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First and foremost, I would like to thank Allah that finally, I have succeeded in finishing this project work. I would like to thank my beloved Additional Mathematics teacher, Pn. Rusleena bt. Osman for all the guidance she had provided me during the process in finishing this project work.

I also appreciate her patience in guiding me completing this project work. I would like to give a thousand thanks to my father and mother for giving me their full support in this project work, financially and mentally. They gave me moral support when I needed it. I would also like to give my thanks to my fellow friends who had helped me in finding the information that I‟m clueless of, and the time we spent together in study groups on finishing this project work.

Last but not least, I would like to express my highest gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this coursework. I really appreciate all the help I got.

Again, thank you very much.

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OBJECTIVES

The objectives of carrying out project work are:

To apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve problems To improve thinking skills To promote effective mathematical communication To develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way that increases student‟s interest and confidence

To use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely To provide learning environment that stimulates and enhances effective learning To develop positive attitude towards mathematics

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**GUIDELINE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PROJECT WORK
**

i. Apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve routine and non-routine problems. ii. Experiences classroom environments which are challenging, interesting and meaningful and hence improve their thinking skills. iii. Experiences classroom environments where knowledge and skills are applied in meaningful ways in solving real-life problems. iv. Experiences classroom environments where expressing ones mathematical thinking, reasoning and communication are highly encouraged and expected. v. vi. Experiences classroom environments that stimulates and enhances effective learning. Acquire effective mathematical communication through oral and writing, and to use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely. vii. Enhance acquisition of mathematical knowledge and skills through problem-solving in ways that increases internet and confidence. viii. ix. Prepare students‟ for the demands of their future undertakings and in workplace. Realize that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in solving real-life problems and hence develop positive attitude towards mathematics. x. Trains themselves not only to be independent learners but also to collaborate, to cooperate, and to share knowledge in an engaging and healthy environment. xi. Use technology especially the ICT appropriately and effectively.

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TASK SPECIFICATION

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012 PART 1 Polygons are evident in all architecture. They provide variation and charm in buildings. When applied to manufactured articles such as printed fabrics, wallpapers, and title flooring, polygons enhance the beauty of the structure itself.

(a) Collect six such pictures. You may use camera to take the pictures or get them from magazines, newspapers, internet or any other resources. (b) Give the definition of polygon and write a brief history of it. (c) There are various methods of finding the area of the triangle. State four different methods.

PART 2 A farmer wishes to build a herb garden on a piece of land. Diagram 1 shows the shape of that garden, where one of its sides is 100m in length. The garden has to be fenced with 300m fence. The cost of fencing the garden is RM20.00 per meter. (the diagram below is not drawn to scale)

pm

θ⁰

qm

100 m

(a) Calculate the cost needed to fence the herb garden. (b) Complete table 1 by using various values of p, the corresponding values of q and θ

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p(m)

q(m)

θ(degree)

Area(

)

Table 1 (c) Based on your findings in (b), state the dimension of the herb garden so that the enclosed area is maximum (d) (i) Only certain values of p and of q are applicable in this case. State the range of values of p and of q.

(ii) By comparing the lengths of p, q and the given side, determine the relation between them.

(iii) Make generalization about the lengths of sides of a triangle. State the name of the relevant theorem.

PART 3 If the length of the fence remains the same 300m, as stated in part 2:

(a) Explore and suggest at least 5 various shapes of the garden that can be constructed so that the enclosed area is maximum. (b) Draw a conclusion from your exploration in (a) if:

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(i)

The demand of herbs in the market has been increasing nowadays. Suggest three types of local herbs with their scientific names that the farmer can plant in the herb garden to meet the demand. Collect pictures and information of these herbs.

(ii)

These herbs will be processed for marketing by a company. The design of the packaging plays an important role in attracting customers. The company wishes to design an innovative and creative logo for the packaging. You are given the task of designing a logo to promote the product. Draw the logo on a piece of paper size A4. You must include at least on polygon shape in the logo.

