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FATIGUE OF MATERIALS
TOPICS & REFERENCES
Mechanisms for Fatigue Fatigue Crack Propagation Ch. 14 in Meyers & Chawla S. Suresh, Fatigue of Materials, 2nd Ed., Cambridge (1998)
Fatigue of Materials
• Many materials, when subjected to fluctuating stresses, fail. • The stresses required to cause failure are far below those needed to cause fracture on single application of load. • Fatigue failure is failure under dynamic loading. • Fatigue is the cause for more than 90% of all service failures in structural materials. It is something that you would like to avoid. • Fatigue failures generally occur with little or no warning (with catastrophic results).
• They generally appear to be brittle.
Stress concentrators PSBs Inclusions Etc…
[Meyers & Chawla]
σmax σa STRESS Δσ = σr 0 σmin σm TIME All fluctuating stress cycles are made up of a σm and a σa
Stress Range: Stress Amplitude (alternating stress): Mean Stress: Stress Ratio: Amplitude Ratio:
Δσ = σ r = σ max − σ min 2 σ + σ min σ m = max 2 R=
σ max − σ min
σ min σ max 1− R σ A= a = σm 1+ R
Page 798 .Stress Cycles σmax σ max ≠ σ min STRESS 0 σm TIME σmin • Real stress cycles are far more complex and unpredictable than the ideal one showed on the prior viewgraph. fatigue failures are statistical in nature. • Thus. • Now we need to consider how fatigue parameters influence fatigue failure.
Fatigue Results: the S-N curve • Engineering fatigue data is generally presented on S-N (or ε-N) curves. – S = applied stress – ε = applied strain – N = # cycles to failure Ferrous metals and other strain aging materials Examples: Low carbon steel Stainless steel Titanium Etc… S or ε SL Example: Al alloys Non-ferrous metals # cycles to failure (log scale) SL = fatigue/endurance limit Page 799 .
• For non-ferrous materials we will generally define the fatigue strength as the stress that will cause fracture at the end of a specified number of cycles (usually 107). In steels SL/UTS = 0. Page 800 .5).Fatigue Results: The S-N Curve σa σa Fatigue Limit Endurance Limit at 107 Cycles 102 104 106 108 102 104 106 108 Nf Nf • In materials exhibiting a fatigue limit. cyclic loading at stresses below the fatigue limit cannot result in failure.4 to 0.
Categories of Fatigue (1) (2) (3) M. 146 Page 801 .R. Engineering Materials 1. Ashby and D.F. p. Jones. Boston (1996). Butterworth-Heinemann. 2nd Edition.
Sa Elastic deform.Categories of Fatigue High-strain LOW CYCLE Finite life Infinite life Plastic deform. McGraw-Hill. Boston (2004). of bulk SUTS SYS Low-strain HIGH CYCLE Stress.E. p. of bulk 100 101 102 Number of cycles to failure. Mischke. 314 Page 802 . and R. Mechanical Engineering Design. Budynas. N 103 104 105 105 107 108 Adapted from J. C.G. 7th Edition.R. Shigley.
e. A Δσ 2 Δε 2 Δε O 2 ε Δσ 2 C Page 803 . it is easier to implement strain-life experiments... • However. in the high-cycle fatigue (HCF) regime].e. This is typical of the stresslife method which is most suitable for high-cycle applications [i. in the low-cycle fatigue (LCF) regime].Stress-Life or Strain-Life? • Most data is presented on S-N curves. Δεp B O-A-B reflects initial loading in tension. Δεe σ • The strain-life method is more applicable where there is measurable plastic deformation [i.
Strain-Life Method • It’s convenient to consider elastic and plastic strains separately. Δε = Δε elastic + Δε plastic • Elastic strain amplitude is determined from a combination of . Δε e σ a ⎛ σ ′f ⎞ = =⎜ ⎟ (2N f 2 E ⎝ E ⎠ ) b Δε e = elastic strain amplitude 2 σ a = true stress amplitude σ ′f = fatigue strength coefficient b = fatigue strength exponent Page 804 . Nf and Hooke’s law.
