on the role and nature of learning and the relationship between growth and development of pupils. in helping learners to succeed. Years in Service Generally. skills in the use of effective teaching strategies and competence in guiding the learning of pupils. Present Position Most studies show that teachers in the elementary level still occupy Teacher I positions from the time they were employed up to present. It also develops effective on the part of the teachers. in attaining the goals of the school. Therefore. that is according to Pulido (2002). The longer the services of the employees the better is their performance on the job. He further explained that the number of years the teachers rendered in the field of teaching greatly influences their . years in service influences the performance of the teachers. She believes that if teacher education programs can focus on equipping teachers with the knowledge and skills they need.
It can give the teachers information on the level of their pupils’ performance in reading by actual observation. Background Information for Teachers The Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) is one of the most useful classroom tools in assessing a pupil’s reading ability. Depending on the purpose. Most IRIs would include measures of word miscues and comprehension as well as provision for pupil retelling of the passage read. inferencing. including their reading habits and attitudes. SPEED AND COMPREHENSION A. Thus. sequencing events. In teaching therefore. PHILIPPINE INFORMAL READING INVENTORY (Phil-IIRI) SILENT READING. and noting details.11 performance. The longer the services of the employees the better is their performance on the job. the IRI provides the teachers with a comprehensive profile of their pupils’ ability in reading. an IRI may contain comprehension questions on a few or more of the following reading skills: getting the main idea. The . finding cause-effect relationships. whether orally or silently. A typical IRI is administered individually and consists of graded stories followed by comprehension questions of different dimensions. the longer the experience in teaching the better the method of teaching were employed and the keener the teacher becomes to perceive possible problems and the more efficient in solving or dealing with others. One of the reasons for this is the possibility that the longer the employees are in the service the more they tend to have a wholesome interpersonal relationship connected to their performance on the job.
vocabulary and comprehension skills in oral reading. gender-free and without biases against religion. The Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil-IRI)-Oral Test is one variation of IRI. The questions are categorized into three dimensions namely literal. They are culture-neutral. It is adapted in the context of IRI to help teachers determine the reading abilities and needs of their pupils in order to provide bases for planning their classroom instruction. interpretive and applied. setting and plot appeal to the children. patterns of word errors. The Phil-IRI-Oral Test is an informal measure that assesses the pupils’ word identification. The Phil-IRI-Oral Test gives both quantitative and qualitative information about the pupil’s oral reading capabilities. Qualitative information emphasizes word recognition. They are carefully written to ensure that the characters.12 teachers may then use this information in planning their classroom reading instruction. Quantitative information shows the reading levels namely: frustration. The critical questions are subsumed in the applied dimension. They are also laden with values and real-life lessons. It also . The passages may either be narrative and expository texts. ethnicity/race and socio-economic status. The definitions of each dimension can be found in the glossary of this manual. It consists of graded reading passages from Grade I to Grade VI. instructional and independent. comprehension strengths and difficulties as well as oral reading behaviors and attitudes. Each graded passage is followed by 5-7 comprehension questions.
when necessary. The PHIL-IRI only provides an approximation of the pupil’s ability in word recognition and comprehension within his/her grade level. The information in the Phil-IRIOral Test should help the teachers.13 reveals the reading growth of the pupils over time. PHIL-IRI Silent Reading Test Criteria Reading Level/Grade Reading Speed Word Per Minute (WPM) Fast Readers 70 above 100 above 120 above 140 above 170 above 190 above Average Readers 31-69 61-99 91-119 111-139 141-169 161-189 Slow Readers 30 below 60 below 90 below 110 below 140 below 160 below Comprehension And 90-100% correct answers Independent I II III IV V VI Instructional I II III IV V VI Frustration I II III IV V VI And 75-89% correct answers And below 75% correct answers The PHIL-IRI has the same limitations of a typical IRI. Table 1. a classroom . school managers and divisions plan appropriate interventions and strategies in teaching reading. The findings are to be regarded only as “very tentative indicators of pupil’s reading levels and competencies to modify. Its findings are to be interpreted cautiously and are not to be thought of as an absolute measure and encompassing of the total pupil’s reading ability.
Teacher’s Copy The teacher materials for the Phil-IRI Silent Reading Test consist of the following forms: • PHIL-IRI Form 1: Grade Level Passage Rating Sheet – This is the rating sheet which the teacher marks the comprehension score of the . Manual of Administration The manual includes the Background Information for the Teachers. 1995). Phil-IRI Forms and the Key to Corrections. the mechanics of the administration of the test and instructions for recording and reporting results. 1. Thus. B. Teacher’s/Pupil’s copy of the Graded Passages (Grade I-VI). 2. The mechanics of administration are the same for both English and Filipino. The manual should be studied carefully before administering the Phil-IRI Silent Reading Test.14 reading program” (Miller. only one manual will be printed for both English and Filipino. They should never be the sole bases for promoting or retaining the child in the grade level. principals and supervisors in administering the tests as well as in recording results.IRI Silent Reading Test package consists of the Manual of Administration. Test Materials The Phil. It serves as a guide to teachers.
15 pupil as well as the pupil records his/her reading time while taking the test. The silent reading passages are either paragraphs. • PHIL-IRI Form 2: Individual Summary Record – This form serves to summarize the performance of each pupil. • PHIL-IRI Form 3: Class Reading Profile – This form shows the class reading profile. The teacher should ensure that each pupil is provided with this form. The rating sheet contains the passage to be read silently by the pupil. The teacher should fill this with the data from pupils’ Phil-IRI Form 2. He/she should submit this form to the principal/school head who will consolidate all the class profiles to establish the school reading profile. Pupil’s Copy The same copy of the grade level passage rating sheet (Phil-IRI Form 1) which the teacher uses in marking the score of pupils will also be used by the pupils. Each paragraph/story/passage is . 3. stories or passages that the pupils read silently. This is followed by comprehension questions which the pupil will answer. The teacher should transfer the marks of the pupil in the Phil-IRI Form 1 to his/her individual PhilIRI Form 2.
The divisions shall reproduce and distribute the tools to all schools using local funds except for those schools with MOOE.16 followed by comprehension questions categorized as literal. Important Information For Administrators Beginning school year 2007-2008. Phil-IRI Form 6 (Division reading Profile) 4. Phil-IRI Form 4 (School Reading Profile) 2. 4. For SY 2007-2008. The supervisors are also advised to monitor the schools in their . Phil-IRI Form 7 (Regional Reading Profile) Who Will Accomplish Principal/School Head District Supervisor Where to Submit District Office Division Office Division English/Filipino Regional Office Supervisor Regional BEE Central Office English/Filipino Supervisor C. The region and division English and Filipino supervisors and district supervisors should orient the school heads before the administration of PhilIRI. all schools shall administer the PhilIRI Silent Reading Test in English and Filipino. interpretive and applied. Other Phil-IRI Forms The following Phil-IRI Silent Reading Test forms shall be accomplished and submitted to the offices indicated below: Name of Forms 1. the BEE will provide two (2) copies of Phil-IRI package for all the regions and three (3) copies for the divisions. These schools should reproduce their own copies charged against their own MOOE. Phil-IRO Form 5 ( District Reading Profile) 3.
The teacher should at all times keep the assessment tool with utmost confidentiality. . The test materials should not in any way be posted or exposed to pupils except during the administration of the pre test and post test. and regional progress in the Phil-IRI Silent reading Test. division. They should also ensure that all the necessary tests and forms are reproduced according to the number of pupils taking the test. only the data of pupils who were able to take both pretest and post test should be included. the teacher should note the dates of administration for both pretest and post test. In reporting the district. D. Mechanics of Administration Important Notes: Before administering the Phil-IRI Silent Reading Test. The school head should use the results of pupils who took only either the pre test or the post test in planning appropriate school interventions in reading. School heads should make sure that all teachers are oriented on the mechanics of administration before the conduct of Phil-IRI test.17 administration of the Phil-IRI Silent Reading test and assist in the analysis of data and recording of results.
