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There are significant opportunities in various industrial sectors in India for producing electrical and thermal energy simultaneously in the co-generation mode. There is a potential of generating electricity to the extent of about 15,000 MW through cogeneration in core industries such as sugar, breweries/ distilleries, Chlor-alkali, aluminium, fertilizer, paper & pulp, textile, petrochemicals & refineries, rice mills etc. The fuel used for cogeneration can be conventional like coal, lignite, oil, gas or renewable sources like bagasse, rice husk, biogas and biomass based fuels. A review of cogeneration / CHP opportunities in some of energy intensive sectors is presented below. 1. Aluminium Introduction: Production of Aluminium from bauxite ore involves purification steps to produce pure Alumina (Al2O3) and then electrolysis of Alumina. The whole process is energy intensive. Energy accounts for about 40% of cost of production. There are four major aluminium producers in India viz. BALCO, NALCO, HINDALCO and INDAL. Bayer-Hall-Heroult technology used by all producers During purification of Alumina from bauxite ore digestion of ore at a temperature of about 2500 C at a pressure of about 35 bar. Further the heat is required in calcinations of the alumina at about 1000 to 1200 0C. Finally the electrolysis process of producing aluminum requires electricity to the tune of 13000 kWh per MT. Scope There is a huge scope for CHP in this sector by recovering the waste heat from the exhaust gases from calcinations section to produce the steam at high pressure and utilize it to generate electricity and also provide the required steam for digestion. All aluminium producing plants in India have their own captive power plants to provide reliable source of electricity. All the plants are targeting to reduce energy consumption by 1 to 2% every year for next 5 to 8 years. The demand of aluminium is expected to grow by about 9 percent per annum from present consumption levels. This sector is going through a consolidation phase and existing producers are in the process of enhancing their production capacity so that a demand supply gap expected in future is bridged. So CHP has a good scope in achieving reduction in specific energy consumption of aluminium. The estimated potential for CHP in this sector is about 60 MW. 2. Distilleries
Introduction There are about 330 distilleries in India, out of which about 250 units are in operation. The total installed capacity is about 3500 million litres of alchohol. Distilleries generate a large amount of waste water (spent wash) having high COD and BOD values. The waste water cannot be discharged directly without reducing COD/ BOD values below State Pollution Control norms. However, the waste water can generate biogas through biomethanation and biogas can be further utilized for the production of electricity and thermal energy through a technology integration comprising a boiler/ steam turbine or 100% biogas engine. The distilleries can generate steam at desired pressure and temperature to meet their process requirements and produce electricity for captive use or for export. Scope Estimated potential for CHP is about 2000 MW. It is only next to bagasse cogeneration. Some distilleries have successfully implemented CHP projects based on biogas generation from spent wash liquors through anaerobic digestion. Biogas utilized for power and heat generation through gas engines or steam turbines is now established technology. Some of the biogas based CHP plants in Distillery sector are: a) 2 MW biogas based power generation through gas engines by Kanoria Chemicals at Ankaleshwar, Gujarat. 1.0 MW biogas based power generation by Brihan Sugar Syndicate, Sreepur, Maharashtra. a) 2.0 MW power generation based on biogas at Saraya Distillery, UP. 1
The industry also provides direct and indirect employment to people. Therefore. Cement Industry Introduction India is the second largest producer of cement in the world. Therefore the industry is look out for cheaper and environ friendly source of energy. warrants adoption of cogeneration systems in the Indian cement industry to make them more economical and to ensure cleaner environment. 2 . 