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CNG an Overview

CNG an Overview

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10/28/2013

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Petroleum

Natural GAS
CNG: ABOUT
CNG stands for compressed natural gas. It is gaseous fuel and is a mixture of hydrocarbons mainly Methane. For use in Automobiles as fuel, it is compressed to a pressure of 200-250 Kg/cm² to enhance the vehicle on-board storage capacity. CNG is compressed natural gas. CNG is a gaseous fuel and is a mixture of hydrocarbons (Primarily Methane). The gas is filled at a CNG station in a cylinder permanently fitted to your vehicle. - CNG is cost effective compared to alternate fuels such as petrol, diesel, Auto LPG, etc. - It ensures longer engine life. - It is a safe & environment friendly fuel.

A Little Detail:
Compressed natural gas (CNG) is a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline (petrol), diesel, or propane/LPG. Although its combustion does produce greenhouse gases, it is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill (natural gas is lighter than air, and disperses quickly when released). CNG may also be mixed with biogas, produced from landfills or wastewater, which doesn't increase the concentration of carbon in the atmosphere. CNG is made by compressing natural gas (which is mainly composed of methane [CH4]), to less than 1% of the volume it occupies at standard atmospheric pressure. It is stored and distributed in hard containers at a pressure of 200–248 bar (2900–3600 psi), usually in cylindrical or spherical shapes. CNG is used in traditional gasoline internal combustion engine cars that have been converted into bi-fuel vehicles (gasoline/CNG). Natural gas vehicles are increasingly used in the Asia-Pacific region, Latin [1] America, Europe, and America due to rising gasoline prices. In response to high fuel prices and environmental concerns, CNG is starting to be used also in tuk-tuks and pickup trucks, transit and school buses, and trains. CNG's volumetric energy density is estimated to be 42% of liquefied natural gas's (because it is not liquefied), and 25% of diesel's

CNG:. BENEFITS The advantages of using CNG are varied and distinct. The first and most important benefit of using CNG is that you are using a 'green fuel'. Presented below is an outline of the benefits that CNG offers –  Green fuel Commonly referred to as the green fuel because of its lead and sulphur free character, CNG reduces harmful emissions. Being non-corrosive, it enhances the longevity of spark plugs. Due to the absence of any lead or benzene content in CNG, the lead fouling of spark plugs and lead or benzene pollution are eliminated. Increased life of oils Another practical advantage observed is the increased life of lubricating oils, as CNG does not contaminate and dilute the crankcase oil. Mixes evenly in air Being a gaseous fuel CNG mixes in the air easily and evenly. Safety CNG is less likely to auto-ignite on hot surfaces, since it has a high auto-ignition temperature (540 degrees centigrade) and a narrow range (5%-15%) of inflammability. It means that if CNG concentration in the air is below 5% or above 15%, it will not burn. This high ignition temperature and limited flammability range makes accidental ignition or combustion very unlikely.