However. Step 1: Preparatory Activities The following preparations shall be done before conducting the test: . For Grade I pupils. In reporting the progress in Phil-IRI Silent Reading Test. The silent reading pre test results together with the oral pre test results will be utilized by the teacher/school head for planning a sound school-based reading program to improve the reading proficiency of the pupils. only 20 children may be given the test at one time. Since the teacher cannot assess the progress of his/her pupils who either took only the pre test or the post test.18 The pre test of the Phil-IRI Silent Reading Test shall be conducted in October for Grades II-VI pupils. The post test shall be administered at the end of the school year ( February – March ) to Grades I-VI pupils. include only the data of pupils who were able to take both pre test and post test. this shall be administered in December since they are still on the period of oral reading. The Phil-IRI Silent Reading Test can be done in one grade level at one time. Unlike the Phil-IRI Oral Reading Test which is done individually. for purposes of close supervision in the conduct of the test. the teachers are advised to use the available data to plan for the appropriate reading program for these pupils. The results will reveal the progress achieved by the pupils during the school year.
I would also like to find out how well each one of you understand the passage. 70 etc. 50. Study the procedures that should be followed. Establish rapport with the pupils. Explain to the pupils that they are going to record the time after they can read the passage silently and carefully as fast as they can. Step 2: Administering the Grade Level Passage for Speed 1.19 1. 60. 40. 5. Ensure that the testing area is well-ventilated. Secure copies from the Office of the Principal/School Head the following forms for each pupil in your class: • • Form 1 – Grade Level Passage rating Sheet Form 2 – Individual Summary Record 2. well-lighted and free from distractions. Familiarize yourself with the test materials and the accompanying forms. you are going to read a passage silently as fast as you can. 3.” . Ensure that you have a copy of the Phil-IRI Form 3 – Class Reading Profile 4. Say: “ Today. Prepare number card in multiples of 10 starting with 30 Example: 30.
Grade & Section). (Score:____). After reading the passage. Say: “ read the passage silently. Continue flashing the cards until everybody has finished reading the passage.” Step 3 : Administering the Grade Level Passage for Comprehension 1. Transfer the marks of the pupil in the Phil-IRI Form 1 to his/her Individual Phil-IRI Form 2. Take note of the time started. After thirty seconds (30 seconds) that the pupils have started reading. Say: “ no one should start reading the passage until instructed. retrieve the passage. Let them accomplish all the personal information (Name. All pupils should start reading at the same time. Tell them to encircle the letter of their answer. Begin timing only when the pupils start reading the passage. Place the improvised number cards on the board. Write the number on the space provided (Reading Time: _____ Seconds). .20 2.” 3. A sample accomplished Phil-IRI Form 1 follows. 2. Check the answers and write the pupil’s score on the space provided. After all the pupils have finished answering the questions. look at the number shown on the number card. start flashing the cards (begin with 30) and every ten seconds thereafter (10 seconds interval). Let the pupils answer the questions that follow. Distribute the passage to each pupil. 3.
They rowed the boat until they were at the middle of the sea. Father prepared his fishing rod. reel and boat. It was difficult for them to go back to the shore.21 Phil-IRI Form 1 – Pretest Sample Accomplished Individual Grade Level Passage rating Sheet (Pupils hold this sheet) Name: John Paul Marquez Reading Time : __80 Seconds Grade & Section: III-Sampaguita Score: 5____ GRADE LEVEL PASSAGE RATING SHEET Direction: Read the passage silently. It pushed their boat farther and farther out to sea. . rain poured down. Record your reading time as soon as you finish reading. Lost at Sea The weather was fine. The wind was getting stronger. Read the questions and encircle the letter of your answer. The day was bright and the sea was calm. But in the afternoon. Father and Ben went fishing.
She was discouraged. Mother was now worried. What happened in the afternoon? a. d. b. b. d. What was the weather like when the story began? a. c. They were lost at sea. It became foggy. It started to rain The boat turned over The sun shone brightly 4. c. c. d. fishing farming hunting gardening ___∕___ ___∕_____ 2. She felt lonely She was worried. What is the story about? a. __x___ Because the thunder roared Because the fog was getting thicker Because the great waves were too high Because the strong wind pushed their boat to the sea __∕___ 5. of words: 131 Questions: 1. Later. The men searched for the lost boat. Why was it difficult for Father and Ben to go back? a. Grade III No. b. c. c. She felt sad. d. . How did Mother feel about Father and Ben’s situation? a.22 The great waves carried their boat to the other side of the island. They could not find their way back. She asked the help of their neighbors. they found the boat hiding behind a big rock. b. dry wet fine stormy __∕___ 3. b. d.
The weather gave them time for each other.) 4. It is constant. What does the story prove about weather? a. The weather caused the dangers in their lives. page 2. Each pupil has an individual summary record which has three parts: Part A – Speed Part B – Comprehension Part C – Summary 2. __∕___ __x___ 7. The weather taught them to sail. c. How did the weather affect Father and Ben’s life? a. b. d.23 6. Step 4: Recording Individual and class Reading Profile A. b. Identify the speed level of the pupil as fast. . Write the speed level of the pupil under the appropriate column. of word in the passage Reading time in seconds Example ( to compute for John Paul’s speed) 131 80 x 60 = 98 wpm x 60 John Paul’s reading speed : Average 3. mark each correct answer of the pupils in every question with one ( 1 )or incorrect answer with ( 0 ) under the appropriate column. It is merciful. It is unpredictable. compute the reading speed of each pupil using the formula below: Reading Speed = No. For Part B – Comprehension. c. The weather set them free from danger. It is a part of life. d. Individual Summary Record 1. average and slow using the standard specified in the form (Refer to table 1. For Part A – Speed.
See sample on page ---. School ( Paaralan ) Date : ( Petsa ) Pretest: October 2. Comprehension Q Q 80 Q Q Q Speed Level ( Antas ng Bilis sa Pagbasa ) Average Q Q Score Comprehensio .Sampaguita ( Pangalan) School : Aklan Elem. 6. of correct answers No. of questions x 100 = % of CR Example: ( to compute for John Paul’s comprehension ) ___5____ x 100 = 71 % 7 John Paul’s comprehension level : Frustration 7. 2007 ( Panimulang Pagtataya) Posttest: _____________ ( Panapos na Pagtataya ) Grade/Section: Baitang/ Pangkat Teacher : Mrs. Identify the comprehension level of the pupil referring to Table 1. of Words/Minute Reading Time ( WPM ) ( Nagugol na Oras sa Pagbasa ) 98 B. Enter the total score under the Score ( % ) column.for steps 1-7 in recording Individual Summary Record Phil-IRI Form 2 Name : John Paul Marquez III . page 2. Compute the comprehension level of each pupil using the formula below: Comprehension ( C ) = No. Joy Santos ( Guro ) INVIDUAL SUMMARY RECORD ( Lagom ng Pansariling Talaan sa Pagbasa ) Pretest ( Panimulang Pagtataya ) A. Speed ( Bilis sa Pagbasa ) No.24 5.