3. this technology has not been implemented so far owing to the following reasons: • • • • Non-availability of proven technology indigenously Non-availability of installation or their operating experience in India resulting in lack of confidence Design of waste heat boiler suiting to high dust load. Average use of thermal energy is about 725 kcal/kg of clinker and use of electricity is about 82 kWh per MT of cement production. The quantity of heat lost from PH exit gases ranges from 180-250 kcal/kg clinker at temperature range of 300-400o C. in Indian cement industry. and same financial assistance. There is a total cogeneration potential of about 200 MW in 45 plants of 1 MTPA and more capacity. In existing plants. The share of installed capacity of energy inefficient wet process plants had slowly decreased from 94% in 1960 to 61% till 1980 and thereafter as a result of quantum jump in production capacities through modern dry process plants as well as conversion of some of the wet process plants. cogeneration technologies based on bottoming cycles have potential to generate up to 25-30 percent of the power requirement of a plant. Cement industry being a continuous process industry requires highly reliable power supply. The annual installed capacity of the industry is about 146 million tonnes and production was about 106 million tonnes during 2001-02. Further. the cement industry is quite keen to adopt the cogeneration system provided its apprehension with regard to technology and economic risks are alleviated through installation of demonstration projects. In addition. However. Cement plays a vital role in infrastructure development. The growth of cement industry in India is likely to be sustained at the rate of 8% and the cement demand is likely to reach about 164 million tonnes by 2006-07.CHP projects based on biogas from spent wash not only benefits the industry by gainful utilization of otherwise waste product but also helps in eliminating pollution. cogeneration of power will also help reduce environmental pollution as well as strain on the economy because of reduction in consumption of diesel oil. There can be many combinations to work out the best scheme suited to a given situation. Economic liberalisation and favourable industrial policies. This waste heat can be utilized for electric power generation. 80-130 kcal/kg clinker heat is lost at a temperature range of 200-300o C from grate cooler. use of gases for drying of raw materials and coal etc.5 million TPA capacity. Cogeneration of power utilizing waste heat is an attractive proposition for cement plants for energy conservation and minimizing dependence on the grid. the share of old wet process has been reduced to just 5% today. nearly 40 percent of the total heat input is rejected as waste heat from exit gases of pre-heater and grate cooler.5 MW in different plants depending upon the temperature and quantity of waste gases from PH and cooler exhaust. especially in a developing country like India. most of the plants have captive power plants. number of PH stages. Scope NCB studies indicate that in the dry process cement plants. The Indian cement industry comprises of 124 large/medium size cement plants including grinding units and about 300 mini cement plants.0 to 5. The current trend is to install large size single stream cement plants of 1. The present scenario therefore. The analysis of the data of 20 cement plants by NCB has indicated cogeneration potential ranging from 3. has resulted in enormous growth in cement production capacities in India.2-2. including decontrol of cement. Large capital requirement and financial constraints owing to depressed cement marketing scenario Nevertheless. The Indian cement industry is a unique combination of very large to very small capacity and very modern to very old technology plants.
Conversely.25 Mercury (1999) Membran e (1999) During the last 10 years.4. and thermal energy is needed to evaporate and concentrate the solution to 50%. Five largescale caustic soda units have been commissioned since 1997. Hence. Production of Caustic Soda during the year 2003-2004 was 1. Table 4-1. this level of detail is not available for the dry lime process. The diaphragm process results in a caustic soda solution with a much lower concentration of around 10%. it can be captured and used as a fuel in on-site power co-generation. Two types of soda ash are produced: “light soda ash” with a specific weight of about 500 kg/m and “dense soda ash” of about 1000 kg/m. This extra step requires further energy. production has shifted to membrane cell technology.5 % concentration.88 2342 104 254 148 2848 10. combined with technology improvements in mercury and membrane cell processes and energy conservation programs intended to reduce auxiliary and rectifiers’ energy consumption. Energy costs represent 50 to 65% of the total cost of production. The raw material necessary in the production of caustic soda consisting of salt and water is abundant and inexpensive. thermal and mechanical energy and feedstocks.64 2833 160 307 0 3300 11. Table 4-2 shows the energy requirements at different stages in the production of soda ash for the standard Solvay process and the dual process. Specific Energy Consumption for Manufacturing Caustic Soda Lye* Diaphragm (1994) Power Consumption (kWh/t of NaOH) DC Power AC/DC losses Auxiliary Thermal energy for evaporation Total total in GJ/t of NaOH 2561 107 457 942 4067 14. 