Page 805 .Strain-Life Method (2) • The plastic strain component is described by the Manson-Coffin equation. Δε p σ a c = = ε ′f ( 2 N f ) 2 E Δε p 2 = plastic strain amplitude σ a = true stress amplitude ε ′f = fatigue ductility coefficient c = fatigue ductility exponent • The Manson-Coffin equation describes LCF.
the Manson Coffin equation breaks down because Nf decreases as temperature increases. ε ′f Strain Amplitude Δε/2 (log Scale) ∆εP > ∆εe LCF • At high temperatures. In addition.Strain Life Method (3) Δε = Δε elastic + Δε plastic ∴ Δε Δε e Δε p ⎛ σ ′f ⎞ = + =⎜ ⎟ (2N f 2 2 2 ⎝ E ⎠ ) b + ε ′f ( 2 N f ) c • This is the Manson-Coffin relationship between fatigue life and total strain. We can use it to determine the fatigue strength. Nf depends on cyclic frequency. ∆εP < ∆εe HCF c σ ′f E ELASTIC Total strain b PLASTIC 103 to 104 cycles 2Nf (log Scale) Page 806 .
• Local plastic strains at notches subjected to cyclic loading can also result in strain-controlled conditions near the root of the notch. • It is also found during reversed bending between fixed displacements.Cyclic Strain-Controlled Fatigue • Strain amplitude is held constant during cycling. • This is particularly dangerous when a component is made from materials exhibiting different coefficients of thermal expansion. Page 807 . This is due to constraint placed on the material near the root by the surrounding mass of material. • Strain-controlled cyclic loading is often found during thermal cycling (when a component expands and contracts due to fluctuations in temperature).
Trends for Engineering Metals [Dowling] • Constant strain-amplitude cycling: – High-strength materials are desirable for HCF. – High ductility materials are desirable for LCF. – High-strength materials have low values of ε′f and low ductility. Page 808 . – High-ductility materials have low values of σ′f and low strength.
• On unloading. • A hysteresis loop is described by its width.Schematic stress-strain hysteresis loop • O-A-B reflects initial loading in tension. curve B-C. the total strain range. and its height Δσ. This is due to the Bauschinger effect. yielding begins in compression at a lower value than was observed in tension. Δε. the stress range. Δεe σ Δεp B A Δσ 2 Δε 2 Δε O 2 ε Δσ 2 C Page 809 . • Re-loading in tension completes the hysteresis loop.
Response of Materials to Strain Cycles • Metals can harden or soften during fatigue depending upon their initial state. Control Condition Strain + 1 3 5 Time 2 4 Cyclic Hardening σ 3 5 Strain + 1 5 3 1 Time 2 4 2 4 ε Cyclic Softening σ 3 5 Strain + 1 1 3 5 Time 2 4 4 2 ε Page 810 .
0 σm σmin 0 TIME Page 811 .3 TIME 0 STRESS σa Δσ σm R = 0.σmax Effects of Mean Stress and Stress Ratio Variation of σm (and R) will cause the endurance limit to change STRESS σa R = -1.0 0 σmin = 0 TIME σmax STRESS σa Δσ R = 0.0 σm = 0 σmin σmax Δσ TIME 0 STRESS σa σm σmin σmax Δσ R = -0.
Effects of Mean Stress and Stress Ratio • As σm increases. the fatigue life decreases! • As R increases. the fatigue life increases! [Dieter] Page 812 .
The Goodman relation is more conservative and is safer for design purposes. –Goodman 1 ⎡ ⎤ σm σ a = σ o ⎢1 − σ UTS ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) R = negative Linear R = -1 R=0 –Gerber σo 2 ⎡ ⎤ σm σ a = σ o ⎢1 − σ UTS ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ( ) Parabolic R = positive –Soderberg ⎡ ⎤ σ a = σ o ⎢1 − σ m σ ⎥ YS ⎣ ⎦ 1 ) Linear σYS Mean Stress σUTS R=1 Most experimental data lies between the Goodman and Gerber values. Page 813 .Effects of Mean Stress and Stress Ratio •There are several empirical equations to relate the alternating stress to the mean stress.