25 ( Pang-unawa sa Binasa ) 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 0 5 1 6 0 7 1 (Iskor ) 5 n Level (Antas ng Pang-unawa) Frustration 8. it should be noted that since the goal in reading is constructing meaning. However. Table 2. Identify the reading level of the pupil in reading speed and comprehension using Table 2. the comprehension score will be given more weight than speed. a Grade III pupil who got 92 wpm (average) in reading speed and 71% in comprehension (frustration) will have an overall reading level of Frustration. Speed and Comprehension Reading Level Reading Speed Fast Fast Fast Average Average Average Slow Slow Slow Comprehension Independent Instructional Frustration Independent Instructional Frustration Independent Instructional Frustration Reading Level Independent Instructional Frustration Independent Instructional Frustration Instructional Instructional Frustration Therefore. John Paul. This means . Phil-IRI Silent Reading.
Speed ( Bilis sa Pagbasa ) No. School ( Paaralan ) Date : ( Petsa ) Pretest: October 2. Joy Santos ( Guro ) . of Words/Minute ( WPM ) Reading Time ( Nagugol na Oras sa Pagbasa ) Speed Level ( Antas ng Bilis sa Pagbasa ) Grade/Section: III Baitang/ Pangkat Teacher : Mrs. the child belongs to instructional level ( see example in Table 2). slow and independent. write the speed. 2007 ( Panimulang Pagtataya) Posttest: _____________ ( Panapos na Pagtataya ) INDIVIDUAL SUMMARY RECORD ( Lagom ng Pansariling Talaan sa Pagbasa ) Pretest ( Panimulang Pagtataya ) A. Phil-IRI Form 2 Name : John Paul Marquez Sampaguita ( Pangalan) School : Aklan Elem. In short. 10. in this case. ( See example on the next page for Step 10 ). The responses of the pupil in the pretest shall be entered under the pretest column. if the scores in the two extremes. Hence. For Part C – Summary. Enter each pupil’s data under the appropriate category in Form 2. 9. the child’s level is Instructional. give consideration to the comprehension score and mark it lower than the independent because of the low level in speed.26 that if the score in comprehension is independent and the speed is in the slow level. Follow the same procedures 1-9 on the appropriate column during the posttest. comprehension and reading level on the space provided during the pretest.
Instead. determine whether each pupil has improved or regressed under Remarks in column 5. Do the same procedure in the posttest. 2. When the posttest shall have been conducted at the end of the school year. Note: In case the pupil was unable to take either the pretest or the posttest. transfer each pupil’s performance in the Phil-IRI Form 3-Class Reading Profile.Individual Summary record. An example of a Class reading Profile is shown on the next page. use the information gathered to improve his/her reading capabilities. Summary ( Lagom ) Pretest ( Panimulang Pagtataya ) Speed : Average ( Bilis sa Pagbasa ) Comprehension : Frustration ( Pang-unawa ) Reading Level : Frustration ( Antas sa Pagbasa Class Reading Profile 1. check the pretest column corresponding to the pupil’s speed level and comprehension level ( columns 2 & 3 ) and the reading level ( column 4 ). Enter the names of the pupils in column 1. Comprehension ( Pang-unawa sa Binasa ) Q1 Q2 80 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Score (Iskor) 5 Comprehension Level (Antas ng Pangunawa) Frustration 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 C. 3. do not include his/her results in the class reading profile. For the pretest.27 Average 98 B. Using the data in the Phil-IRI Form 2. .
these are questions which require children to between the lines to find the answer.a set of passage given to the child to determine his/her reading level .30 The following terms are operationally defined in the manual: Assessment Tool Informal Oral Reading and Informal Silent reading Intervention Strategy provide difficulty Level of Questions passage a) Literal b) Interpretive read answers c) Critical synthesis.these are questions which elicit analysis. point of of view . a teacher may to remedy or overcome a reading .an assessment on the child’s speed and comprehension skills .a scheme. device or activity. The are not directly stated in the text . judgement in the context of the author’s view as well as the reader’s point .questions whose answers are explicitly stated/given in the story .these are the questions asked regarding a arranged in order of difficulty as: .an assessment on the child’s word recognition comprehension skills .
140 below Grade II .60 below Grade IV . description.160 below b) Instructional classified speed per ● The pupil scores 75-89% in comprehension and as average reader with the following reading grade level: Grade I .30 below Grade III .111-139 Grade VI .90 below Grade V .31 d) Applied his own .161-189 c) Independent ● This is the highest reading level. discussion as a motivation and background of the the child read and knowledge of Prompt passage to help understand it.31-69 Grade III .a set of oral and silent reading passages for the elementary grades in order to get the reading level of the public elementary school pupils brief questions. It activates prior the child Reading levels a) Frustration and reading ● This is the lowest reading level ● The pupils scores 75% & below in comprehension classified as slow reader with the following speed grade level: Grade I .61-99 Grade IV .141-169 Grade II .91-119 Grade V .these are questions that elicit the reader’s opinion/decision as applied in daily life situations Philippine Informal Reading Inventory ( Phil-IRI ) .these are questions that draw from the child his own way of visualizing things based on scheme .110 below Grade VI . .
Linguistics and Literature Philippine Normal University ( 2006 ) Chair. Classroom Assessment of reading Process 2nd ed. Lalunio Dean College of Languages.140 above Grade VI . Rebecca and Allen. Diane.32 reading speed ● The pupil scores 90-100% in comprehension and classified as fast reader with the following per grade level: Grade I .100 above Grade IV . Melchor A. Dr. Ms. 1999 Reading Expert’s Review 1.170 above Grade II .70 above Grade III . Linguistics and Literature Philippine Normal University ( 2006 ) Head. Center for Raeding and Literacy Philippine Normal University ( 2006 ) 2. Gutierrez . ed. USA: Houghton Mufflin Company: 2000 Barrentine. USA: International Reading Association. Reading Assessment: Principles And Practices for Elementary Teachers.120 above Grade V .one who teaches reading or the teacher-adviser of the child tested References Swearigen. Merry Ruth M. Shelby J. Dr. Tatlonghari 3. Department of Reading and Literacy College of Languages. Lydia P.190 above Reading teacher .
Children whose parents read to them or narrated bed time stories were more ready to tackle first grade work than those who did not have such a joyful experience. Children age 2-6 are the stage of imitating adult’s actions and behavior. they imitate them. and the child will gladly read on. Her findings revealed that parents have greatly influenced the . In this stage parents should be aware of their actions because their children might imitate them and possibly. they might think that what they see is right. A child may be 5 or 6 years old chronologically. When they see adult members of their families holding and reading books. Gonzales (2002) made a study on reading interests of high school students. Sometimes it is enough to read a few pages for encouragement. And it may be the start of a worthy leisure time activity. “When children see their father and mother read willingly. But he may have a mental age of 7 years old ready for school work.33 Factors Affecting Reading Skills Parent Factor Children from early childhood should be encouraged to read and love books. they try to imitate.” says Regal-Paredes (2007).
newspaper and magazines. first parents and then teachers are also the “significant others” who help children develop attitudes relating to their bodies. feeling of hunger in school and/or . Students who have teachers who devote most of their time in scrutinizing printed materials encourage students to go to library to enjoy reading books.34 respondents’ choice of reading materials. their social selves and their cognitive selves. attendance in school. The results also revealed that reading habits wan influenced by teachers as well. In the early years. Students have parents who love reading also developed love of reading. breakfast skipping. Espedido (2005) said that active participation and involvement of parents in children curriculum and understanding of the nature of educational institution and learning process. ability to concentrate in class and /study habits at home were not independent of participation in supplementary feeding. Parents and teachers in the study feel strongly that parent volunteers must be qualified for whatever roles they assume. Likewise. The formation of reading habits as influenced by parents was the work of Maranan (1995). According to Cecilia A. Scottish Secondary Teachers association (SSTA-1997) suggests that parents do not have sufficient experience to deal with all aspects of an educational system. Florencio (1995). This can be attributed to the fact that the urban parents have steadier and more income occupation than rural parents. it was also found that urban respondents spent more time teaching than rural respondents.