3 . CHP is the right choice to achieve better efficiency. caustic soda has increased at an average annual growth of 4%. Caustic soda and chlorine are produced simultaneously while soda ash is produced during a different process. The heat can be used for the evaporation of caustic soda and for the preparation of the brine. Following Table 4-1 gives electrical and thermal energy required to produce Caustic soda lye of 48. The electrolysis phase is the most energy intensive. which is relatively small compared to sizes found in developed countries (500 TPD). Unfortunately. The thermal energy requirement is null in the mercury process as the caustic soda solution formed is highly concentrated (50%). the electrical energy required to process salt into caustic soda and chlorine is expensive and occasionally unreliable. b) Soda Ash The energy needs for the production of soda ash take on different forms: electrical. There are 40 major caustic soda plants with an average plant size of 150 tons per day (TPD). As energy in the form of electricity and heat is required for caustic soda process. Chlor-Alkali Industry Introduction The chlor-alkali industry consists of the production of three inorganic chemicals: caustic soda (NaOH). Moreover hydrogen is clean fuel. During the last 8 years. chlorine (Cl2) and soda ash (Na2CO3). The remainder is transformed by crystallization after drying to produce dense soda mainly used in the glass industry. Light soda is directly used in the detergent sector and certain chemical intermediates. requiring less thermal energy. Hydrogen gas is produced as a by-product of caustic soda. has resulted in an estimated overall energy savings of more than 10%.741 thousands of MT. The use of byproduct hydrogen gas can substitute up to 35% of the total fuel requirement in a caustic fusion plant. This shift. the chlor-alkali industry with respect to CHP is covered in two parts: a) Caustic Soda The caustic soda industry in India is approximately 65 years old. Coke is used as a source of carbon dioxide in the soda ash production during the limestone calcination. The membrane cells produce a solution of about 30-35%.
Table 4-3.However.2 4.2 4.2 0.4 15. resulting in energy savings. Comparison of the primary energy needs of a co-generation unit (based on gas) .5 0. 5. 4% the dual process and 62% the standard Solvay process.0 Dual Process Ther Electrical mal 0.1 0.7 1. with a much lower efficiency (about 30%) because of the lost released steam. injected directly into the process for the recovery of ammonia (steam stripping). the basic advantage of the use of dry lime instead of milk lime is a better steam balance and the reduction in the raw material inputs. Specific Final Energy Consumption in Different Sections in a Soda Ash Plant (1994) (GJ/t) Manufacturing Limestone Calcination Salt purification Calcination of sodium bicarbonate Crystallization.5 4. the same quantity of energy will be generated.7 1.4 4.4 4. The consumption of steam and lime is much lower as compared to other processes.2 2.5 1.2 0 0.with that required for the separate production of steam and electricity (by a classical power station for electricity and boilers for steam). Table 4-2. GHCL Nirma Ltd Tuticorin Alkalis Dcw Limited Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Tamil Nadu Gujarat 1948 1960 1988 1998 1982 1939 Standard Solvay Standard Solvay Dry lime Dry lime Dual/ Modified Standard Solvay Scope Cogeneration: The Solvay process requires a large amount of steam.1 0 0. a big part of which is used as low pressure steam.5 4.3 0. 9 0 0.4 Table 4-3 shows the detail of the soda ash industry plants in India. India Soda Ash Plants Characteristics Company Location Year Process Capacity ‘000 t/y 875 650 525 365 115 96 % 33% 25% 20% 14% 4% 4% Tata Chemicals Saurashtra Chemicals Ltd.3 4.1 Tot al 4.4 9.for a soda ash plant .1 17.6 11.3 1.1 0.1 0. Total estimated potential for CHP in this sector is about 400 MW.2 0. Dairy 4 .1 0. Energy savings can be realized by reducing steam pressure in a set of turbo-generators while generating electricity.3 4. drying and purification Ammonia recovery Manufacture of ammonia chloride Utilities and general requirements Total Solvay Process The Ele rma ctric l al 4. in a classical power station. shows that it is possible to achieve 30% savings with co-generation. In comparison. This electricity is produced with a "cogeneration" of steam.2 2.3 2. 34% of the total production capacity consists of the state of the art dry lime process. with an excellent efficiency (about 90%) because all the steam leaving the turbines is used in the process.2 Total 0.