• The fraction of life used is N1 /Nf1. a certain stress amplitude (σa1) is applied for a number of cycles (N1). There will be additional expressions for regions of loading with different stress amplitudes. • The total life used can be expressed as: N1 N N + 2 + 3 + N f1 N f 2 N f 3 + Ni N fi Page 814 . [Dowling] Figure 9.Cumulative Damage and Life Exhaustion • Most engineering structures are subjected to variable amplitude loading as is illustrated below.43 • As you can see. The number of cycles to failure for σa1 is Nf1.
e.Cumulative Damage and Life Exhaustion • The Palmgren-Miner rule can be used to determine whether or not the fatigue life is exhausted.43 N N1 N + 2 + 3 + N f1 N f 2 N f 3 =∑ i Ni =1 N fi • Fatigue failure is expected when the life fractions sum to unity (i. [Dowling] Figure 9. Page 815 . when 100% of the fatigue life is exhausted)..
fatigue failure is expected when the repeated life fractions sum to unity (i.Cumulative Damage and Life Exhaustion • If the variable amplitude loading cycle is repeated a number of times.. • As before.44 [Dowling] ⎡ Ni ⎤ B f ⎢∑ =1 ⎥ N fi ⎦ one repetition ⎣ i B f = number of repetitions to failure Page 816 .e. when 100% of the fatigue life is exhausted). Figure 9. it is convenient to sum cycle ratios over one repetition of the history and to then multiply that fraction by the number of repetitions required to reach unity.
The Fatigue Process σ I II III σ Page 817 .
Unstable crack growth or failure σ Page 818 .THE FATIGUE PROCESS • There are 3 stages: I. Crack initiation Crack propagation or stable crack growth σ I II III III. II.
Most cracks initiate at free surfaces.Fatigue Crack Growth (1) • Regardless of the mechanism that controls fatigue at elevated temperatures. in those instances where cracks initiate within a solid. However. we are concerned with how long it will take for a crack to grow to a critical length. • Everything starts with crack initiation! • Crack initiation is not well understood. some sort of interface is usually involved. Page 819 .
242 (1959) p. dislocations Fatigue Crack Growth (2) Slip planes [Proc. In many materials.• • Where “slip” fits in.. resulting in distorted regions of heavy slip. In unidirectional deformation. Roy. Page 820 . v.211-213] • • • In fatigue. Additional deformation produces additional slip lines. some grains show slip lines while others will not. which leaves slip bands on the surface. Crystalline solids generally deform by slip. Fewer slip lines are produced than the actual number of fatigue cycles. Soc. A. slip occurs uniformly through a grain. slip rapidly reaches a saturation value.
Some bands are more “persistent” than others. Page 821 .. • Cracks are generally found to occur in these regions of heavy deformation.e.Fatigue Crack Growth (3) • THUS. We call them persistent slip bands. slip lines in fatigue tend to be grouped into distinct bands (i. regions of locally heavy deformation).
CRACK INITIATION [Reed-Hill & Abbaschian] [Reed-Hill & Abbaschian] Page 822 .
• PSBs are embryonic fatigue cracks that open when small tensile strains are applied. Persistent Slip Bands and Crack Initiation [Dieter] [Reed-Hill & Abbaschian] • • Once formed cracks will initially propagate along slip planes (Stage I). Later they assume directions perpendicular to the applied stress (Stage II). Page 823 .