Professionalism is not threatened with increased parent involvement in local school governance.35 health and nutritional status. Most parents simply want more information about the educational programs their children are receiving. “ Educators need to consider parents as assets. Some teachers feel threatened and endangered while others feel enhanced by parent involvement. they might ask how well their child is doing in reading. . or how does their child seem to feel about school or his/her own abilities. She further emphasized that better nourished children did significantly better in the mental ability. how does their child work independently or with others. Significant positive relationship between nutritional status and academic achievement remained even when relevant pupil factors were all constant. it means adjusting to new partnership. not as deficits in school. states that parent involvement is a component of the profession and the profession needs to take a stance and educate its members. He further stressed that educators working interdependently with parents. They would like a synopsis of curriculum and expectations. Parents’ desire increased information and involvement in their children’s education. and more frequent contact with teachers by phone or in person. Sarason (1995). This creates tension within the profession. The parents should consider their children’s grade level in asking questions or in communicating with the school staff. If the child is in elementary school.” he added.
With the right to be involved in school governance comes a responsibility to the school and children. running book fairs. Several parents felt that support groups should be developed to share parenting and schooling successes and difficulties with children. communicating with teachers about the child’s interests and learning style. These include activities such as driving for various outings.36 Parents have the responsibility to keep informed. . communicating (type 2). and volunteering (type 3). Epstein (1995) outline five types of parent involvement in schools. becoming involved in local school activities and advocating and supporting changes in the school. such as helping with home works (type 4) and decision making (type 5) as outlined by Epstein (1995). attend meeting and borrow resources in order to make sound decisions about their children and the school. volunteering in the library and fund raising for the Home and School associations. decision making and curriculum. Jewell and Rosen (1993) studied educational reform in New York and discovered that parents needed to know more about a variety of areas: budgets. setting learning goals with teachers and pupils. ask questions. in order to participate meaningfully in discussions about the school. supervising in the computer room. It should be the parents’ responsibility to establish and maintain these groups. Conlet (1993) states that expanded parent roles can occur when parents become knowledgeable about learner outcomes. For fewer parents are involved in learning activities at home. The first three types include parenting (type 1).
have lunch with children at school occasionally. wanting him to jump through several developmental stage at once. Deval said. volunteer to talk to the class on a particular topic. they call for greater parent involvement. Chall (2000) states that from the variety of proposals to raise the academic achievement of elementary pupils. In the excellent book magical child Joseph Chilton Pearce as cited by Chua (2005) states that. smaller schools and smaller classes. Deval suggested. They may visit classrooms to observe children’s behavior and interactions with teachers and other pupils. Children should not always experience frustration at an early stage. when home and school work close together … An unstimulating home environment device the child stimuli. according to the environmentalist. They need to assimilate a quite time to digest skills already learned. is the age or stage when young children can respond appropriately to the environment of the school and . parents should attend parent group meeting or join the PTCA. Jeanne S. Home Factor Home could influence the pupils reading skill as stated by Chua (2005). that at home some parents put pressure to child to have a high grades.37 Parents can get involved in school activities in many ways. They can assist teachers with class once a week. a longer school year and school day. “Children learn and develop. Preschool readiness. help with field trips or donate supplies for special events or projects. others seek to implement more school choice and others prepare better teacher training and higher teacher salaries.
they often are labelled as having some form of learning disabilities and are tracked in classroom with curriculum designed to control their behaviors and responses. parent may provide their young children with workbooks containing activities that require little interaction between parent and child.4 points per year usual increase of I.5 I..Q. The ability to respond appropriately to this environment is necessary for young children to participate in teacher-initiated learning activities. Those with high I. Success is dependent on the child following instructions from the teacher or adult in the classroom. “The intellectual capacity of a child is most acceptable to the development in early childhood particularly in favorable environment. from the eight to the seventeenth years of life. He studied the reading performance as influenced by . points as compared to the 0.” Pupil Factor Domingo (1995) studied the reading performance of grade five pupils in Victoria East District in Tarlac.Q. will acquire higher reading skill faster than those with lower I. Likewise.38 the classroom. Many environmentalist influenced educators and parents believe that young children learn best by rote activities.Q. Miguela M. the significance of pre-primary education was answered by Dr.Q. the intellectual development of the increase at about 2. At home. Solis and the said. When young children are unable to respond appropriately to the classroom and environment. It was found out that with stimulating a conducive surroundings and challenging activities. There is a close correlation between intelligence and reading achievement.
the study has shown several of the most common factors affecting the reading performance of the pupils such as I. inappropriate teaching strategies. Lanao Del Norte were on vocabulary skills. The findings showed that these variables relationship and influence to the reading performance of pupils. In relation to the previous study. Gonzaga (1996).39 selected variables such as nutritional status. making inferences. the pupils’ intellectual factors and their socioeconomic factor also affect the pupils’ reading comprehension. parents’ educational attainment. Furthermore. comprehension skills. In relation to the previous study. Furthermore. following directions. getting the main idea. cause and effect relationship and organizing ideas. the said factors revealed no relationship with the ability of the pupils in reading. parents’ socio-economic status. There are no significant differences in pupils’ reading difficulty levels when grouped according to the sex. and pronunciation of vowel. sequencing events/ideas.Q. pupil-book ratio and recreational activities of pupils. reading interest and availability of reading materials. and not suited reading materials. in her assessment of the reading comprehension achievement of Grade Five pupils. Gonzaga has presented several factors affecting the low reading comprehension performance of Grade Five pupils. R. age. These identified factors are language problems. The skills included noting details. Macabanding (2000) discovered that the reading difficulties of majority of the Grade Six pupils of Matungao District. had no significant . found out that pupils showed poor performance in terms of reading skills.
There is a significant relation between educational background of parents in the pupils’ level of reading skills. Differences were noted in the scope and emphasis with the factors that affect reading abilities. They help their children improve their reading skills. Gonzaga in her evaluation of the reading comprehension shows some similarities to the present study in which both were concerned with the reading comprehension of the pupils. Cinches’ study revealed that female pupils are children of government and private employees. 5. reading weight and paragraph were average while sentence and comprehension were low.40 R. Statistics show that there was no significant difference in reading skills of both the male and female . Male and female pupils significantly differed in their skills in paragraph meaning unlike the rest of the reading skill. 2. Ma. 4. reading rate. 3. Furthermore. Male pupils’ level of reading skills in word. Most of the pupils were female. comprehension and paragraph meaning were low. majority of the male pupils are not good readers. Female word meaning. Majority of the parents were college graduates. sentence meaning. the findings were as follows: 1. Cinches (1999) in her study of the reading skills of Grade Five pupils includes the sex of the pupils and the educational background of their parents. Tumanglay. Through the standardized test by Dra. However.