There are vide variation in the vintage of fertilizer plants in the country. milk powder.Introduction Dairy industry operation involves milk processing consisting of following steps: 1. For dairy industry. 5. 2. are highly energy intensive in their operation. Over the years. Steam can be used for Absorption refrigeration. CHP can be good and economical option to produce power. instead of depending on unreliable state grid electricity (as case may be in the most of the States) to run plant. heat and refrigeration with higher overall efficiency. major feedstocks presently being used in the fertilizer plant are natural gas. Moreover the fertilizer industry. specially the ammonia urea plants. Homogenization Pasteurization involving rapid heating and cooling of milk Packaging and Storage A block flow diagram is shown below: Further conversion of milk into value added products like yoghurt. 4. Total estimated potential in this sector is about 500 MW. cheese. 3. biogas or other renewable agriculture source of energy can be easily available at low cost. In terms of feedstock. condensed milk requires electricity along with heating and cooling at various stages. Fertilizers Introduction Profile of the Fertilizer industry: Fertilizer sector is very crucial for Indian economy because it provides a very important input to agriculture. This can be used to generate power and steam as per requirement. naphtha and fuel oil / LSHS. ice cream. Therefore. the majority of industry has improved its performance significantly in terms of specific 5 .
It is regulated by government policies administering the price of fertilizer and the production. Feedstock for ammonia production is natural gas. In nitric acid production. the emphasis was mostly on production and not on cost cutting or energy efficiency. In the days of supply driven market which was also hedged from external competition. combustion air and also to generate or superheat steam. DAP. captive power is generated through running of Gas Turbine and steam is generated through HRSG. fuel oil (LSHS) or coal. In ammonia process based on NG as feedstock. • • • • Urea production is energy intensive process. some reactions like primary reformation are endothermic while reactions like secondary reformation. 6. process air. ammonia refrigeration compressor and pumps like BFW pumps.2 Gcal/MT. In India. ANP etc. ammonia synthesis are highly exothermic. There are several state-of-the-art fertilizer plants operating in India. MAP. the industry has improved its energy performance by bringing down the specific energy consumption and improving capacity utilisation.energy consumption and capacity utilization. ammonium nitrate (requires nitric acid again from ammonia as raw material). All the exothermic heat of reaction is utilized to produce high pressure steam. Specific energy consumption of plants varies between 5. which is partially used for drive process air compressor and rest is exported to other process plants. the reaction of oxidation of ammonia to produce nitric acid is exothermic.all sources of primary energy. Almost 70 to 80% variable cost of ammonia is through primary energy sources. the energy consumption in Indian recent ammonia plants is near to 7 Gcal/ MT which is comparable to any modern International ammonia plant. • Ammonia and urea production in a complex is a good example of CHP. Through use of CHP along with integrated steam net work.53 Gcal/MT of urea and 10. naphtha. The heat of reaction is used to generate medium pressure steam. With the change in the business environment where market driven forces became stronger and in view of the integration of global environment concerns with the national concerns a marked shift towards incorporating energy efficiency and environment protection in the business activities has taken place. Over the years. The high pressure steam is then used for running steam turbines of various compressors like syngas compressor. In the Primary Reformer furnace. the waste heat from the flue gas is recovered to pre-heat process streams like natural gas. Majority of industry is energy conscious and focuses on energy management. Initially focus was on production technology and it was only recently in this process that energy efficiency concerns were seeded into the thinking of the respective managements. From ammonia you can produce urea. LSLS/fuel oil are used as feedstock for producing urea Cost of energy varies from 65% to 87% of production costs. HP boilers were provided to generate power as well as provide required steam to Urea plant to drive CO2 compressor turbine and provide process steam through extraction of steam turbine. Iron and Steel Industry Introduction Profile of the Steel Industry The Indian integrated steel industry consists of nine major plants located mostly in the eastern areas rich in both iron ore deposits and coal. The steam generated in HRSG is used in urea plant for steam turbine. The plants have a wide range of facilities and this reflects in the energy consumption of the individual plants as well. shift conversion. 6 . almost all ammonia/ urea plants are provided with captive power generation. Scope In some modern ammonia/ urea plants. ammonium sulphate. naphtha. provides important input to agriculture sector. Salient features of Indian fertilizer industry Fertilizer sector is very crucial to Indian economy. CO2 removal solution circulation pumps and also process requirement. The fertilizer industry is among the most energy intensive industry particularly all fertilizers involving production of intermediate ammonia. There are around 27 fertilizer plants in the country engaged in the manufacture of urea. process air compressor. The location of the plants was conceived with the intention of having them close to raw material sources. Natural gas. Estimated CHP potential in this sector is about 1200 MW. A modern ammonia plant is more or less self sufficient with respect to steam. 2. In earlier plants.
