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2010

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Introduction
RF people work in either

RF Planning Responsibilities Nominal Plan Design Sites Survey Validation from field Set RF design (Structure, Azimuth, Height, Tilt, Cables type) Frequency Plan Sites Acceptance
They have to provide the coverage either outdoor or indoor.

RF Optimization Responsibilities Maintain the Networks Accessibility KPIs Maintain the Networks Retain ability KPIs Maintain the Networks Service Integrity KPIs Study and Apply new features Try to think of innovative solutions to maximize the Network capacity
They have to maintain the performance of the Network as good as possible.

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Introduction
What will be our concern during this part of the course? RF Optimization

How the RF Optimization people can maintain the KPIs? By studying the different radio network features and studying the controlling parameters of each feature and how to tune them in a smart way to achieve the target KPIs. What are we going to study during this part of the course? Most of the Radio Network features and their controlling parameters. KPIs monitoring and analysis. Trouble shooting and Tuning.

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Course Outlines
Idle Mode Behavior. Handover. HCS (Hierarchical Cell Structure). Concentric & Multi Band Cells. CLS ( Cell Load Sharing). Frequency Hopping. Intra Cell Handover. Dynamic HR Allocation. Power Control. GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover. Trouble Shooting and KPIs monitoring.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


MS in Idle Mode
Doesnt have a dedicated channel, but able to access the Network and able to be reached by the Network. MS will always try to camp on the best cell based on the signal strength criterion. MS will continuously monitor the serving and neighbor BCCH carriers to decide which cell to camp on. The purpose behind studying the Idle Mode Behavior is to always ensure that the MS is camped on the cell where it has the highest probability of successful communication.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


MS Tasks during Idle Mode
I. II. III. IV. V. PLMN Selection. Cell Selection. Cell Reselection. Location Updating. Monitor the Incoming Paging.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


I. PLMN Selection Criterion
PLMN identity is defined as MCC+MNC which is part of the LAI, where LAI=MCC+MNC+LAC. MCC: Mobile Country Code - MNC: Mobile Network Code - LAC: Location Area Code When the MS is powered ON, it will perform a Location Update and compare the new LAI with the old stored one. An MS will need to make a PLMN selection only incase: 1. MS is powered ON for the 1st time i.e. No PLMN was registered on before (No Information on MCC&MNC is stored on SIM) 2. Old PLMN is not available any more.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


I. PLMN Selection Criterion
When the MS has to do a PLMN selection due to one of the previous cases, the selection mode will depend on the MS settings either Automatic or Manual. 1. 2. 3. 4. Automatic PLMN Selection Mode steps: Home PLMN. Each PLMN stored on the SIM card in priority order. Other PLMNs have Signal Strength > -85 dBm in random order. All other PLMNs in order of decreasing Signal Strength.

Manual PLMN Selection Mode: 1. Home PLMN. 2. All other available PLMNs and give the user the choice to select.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


I. PLMN Selection Criterion
National Roaming If National Roaming is permitted then a MS can register on a PLMN in its home country other than its home PLMN. National Roaming may be allowed on a certain location areas LAs of the visitor PLMN. MS should periodically try to access back his home PLMN, but this periodic attempts will occur only on Automatic selection mode.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


II. Cell Selection Criterion
The Cell Selection algorithm tries to find the most suitable cell in the selected PLMN and make the MS camp on. Cell Selection is done by the MS itself. During Idle Mode the Network doesnt know the cell which the MS is camping on, it only knows the Location Area where the mobile registered himself in.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


II. Cell Selection Criterion
Scan RF Frequencies one by one and calculates the Average received signal strength over 3 5 seconds

Tune to the RF Frequency with the highest average received signal strength

Tune to the next higher frequency that wasnt tried before

Check if the chosen frequency is a BCCH carrier frequency or not Yes MS will synchronize to the BCCH frequency and read system information (LAI,BA List,etc) Check if PLMN is desired or not Yes Check if Cell is barred or not No Check if C1 > 0 or not Camp on the Cell Copy Rights LEGEND Co. 2010 Yes