pupils. Therefore, it is safe to say that sex did not show any relationship with the reading ability of the pupils. In terms of paragraph meaning, both the male and female pupils differ significantly. It is concluded that that female were good readers as compared to the male. These previous researches have similarities to the present study to be conducted because they all deal on the reading skills of Grade Five pupils. Differences were based on the factors in which the former included the parent-pupil factors while the latter was about the pupil factor. Larin (2001) found out that most of the Fourth Year students of Mercy Junior College and National Comprehensive High School have good reading ability based on the Teacher-Made Test. The students showed positive attitude toward English as a language for reading purposes. There was a significant relationship between type of school and interest in reading materials. Females were better in vocabulary test than males and there were no significant differences in reading comprehension test. Parents’ monthly income did not significantly affect students’ reading ability. Fathers’ educational attainment significantly affected students’ vocabulary in context test. Kush and Watkins (1996) summarized in their study that positive attitudes like study habits toward reading contribute to higher reading achievement. They quoted that girls consistently expressed more positive attitudes toward recreational reading than boys. Teacher Factor
Reading as a process of teacher’s intervention is explained by Riggs (2005). The first step covers the “INTO” covering activating prior knowledge, helping students predict or construct text, and giving various experience. The second step is known as the “THROUGH” where direct teaching to comprehension happens through imparting information about comprehension, giving explanations about how skills are used, citing examples, modelling how to think about reading, and teaching students to self-motivate. The last step is called “BEYOND” in which readers are tested by the teacher through assessing comprehension by asking questions to find out what was remembered, by grand conversations, and by activities to help children internalize and appreciate what they had read. Michaels and Mitchell (2005) elaborated on some of the skills used in the reading process. They are through using letter-sound relationships referred to as the ability to sound out words using knowledge of sound-spelling relationships in a real reading context, acquiring a sight vocabulary pertaining to the recognition of certain common English words that cannot be easily sounded out or decoded, and through gaining meaning from context where readers manifest the ability to use the surrounding information in a sentence to figure out an unknown word. Gambrell and his colleagues (2006) cite about the characteristics of the reading process as holistic wherein various sub-skills must be integrated to form a smooth, coherent whole, as constructive where readers use what is in their heads and what is on the page to construct meaning, as strategic focusing on the readers use of different strategies depending on their purposes for reading and the difficulty of the material, and as interactive that readers must interact with the author in order
for meaning to occur. Similarly, the same authors provides for the conditions for poor reading performance. These are that the readers does not see letters or symbols on the page or may not be able to recognize them; has confusions or incorrect associations between sounds and letters, and has little experience with or knowledge of the subject. Consequently, the reading product on any reading situation should always be meaningful depending on comprehension, and readers must be able to derive meaning from symbols and connect them to experiences and impressions from their own lives. Classroom teachers need to understand contemporary theories of reading and literacy development and be able to articulate their theoretical perspectives concerning kinds of reading texts and materials, the reading process, and their instructional practices, so they do not fall victim to the political pressures associated with standardized tests, state-mandated curricula, and commercially prepared learning programs (Coles, 1998; McQuillan 1998). As literacy educators, teachers need to be able to understand and discuss why they do what they do if they are going to create readers who can do more than decode texts accurately, read them aloud on demand, and score well on tests as reflections of academic performance. According to St. James (2007), a mandatory reading ability test is given to students wishing to enrol in an academic program at St. Louis Community College. Although it remains open to all students who wish to study, too many students have been frustrated and discouraged because they are not ready to succeed in the program they select. Research shows that a student who failed the test in developmental reading and yet enrols without improving his/her reading ability
. A teacher needs mastery of subject she is to teach. as teachers take on the burden on improving our national record in Science and Mathematics so that by the end of this century. 1997. the coming years will be characterized by fierce competition within countries and between nation for jobs. being the key player to attain it. “ Let us. Diliman on April 1. He said. marker resources and technologies.” He challenged the teachers to take the responsibility. The above literature point to the importance of determining the reading ability of students as an important factor that should be known be known by teachers. knowledge and dedication of teachers. with their role in the nation building”.” He stresses. He quotes.” “There are more expectations from teachers today. In a speech delivered by Senator Edgardo Angara during the commencement exercises of the Roosevelt College Foundation Center for Teacher Education held at the University of the Philippines. we will be – if not at the top – at least in the middle. This means that too often student pay tuition in courses they cannot handle and leave the school unhappy with themselves and with their experience. “ I cannot over emphasize to you the need for better education. stated by Ariola. “ I have always believed that the progress of a nation depends crucially on the quality of education that it provides its citizens. the better educated and the better trained will surely prevail. In these contests. 2000. he emphasized the importance of quality education and the role the teachers play to achieve it. and the quality of education depends on the skills.44 succeeds at the rate of only 13 percent.
this level of reading involves getting answers to who. Reyes (2003) and Latha (2004) noted the value of motivating activities in teaching reading to ease the pressure of beginning readers. They further elaborated the use of approaches suited in learning.45 If he/she lacks the knowledge of the subject matter. These are the following: 1. Accordingly. In language teaching. The teacher should therefore be able to produce the vowel and the consonant sounds correctly for the students to imitate. . he/she will not receive respect from pupils and even parents. Literal Comprehension. Each pronunciation lesson should develop in the student’s ability to hear sounds accurately and to produce the sound and sound sequence without conscious effort. Also known as “reading the lines”. when and where questions. what. In working with the primary grade children. This is understanding the ideas stated in the selection. English Performance Rayos and Gochuico (2008) discussed the different levels of reading comprehension. It is a must to know the best ways of working with them and the types of reading material and other activities they will enjoy. the teacher should serve as a model to the students. a teacher must know the behavior that can be expected of a child ages 6 to 8 years old. there are several levels of comprehending a selection one reads. Dang (2000) explained the varieties of the teachers teaching techniques and strategies is very necessary.
probably on the situations in the selection. Interpretative Comprehensions. boldfaced or italicized type. 3. This is why this level is called “ reading between the lines”. they can be differentiated thus. section headings. Often called “reading beyond the lines”. This is the level of reading where the reader needs to draw conclusion or make a decision. Skimming and scanning. the reader makes use of the ideas he gets from the selection and applies them. Critical analysis. These signposts include chapter titles. both authors also provided the kinds of reading that are learned and engaged by readers. and underlining. This is the understanding of facts and ideas not directly stated in one reads. skimming and scanning are called reading by signposts or the clues by the writer. The answer to the why and how questions often fall under this level because reader has to get the implied meaning. Accordingly. In the same breath. the why and how questions may fall under level one above if the answer to the questions are stated. a good reader can adjust his reading to the type of material he or she is reading and to his or her purpose in reading. Integration and application. The fastest rates at which a person reads. The kinds of reading can be identified as: 1.46 2. based on the facts given and the ideas implied in the reading material. 4. skimming is . Although these two terms are sometimes interchangeable. This often involves answering questions on characterization or on the style of the writer.
and interpret the assignment he is reading.47 used when the reader needs to get the general idea of what he reads. This kind of reading is done when a reader reads to understand the main ideas in what he or she reads and how they are related. reading for main ideas. helping students predict or construct text. Recreatory Reading. Study Reading. 4. newspapers. He must look for appropriate assumptions. and giving various experience. probably a test. 3. and paper backs for one’s enjoyment. 2. Scanning is used when the reader looks for definite facts in what he reads. One does this kind of reading when one goes over magazines. and relevant information. challenge. adequate supporting evidences. He understands it for his future use. Critical Reading. This is a kind of reading with periodical articles and advertising materials using a propaganda devices designed to sway opinions or to sell particular ideas or products. and remembering only the important words in each thought phrase. The first step covers the “INTO” covering activating prior knowledge. The reader’s eyes rapidly move along the lines of print. Reading as a process of teacher’s intervention is explained by Riggs (2005). This is kind of thoughtful reading done because a more rapid reading may lead to false conclusions. The second step is known as the “THROUGH” where direct teaching to comprehension happens . A student must react to. The reader watches out for inconsistent logic and false analogies in what he reads.
modelling how to think about reading. and teaching students to self-motivate. Gambrell and his colleagues (2006) cite about the characteristics of the reading process as holistic wherein various sub-skills must be integrated to form a smooth. Michaels and Mitchell (2005) elaborated on some of the skills used in the reading process. by grand conversations. as strategic focusing on the readers use of different strategies depending on their purposes for reading and the difficulty of the material. The last step is called “BEYOND” in which readers are tested by the teacher through assessing comprehension by asking questions to find out what was remembered.48 through imparting information about comprehension. has confusions or incorrect associations between sounds and letters. citing examples. and has little experience with or . and through gaining meaning from context where readers manifest the ability to use the surrounding information in a sentence to figure out an unknown word. and as interactive that readers must interact with the author in order for meaning to occur. and by activities to help children internalize and appreciate what they had read. Similarly. coherent whole. giving explanations about how skills are used. the same authors provides for the conditions for poor reading performance. acquiring a sight vocabulary pertaining to the recognition of certain common English words that cannot be easily sounded out or decoded. They are through using letter-sound relationships referred to as the ability to sound out words using knowledge of sound-spelling relationships in a real reading context. These are that the readers does not see letters or symbols on the page or may not be able to recognize them. as constructive where readers use what is in their heads and what is on the page to construct meaning.