END OF PROJECT PAPER

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INTRODUCTION

A polygon is a flat shape consisting of straight lines that are joined to form a closed chain or circuit.

A polygon is traditionally a plane figure that is bounded by a closed path, composed of a finite sequence of straight line segments. These segments are called its edges or sides, and the points where two edges meet are the polygon‟s vertices or corners. An n-gon is a polygon with n sides. The interior of the polygon is sometimes called its body. A polygon is a 2-dimensional example of the more general polytope in any number of dimensions. The word “polygon” derives from the Greek πγμρύ “much”, “many” and θϊαΣι “corner” or “angle”. Today a polygon is more usually understood in terms of sides.

The basic geometrical notion has been adapted in various ways to suit particular purposes. Mathematicians are often concerned only with the closed polygonal chain and with simple polygons which do not self-intersect, and may define a polygon accordingly. Geometrically two edges meeting at a corner are required to form an angle that is not straight (180⁰), otherwise, the line segments will be considered parts of a single edge – however mathematically, such corners may sometimes be allowed. In fields relating to computation, the term polygon has taken on a slightly altered meaning derived from the way the shape is stored and manipulated in computer graphics.

Polygons have been known since ancient times. The regular polygons were known to the ancient Greeks, and the pentagram, a non-convex regular polygon, appears on the vase of Aristophonus, Caere, dated to the 7th century B.C. Non-convex polygons in general were not systematically

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studied until the 14th century by Thomas Bredwardine. In 1952, Shephard generalized the idea of polygons to the complex plane, where each real dimension is accompanied by an imaginary one, to create complex polygons.

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PROBLEM SOLVING

PART 1 a)

b) Polygon is defined as a closed, 2-dimensional shape made up of three or more straight line segments connected end to end to end. Polygons have been known since ancient times. The regular polygons were known to the ancient Greeks, and the pentagram, a non-convex regular polygon (star polygon), appears on the vase of Aristophonus, Caere, dated to the 7th century B.C. Non-convex polygons in general were not systematically studied until the 14th century by Thomas Bredwardine. In 1952, Shephard generalized the idea of polygons to the complex plane, where each real dimension is accompanied by an imaginary one, to create complex polygons. c) The four different methods of finding the area of a triangle is stated below: Method 1:

h b If you know base (b) and height (h) of the triangle, the following formula can be applied. Area = ½ b h

Method 2:

a

c

b

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If you know three sides (a, b and c) of the triangle, Heron‟s Method can be applied. s = (a + b + c) / 2 Area = s (s-a) (s-b) (s-c)

Method 3: a

b If you know two sides (a and b) and the included angle (), the following formula can be applied. Area = ½ a b sin

Method 4:

If you know coordinate of the three vertices, the following formula can be applied.

= ½ (x1y2 + x2y3 + x3y1 – x2y1 – x3y2 – x1y3)

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PART 2

a) Cost needed to fence the herb garden

= RM20.00 per metre = RM6000.00

300 m

b) p(m) 50 60 65 70 80 85 90 95 99 100 Using cosine rule, cos θ⁰ = q(m) 150 140 135 130 120 115 110 105 101 100 Area = ab sin (degree) 0 38.2145 44.8137 49.5826 55.7711 57.6881 58.9924 59.7510 59.9901 60 Area ( 0 2598.15 3092.33 3464.10 3968.63 4130.68 4242.64 4308.42 4329.26 4330.13

(c) In order for the enclosed area to be maximum, the shape of the triangle must be equilateral. Therefore, the length of both p and q must be 100m.