These benefits include: • • reduced energy purchases – oil. Energy from waste The utilisation factors are inversely correlated to the Specific Energy Consumptions (SECs). or chemical energy in the form of coke oven gas (COG) from a recovery coke process. The coke-making process can produce latent and sensible energy in a non-recovery coke process. heat is routed through heat-recovery steam boilers to make high-pressure steam which is then sent to a steam turbine. Some recycled energy projects have been a part of the standard production process for many decades. These projects have a long list of benefits that must be evaluated for their environmental and or financial values. Recycled energy can intricately couple with energy-recovery generation equipment in an industrial process. The plant uses the DRI off-gases for electricity production. the blast furnace process. For example. Reheat furnaces are used to heat up slabs of steel produced by the blast furnace process or an electric arc process. directly to a process. they employ proven technology and can be practical investment strategies. a recycled energy project cleans the COG and collects the constituents either for disposal or sale.2 kWh/m3/hour). coke gas and off gas) in boilers for plant steam or electric generation or both. and the steam can be passed through a steam turbine. In the steel industry. This exhaust by-product can be burned in a boiler to produce high-pressure steam. Blast furnaces. only 75% of the energy in waste gases has been utilized while the rest was flared. The slabs are heated up to glowing orange. Recycled energy. This recycled energy still has residual value after it has been used for its initial purpose in an industrial process.5 GJ/tcs to 41. the type of cogeneration based on recycled energy is used. capital costs and operational risks. The exhaust can be routed through heat-recovery steam generators and make high-pressure steam. BFG has a heating value of 100 BTU/scfh (1. When recycling energy from a non-recovery coke process. The furnaces typically have high volumes of exhaust at temperatures above 800ºF (430ºC). or both. In the steel industry specifically.8 GJ/tcs Average SEC of Indian industry (33 GJ/tcs) is slowly approaching that of US industry (26 GJ/tcs) Most efficient steel making countries are Japan (18 GJ/tcs) and South Korea (19 GJ/tcs) Over the years. the steel industry has been burning its by-product streams (including blast furnace gas. three major processes lend themselves to recycling: the coking process. and the steam can be routed through a steam turbine and back to the process. a number of energy conservation measures taken by each plant. which is half that of natural gas. and are then sent through a cleaning and reducing mill where they are flattened and coiled for delivery. condensing–extraction or back-pressure steam turbine. Both recovered COG and BFG can also be burned in an industrial gas turbine (a top-cycle approach) in combination with a heat-recovery steam generator to make high-pressure steam. Even though the utilisation factor for the plant is only 66% the SEC is only 26 GJ/tcs implying that the use of new routes of steel making with optimal capacities could be used to harness energy for better purposes. typically a form of bottom cycle CHP. Historically though.0 kWh/m3/hour). and the reheating process. When installed on a recovery operation. which can be routed through a steam turbine and back to the plant for process uses. While the cost for these innovative projects can be substantial compared with other non-core business investments. through a condensing. gas and electricity decreased exposure to fuel price volatility n displaced investment in other non-cogeneration energy facilities 7 .Salient features of Indian Steel Industry • • • • • • • Installed capacity 34 MT of finished steel 42% of finished steel production in integrated steel sector 58% of installed production in secondary steel sector SEC ranges from 29. Recycled energy a good idea even with all the engineering costs. exhaust a combustible gas fittingly termed blast furnace gas (BFG). The resulting gas has a heating value of approximately 500 BTU/scfh (5. The gas is then burned in an alternative fuel boiler to make high-pressure steam and sent to a steam turbine. The terms ‘recovery’ and ‘non-recovery’ refer to whether the COG constituents (such as tar or naphthalene) are recovered or whether they are destroyed by combustion within the coke batteries. is a unique – although not novel – way to recover energy that has been ‘bought and paid for’. However an important off-lier in the analysis carried out is the JSPL plant which is mostly dependent on the Scrap / DRI-EAF route for steel making. about one tenth that of natural gas.