Kay E. and readers must be able to derive meaning from symbols and connect them to experiences and impressions from their own lives. MacGinite. the test is based on the following premises as: 1) Powerful diagnostic tools used nationally to help teachers know their student’s level of reading achievement. Dreyer. Hughes both paper-pencil online. a mandatory reading ability test is given to students wishing to enrol in an academic program at St. too many students have been frustrated and discouraged because they are not ready to succeed in the program they select. Although it remains open to all students who wish to study. According to the authors . 2) . According to St. Research shows that a student who failed the test in developmental reading and yet enrols without improving his/her reading ability succeeds at the rate of only 13 percent. the reading product on any reading situation should always be meaningful depending on comprehension. Katherine Maria. The above literature point to the importance of determining the reading ability of students as an important factor that should be known be known by teachers. This means that too often student pay tuition in courses they can not handle and leave the school unhappy with themselves and with their experience. Hernandez.49 knowledge of the subject. MacGinite. Ruth K. Lois G. 2008. is that it is useful for teachers and schools to know the general level of reading achievement of individual students throughout their entire school careers (Guimary. The basic premise of the Gates-MacGinite Reading Tests. James (2007). Consequently. 2007). authored by Walter H. Louis Community College.
which can be used to measure growth over time or monitor program effectiveness. 5) Alternate forms for pre and post testing. or progress monitoring. 7) Support materials and services that can help teachers link assessment to instruction. Theoretical Framework This study was based on the theory that the development of reading skills among school children takes along process. 4) Suitable for use in reading First and Striving Readers programs. they call for greater parent involvement. Jeanne S. 6) Identifies students that need additional individual diagnosis and special instruction. others seek to implement more school choice and others prepare better teacher training and higher teacher salaries. 3) Developmentally appropriate for all learners – from beginning readers to adults. a longer school year and school day. outcomes. First and foremost is the planning of the . diagnosis. smaller schools and smaller classes. Chall (2000) states that from the variety of proposals to raise the academic achievement of elementary pupils.50 Flexible enough to use for a variety of testing needs throughout the student’s school career: screening.
Bush and Hueber (1997) also explained that every individual needs to read intelligently in order to gain information. . Likewise. Proficiency in reading helps one to secure valuable information relating to health. In this regard. and much less. authorities suggest that reading should receive the most scrutiny. comprehend reading materials. enjoyable and profitable life. According to Durrell (1999) it has been observed that the failure if frequently due to inability to learn the subject.51 reading program. government and current issues and events. Braganza (1993) also stressed that the best and dedicated teachers should be assigned in Grade I and II where the reading problems and dropouts are crucial. possibly giving rise to high learning motivation. Successful achievement in reading. hence. but because the pupils cannot read efficiently. administrative. A child who cannot read risks security. Meeting these challenges therefore is a big task considering that the common criticisms hurled at today’s schools in all levels is the low performance in the academic achievement of the pupils in all areas. This means providing the learners with the strongest learning foundation. In this regard. family life. Another is the problem that the teacher will meet in the development of reading skills. the study was anchored on the DepEds’ greatest concern on the return to the basics wherein reading is one of the 3R’s as a tool for learning. academic and moral support must be provided to these teachers so that after the first grade. acquire useful knowledge and attain a useful. demands that the pupils must be effective readers as early as Grade one. Materials. the child shall not be non-reader nor a disabled reader. loss self esteem and ability to attain his future interest to the fullest. Society therefore.
It is the first validated instrument that intends to measure the pupils’ reading comprehension level. The pupil’s word recognition and comprehension ability as well as his/her reading speed are informally assessed quantitatively and qualitatively through stories and passages. The Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil-IRI) anchorage of the study The Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil-IRI) is an initiative of the Bureau of Elementary Education – Department of Education that directly addresses its thrust to make every Filipino child a reader. The results present the reading profile of public elementary schools nationwide. 2) Phil-IRI-Speed and Comprehension (English).52 on the other hand leads to the pupils’ happiness and success. It is anchored on the flagship program of the Department “Every Child A Reader Program. These assessment tools are packaged in two sets: Phil-IRI-Oral Test (English and Filipino) and Phil-IRI-Speed and Comprehension (English and Filipino). Starting SY 2010also served as . while failure in reading leads to unhappiness in the child and disapproval of the society. The Phil-IRI is an assessment tool that evaluates the reading proficiency level of elementary school pupils.” the goal of which is to enable every Filipino child to communicate both in English and Filipino through effective reading instruction. Each set of Phil-IRI comes with a manual of administration and the test materials. 3) Phil-IRIOral (Filipino) and 4) Phil-IRI-Speed and Comprehension (Filipino). The entire set of Phil-IRI consists of four assessment tools namely: the 1) Phil-IRI-Oral (English).
the teachers will have a more comprehensive view of their pupils’ reading abilities whether the context of evaluation is silent or oral Conceptual Framework The study made use of the IV-DV model in presenting its conceptual framework. The Phil-IRI oral assessment tools (English and Filipino) attempt to measure the pupils’ comprehension level vis-à-vis fluency within the context of oral assessment. and years in service are reflected. for the IV.53 2011. highest educational attainment. gender. Each Phil-IRI assessment tool focuses on evaluation of specific pupils’ reading ability. When the pupils are administered with all four assessment tools.com. the recording forms shall be downloadable to the Phil-IRI website: www. On the other hand. Thus. On the other hand.philiri. the profile of the Grade Two teacher respondents in terms of age. present position. Each manual provides all the necessary information about the reading inventory and the instruction for administration. the extent of implementation of the Phil-IRI Program and the extent to which parent factor. pupil and teacher factor affects reading skills of Grade Two pupils are also reflected in the IV box. home. the DV reflects the performance in English of the Grade Two pupils. civil status. . the Phil-IRI speed and comprehension assessment tools (English and Filipino) aim to measure the pupils’ comprehension level within a specific time frame. Likewise.
Profile of the Grade Two Teacher respondents in terms of: Age Sex Civil status Highest educational attainment 1.3 1.7 Years in service.3 3. RESEARCH PARADIGM Independent Variable Dependent Variable 1.6 Present position 1.4 Performance in English of Grade Two pupils Figure I. of seminars attended in Reading 2. Paradigm of the study showing the relationships of the profile of the Grade II English teachers.2 3. extent of implementation of Phil-IRI in English and the factors affecting Reading of Grade II pupils to their performance in English.2 1. Extent of implementation of Phil-IRI in English 3.1 1. Research Hypothesis The study will answer the following hypothesis: .54 Following is the paradigm of the study.4 Parent factor Home factor Pupil factor. and Teacher factor 1.1 3. Factors affecting reading skills of Grade II pupils 3.5 Major field of specialization 1. and 1.8 No.
