FLOW SHOPS: F2||Cmax

FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 2
FLOW SHOP SCHEDULING
(n JOBS, m MACHINES)
n JOBS BANK OF m MACHINES (SERIES)
1
2
3
4
n

M1


M2


Mm

FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 3
FLOW SHOPS
PRODUCTION SYSTEMS FOR WHICH:

A NUMBER OF OPERATIONS HAVE TO BE DONE ON EVERY JOB.

THESE OPERATIONS HAVE TO BE DONE ON ALL JOBS IN THE SAME
ORDER, i.e., THE JOBS HAVE TO FOLLOW THE SAME ROUTE.

THE MACHINES ARE ASSUMED TO BE SET UP IN SERIES.

COMMON ASSUMPTIONS:

UNLIMITED STORAGE OR BUFFER CAPACITIES IN BETWEEN
SUCCESIVE MACHINES (NO BLOCKING).
A JOB HAS TO BE PROCCESSED AT EACH STAGE ON ONLY ONE OF
THE MACHINES (NO PARALLEL MACHINES).
FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 4
PERMUTATION FLOW SHOPS
FLOW SHOPS IN WHICH THE SAME SEQUENCE OR PERMUTATION OF
JOBS IS MAINTAINED THROUGHOUT: THEY DO NOT ALLOW
SEQUENCE CHANGES BETWEEN MACHINES.

PRINCIPLE FOR Fm||Cmax:

THERE ALWAYS EXISTS AN OPTIMAL SCHEDULE WITHOUT
SEQUENCE CHANGES BETWEEN THE FIRST TWO MACHINES AND
BETWEEN THE LAST TWO MACHINES.

THERE ARE OPTIMAL SCHEDULES FOR F2||Cmax AND F3||Cmax THAT
DO NOT REQUIRE SEQUENCE CHANGES BETWEEN MACHINES.
FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 5
JOHNSON’S F2||Cmax PROBLEM
FLOW SHOP WITH TWO MACHINES IN SERIES WITH UNLIMITED
STORAGE IN BETWEEN THE TWO MACHINES.

THERE ARE n JOBS AND THE PROCESSING TIME OF JOB j ON
MACHINE 1 IS p1j AND THE PROCESSING TIME ON MACHINE 2 IS p2j.

THE RULE THAT MINIMIZES THE MAKESPAN IS COMMONLY
REFERRED TO AS JOHNSON’S RULE.
FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 6
JOHNSON’S PRINCIPLE
ANY SPT(1)-LPT(2) SCHEDULE IS OPTIMAL FOR Fm||Cmax.


(THE SPT(1)-LPT(2) SCHEDULES ARE NOT THE ONLY SCHEDULES
THAT ARE OPTIMAL. THE CLASS OF OPTIMAL SCHEDULES
APPEARS TO BE HARD TO CHARACTERIZE AND DATA DEPENDENT).
FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 7
DESCRIPTION OF JOHNSON’S ALGORITHM
1. IDENTIFY THE JOB WITH THE SMALLEST PROCESSING TIME (ON
EITHER MACHINE).

2. IF THE SMALLEST PROCESSING TIME INVOLVES:

• MACHINE 1, SCHEDULE THE JOB AT THE BEGINNING OF THE
SCHEDULE.

• MACHINE 2, SCHEDULE THE JOB TOWARD THE END OF THE
SCHEDULE.

3. IF THERE IS SOME UNSCHEDULED JOB, GO TO 1. OTHERWISE
STOP.
FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 8
EXAMPLE
CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING INSTANCE OF THE JOHNSON’S
(Fm||Cmax) PROBLEM:
JOB 1 2 3 4 5
p1j 4 4 10 6 2
p2j 5 1 4 10 3

SEQUENCE:
FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 9
EXAMPLE: SCHEDULE
SEQUENCE:
5 1 4 3 2
JOB 1 2 3 4 5
p1j 4 4 10 6 2
p2j 5 1 4 10 3

t
M1
M2
FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 10
A BOUND ON THE MAKESPAN
FOR JOHNSON’S PROBLEM:
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ >
¿ ¿
=
=
=
=
n
1 j
j 2 j 1
n ,.., 1 j
n
1 j
j 1 j 2
n ,.., 1 j
max
p p min , p p min max ) OPT ( C
FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 11
JOHNSON’S ALGORITHM
LET U = {1, 2,..., n} BE THE SET OF UNSCHEDULED JOBS.
k =1,
l = n,
Ji = 0, i = 1, 2, ..., n.
STEP 1: IDENTIFICATION OF SMALLEST PROCESSING TIME
IF U = C, GO TO STEP 4.

