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Chapter 19, Sections 1 & 3

Chapter 19, Sections 1 & 3

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Published by: Sonny An on Jun 05, 2012
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Chapter 19, Sections 1 & 3

Period 6 Regan Sonny An

Chapter 19, Section 1: Latin American Democracies
Terms & Names 1. Brasilia – new capital city, built by Kubitschek (goverened from 1956 – 1961) a. Expensive  nation’s debt soared and inflation shot up, causing hardship for most Brazilians Land reform – breaking up large estates and distributing that land to the peasants a. Kubitschek’s successors proposed reforms to lessen economic and social problems b. Resisted strongly by conservatives Standard of living – quality of life, judged by the amount of goods people have a. Military rule after 1964, when army seizes power in a military coup (persuaded by the wealthy opposed to the reforms of Kubitschek’s successors) i. Standard of living declines despite “economic miracle” (economic boom due to military emphasis on economic growth at all costs) Recession – slowdown in economy, evident in Brazil by the early 1980s a. At this point, military generals decide to open up political system i. Allowed direct elections of local, state, and national officials PRI – Institutional Revolutionary Party, main force for political stability in Mexico a. 1946, National Revolutionary Party name change to PRI; half-century of political stability ensues i. Consisted of several generals as president (did not rule as military dictators), but were dominant in politics





Patterns of Change Making Democracy Work Common Practices Conditions That Foster Those Practices  Free elections  Having more than one political party  Universal suffrage – all adult citizens can vote  Citizen participation  High levels of education and literacy  Economic security  Freedoms of speech, press, and assembly  Majority rule, minority rights  All citizens equal before the law  Shared national identity  Protection of such individual rights as freedom of religion  Representatives elected by citizens to carry out their will  Constitutional government  Clear body of traditions and laws on which

Chapter 19, Sections 1 & 3
Period 6 Regan Sonny An government is based Widespread education about how government works National acceptance of majority decisions Shared belief that no one is above the law

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Chapter 19, Section 3: Gorbachev Moves Toward Democracy
Terms & Names  Politburo – ruling committee of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union o Leonid Brezhnev and the Politburo crushed all political disagreement o Censors decided what writers could publish o The Communist Party restricted such basic rights as freedom of speech and worship Mikhail Gorbachev – Politburo’s new general secretary, praised by his supporters for his youth, energy, and political skills o In choosing him, Politburo members signaled their support for mild reform in the Soviet Union o At 54, Gorbachev was the youngest Soviet leader since Stalin o Unlike other Soviet leaders, Gorbachev had not needed to blindly follow Stalin’s policies – he could pursue new ideas Glasnost – policy introduced by Gorbachev, “openness,” allowing free flow of ideas and information for economic and social reforms to occur o Government allowed churches to open o Released dissidents from prison and allowed the publication of books by previously banned authors o Reporters actively investigated social problems and openly criticized government officials Perestroika – 1985, introduced by Gorbachev, “economic restructuring” o Local managers gained greater authority over their farms and factories, and people were allowed to open small private businesses o Goal was to not throw out communism but to make the system more efficient 1980, workers at the Gdansk shipyard went on strike, demanding government recognition of their union, Solidarity o Millions of Poles supported the action, government gives in to the union’s demands o Union leader Lech Walesa became a national hero

Chapter 19, Sections 1 & 3
Period 6 Regan Sonny An  Reunification – the merging of the two Germanys, with the fall of Communism in East Germany o Movement for reunification worried many people, fearing that a united Germany would try to dominate Europe o 45 years after its defeat in World War II, Germany was officially reunited on October 3rd, 1990

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