Definition of Terms The following terms are operationally defined for clearer understanding of the readers. proper lightning and ventilation.55 1. Comprehension – this refers to a type of understanding such that the individual knows what is being communicated without necessarily relating it to other material or seeing its fullest application. Home Factor – this pertains to the provisions for the study needs of the school children at home. to read beyond the lines. It refers to the ability to read between the lines. Comprehension Skills – this refers to the ability to understand or interpret the material read or speech language based on previous experiences recalled and related to the present situation. 1.2 extent of implementation of Phil-IRI in English. and 1. such as study rooms. 1.3 Factors affecting reading skills of Grade II pupils.1 profile of Grade two teachers. Extent of Implementation of PHIL-IRI – this pertains to the school wide implementation of the program to help solve reading difficulties and enhance reading skills of the pupils. . The following independent variables significantly relate to the performance of Grade II pupils in English.
the pre-reading preparation and the ability to cope and understand the lessons presented in Reading. Non-reader – the terms refers to a pupil who has not mastered the ability to read any reading material suited to his age level or even below his age level. and skills through experience and study. Phil-IRI – is an assessment tool that evaluates the reading proficiency level of elementary school pupils. Learning Disability – the term refers to significant discrepancies along learner’s sensory motor. Omission – this refers to omitting a word or a continuous sequence of words in the text but continues to read. It is the acronym for Philippine Informal reading Inventory.56 Insertion – this refers to inserting a word or a series of words that does not appear in the text. Mispronunciation – this refers to attempting to pronounce the word but produces a nonsense word. Reading – this refers to the purposeful activity which involved the comprehension and interpretation of ideas symbolized by written or printed . information. Performance in English – this refers to the achievement of the Grade Two pupils based on the Phil-IRI results. Parent Factor – this refers to the sufficient educational support from parents. Learning – this refers to the process of gaining knowledge. rather than a real one. cognitive academic and other related developmental which interfere with the performance of academic tasks. perceptual. Pupil Factor – this refers to the proper motivation to read the printed page.
It is a developmental task which a child must perform in order to satisfy his own needs. the purpose of which is to overcome difficulties discovered in any aspect of the reading process. . interpret and pronounce printed matters or written symbols in one setting. They also refer to the reading skills. Refusal to Pronounce –the term refers to neither pronouncing the word nor attempting to do so. Remedial Reading – the terms refers to the instruction given to the learners who operate reading levels below their capabilities.57 language. the level at which he can independently handle reading materials. It is the ability of the pupils’ to see. Reading Skills – this refers to the skills that are readers possess in order to attain a level of functional literacy. linguistic and educational experience. so that he may satisfy the demands made upon him by the society and so that he is better prepared to handle subsequently development task. Reading Deficiency – the term refers to a mild severe retardation in learning to read which is desperate with the individual’s general intelligence and with their cultural. think. lack of ability to read with average or normal achievement for one’s age and grade level. Reading Difficulties – this refers to the handicap that interferes with reading. literal comprehension and interpretative skills. These are children who seem normal but they are not making the growth in reading in his maturity limits due to the handicap that interferes with his comprehension.
Retarded Reader . Underachiever in Reading – the term is restricted to those whose reading performance is not below age and grade standards but who are judged to be functioning significantly below their own potential level in reading.58 Repetition –this refers to repeating one or more words that have been read.the term refers to the reversing of the order of words or letters. Substitution – the term refers to substituting a real word that is incorrect. Reluctant Reader – the term refers to the pupil who can read but will not the root cause of which is the mental attitude of the individual. Retained Non-readers – the term refers to the Grade One pupils who were retained in Grade One as a result of reading disability. Teacher Factor – this refers to the capability of the teacher to handle Reading with pupils with varied potentials and reading difficulties. Groups of adjacent words that are repeated count as one repetition.the terms refers to one whose reading achievement is less than that of what is expected of his peer group. Reversal. CHAPTER 3 Research Methodology .
beliefs. .59 This chapter presents the research design. research instrument. population of the study. the descriptive type of research describes and interprets what is. data gathering procedure. This means that all Grade Two teachers and Grade Two pupils were involved and included in the study. validation. point of views. practices that prevail. Population of the Study The population of the study involved all the Grade Two teachers in Sto. or attitudes that are help. It is concerned with conditions or relationships that exist. and statistical treatment of data. processes that are going on. Sampling Procedure Total enumeration or universal sampling was used in this study. Cristo Elementary School and the Grade Two pupils under their tutelage during the school year 2011-2012 which is the inclusive period of the study. and the trends that are developing. effects that are felt. Research Design The descriptive type of research was used by the researcher to find out and determine the extent of implementation of the Phil-IRI Program and performance in English of Grade Two pupils including the factors affecting their reading skills. The researcher believed that this type of research will best describe the results of the investigation since according to Best and Khan (2003). sampling procedure.
Cristo Elementary Teacher School Section A Section B Section C Total 1 1 1 3 Total Percent Grade Two Pupils 51 53 50 154 Research Instrument The questionnaire was used as the main instrument for gathering the needed data for the study.60 Table 1 presents the respondents of the study. Table 1 Respondents of the Study Sto. It shall comprised of three parts. . This was answered by the Grade Two teachers.
It was however submitted to her adviser and panel of examiners for approval.and post tests which determined the extent of implementation of the Phil-IRI in English among Grade Two pupils. pupil factor. Data Gathering Procedure The researcher first sought permission from the district supervisor of Pulilan District to allow her to distribute questionnaires. highest educational attainment. and teacher factor. conduct informal interviews and gather the needed data for the study. Validation of the Instrument The instrument was no longer validated since the Phil –IRI is a standardized instrument. years in service and number of seminars attended in Reading. Part 3 included the other factors affecting the reading disabilities of Grade Two pupils in terms of: parent factor. present position.61 Part 1 comprised of the profile of the Grade Two teacher respondents in terms of age. . sex. home factor. civil status. Informal interviews with Grade Two pupils who were subjected to Phil-IRI was also conducted by the researcher to supplement the data gathered from the questionnaires. Part 2 comprised of the Phil-IRI pre.
she personally administered the questionnaires to her target respondents. Percentage where: P f N = = = percentage frequency of responses total number of respondents . percentage was used. speed and comprehension. for her to be able to explain the mechanics of answering and the actual purpose of the study. the Grade Two teachers.62 Upon approval. Cristo Elementary School comprising of oral reading. silent reading. Statistical Treatment of Data The data gathered through the questionnaires and Phil-IRI tests were treated statistically using the following statistical tools: 1. For problem number 1. On the part of the Grade Two pupils she endeavoured to conduct the Phil-IRI test to the three sections of Grade Two pupils in Sto.
Weighted Mean and Standard Deviations were used. For problems number 2 and 3. Weighted Mean where: f x N ∑ M = = = = = mean frequency of respondents category weight total number of respondents summation sign Standard Deviation .63 2.
64 where: X N ∑ SD = = = = standard deviation expected number of respondents summation sign 3. CHAPTER 4 Presentation. Analysis and Interpretation of Data (To be presented later) .For problems 4 and 5 Correlation Analysis were used.