Atul Kumar, Email: atulkumar73@gmail.com

Email: atulkumar73@gmail. high pressure tube. At the prevailing price of fuel.285 374 2.030 87 Diesel 0. refueling receptacle and air fuel mixer. There are few basic components which are common in all type of kits.900 127 Low operational cost The operational cost of vehicles running on CNG. Propane or any other cylinder in place of a CNG cylinder. Major components of CNG kit for carburetor fitted petrol vehicle are illustrated below: Pressure Regulator Petrol Solenoid Valve with manual override switch.5 1.74 360 1-8 2. operational cost of CNG vehicles is 66% lower than petrol and 28% lower than diesel.com . It is illegal and unsafe  Atul Kumar. or heat application to any part (within 1. or heat application to any part (within 1. (Stops petrol flow when operating on CNG) On-Off valve and refueling connector. (Opens or stops gas flow to the regulator and includes a refueling device) Control Module/Change-over Switch (Electronic control component with fuel selection switch) CNG level Indicator (LED Indicator) Gas Air Mixer CNG cylinder with valve. high pressure tube fittings.780 LPG 0. change over switch.6-5. the cylinder should be emptied first Do not install a LPG.983 93 CNG 0.2-9. irrespective of the vehicles. CNG: CONVERSION All kinds of vehicles can run on CNG by installing CNG kit.5 m) of the cylinder. the cylinder should be emptied first  Do's and Don’ts!  Always refer to the supplier’s kit manual for the trouble-shooting guide and do not do it yourself  In case of vehicles undergoing repairs involving welding. is significantly low.84 280 0. vapor bag & bracket Petrol hose Low-pressure gas hose Ignition advance processor High pressure gas tube Wire harness NRV in petrol return line Pressure gauge CNG: MAINTENANCE  Following precaution are to be followed during servicing and repairing of CNG vehicles :  In case of leakage in fuel system. Kit is an assembly of many components required to run existing vehicle on CNG. vehicles shall not be parked within 6 m of any source of ignition or fire  In case of vehicles undergoing repairs involving welding.5 m) of the cylinder. as compared to those running on other fuels. such as CNG storage cylinder. pressure regulator.Petroleum Properties Relative density Relative density Auto-ignition Temperature Flammability Range Flame Temperature Octane Number  Unit Water = 1 Air =1 Degree C % in Air Degree C Petrol 0. pressure gauge.64 540 5-15 1.55 1.0 1.

All spark-ignited engines can be converted to CNG. It is lighter than air. Yes. Is CNG safe? Ans. It is unlikely that cylinders will rupture due to collision impact. the gas will not burn even in the presence of a spark. Q. Study the system and ask your mechanic to identify these parts for you Workshop doing the kit fitment should be able to demonstrate these operations to your satisfaction.com . As per present government regulation the pollution checks and a pollution certificate is mandatory even after converting the vehicle on CNG. Besides. Q. it is safe. A pressurized gas cylinder is probably the strongest component on the vehicle. in case of a leak. It is advisable to operate the vehicle occasionally on petrol to ensure that the petrol system remains in good working conditions   The CNG kit installed in the vehicle should be insured along with vehicle accessories. a high auto-ignition temperature of 540 degrees centigrade as against petrol’s 360 degrees centigrade makes it a safe fuel. it is compressed to a pressure of 200-250 Kg/cm² to enhance the vehicle on-board storage capacity. For use in Automobiles as fuel. after conversion to CNG the vehicle can run on petrol whenever desired simply by flicking a switch on the dashboard. all we have is the experience to date that indicates that such an event is unlikely to occur. It is gaseous fuel and is a mixture of hydrocarbons mainly Methane. Q. for which additional premium may be charged by the insurance company. Can a car. Q. Email: atulkumar73@gmail.Petroleum  For emergency handling of any CNG leak. Also. It is worth pointing out that natural gas is lighter than air and in the unlikely event of a leak from piping or container the gas will dissipate upwards quite quickly.     CNG: FAQ Q. run on Petrol after its CNG gets over? Ans. if CNG’s concentration in the air is less than 5% and more than 15%. Yes. fitted with CNG conversion kit. The properties of CNG make it a safe fuel. so in case of a leak it just rises up and disperses into the atmosphere. Regarding the danger of fire from leaking cylinders. The kit consists of a cylinder to be fixed in the boot of the car and other equipment to allow gas flow into the engine. An empty CNG cylinder with a 50 litre-water-carrying Atul Kumar. users must be aware of the location and operation of cylinder valve. but a specially designed conversion kit is required for the purpose. What are the dimensions and weight of a CNG cylinder? Ans. The motorist should notify the insurance company to provide insurance on the CNG system. The risk of fire from leaking cylinders must be low since there are well over 03 million CNG vehicle installations worldwide that have not experienced such problems. Their compact size allows them to easily fit even in a small car. Vehicles that were totally destroyed in collisions show the only discernible component being the intact gas cylinder. Motorists should take the insurance cover for the additional CNG kit system. CNG stands for compressed natural gas. What is CNG? Ans. In the case of petrol and LPG the vapour given off is heavier than air and will tend to pool near the ground. What is involved in converting a vehicle to a CNG-friendly one? Ans. master shut-off valve and burst disc in the CNG system. CNG cylinders are manufactured from a special steel alloy and are seamless in construction.