No

No
Yes No

IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


II. Cell Selection Criterion
Scanning RF Frequencies may occur in 2 ways: 1. Normal Scanning: Scan all Frequencies in the band ex:124 freq. in GSM900 Band. 2. Stored List Scanning: Scan the Frequencies in the Idle BA list (BCCH Allocation) stored on the MS SIM before being switched off. (BA list can have maximum 32 frequencies) If MS found cell belongs to the desired PLMN but not suitable, the MS will start to scan the Idle BA list of this cell.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


II. Cell Selection Criterion
Cell is said to be suitable if: 1. Cell belongs to the desired PLMN If at least 30 strongest frequencies from GSM900 band were tried and no suitable cell was found, then the MS will try another PLMN based on PLMN criterion. 2. Cell is not Barred ( CB = NO) Some cells can be barred for access at selection and reselection or given lower priority based on settings of parameters: CB and CBQ 3. C1 > 0

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


II. Cell Selection Criterion
C1 is called Cell Selection Quantity It is calculated at the MS based on the below equation: C1 = (Received SS ACCMIN) max (CCHPWR-P,0) ACCMIN Minimum allowed DL received SS at the MS in order to access the system CCHPWR Maximum allowed transmitting power by the MS in the UL. P Maximum out put power of the MS according to its class. N.B: 1. ACCMIN and CCHPWR are cell parameters sent to the MS at the BCCH channel. 2. If CCHPWR > P then C1 will decrease and so the Received SS should be large enough to keep C1 > 0 (May be this cell is not designed of this MS class) 3. ACCMIN, CCHPWR, P are all measured in dBm, where C1&C2 are measured in dBs
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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


III. Cell Reselection Criterion
After a cell has been selected, the MS will start the cell reselection measurements to know if it is better to stay on the current cell or to camp on another cell. Cell reselection measurements: 1. Monitors the SS (Signal Strength) of the BCCH carrier of the serving cell. 2. Monitors the SS of the BCCH carrier of all defined neighbors in the Idle BA list. 3. Continuously read system information sent on the serving BCCH carrier at least every 30 seconds. 4. Continuously read system information sent on the BCCH carrier for the six strongest neighbors at least every 5 minutes. 5. Try to decode BSIC of the six strongest neighbors every 30 seconds to assure that it is still monitoring the same cells.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


III. Cell Reselection Criterion
Cell reselection measurements summary: BSIC
Serving Cell Six Strongest Neighbors
Every 30 Seconds

BCCH Data (System Information)


Every 30 Seconds Every 5 Minutes

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


III. Cell Reselection Criterion
When will Cell Reselection occur ?!!! 1. Serving Cell became barred ( CB = YES ) 2. C1 serving cell falls below zero for more than 5 seconds. 3. MS tried to access the network through this cell unsuccessfully for the allowed no. of times defined by the parameter MAXRET 4. C2 neighbor cell ( one of the six strongest neighbors) became greater than C2 serving cell for more than 5 seconds.

5. MS detects Downlink Signaling Failure.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


III. Cell Reselection Criterion
What will happen when the MS needs to make cell reselection? The MS will camp on the cell that has the highest C2 value. C2 is called Cell Reselection Quantity C2 = C1 + CRO TO * H( PT T ) where PT 31 C2 = C1 CRO where PT = 31 0, X<0 Where H(x) 1, X0 CRO Cell Reselection Offset, unit = 2 dB, value range = 0 to 63 TO Temporary Offset, unit = 10 dB, value range = 0 to 7 PT Penalty Time during which TO is valid T Initiated from zero when the MS places the neighbor in the list of the Six Strongest
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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


III. Cell Reselection Criterion
CRO : defines a signal strength offset to encourage or discourage MSs to reselect that cell. TO : defines a negative temporary offset for certain time according to settings of PT (Practically this is useful to prevent fast moving MS from camping on microcells)

PT: If PT is set to 31, this means that a (ve) SS offset CRO will be applied to this cell and it appears less favorite for cell reselection.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