LET
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
= =
j 2
n ,.., 1 j
, j 1
n ,.., 1 j
* j * i
p min p min min p
IF i* = 1 GO TO STEP 2; OTHERWISE GO TO STEP 3.
FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 12
JOHNSON’S ALGORITHM
(CONTINUED)
STEP 2: SCHEDULING A JOB ON EARLIEST POSITION
• SCHEDULE JOB j* IN THE EARLIEST AVAILABLE POSITION: Jk
= j*.
• UPDATE k: k = k + 1.
• REMOVE THE JOB FROM THE SCHEDULABLE SET, U = U – {j*}.
• GO TO STEP 1.
STEP 3: SCHEDULING A JOB ON LATEST POSITION
• SCHEDULE JOB j* IN THE EARLIEST AVAILABLE POSITION: Jl
= j*.
• UPDATE l: l = l - 1.
• REMOVE THE JOB FROM THE SCHEDULABLE SET, U = U – {j*}.
• GO TO STEP 1.
FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 13
JOHNSON’S ALGORITHM
(CONTINUED)
STEP 4: SEQUENCE OF JOBS
THE SEQUENCE OF JOBS IS GIVEN BY Ji, WITH J1 THE FIRST JOB,
AND SO FORTH.
FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 14
Fm||Cmax
Fm||Cmax IS A STRONGLY NP-HARD PROBLEM.

AN EXTENSION OF JOHNSON’S ALGORITHM YIELDS AN
OPTIMAL SOLUTION FOR THE F3||Cmax PROBLEM WHEN THE
MIDDLE MACHINE IS DOMINATED BY EITHER THE FIRST OR
THIRD MACHINE.
FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 15
MACHINE DOMINANCE: F3||Cmax
A MACHINE IS DOMINATED WHEN ITS LARGEST PROCESSING
TIME IS NO LARGER THAN THE SMALLEST PROCESSING TIME
ON ANOTHER MACHINE.

FOR F3||Cmax PROBLEM:
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
s
j 3 j 1
j
j 2
p min , p min max p
WHICH IMPLIES THAT MACHINE 2 (DOMINATED MACHINE) CAN
NEVER CAUSE A DELAY IN THE SCHEDULE.
FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 16
JOHNSON’S ALGORITHM FOR 3 MACHINES
FOR F3||Cmax, WHENEVER MACHINE 2 IS DOMINATED, i.e.,

OR
} p { max } p { min
j 2
j
j 1
j
>
SOLVING AN EQUIVALENT TWO-MACHINE PROBLEM WITH
PROCESSING TIMES:

p’
1j
= p
1j
+ p
2j
AND p’
2j
= p
2j
+ p
3j


GIVES THE OPTIMAL MAKESPAN SEQUENCE TO THE
DOMINATED THREE-MACHINE PROBLEM.
} p { max } p { min
j 2
j
j 3
j
>
FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 17
EXAMPLE: F3||Cmax
CONSIDER F3||ECmax WITH THE FOLLOWING JOBS:
JOB 1 2 3 4 5
p1j 4 9 8 6 5
p2j 5 6 2 3 4
p3j 8 10 6 7 11

= } p { min
j 1
j
= } p { max
j 2
j
= } p { min
j 3
j
FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 18
EXAMPLE: PROCESSING TIMES, DUMMY
MACHINES
JOB 1 2 3 4 5
p1j 4 9 8 6 5
p2j 5 6 2 3 4
p3j 8 10 6 7 11
p'1j
p'2j

SEQUENCE:
FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 19
EXAMPLE: SCHEDULE
SEQUENCE:
1 4 5 2 3
JOB 1 2 3 4 5
p1j 4 9 8 6 5
p2j 5 6 2 3 4
p3j 8 10 6 7 11

t
M1
M2
M3

FLOW SHOP SCHEDULING (n JOBS. m MACHINES) n JOBS BANK OF m MACHINES (SERIES) 3 1 2 4 n M1 M2 Mm FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 2 .