For example. cycling stresses or increased capital costs. own. or the developer must market a part of its output on the market. nearly every analysis that attempts to address efficiency issues within the steel industry itemizes heat recovery and cogeneration as one of the many improvements available to existing mills.• • • • improved competitive position and reduced costs reduced environmental impact production of clean power with no incremental fuel emissions or greenhouse gases generation of emission credits. Should you develop. Obviously steel companies want to choose a reputable partner that has expertise in this area to ensure reliable and efficient operation of these facilities. as well as the high costs of interconnection and back-up power that regulated utilities have been able to charge. The reason that the steel industry has such a small amount of cogeneration is the internal competition for capital facing many companies. and how does that affect your competitive position in five years? The most important technical and economic concept that must be considered is the thermal and electrical balance within the plant and the thermo-mechanical efficiency that results from it. There has been a trend in the industry to consider using third-party participation to support non-core investments. However. nearly 20% of the energy input is lost in the off-gas. The steel industry is a highly capital-intensive industry. and does your core business include recycled energy and CHP? If you do plan to put in more power and thermal plants. 2006 by Brennan Downes) 8 . Cogeneration is certainly an area that would apply to this concept. Potential for Recycled Energy and CHP There are still prospects for cogeneration in the steel industry. Companies must justify energy projects while dealing with issues such as volatile local gas and electricity rates. but technological hurdles and complex utility contractual relationships sometimes steer less determined companies away from the long-term environmental and financial benefits. maybe even unfairly regulated. you must answer the following: • • • What is your strategic outlook on on-site power and thermal plants. Having a cogeneration partner that can mitigate some of these developments and ongoing market-driven risks will allow the host to substantially profit from reduced utility purchases but still adjust quickly to market changes. whereas plants have an opportunity to reduce energy costs while conserving capital investment. (Ref: An article in Earthscan Feb. CHP project capacities must coincide with the electrical and thermal needs of the plant. but as the process is a batch process and is discontinuous. construct. Both have their complications. the electrical utility industry does not generally support these cogeneration projects and perceives them as threats to their customer base. This second scenario will force the developer into entering either the thermal supply market or the power market or both. Many companies need to reduce their impact on the environment if they want to increase production capacity. The potential of cogeneration in the steel-making processes is vast. Unfortunately. operate and maintain a cogeneration facility? Should you enter into a cogeneration partnership? To answer these questions. in the electric arc process. and how rigorously has this been examined and communicated to executive management? What is your forward view on energy commodity pricing in future years. a large portion of available capital is used to accomplish these goals. Most companies want to concentrate on their core business: the production of a high-quality finished steel product that meets their customer’s requirements. Therefore. but only one of them is highly regulated. does your company prefer to do it themselves or with a third party. in every industrialized nation in the world. it can increase the economic and technological hurdles due to operating time.
Refineries & Petrochemicals Introduction Refining capacity. 2006. 9. State Potential for exportable surplus. 2. There are over 575 sugar mills spread over 9 states of India. India’s major upstream oil and gas producer.Scope In many Indian Iron & Steel plants CHP through waste heat recovery have been implemented. 5. owned among five major corporate groups. All sugar mills produce bagasse during sugar production and use it for power and steam generation for internal use. has expanded rapidly in recent years. MW Conventional sugar mills 1000 1000 350 300 200 200 200 150 100 Energy efficient sugar mills 1250 1250 500 400 300 250 400 250 400 1. Sugar Industry (Bagasse Cogeneration) Introduction Sugar industry has the maximum potential of CHP in India. entered the downstream market though the acquisition of the majority shares of the 9. In 2003. the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation. 7. Indian sugar mills both in private and cooperative/ joint sectors have started acknowledging the importance of high efficiency grid connected cogeneration power plants for generating exportable surplus after meeting their own demand of power and heat.5 million tonnes (mmt). It will also contribute annual CO2 emission reduction by 39 million MT. 8. However. The following Table indicates the state-wise potential for existing conventional and energy efficient sugar mills in India: Sr. 9 . This potential is expected to be tapped by 2012 resulting in annual savings of more than Rs. Many existing refineries were expanded over this period. 4000 crore (US$ 900 million) annually. a number of projects of power generation through waste heat recovery are registered as CDM projects. Scope Projections for India’s potential for bagasse cogeneration range from 3500 MW to 5000 MW. By improving efficiency by steam production at higher pressure above 67 kg/cm2 and temperature near about 5000C more power can be generated and steam required for the process also can be met. 4. compared to 119 mmt at the beginning of the 2003/04 fiscal year. At the end of the 1998/99 fiscal year. as measured by primary distillation capacity. India now has 19 refineries. Conventional use of bagasse for this purpose is inefficient. by the end of Sept. 7.7 mmt Mangalore refinery. 6. but more than half the increase was accounted for by the commissioning of the 27 mmt Reliance grassroots refinery at Jamnagar in 1999 (see Table 3-2). Maharashtra UP Tamil Nadu Karnataka AP Bihar Gujarat Punjab Haryana & others Source: Estimates by MITCON and MNES Annual Report 8. a number of smaller refining companies have been consolidated into the Indian Oil Group and Bharat Petroleum Corporation. No. a rise of over 75% in five years. cumulative achievement was only 572 MW. There is an estimated potential of 1000 MW power generation through CHP in the Steel industry. 3. Incidentally. Since 2001. refining capacity stood at 67.