III. Cell Reselection Criterion
Down Link Signaling Failure Algorithm The Algorithm of type Leaky Bucket and used a counter D, where D = 90/MFRMS MFRMS is a cell parameter defines the no. of multi-frames between the transmission of each paging group i.e. if MFRMS=4 then a MS attached to a certain paging group will wait in sleeping mode for 4 multi-frames (4*253msec) until it is up again to listen to paging. When the MS is up to listen to its paging group, if the message is not decoded successfully then D is decremented by 4 and if the message is decoded correctly then D is incremented by 1. If D reaches zero, then a Down Link Signaling Failure is detected and cell reselection took place.
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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


III. Cell Reselection Criterion
Down Link Signaling Failure Algorithm Ex: Assume that MFRMS = 4 Downlink signaling failure counter is initialized: D = round(90/MFRMS)=22. If the MS unsuccessfully decodes a paging message, then: D = D - 4 = 18. If the MS successfully decodes a paging message, then: D = D + 1 = 19.

If D reaches zero, then a Down Link Signaling Failure is detected and cell reselection took place.
N.B: D cant exceed the bucket size given by round(90/MFRMS)

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


III. Cell Reselection Criterion
CRH ( Cell Reselection Hysteresis ) Cell Reselection between two cells lie in two different Location Areas, will be accompanied by Location Update. At the border between cells the Signal level may be comparable, cell reselection may occur many times accompanied by many location updating leading to huge signaling load. To avoid this, a parameter CRH is introduced such that a cell in another location area LA2 should have C2LA2 should greater than C2LA1 of serving cell lie in LA1 by at least CRH in order to be selected. If C2LA1 = 5 dB, CRH = 4 dB, then C2LA2 9 dB in order to be selected.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


IV. Location Updating
To make it possible for the mobile subscriber to receive a call and initiate a call whenever needed, the network must know where the MS is located whenever it moves thats why Location Updating is needed. In the Idle Mode, the Network knows the location of the MS on a Location area resolution not on a cell resolution.

1. 2. 3.

There are three different types of location updating defined: Normal Location Updating. Periodic registration. IMSI attach & IMSI detach (when the MS informs the network when it enters an inactive state)

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


IV. Location Updating
1. Normal Location Updating Initiated by the MS when it enters a cell belongs to a new Location Area (LA). The MS will compare the LAIold stored on the SIM with the LAInew broadcasted from the new cell and it will found them different so itll perform Location Update type normal.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


IV. Location Updating
2. Periodic Registration Regularly the MS should update the Network with its current location Area. The Network will inform the MS how often it should report the location Area he is registering himself in. Based on the value of the Parameter T3212 the MS will know how frequent it should make periodic registration. T3212 take values from 1 (6min) to 255 (25.5 Hours), default = 40 (4 Hours) MSC has a supervision time = BTDM+GTDM if it doesnt hear from the MS during this period, the MSC will consider the MS implicitly detached. BTDM+GTDM should > T3212, to not consider the MS detach before periodic location update is performed.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


IV. Location Updating
3. IMSI Attach/Detach IMSI attach/detach operation is an action taken by the MS to inform the Network either it will go to inactive state (Power off) or it returned back to idle mode. ATT is a cell parameter that will inform the MS whether IMSI attach/detach is operational or not. If ATT=Yes, then before the MS will be switched off, it will send an IMSI detach request to the Network, so no paging messages will be sent to this MS while it is in this state. When the MS is switched on again it will send an IMSI attach request to the Network so now paging messages can be sent normally to this MS.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


V. Monitor the Incoming Paging
Let us revise the DL logical channels and their mapping: I) BCH(Broadcast Channels): including FCCH(Frequency Correction Channel) SCH(Synchronization Channel) Always Mapped on TS0/C0 BCCH(Broadcast Control Channel) II) CCCH(Common Control Channels): including PCH(Paging Channel) Always Mapped on TS0/C0 AGCH(Access Grant Channel) III) DCCH(Dedicated Control Channels): including SDCCH(Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel) May be Mapped on either SACCH(Slow Associated Control Channel) TS1/C0 or TS0/C0 CBCH(Cell Broadcast Channel) Work in Stealing mode by FACH(Fast Associated Control Channel) replacing the TCH time slot