THE JOBS HAVE TO FOLLOW THE SAME ROUTE. THE MACHINES ARE ASSUMED TO BE SET UP IN SERIES.FLOW SHOPS PRODUCTION SYSTEMS FOR WHICH: A NUMBER OF OPERATIONS HAVE TO BE DONE ON EVERY JOB. A JOB HAS TO BE PROCCESSED AT EACH STAGE ON ONLY ONE OF THE MACHINES (NO PARALLEL MACHINES). THESE OPERATIONS HAVE TO BE DONE ON ALL JOBS IN THE SAME ORDER. COMMON ASSUMPTIONS: UNLIMITED STORAGE OR BUFFER CAPACITIES IN BETWEEN SUCCESIVE MACHINES (NO BLOCKING). FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 3 .e.. i.

PERMUTATION FLOW SHOPS FLOW SHOPS IN WHICH THE SAME SEQUENCE OR PERMUTATION OF JOBS IS MAINTAINED THROUGHOUT: THEY DO NOT ALLOW SEQUENCE CHANGES BETWEEN MACHINES. PRINCIPLE FOR Fm||Cmax: THERE ALWAYS EXISTS AN OPTIMAL SCHEDULE WITHOUT SEQUENCE CHANGES BETWEEN THE FIRST TWO MACHINES AND BETWEEN THE LAST TWO MACHINES. FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 4 . THERE ARE OPTIMAL SCHEDULES FOR F2||Cmax AND F3||Cmax THAT DO NOT REQUIRE SEQUENCE CHANGES BETWEEN MACHINES.

THE RULE THAT MINIMIZES THE MAKESPAN IS COMMONLY REFERRED TO AS JOHNSON’S RULE. FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 5 . THERE ARE n JOBS AND THE PROCESSING TIME OF JOB j ON MACHINE 1 IS p1j AND THE PROCESSING TIME ON MACHINE 2 IS p2j.JOHNSON’S F2||Cmax PROBLEM FLOW SHOP WITH TWO MACHINES IN SERIES WITH UNLIMITED STORAGE IN BETWEEN THE TWO MACHINES.

THE CLASS OF OPTIMAL SCHEDULES APPEARS TO BE HARD TO CHARACTERIZE AND DATA DEPENDENT). FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 6 .JOHNSON’S PRINCIPLE ANY SPT(1)-LPT(2) SCHEDULE IS OPTIMAL FOR Fm||Cmax. (THE SPT(1)-LPT(2) SCHEDULES ARE NOT THE ONLY SCHEDULES THAT ARE OPTIMAL.

DESCRIPTION OF JOHNSON’S ALGORITHM 1. OTHERWISE STOP. IF THERE IS SOME UNSCHEDULED JOB. MACHINE 2. SCHEDULE THE JOB AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SCHEDULE. GO TO 1. SCHEDULE THE JOB TOWARD THE END OF THE SCHEDULE. IDENTIFY THE JOB WITH THE SMALLEST PROCESSING TIME (ON EITHER MACHINE). • • 3. IF THE SMALLEST PROCESSING TIME INVOLVES: MACHINE 1. . FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 7 2.

EXAMPLE CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING INSTANCE OF THE JOHNSON’S (Fm||Cmax) PROBLEM: JOB p1j p2j 1 4 5 2 4 1 3 10 4 4 6 10 5 2 3 SEQUENCE: FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 8 .

SEQUENCE: 51432 EXAMPLE: SCHEDULE JOB p1j p2j 1 4 5 2 4 1 3 10 4 4 6 10 5 2 3 M1 M2 t FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 9 .