1981. 405-426). pp. Phil. p. Gösele and Mughrabi. 138] Page 824 . 44. [Suresh. Figure 4. A.• PSBs are embryonic fatigue cracks that open when small tensile strains are applied. (d) The combined effects of applied stresses and internal stresses. Mag. Bigger arrows indicate repulsive forces on interfacial dislocations and smaller arrows denote forces caused by the applied load (After Essman. Persistent Slip Bands This is just a visualization of how they can form.4. v. (b) Mechanism of extrusion formation by combined glide and dislocation annihilation. (c) Irreversible slip in the PSB creating effective interfacial dislocations which put the slip band in a state of compression. (a) The critical annihilation distance for screw and edge dislocations.
431] Page 825 . p.[Felbeck & Atkins.
The rate of crack propagation is low (on the order of a few Å/cycle).Stage I • • • Cracks propagate via crystallographic shear modes. The fracture surface in Stage I is nearly featureless. [Meyers & Chawla] Page 826 . A few cracks nucleate along crystallographic slip planes.
Striations are the result of a combination of crack propagation and blunting. Latanision and J. The crack propagation rate is high (on the order of a μm/cycle).” in Atomistics of Fracture.Stage II • Stage II crack propagation shows ripples/striations.M.M. From R. “Fractography. edited by R. Pickens.R. Plenum Press (1981) pp.N. Pelloux. [Dieter] Page 827 . 241-251 • • Each striation represents the position of the advancing crack.
Fatigue Life a (crack length) ac Incr.Stage III • The fatigue crack becomes too large. Δσ da ao dN Nf N (# cycles) Variation in fatigue crack length with # cycles to failure Page 828 . • The Kc of the material is exceeded resulting in fast fracture.
Δσ da ao dN Nf N (# cycles) Variation in fatigue crack length with # cycles to failure Page 829 .Stage III • The fatigue crack becomes too large. ac Fatigue Life a (crack length) Incr. • The Kc of the material is exceeded resulting in fast fracture.
Fatigue Crack Propagation (1) • The crack growth rate can be expressed as: da m = Cσ a a n dN C = constant σ a = alternating stress a = crack length m = a constant ranging from 2 to 4 n = a constant ranging from 1 to 2 • Is equation can be re-written in terms of the total accumulated strain: da = C1ε m1 dN C1 = constant ε = total strain m1 = a constant ranging from 2 to 4 • This is known as the Paris equation. Page 830 . It predicts the crack growth rate in the region of stable crack growth (Stage II).
. The crack could result from the presence of a manufacturing defect.Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method • • We can make fatigue crack propagation more useful by relating it to linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). Consider a thin sheet specimen of width w with a crack already in it. Applied Stress y σij θ x a w Applied Stress • The stress near the crack tip is: σ ij = K Fij (θ ) + .. 2π r Page 831 .
we are interested in the critical K values (i. depends on specimen shape and crack geometry • Values of K have been tabulated for materials with different crack geometries. Kc) ..e. Page 832 .Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method σ ij = K Fij (θ ) + ... K = F ( a. • Of course. 2π r • The K is the stress intensity factor that we defined previously as fracture toughness. σ ) = σ π a ⋅ F ( a w) = σ π a ⋅Y Shape factor.
ΔK correlates with the fatigue crack growth rate.Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method • At Kc an incremental increase in the crack length (da) results in a small change in the elastic strain energy release rate (i. If you are below Kc it does not. This is illustrated on the next page.. Δσ = σ max − σ min K = Yσ π a ∴ ΔK = K max − K min = Y Δσ π a • For constant Δσ. • If you exceed Kc the crack opens up.e. πσ2a/E) which is equaled by the energy required to extend a crack. Page 833 .
ΔK Variation in fatigue crack length with # cycles to failure a ao dN da N (# cycles) • Obviously da = F (ΔK ) dN • The variation of the fatigue crack growth rate with ΔK is shown on the next page.Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method a (crack length) Incr. Page 834 . Δσ Incr.