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


V. Monitor the Incoming Paging
Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3 Frame 4 Frame 5 Frame 6 Frame 7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

F S 1 2 3

B 4 6 8

C 10

F S 9 11 12 13

C 14 16

C 18 20

F S 21 22 23

C 24 26

C 28 30

F S 31 32 33

C 34 36

C 38 40

F S 41 42 43

C 44 46

C 48 50

I 51

15

17

19

25

27

29

35

37

39

45

47

49

Default Mapping on TS0/C0 (BCH+CCCH) Non Combined Mode 51 TDMA Frames = 1 Control Multi-frame
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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


V. Monitor the Incoming Paging
Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3 Frame 4 Frame 5 Frame 6 Frame 7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

D0

D0

D0

D0

D1

D1

D1

D0
1 2 3 4 5

D1
6 7 8 9

D2
10 11 12

D3
13 14 15 16 17

D4
18 19 20 21

D5
22 23 24 25

D6
26 27 28

D7
29 30 31 32 33

A0
34 35 36 37

A1
38 39 40 41

A2
42 43 44 45

A3
46 47 48

I I I 50

49

51

Default Mapping on TS1/C0 (SDCCH+SACCH+CBCH(optional))


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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


V. Monitor the Incoming Paging
Combination of Control channels (Different Mapping Criteria) Mapping on TS0/C0 is controlled by Parameter called BCCHTYPE BCCHTYPE NCOMB (Non Combined, BCH&CCCH) TS1/C0 will carry SDCCH+SACCH

COMB (Combined, BCH&CCCH&SDCCH/4) TS1/C0 will be free for TCH


COMBC (Combined with cell broadcast channel CBCH is in use, BCH&CCCH&SDCCH/4&CBCH) TS1/C0 will be free for TCH

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


V. Monitor the Incoming Paging
Combination of Control channels (Different Mapping Criteria) SDCCH may have on of the following 4 configurations based on parameter SDCCH SDCCH (i) SDCCH/8 (8 SDCCH Sub-channels i.e. make call setup for 8 users) (ii) SDCCH/8 including CBCH (7 SDCCH Sub-channels + 1 CBCH) For these two cases, the BCCHTYPE=NCOMB and the mapping of the SDCCH channel is done on TS1/C0 (iii) SDCCH/4 (4 SDCCH Sub-channels) (iv) SDCCH/4 including CBCH(3 SDCCH Sub-channels + 1 CBCH) For these two cases, the BCCHTYPE=COMB or COMBC and the mapping of the SDCCH channel is done on TS0/C0

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


V. Monitor the Incoming Paging
Combination of Control channels (Different Mapping Criteria)

Non Default Mapping on TS0/C0 (BCH+CCCH) 2*51 TDMA Frames = 2 Control Multi-frame

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


V. Monitor the Incoming Paging
Combination of Control channels (Different Mapping Criteria) The Table below summarizes all the previous details: Default Mapping (Non Combined) BCH+CCCH on TS0/C0 and SDCCH+SACCH+CBCH on TS1/C0
CBCH doesn't exist
1 block for BCCH 9 blocks for CCCH 8 blocks for SDDCH

Non Default Mapping (Combined) BCH+CCCH+SDCCH+SACCH+CBCH on TS0/C0


CBCH doesn't exist
1 block for BCCH 3 blocks for CCCH 4 blocks for SDDCH

CBCH exist
1 block for BCCH 9 blocks for CCCH 7 blocks for SDDCH 1 block for CBCH

CBCH exist
1 block for BCCH 3 blocks for CCCH 3 blocks for SDDCH 1 block for CBCH

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


V. Monitor the Incoming Paging
Paging Groups The MS will monitor the incoming paging in only specific times, and the rest of the time it will remain in sleeping mode. In this way we save the MS battery and we decrease the UL interference on the system. The MS will monitor the incoming paging when the Paging Group assigned for this MS is transmitted only. The CCCH block can be used by either PCH or AGCH. When the CCCH block is used for paging it will be called Paging Block The Paging Block consists of 4 consecutive Time slots lie in 4 consecutive frames. The Paging Block can be used to page 4/3/2 users according to IMSI or TMSI is used when paging the MS ( Length IMSI = 2 TS, Length TMSI=1TS) The group of users belong to the same paging block will be called Paging Group
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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