10 . while the smaller ones use agro residue fibres such as bagasse. refineries offer an excellent opportunity for energy efficient power generation in the form of combined heat and power production (CHP). refining industry (56%). The five principal steps in pulp and paper production are wood preparation. About 65% of India’s paper mills are small mills.e..4 million tonnes ranks as the within the fifteen largest producers of paper in the world. combines the two processes and is most common in the paper industry. while the refinery gas is the lightest fraction from the distillation and cracking processes. paper and paperboard. Comparing the ratio of primary upgrading capacity to crude distillation (“cracking to distillation ratio”). utilise hardwood and bamboo. the integrated pulp and paper mills. compared with 85. Most refineries have some form of onsite power generation. having a capacity of less than 18. grasses and recycled fibres.000 TPA in Europe and North America. around 25 in number. and papermaking. The Indian paper industry is highly fragmented with players having as small a capacity of 20 TPD to those having 700 TPD and utilise different kinds of fibrous raw materials. The pulp and paper industry converts fibrous raw materials into pulp. and coke. This increases reliability of supply as well as the cost-effectiveness. In fact.India’s refineries are relatively simple. The average size of a paper mill in India was 10. Natural gas and electricity represents the largest purchased fuels in the refineries. Most small and medium size pulp and paper mills cannot economically provide chemical recovery and pollution control systems. More than 50% of paper and paperboard products were produced in only about 10% of the mills. wheat & rice straw. sales of power directly to another customer using the grid for transport) while the regulation may also differ with respect to the tariff structure for power sales to the grid operator. and as supplementary fuel in furnaces. printing and writing paper (PWP) and industrial paper. pulping. Natural gas is used for the production of hydrogen. Most of the paper producers have captive plantations or have long term supply contracts with plantations. At present. most large Indian refineries have a cracking-to-distillation ratio of less than 40%. jute. type and quality of the paper-producing units are very diverse. Paper & Pulp Industry Introduction The pulp and paper industry is one of India's core sector industries and is about 100 years old. they are highly polluting industries contributing substantially to the overall level of emissions and environmental problems. Not all states allow wheeling of power (i.400 tonnes per year (TPA). The relatively larger mills. agro based and waste paper/recycled paper companies. The paper industry can be classified into three major segments. chemical recovery. bleaching. only the new large Reliance refinery meets the average of the U. The refinery gas and coke are by-products of the different processes. natural gas. there are more than 500 pulp & paper mills in the organised and unorganised sectors India. Scope Estimated potential in this sector is about 232 MW. The coke is mainly produced in the crackers. In a first step raw materials are processed into pulp and in a second step paper and paper products are produced out of this pulp.e . Based on the raw material used. The main fuels used in the refinery are refinery gas. The third category.newsprint. Size. The cost benefits of power export to the grid will depend on the regulation in the state where the refinery is located.000 TPA.000 TPA in Asia and about 300. paper producers can be classified as wood based. India with an installed capacity of around 7 million tonnes and production of 5. Different plant categories exist depending on whether they only produce pulp (pulp mills) for further processing or only paper out of purchased pulp and/or recycled waste paper (paper mills). CHP provides the opportunity to use internally generated fuels for power production. allowing greater independence of grip operation and even export to the grid. i. fuel for co-generation of heat and power (CHP). Therefore.S. 9.
