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Group R1: Xiong Guangyu Nik A. Salleh
To understand GPRS system architecture it is helpful to first understand the architecture of GSM system. GPRS is an enhancement over the GSM and adds some nodes in the network to provide the packet switched services. These network nodes are called GSNs (GPRS Support Nodes) and are responsible for the routing and delivery of the data packets to and from the MS and external packet data networks (PDN).
3-1 The SGSN and GGSN additions .Network Architecture Addition of two network elements: Serving GPRS Support Node(SGSN) Gateway GPRS Support Node(GGSN) BSC SGSN GGSN Fig.
PDAs with embedded GSM. PC cards for laptops These terminals will be backward compatible with GSM for voice calls. because existing GSM phones: cannot handle the enhanced air interface cannot packetize data directly .Network Architecture GPRS subscriber terminals Only GPRS terminals (TEs) can access GPRS servers GPRS enabled phones.
Network Architecture GPRS BSS A software upgrade is required in the existing Base Transceiver Site (BTS). The Base Station Controller (BSC) also requires a software upgrade. . The PCU directs the data traffic to the GPRS network and can be a separate hardware element associated with BSC. and the installation of a new piece of hardware called a packet control unit (PCU). The PCU provides a physical and logical data interface out of BSS for packet data traffic.
2 The overlay network interworks between public and private network .Network Architecture GPRS Network Add new core network elements Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) GGSN SGSN Fig 3.
The data overlay network provides packet data transport from 9. plus new network elements. and protocols for building a packet-based mobile cellular network. interface. GPRS uses most of existing GSM network elements.6 to 171 Kbps.Network Architecture GPRS can be thought of as an overlay network onto the GSM network. Multiple users can share the same air-interface resources. .
Network Architecture Databases (VLR and HLR) All the databases involved in the network requires software upgrades to handle the new call models and functions introduced by GPRS. The home Location Register (HLR) and Visitor Location Register (VLR) especially require upgrades to functionally service GPRS. HLR VLR SGSN Fig 3-3 The network reference model for GSM .
which is divided into two areas: Data packet routing Mobility management .Data Routing A main issues in the GPRS network is the routing of data packets to/from a mobile user.
3-5). Network-initiated messages when the MS is in its home network.Data Routing -. Network-initiated messages when the MS has roamed to another BPRS operator’s network.Data Packet Routing Data Packet Routing GGSN handles interaction with the external data network. . routes external data packets to the SGSN There are the use of the various tools in a GPRS network (Fig. Three different routing schemes are possible: 1) 2) 3) Mobile-originated message.
Data Routing -. 3-5 The various components for data routing .Data Packet Routing Fig.
scalablity.Data Packet Routing GPRS operators will allow roaming through an interoperator backbone network GPRS operators connect to the interoperator network by a border Gateway (BG) The main benefits of the architecture are its flexibility. . interoperability and roaming The GPRS network encapsulates all data network protocols into its own encapsulation protocol.Data Routing -. called the GPRS Tunning Procotocol (GTP).
However. A mobile station has three states in the GPRS system: Idle Standby Active .some procedures share the network elements with current GSM functions.GPRS Mobility Management The operation of GPRS is partly independent of the GSM network.Data Routing -.
GPRS Mobility Management Fig. 3-6 The GPRS traffic protocol stack .
In the idle state. The MS can receive only those multicast messages that can be received by any GPRS mobile station.GPRS Mobility Management Data is transmitted between a mobile station and the GPRS network only when the mobile station is in the active state. In the standby state. the mobile station does not have a logical GPRS context activated or any Packet-Switched Public Data Network (PSPDZ) addresses allocated. . the SGSN knows the cell location of the mobile station. the location of the station is known only as to which routing area it is in. In the active state.
Network Architecture-New Interfaces Fig. 3-7 The new interfaces in GPRS .
Between SGSN and GGSN.25 and Internet Protocol [IP]). extension of the Mobile Application Part (MAP).Delivers SMS messages via GPRS (same as MAP from GSM). Gn -. using the GTP(tunneling) protocol. Gi -.Between SGSN and HLR. Gs -.Network Architecture-New Interfaces Gb --Between the PCUSN and SGSN. Gc -. . Gr -. Gd -.Between SGSN and MSC/VLR.Between GGSN and PDNs (X. for some simultaneous GPRS and GSM operations. using Frame Relay.Between GGSN and HLR.
3-8 The different backbones used .The Different Backbone Used SGSN Fig.
Further. it will transmit the corresponding PDU transparently by encapsulation and decapsulation. GPRS will support interworking of mobile stations with IP first and X. .The Different Backbone Used Each SGSN is linked to Packet Control Unit Switching Nodes (PCUSN) with a Frame Relay network: The only protocol possible. with ETSI specifications Simpler than X. GPRS tunnels the protocol data unit (PDU) using the GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP).25 Capable of supporting data rates upto 2 Mbps The SGSN and GGSN are linked together within the GPRS backbone based on IP routing.25 later.
Initial Implementations The first releases of GPRS products must support IP and interworking with the Internet and intranets. Domain Name Server (DNS) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) .
TDMA-GPRS Physical Channel Capacity The Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA frame structure for GPRS is the same as for GSM (Fig. GPRS provides flexible allocation of physical channels to GPRS service. The GPRS traffic load in a given cell varies as a function of time. Fig. 3-10). 3-10 Physical Channel Capacity .
Fig. 3-11 GPRS Logical Channels .GPRS Logical Channels a logical channel refers to a flow of information between entities for a particular purpose. Logical channels are carried within the physical channels.
GPRS Logical Channels Packet Broadcast Control Channel(PBCCH) A downlink function used for broadcast of system information to the mobile station in a cell Packet Common Control Channel(PCCCH) A control channel service for signaling for the packet data: Packet Random Access Channel (PRACH) Packet Paging Channel (PPCH) Packet Access Grant Channel (PAGCH) Packet Notification Channel (PNCH) .
.GPRS Logical Channels Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCH) The traffic channel is an up and downlink function used for user data traffic transfer. PDTCH for uplink and PDTCH for downlink are unidirectional and assigned separately to support asymmetric user traffic flow. PDTCH is temporarily dedicated to a user or group of users.
GPRS Logical Channels Packet-Dedicated Control Channel (PDCCH) Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH) An uplink and downlink function used to carry signaling information to and from the mobile station Packet Timing Advance Control Channel/Uplink (PTCCH/UL) Used for estimation of timing advance of one mobile station Packet Timing Advance Control Channel/Downlink (PTCCH/DL) Used to transmit timing advance information to several mobile stations .
Fig.Mapping Logical Channels onto Physical Channels Multiple logical channels are mapped onto the same physical channel in a timesharing manner. 3-12 Mapping Logical Channels onto Physical Channels .