V. Monitor the Incoming Paging
Frame 1
Frame 2 Frame 3 Frame 4

Frame 5

Frame 6

Frame 7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

F S 1

F S 9

F S

F S

F S

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

Default Mapping on TS0/C0 (BCH+CCCH) Non Combined Mode 51 TDMA Frames = 1 Control Multi-frame
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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


V. Monitor the Incoming Paging
Paging Groups As appeared the MS will listen to paging in only specific times. The MS will utilize the time between the 4 TS that lie in 4 consecutive frames to make the required measurements on the neighbor cells.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


V. Monitor the Incoming Paging
Paging Groups As we said before the no. of the CCCH blocks will depend on either noncombined mode or combined mode is in use. Default Mapping(Non Combined) BCH+CCCH on TS0/C0 and SDCCH+SACCH+CBCH on TS1/C0
CBCH doesn't exist
9 blocks for CCCH

Non Default Mapping(Combined) BCH+CCCH+SDCCH+SACCH+CBCH on TS0/C0


CBCH doesn't exist
3 blocks for CCCH

CBCH exist
9 blocks for CCCH

CBCH exist
3 blocks for CCCH

The structure of the CCCH will depend on a parameter called AGBLK. If AGBLK=1 1 CCCH block will be reserved for AGCH and we will have either 8 or 2 blocks assigned for Paging. If AGBLK=0 No Blocks are reserved for AGCH and we will have either 9 or 3 blocks assigned for Paging.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


V. Monitor the Incoming Paging
Paging Groups How many Paging Groups we have? This will depend on a parameter MFRMS MFRMS is a parameter defined per cell and it defines how frequent the paging group assigned for certain MS will be transmitted. MFRMS takes values from 1 to 9, If MFRMS=1 then the paging group assigned for certain MS will be transmitted every 1 control Multiframes=253 msec If MFRMS=9 then the paging group assigned for certain MS will be transmitted every 9 control Multiframes = 9*253msec=2.3 seconds. If MFRMS is large: Positive Side: The MS battery life time will increase coz the MS remains in sleeping mode for long time. Negative Side: Call setup time will increase coz may be paging come to the MS while it is still in the sleeping mode.
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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


V. Monitor the Incoming Paging
Paging Strategies Paging Strategies are controlled by parameters in the MSC. Setting of parameters will decide whether the paging will be local paging (within the LA) or global paging (within the MSC service area). Setting of parameters will decide also whether paging will be done via IMSI or TMSI. Using the parameters we can decide also how the second paging will be incase the first paging failed, ex: If 1st paging was local with TMSI then we can set the 2nd paging to be global with IMSI.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


Related Feature to the Idle Mode Behavior
Adaptive Configuration of Logical Channels (ACLC)
As we know the SDCCH channel is used for signaling i.e. call setup, while the TCH channel is used to carry real user traffic (speech/data). As a rule of thumb GOS for TCH=2% i.e. within 100 calls if 2 of them are blocked then this will be acceptable, for the SDCCH/8 the GOS=0.5% and for the SDCCH/4 the GOS=1% As we know in the default settings for frequency C0, TS0 is used to carry BCH+CCCH and TS1 used to carry SDCCH+SACCH, and TS2TS7 used to carry speech/data

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


Related Feature to the Idle Mode Behavior
Adaptive Configuration of Logical Channels (ACLC)
Now if the signaling load is high i.e. many users need to make call setup then high blocking will occur exceeding the allowed value 0.5% To solve the blocking we have 2 ways: i) Static Configuration of a TCH TS to be used as SDCCH forever (Now TS1&TS2 used for SDDCH+SACCH and TS3TS7 used to carry speech/data) But in this case we lost 1 TCH channel i.e. 5 users can talk simultaneously instead of 6 ii) Adaptive Configuration of a TCH TS to be used as SDCCH/8 when there is blocking only (Now TS1&TS2 used for SDDCH+SACCH and TS3TS7 used to carry speech/data) But when there is no blocking (TS2 will be configured back automatically as a TCH and used to carry speech/data)