CHP can be effectively used in the textile industry. and an annual crop of around 3 million tons.Scope CHP Potential • Estimated CHP potential of about 850 MW • Potential may increase. fluctuations in grid supply & quality • Pulp & paper industry sector. handlooms and garment sectors. designing. The unorganized sector comprises power looms. India is among the world's largest producers of cotton with over 9 million hectares under cultivation. qualifies for cogeneration • Captive / cogeneration plants set up by very few & large paper mills • High pressure. While boiling is done at around 90o C in Soft flow/ Jet dyeing/ Jigger the dyeing operation may be carried out at any temperature between 60o to 130oC depending upon the type of fabric to be dyed and the machine to be used. The main operations can be classified as scouring. dyeing.2006 organized by Cogenindia) 10. Various operations in a textile mill are power driven. which is one of the important factors contributing to the higher processing cost. washing and drying. Heat is usually supplied through heat exchangers by steam or heating oil known as thermic fluid oil. tough global competition collectively have posed a serious problem for survival of Textile Industry. from raw material to final products. captive cogen and biogas projects • Lack of availability of total solution providers (Ref: Proceedings of National Awareness Workshop. Processing of fabric or yarn is a multi stage process and involves heat and power consumption in most of such steps. using 75-85 % energy process heat & 15-25% as electrical power. a few other operations are also carried out. Textile Industry Scope Textile Industry Characteristics The Indian textile industry contributes about 14% to the national industrial output and about 25% to the total national export earnings. Heat generated through the combustion of fuel is utilized to generate steam from water in a boiler and to heat thermic fluid in a thermic fluid heater. The organized sector includes spinning mills and composite units. Depending upon the need. Composite mills cover complete sets of processes. particularly in small mills • Frequent use of DG sets. which require hot water and the final product is dried by hot air in a stenter or in drying range. implementing & operating energy efficiency improvement. Processes and technologies differ considerably across factories. with grid connected cogeneration plants • Electricity bill 2003 and conducive provisions thereof • Gasification. Dyeing requires steam to heat the liquor to the requisite temperature and maintain the temperature for a specific period of time. Cotton is the predominant fabric used in the Indian textile industry – nearly 60% of overall consumption in textiles and more than 75% in spinning mills is cotton. Higher production cost thin profit margins. India’s textile industry is generally divided into the organized and the unorganized sector. Biomass and Fossil fuel combinations possible Barriers • Inadequate awareness and poor energy efficiency. The textile industry in India is a key sector in terms of employment as it is the second largest employment provider after agriculture with direct employment of about 30m. however most manufacturing units tend only to deal with a part of the process. Sept. and hence the production cost of textile. high efficiency Rankin cycle technology for captive generation of steam and power yet to be adopted • Serious attempts for year round captive / cogen power not made across • Inadequate awareness on technology to be adopted • Lack of adequate finance for implementing these projects • Poor capacity for conceiving. 11 . Also heat in the form of steam and thermic fluid is utilized in various textile processors. Ever escalating fuel cost has increased the cost of heat energy to a considerable extent.
Scope As per report by WADE. 12 . More and more commercial buildings like shopping malls. With high growth scenario. BCHP can operate at efficiencies of 70% to 90%. displacing on-site boilers and grid-based electricity. hospitals. the CHP potential of about 650 MW is estimated with low growth scenario. IT parks are being constructed. In India the growth of BCHP has a good potential as the Indian economy is growing at fast pace. the potential will be much more. There is a wide variety of technologies that can be used in BCHP applications ranging from 1kW micro-CHP to multi-MW reciprocating engine and gas turbine installations. About 30 MW of BCHP is currently installed. Under such circumstance CHP has a good potential. office buildings. 11. airports. It is causing lot of strain on power supply. More capacities can definitely be added. BCHP (Building CHP) Introduction BCHP describes any technology that simultaneously generates both useful electrical and thermal (heat and /or cooling) energy in commercial or residential buildings. Similarly fuels used in BCHP applications can also range widely from fossil-fuel based renewable sources.Scope Estimated potential of CHP in this sector is 800 MW.
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