Crack propagation – Paris law region III.Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method Crack Growth Rate (log scale) I II K max → K c III p 1 ΔK th No crack growth da p = A ( ΔK ) dN Stress intensity factor range ΔK Variation in fatigue crack growth rate with stress intensity factor I. Unstable crack growth – accelerated crack growth Page 835 . Crack initiation – little or no crack growth II.
Page 836 . and test conditions. written in terms of the stress ratio R. • The influence of the mean stress. environment. Gomez and Anderson (1961) showed that the fatigue crack growth rate could be related to the stress intensity factor range by the relationship: da p = A ( ΔK ) dN where A and p are constants that depend upon material. is given by: A ( ΔK ) da = dN (1 − R ) K c − ΔK p • An increase tends to increase crack growth rates in all portions of the crack growth curve.Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method • Paris.
p=3 for steels and 3-4 for Al alloys. Growth rates are controlled by microstructure. and frequency. Growth rates are controlled by microstructure. Comments Growth rates are controlled by microstructure. environment.Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method Region I. σm. III. σm. Page 837 . II. In this region. and environment. and thickness.
Normalizing ΔK by dividing by the modulus (E) produces a curve (with some scatter about it) in which crack-growth rates in several materials cannot be as clearly differentiated as they are in (a). (b) The same data replotted as dc/dN vs. 380 (1969). 590] Page 838 . p. [Courtney. ASM. Trans. The results indicate that fatiguecrack growth rates are not structure-sensitive.FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH RATES ARE STRUCTURE INSENSITIVE (a) dc/dN vs. ΔK for several Ti. This comes from Bates and Clark. Al. this is in contrast to most mechanical properties. 62. and steel alloys. ΔK/E.
High-temperature turbine blade in an aircraft engine. How do we correlate everything that is going on? – Are we talking about creep enhanced by fatigue environment? – Are we talking about fatigue enhanced by creep? – What is the answer? Page 839 .Creep-Fatigue Interactions • Materials are generally used in “hostile” environments where diffusional processes can operate and/or where they are subject to environmental attack.” Rotational stresses and differences in thermal expansion result in cyclic loading. – Ex. The environment is “toxic. Temperatures are in the creep regime.
• At high temperatures fracture is caused by grainboundary cavitation.Creep-Fatigue Interactions • When the cyclic stress or strain amplitude is small compared to the mean stress (i.e.. • Several modes of high temperature fracture are illustrated on the next viewgraph. • Under opposite circumstances we have fatigue failure accelerated by diffusional processes (i. σa << σm) – creep accelerated by fatigue. Page 840 . – This definition also applies when temperature is high and the applied frequency is low.. which is followed by cavity growth and cavity coalescence resulting in a flaw of critical size. creep).e.
Modes of High-Temperature Fracture [Frost & Ashby] Page 841 .
• How can cyclic loading accelerate creep? GBS balanced by diffusion [Courtney. p. 603] Page 842 .Creep-Fatigue Interaction • Recall from fracture mechanics that tensile stresses tend to open up cracks whereas compressive stresses tend to heal cracks.
. 595] ∑N Ni fi +∑ ti =1 t fi N i = # cycles at stress amplitude σ ai N fi = # cycles to failure at stress amplitude σ ai ti = time spent at stress-temperature combination t fi = creep fracture life • Model predicts linear relationship. • Behavior is different in actual materials. Model makes conservative prediction Model makes un-safe prediction Page 843 . 1st Ed. p.Fracture Criterion for Creep-Fatigue [Courtney.
• Exposure to high temperatures generally reduces Nf at a given Δεpl. 604] Page 844 . Influence of Environment (1) [Courtney. • Oxygen in air can also have an “embrittling” effect on the fatigue life of materials. The next pages shows this. • The frequency of cyclic loading (ν) also has an effect. When ν is lower. sample lifetimes are smaller for a given plastic strain range. p. Elevated temperatures can enhance this effect.
Influence of Environment (2) [Courtney] Page 845 .
605] Page 846 .Influence of Environment (3) Transgranular high-cycle fatigue Transgranular high-cycle fatigue [Courtney. p.
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