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


Related Feature to the Idle Mode Behavior
Adaptive Configuration of Logical Channels (ACLC)
Main Controlling Parameters: ACSTATE: Activates/Deactivates the feature on cell basis, values: ON/OFF SLEVEL: No. of Idle SDCCH sub-channels below which the feature will work. The conditions that should be fulfilled for the ACLC feature to work: 1. ACSTATE=ON 2. No. of Idle SDCCH sub-channels < SLEVEL (This is an indication for congestion) 3. No. of Idle TCHs > 4 or no. of Idle TCHs > Total no. of TRXs (Frequencies) 4. No. of already defined SDCCH channels/8 < Max. allowed configuration of SDCCHs in the cell.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


Parameters Summary
SCH Parameters
Parameter Name BSIC Parameter Name MAXRET Parameter Name BCCHTYPE SDCCH Value Range
NCC: 0 to 7 BCC: 0 to 7

Recommended Value

Unit

RACH Control Parameters


Value Range
1,2,4,7

Recommended Value
4

Unit

Control Channel Parameters


Value Range
COMB COMBC NCOMB 0 to 16 (0: No SDCCH/8 configured-combined mode)

Recommended Value
NCOMB 1

Unit

IMSI Attach/Detach Parameters


Parameter Name ATT Value Range
Yes, No

Recommended Value
Yes

Unit

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR


Parameters Summary
Paging Parameters and Periodic Update
Parameter Name MFRMS Value Range
2 to 9 0 or 1 0 to 255 (0: infinite-No periodic registeration)

Recommended Value
6 0 40

Unit
Control Channel Multi frame 6 minutes

AGBLK
T3212

Cell Selection and Reselection Parameters


Parameter Name Value Range
47 dBm to 110 dBm GSM900: 13 to 43 in steps of 2 GSM1800: 4 to 30 in steps of 2 0 to 63 0 to 7 (7:infinite) 0 to 31 0 to 14 in steps of 2

Recommended Value
110 dBm GSM900: 33 dBm GSM1800: 30 dBm 0 0 0

Unit
dBm dBm

ACCMIN
CCHPWR

CRO TO PT CRH

2 dB 10 dB
dB

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Handover (Locating)
Handover (Locating) Algorithm
The Handover (Locating) Algorithm is the basic feature to provide mobility in the Radio Network. Aims At? i. Keep the continuity of a current call with acceptable quality. ii. Cell size control in-order to decrease total interference in the system. Implemented where? In the BSC. Location process initiated when? After Hand Over (HO), Assignment or Immediate Assignment.

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Handover (Locating)
Handover (Locating) Algorithm
Inputs to the Algorithm? Signal Strength, Quality measurements &TA for serving cell and Signal Strength measurements for neighbor cells. Output from the Algorithm? List of candidates which the algorithm judges to be possible candidates for HO (List of HO candidates are ranked and sorted in descending order)

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Handover (Locating)
Handover (Locating) Algorithm
What types of Handover (locating) algorithm we have? i. SS & Path Loss based Algorithm: Follows the GSM specifications. HO decision is taken based on both Signal Strength (SS) and Path Loss. ii. SS based Algorithm: HO decision is taken based on Signal Strength only and this leads to better performance. It is less complex, uses less parameters and easy to be maintained in the Radio Network.

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Handover (Locating)
Handover (Locating) Algorithm
The main Flow of the Handover (locating) Algorithm goes as follow:
Initiation Filtering Basic Ranking Urgency Conditions Handling

Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation

Organizing the List

Sending the List & Allocation Reply

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Handover (Locating)
Handover (Locating) Algorithm
I. Initiation. II. Filtering. III. Basic Ranking. IV. Urgency Conditions Handling. V. Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation. VI. Organizing the List. VII. Sending the List & Allocation Reply.

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Handover (Locating)
I. Initiation of the Handover (Locating) Process/Algorithm
The Locating Process is initiated when one of the following occurs:

1.