One of the important benefits of CNG is that upon entering the engine in the form of a gas (and not as a spray or mist like other fuels). The absence of carbon and other particulates result in negligible amount of harmful elements in exhaust fumes. Email: atulkumar73@gmail. India. CNG kit is safe and simple. The maximum pressure in a CNG cylinder is up to 200 kg/cm2 (g) (about 2840 pounds per square inch (gauge) or psi[g]). and reduces chances of wear and tear. CNG is an environment friendly fuel. CNG cylinders are safe as they are manufactured as per specific requirements and tested before use. Moreover. Why are exhaust fumes so small in CNG-run vehicles? Ans. Other countries such as Japan. this disc is ruptured and pressure released. Australia and in USA. it is advised to have routine services. CNG cylinders are designed and built in such a way so as to withstand high pressure. As per Gas Cylinder Rules. provides more business and job opportunities with the opening up of a new sector. Mexico. cylinders with 45 litre. 55 litre. Can a diesel vehicle be converted to CNG? Ans. The natural gas is mainly composed of methane and its exhaust emissions consist of water vapours and a small fraction of carbon monoxide. but the conversion cost is higher than the conversion of petrol vehicles and under the current technology it cannot run on duel fuel mode. How much will be the saving after conversion to CNG? Ans. CNG contributes in lowering air pollution. The absence of any lead content in CNG helps avoid lead fouling of plugs. Canada. Yes. giving a new lease of life to the engine. Does CNG kit require servicing? Ans. 60 litre and 65 litre capacity are used as well.Petroleum capacity weighs 48 kg. with a length of 835 mm and a diameter of 316 mm. New Zealand. it appeases motorists. in accordance with international specifications and standards and they are duly approved by Chief Controller of Explosives. Q. Q. Natural gas as a vehicle fuel has a long and established record in Europe. CNG emits less carbon dioxide and other pollutants as compared to liquid fuels. Under city road conditions and may vary from vehicle to vehicle and driving habits. Owing to CNG's distinct features. What is the capacity of a cylinder. What is the pressure of CNG in a cylinder? Is refuelling of a cylinder safe. these have been provided with a 'safety burst disc' such that in case of inadvertent high-pressure/high temperature at the time of filling or at any other time. given the pressure ? Ans. Q. 1981. Q. a diesel vehicle can be converted to run on CNG. the cylinder should under go hydro-stretch testing every 5 years to check pressure tolerance. The fuel bill on the basis of average running of vehicle is reduced by 50 percent approximately after conversion of CNG at the present price of CNG & Petrol. Q. Q. Atul Kumar. and being competitively priced.com . it does not contaminate or dilute crankcase oil. it doesn't disturb the presence of lubricating oil in the engine. How does large-scale CNG usage benefit the country? Ans. thereby enhancing plug life. It doesn’t require frequent servicing. The 50 litre capacity cylinder is the one most regularly used. In which countries are natural gas vehicles popular? Ans. Q. and mileage from one fill? How does one get to know the quantity of CNG left in the cylinder? Ans. An authorized person should be consulted for service. Does CNG have any harmful effect on the engine? Ans. also helps in improving the Balance of Payments by acting as a substitute for imported liquid fuels. Pakistan. It gives years of trouble free operation. and Bangladesh are recognizing the benefits of CNG and plan to expand its use. Malaysia. Just as for all other fuels. Thus. Q. Q.

the tanks used to store the CNG usually take up additional space in the trunk of a car or bed of a pickup truck which runs on CNG.Petroleum Drawbacks of CNG Gas storage in a car. This problem is solved in factory-built CNG vehicles that install the tanks under the body of the vehicle. Since it is a compressed gas. requiring. rather than a liquid like gasoline. leaving the trunk free. Compressed natural gas vehicles require a greater amount of space for fuel storage than conventional gasoline powered vehicles. however. Email: atulkumar73@gmail. Therefore. solution of structural strength issues.com . CNG-powered vehicles are considered to be safer than gasoline-powered vehicles. CNG takes up more space for each gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). Another option is installation on roof (typical on buses). Atul Kumar.

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