..n j1 j1      FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 10 .  min p1 j  p 2 j    j1.....n   j1.A BOUND ON THE MAKESPAN FOR JOHNSON’S PROBLEM:  n  n     Cmax (OPT)  max min p 2 j  p1 j .

Ji = 0. n. l = n.. 2. OTHERWISE GO TO STEP 3. LET   p i* j*  min  min p1 j. STEP 1: IDENTIFICATION OF SMALLEST PROCESSING TIME IF U = . . n} BE THE SET OF UNSCHEDULED JOBS.n  j1... GO TO STEP 4.... FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 11 .JOHNSON’S ALGORITHM LET U = {1.. k =1.. 2. i = 1. min p 2 j  j1.n  IF i* = 1 GO TO STEP 2......

• GO TO STEP 1. • REMOVE THE JOB FROM THE SCHEDULABLE SET. U = U – {j*}. U = U – {j*}. • UPDATE k: k = k + 1. • REMOVE THE JOB FROM THE SCHEDULABLE SET. STEP 3: SCHEDULING A JOB ON LATEST POSITION • SCHEDULE JOB j* IN THE EARLIEST AVAILABLE POSITION: Jl = j*. • UPDATE l: l = l . • GO TO STEP 1. FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 12 .1.JOHNSON’S ALGORITHM (CONTINUED) STEP 2: SCHEDULING A JOB ON EARLIEST POSITION • SCHEDULE JOB j* IN THE EARLIEST AVAILABLE POSITION: Jk = j*.

WITH J1 THE FIRST JOB.JOHNSON’S ALGORITHM (CONTINUED) STEP 4: SEQUENCE OF JOBS THE SEQUENCE OF JOBS IS GIVEN BY Ji. FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 13 . AND SO FORTH.

Fm||Cmax Fm||Cmax IS A STRONGLY NP-HARD PROBLEM. AN EXTENSION OF JOHNSON’S ALGORITHM YIELDS AN OPTIMAL SOLUTION FOR THE F3||Cmax PROBLEM WHEN THE MIDDLE MACHINE IS DOMINATED BY EITHER THE FIRST OR THIRD MACHINE. FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 14 .

FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 15 . min p 3 j   j  WHICH IMPLIES THAT MACHINE 2 (DOMINATED MACHINE) CAN NEVER CAUSE A DELAY IN THE SCHEDULE.MACHINE DOMINANCE: F3||Cmax A MACHINE IS DOMINATED WHEN ITS LARGEST PROCESSING TIME IS NO LARGER THAN THE SMALLEST PROCESSING TIME ON ANOTHER MACHINE. FOR F3||Cmax PROBLEM:   p 2 j  maxmin p1 j .

JOHNSON’S ALGORITHM FOR 3 MACHINES FOR F3||Cmax.. min{p1j }  max{p 2 j } j j OR min{p 3 j }  max{p 2 j } j j SOLVING AN EQUIVALENT TWO-MACHINE PROBLEM WITH PROCESSING TIMES: p’1j = p1j + p2j AND p’2j = p2j + p3j GIVES THE OPTIMAL MAKESPAN SEQUENCE TO THE DOMINATED THREE-MACHINE PROBLEM. FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 16 . WHENEVER MACHINE 2 IS DOMINATED. i.e.

EXAMPLE: F3||Cmax CONSIDER F3||Cmax WITH THE FOLLOWING JOBS: JOB p1j p2j p3j 1 4 5 8 2 9 6 10 3 8 2 6 4 6 3 7 5 5 4 11 min {p1 j }  j max{p 2 j }  j min {p 3 j }  j FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 17 .

EXAMPLE: PROCESSING TIMES. DUMMY MACHINES JOB p1j p2j p3j p'1j p'2j 1 4 5 8 2 9 6 10 3 8 2 6 4 6 3 7 5 5 4 11 SEQUENCE: FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 18 .

SEQUENCE: 1 4 5 2 3 EXAMPLE: SCHEDULE JOB p1j p2j p3j 1 4 5 8 2 9 6 10 3 8 2 6 4 6 3 7 5 5 4 11 M1 M2 M3 t FLOW SHOPS: JOHNSON'S RULE 19 .

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