Handover: Normal, Intra Cell HO (IHO), Sub-cell change (OLUL or ULOL)


Assignment: Allocation of TCH channel after completing call setup on SDCCH. Immediate assignment: You are assigned SDCCH to make call setup, or a TCH to make call setup on when no free SDCCH channels exist.

2.

3.

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Handover (Locating)
I. Initiation of the Handover (Locating) Process/Algorithm
Handover on SDCCH can be enabled/disabled based on parameter SCHO

At initiation of Locating after successful HO, Assignment or Immediate assignment a timer TINIT starts which will disable HO for some time until it expires.
The reason is to leave the connection on the current channel for some time until the locating algorithm produces reliable results we can rely on. TINIT will disable HO only, but Assignment on own or other cell will occur normally and will not wait TINIT till expired. TINIT is a BSC parameter not a cell parameter and it measured in SACCH periods.

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Handover (Locating)
II. Filtering
Simply it is the process of collecting the required data on Signal Strength (SS), Quality and Time Advance (TA) for serving and neighbor cells and average these consecutive measurements over a specified period to rank these cells. This is accomplished in two steps: Measurements Preparation SS, Quality and TA Filtering

1. 2.

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Handover (Locating)
II. Filtering
1. Measurements Preparation Data that is measured: Cell on which measurements are reported
Serving Cell 6 Strongest neighbor cells

Measured Quantity
SS DL Quality DL (rxqual_DL) Quality UL (rxqual_UL) TA SS DL

Who makes the measurements?


MS MS BTS BTS MS

The MS can measure the SS of up to 32 neighbor frequencies but only the six strongest neighbors (which it succeeded to decode its BSIC over the last 10 seconds) are reported and considered candidates for HO.

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II. Filtering
1. i. ii. Measurements Preparation SS measurements are delivered as integer values 0 63 corresponds to real SS from -110 dBm - 47 dBm Quality is measured based on the BER and it may be represented in two forms: Integers 0 (Best) 7 (Worst) Deci Transformed Quality Units (dtqu) from 0 (Best) 70 (Worst)

Time Advance (TA): is reported as values between 0 63 bit period. N.B: If TA=1 then the MS is at nearly 0.5 km from the cell

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II. Filtering
2. SS, Quality and TA Filtering: The consecutive measurements for SS, Quality and TA are averaged in some way based on the equation of the filter used. Weve 5 Types of Filters that may be used, each one has its own equation or its way to produce output results from the collected consecutive measurements: A. General FIR Filters B. Recursive Straight Average Filter C. Recursive Exponential Filter D. Recursive 1st Order Butterworth Filter E. Median Filter

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II. Filtering
2. SS, Quality and TA Filtering: In addition to the way each filter use to produce output results from the consecutive measurements, each filter has what we call filter length which is the period over which measurements are considered. We have controlling parameters on cell basis to select the type of filter used and the length of the filter. Also the type of the filter used in signaling (call setup) and dedicated phases may be configured separately as well see.

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II. Filtering
2. SS, Quality and TA Filtering: 2-i) Signal Strength Filters controlling parameters SSEVALSI Selects the Type of the filter that will be used during Signaling phase. SSEVALSD Selects the Type of the filter that will be used during Connection phase. SSLENSI Selects the Length of the filter that will be used during Signaling phase. SSLENSD Selects the Length of the filter that will be used during Connection phase. N.B: SSLENSI & SSLENSD are measured in the form of SACCH periods, i.e. if SSLENSD=10, then the length of the filter during the connection phase = 10*0.48 sec = 4.8 seconds
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II. Filtering
2. SS, Quality and TA Filtering: 2-ii) Quality Filters controlling parameters QEVALSI Selects the Type of the filter that will be used during Signaling phase. QEVALSD Selects the Type of the filter that will be used during Connection phase. QLENSI Selects the Length of the filter that will be used during Signaling phase. QLENSD Selects the Length of the filter that will be used during Connection phase. N.B: QLENSI & QLENSD are measured in the form of SACCH periods, i.e. if QLENSD=10, then the length of the filter during the connection phase = 10*0.48 sec = 4.8 seconds
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II. Filtering
2. SS, Quality and TA Filtering: 2-iii) Time Advance (TA) controlling parameters One single type of filters is used which is the Recursive Straight Average Filter and the length of the filter is specified by parameter TAAVELEN which is also measured in SACCH periods.