(d) (i) 50<p<150 and 50<q<150 (ii) p α 1/q

b A c B (iii) A2 = B2 + C2 – 2 B C cos (a). This theorem is known as „Cosine Rule‟. C a

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**PART 3 a) 1) Quadrilateral 2x + 2y = 300 m x + y = 150 m ym Area = xy xm x 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 75 The maximum area is 5625 2) Regular pentagon
**

a a

y 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 75

Area = xy 1400 2600 3600 4400 5000 5400 5600 5625

5a = 300 a = 60 tan 54⁰ =

a

72⁰ 54⁰ t 54⁰ a

a

t= 30 tan 54⁰ = 41.2915 Area = (41.2915 5 = 6193.73

3) A semicircle 2r + r= rm Area =

12

= 300

= 5347.55

4) A circle

r=

rm

Area = (

(2π) =7161.9

5) A regular hexagon

a a 60⁰ a a a a

6a = 300 a= 50 Area = 50 ⁰ 6 = 6495.19

Conclusion: A circle is the best shapes to use for the garden as it gives a maximum enclosed area among the other shapes. 2πr = 300 r= Area = ( (2π) = 7161.9

b)

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i) Aloe vera - The local name is known as 'Lidah Buaya'. Due to its exceptional healing properties, Aloe Vera is also known as "the little of the desert", "the plant of immortality", "the first aid plant" and "the miracle plant". It is also one of the most important crude drug history and is still extensively used in modern medicine. It contains the same painkilling and anti-inflammatory compound as in Aspirin. Aloe vera is also a nutrient-rich-plant, containing more than 200 active-components, vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, enzymes and other plant chemicals which is said to gently strengthen, sustain and encourage cellular activity in body.

Tongkat Ali - It has become popular for its testosterone-enhancing properties. Because of that, it is included in certain herbal supplements for bodybuilders. Historically, it has been used by the folk medicine in its countries of origin as a libido enhancer and to treat various sexual dysfunctions. Numerous scientific studies performed by Malaysian Universities, including University Science Malaysia (USM) have confirmed its effects on enhancing sexual characteristics in animal models. Currently, it is being researched for its possibilities as an anti-cancer supplement.

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Agrimony - It is not commonly used today, but has its place in traditional herbal medicine. This herb is safe for use for minor ailments in most healthy people. Like most herb simples, the uses to which it is put are remarkably varied. The English use it to make a delicious "spring" or "diet" drink for purifying the blood. It is considered especially useful as a tonic for aiding recovery from winter colds, fevers, and diarrhea. Agrimony contains tannin and a volatile essential oil.

ii) (Logo to be created by your own creativity.)

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CONCLUSION

Polygons tend to be studied in the first few years of school as an introduction to basic geometry and mathematics. But after doing research, answering questions, completing table and some problem solving, I found that the usage of polygons is important in our daily life. It is not just widely used in fashion design but also in other fields especially in building of modern structures. The triangle, for instance, is often used in construction because its shape makes it comparatively strong. The use of the polygon shape reduces the quantity of materials needed to make a structure, so essentially reduces costs and maximizes profits in a business environment. Another polygon is the rectangle. The rectangle is used in a number of applications, due to the fact our field of vision broadly consists of a rectangle shape. For instance, most televisions are rectangles to allow for easy and comfortable viewing. The same can be said for photo frames and mobile phones screens. In conclusion, polygon is a daily life necessity. Without it, Man‟s creativity will be limited. Therefore, we should be thankful of the people who contribute in the idea of poly

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REFLECTION

While I conducting this project, a lot of information that I found. I have learnt the uses of polygons. I also learned some moral values that I practice. This project had taught me to be responsible on the works that are given to me to be completed. This project also made me felt more confidence to do works and not give up easily when we could not find solution for the question. I also learned to be more discipline on time, which I was given about three weeks to complete these project and pass up to my teacher just in time. I also enjoyed doing this project during my school holiday as I spent my time with friends to complete this project and I it had tighten our friendship.

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REFERENCE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygon http://www.scribd.com/ https://www.facebook.com/ http://www.malaysia-students.com/2012/05/additional-mathematics-add-math-project.html http://www.mediafire.com/?zjel6061utkcxcc http://www.scribd.com/doc/95968383/Cover-Isi-Kandungan-Folio-Addmath-2012-Anas http://www.scribd.com/doc/95968500/Kandungan-Folio-Addmath-2012-Anas http://www.scribd.com/doc/92572607/Additional-Mathematics-Project-2012 http://www.scribd.com/doc/92985224/All

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