65 CHAPTER 5 Summary. Conclusion. Recommendation (To be presented later) .
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2179-2187). XLXX. Y. Philippine Journal of Education. University of the Assumption.). Cosolacion V. Differences In Reading Comprehension Due to Six Mental Ability. Ogata. Salomaa. Zheng. L. Reading and Linguistic (New York: holt.. . and Higher Education 2005. (pp. Amelia. Elizabeth V. Fries. Charles. Proceeding of World Conference on E – Learning in Corporate. Liu. Support Ubiquitous Learning with Knowledge Awareness. The Improvement of Reading. Batangas City. (WMUTE2008). (2005). 10 Richmond.. New York. Beiging China. In G. 1997) Julian. and Difficulty of the Reading Materials As measured by Clozed Test Among Grade VI Pupils in Batangas City (Unpublished Master’s Thesis. & Yano. Western Philippines College. An activity – Oriented Design Framework for mobile Learning Experience. Y. 185-187). 1993) Heitman. D.. Pampanga (Unpublished Master’s Thesis. H. Huang R. (2008). 1993) Landicho. March 23-26. La. Sutania. In the Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference or Wireless. Richards (Ed. The Reading Difficulties of Grade VI Pupils in San Fernando East District. and Ma. 1990) Li. Mar 1965. Rinehart and Winston Inc. The Reading Skills of Grade VI Pupils of Bulaon District: An Analysis (Unpublished Master’s Thesis: Osias Educ’l Foundation. Union. 2000 Reyes 2003 Latha 2004 Regala – Paredes 2007 Journal Dacanay. Program for Remedial Reading Pockford. Ilolinois Corpuz. Fe and Minda C.. H. Mc Graw Hill Bank Co. Beata. Language Content. Healthcare. Arthur W. j. “ The Teaching of English in the Elementary Schools”. No.al. et. Vol. Government.68 Delos Santos 2008 Ariola. Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies in Education. pp..
Leoniza (2010) “ Reading Ability. Technological University of the Philippines. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Manila. Bulacan . Manila. San Juan Batangas”. Technological University of the Philippines. Evelyn (2004) “ Factors Associated with the Reading Competencies of grade Five Pupils in District II. Elvira Casil Selected reading Skills of Grade Four Pupils in Umingan District: An Appraisal (Unpublished Master’s Thesis: Zaragoza College. Marilyn B. and Parent Related Factors and Pupil’s Academic Achievement in Aplaya Elementary School San Juan east District.497 Unpublished Materials Lanipa. “ Asking Questions In Reading Philippine Journal of Education (July. p. 1990). Ramirez. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Unpublished Master’s Thesis.69 Mones. DCS. 2012 MR. Technological University of the Philippines. Manila: Basis for Policy Formulation”. 1996) Plameras. Teachers. Olympio Sandro (2004) “ School. Multiple Intelligences and Performance in Mathematics and Science of freshman Students of Pag-Asa National High School”. Sarte. Manila. DE JESUS District Supervisor Pulilan District Pulilan. BARTOLOME C. Technological University of the Philippines GRADUATE SCHOOL College of Industrial Education Manila March 22.
the researcher gratitude. Manila.Cristo Elementary School. JOSON Researcher Approved: BARTOLOME C. Dep Ed. Cristo Elementary School. Greetings! . she is requesting that she be allowed to distribute questionnaires and conduct informal interviews among Grade Two teachers and pupils in Sto. DE JESUS District Supervisor Technological University of the Philippines GRADUATE SCHOOL College of Industrial Education Manila Dear Respondent. In this connection.70 Sir: Greetings! The undersigned is currently conducting a study entitled “Extent of Implementation of Phil –IRI Program and Performance in English of Grade Two Pupils in Sto. ROSARIO A. major in Administration and Supervision at Technological University of the Philippines. Very respectfully yours. In anticipation of your favorable response. Bulacan” in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts in Industrial Education.
Very respectfully yours. Dep Ed Bulacan” QUESTIONNAIRE . Bulacan” in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree Master of Arts in Industrial Education. Rest assures that all your answers will be treated with strict confidentiality. Please do not leave any item unanswered. ROSARIO A. major in Administration and Supervision at Technological University of the Philippines. In this connection. Thank you and God bless. she is requesting that you answer the attached questionnaire honestly and completely. Manila. Cristo Elementary School. Cristo Elementary School. JOSON Researcher Technological University of the Philippines GRADUATE SCHOOL College of Industrial Education Manila “Extent of Implementation of Phil –IRI Program And Performance in English of Grade Two Pupils in Sto.71 The undersigned is currently conducting a study entitled “Extent of Implementation of Phil –IRI Program and Performance in English of Grade Two Pupils in Sto. Dep Ed.
Present Position . Profile of the Respondents Instruction: Please provide the most accurate information in the following: Name :____________________________________ School:____________________________________ Instruction: Please put a check (√) on the most accurate information for the following: 1. Sex 3. Civil Status _____ Male _____ Single _____ Widowed 4.72 I. Highest Educational Attainment ____ Bachelors Degree ____ Masteral Degree Units ____ Doctoral Degree ____ BS with Masteral Units ____ Masteral with Doctoral ___(31-40) years old ___(51-60) years old _____Female _____Married _____Separated _____ Annulled ____(61 & above) 5. Age ___(21-30) years old ___(41-50) years old 2. Major Field of Specialization ___________________________________ 6.
Use the scale that follows: 5_______to a very great extent 4 _______great extent 3 _______moderate extent 2 _______ slight extent 1 _______ no extent at all . Extent of Implementation of Phil-IRI in English for Grade II pupils.73 _____ Contractual _____ Teacher I _____ Teacher II 7. Years in Service: _____ Teacher III _____ Master Teaher I _____ Master Teacher II ___1-5 years ___ 6-10 years ___11-15 years ___16-20 years ____21 years & above 8. Instruction: Please put a checkmark (/) in the column provided opposite each item to signify your answer. Number of seminars attended in: Reading : __________ II.
Supplemental lessons or remedial classes are conducted to augment poor pupils’ performance in reading. The school/agency encourages the use of reading skills 6. Teachers encourage the use of reading skills outside lessons in various ways 5.3 Speed & Comprehension 3. 4. The school involves parents in the Phil IRI program 7. Use the scale that follows: 5_______to a very great extent 4 _______great extent 3 _______moderate extent 2 _______ slight extent 1 _______ no extent at all A. One hundred percent of the pupils undergo Phil IRI evaluation on the following areas: 2.2 Silent Reading 2. There is a clear provision of administrative support for the Phil IRI program III.74 Item Statement 1. There is a clear school-wide implementation of the Phil IRI program 2.1 Oral Reading 2. Parent Factor . Factors Affecting Reading Skills of Grade Two Pupils 5 4 3 2 1 Instruction: Please put a checkmark (/) in the column provided opposite each item to signify your answer.
Free from too much noise and disturbances 4. social. Obtains proper nourishment needed for their studies 3. Attends to their children’s emotional. and health needs. intellectual. chairs. Listens to children’s explanations before scolding and beating them 8. Small family size allowing no disturbance on children’s studies . Near the school and very accessible to reach the place 5.75 Item Statement 1. Home Factor Item Statement 1. Rewards their children whenever they obtain high grades 5. Sufficient educational support and concern from parent 2. Obtains the needed physical needs form parent 4. Assists or help their children in preparing homework 10. Have regular communication with their children as regards their studies 11. lights. Keeps children away from family problems and frequent quarrels which directly and indirectly affect their studies 6. Provides for the study needs of the children 2. Does not allow their children to go to any place around instead of studying their lessons at home 12. Involve themselves to improve the reading deficiencies of their children 9. Gives praises for whatever success their children obtain from school 7. and 5 4 3 2 1 ventilation to encourage their children to do their homework and study their lessons 3. Have provisions for tables. 5 4 3 2 1 B.
2. Can cope and understand the lessons presented in Reading 4. Have enough low level materials for reading practice D.76 C. Obtains the proper motivation to read the printed 5 4 3 2 1 page 3. Teacher Factor 1. Item Statement Have time to supervise each pupil with reading disabilities Have enough materials for pupils with reading disabilities Very focus on the regular work loads Employs/utilizes different methods/strategies of teaching Have patience to handle pupils with reading difficulties and disabilities Have enough trainings in handling pupils with varied reading disabilities 5 4 3 2 1 ---------.End of Questionnaire ---------- . 3. 6. Pupil Factor Item Statement 1. Interested in studying particularly in reading 2. 4. 5. Have pre-reading preparation before engaging in beginning reading activities 5.
77 Thank you. ROSARIO A. JOSON Researcher .