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III. Basic Ranking
It is called Basic coz in this stage ranking is done before handling the urgency conditions and evaluation of the auxiliary radio network features. As mentioned earlier, two algorithms are available for basic ranking (SS&Path loss based Algorithm and SS based Algorithm) and theyre selected according to the parameter EVALTYPE

EVALTYPE=1, SS & Path loss based Algorithm is used for basic ranking taking into consideration both Signal Strength measurements and the path loss.
EVALTYPE=3, SS based Algorithm is used for basic ranking taking into consideration Signal Strength measurements only.

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III. Basic Ranking
Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm will be done on four steps: Correction of Base Station output power. Common Evaluation of the minimum signal strength condition for neighbors. for both Subtraction of signal strength penalties. Algorithms Rank the Candidates after applying Offsets and Hysteresis.

A. B. C. D.

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III. Basic Ranking
A. Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm Correction of Base Station output power The location algorithm aims at making the Pure Traffic Frequencies to control the cell borders and not the BCCH frequencies, coz most of the time the seized TCH Time slot will be located on a TCH frequency. BSPWR is a parameter to set the output power of the BCCH carrier And BSTXPWR is a parameter to set the output power of the TCH frequencies. Correction for the output power will done for both: (A-i) Correction for Neighbor Cells. (A-ii) Correction for Serving Cell.

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III. Basic Ranking
Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm A. Correction of Base Station output power (A-i) Correction for Neighbor Cells The MS is informed by the BCCH frequencies of the neighbors cells on which he has to perform his measurements via Active BA list.

SS_corrected_DLneighbor = SS_measured_DLneighbor - ( BSPWR - BSTXPWR )

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III. Basic Ranking
Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm A. Correction of Base Station output power (A-ii) Correction for Serving Cell 1) TCH Time Slot (TS) is on the BCCH frequency

SS_corrected_DLservingcell = SS_measured_DLservingcell - ( BSPWR - BSTXPWR )


2) TCH TS is hopping between a BCCH frequency and a TCH frequency:

SS_corrected_DLservingcell = SS_measured_DLservingcell - ( BSPWR - BSTXPWR )/N ,


Where N is the no. of the hopping frequencies 3) TCH TS is on the OL (Over Laid sub cell)

SS_corrected_DLUnderLaid = SS_measured_DLOverLaid+ ( BSTXPWR Under Laid BSTXPWROverLaid )

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III. Basic Ranking
B. Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm Evaluation of the minimum Signal Strength condition for Neighbors Not all the neighbors are allowed to be ranked!! The neighbor should pass the minimum signal strength condition in order to be ranked.

SS_corrected_DLneighbor will be compared with respect to parameter called MSRXMIN, If SS_corrected_DLneighbor MSRXMIN this neighbor will be included in ranking If SS_corrected_DLneighbor < MSRXMIN this neighbor will be excluded from ranking If UL measurements are included then SS_corrected_ULneighbor will be compared with respect to parameter called BSRXMIN, If SS_corrected_ULneighbor BSRXMIN this neighbor will be included in ranking If SS_corrected_ULneighbor < BSRXMIN this neighbor will be excluded from ranking

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III. Basic Ranking
B. Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm Evaluation of the minimum Signal Strength condition for Neighbors

Example: Assume that a MS is connected to cell A that has five neighbors B,C,D,E&F, the MSRXMIN for all the cells is -104 dBm and the SS_corrected_DLneighbor for each cell after correcting the BTS o/p power is given in the below Table:
Neighbors
B C D E F

SS_corrected_DLneighbor
-85 dBm -110 dBm -87 dBm -70 dBm -100 dBm

Cell C will be excluded from ranking and wont be considered in the next stage and the MS will never HO to it

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III. Basic Ranking
C. Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm Subtraction of signal strength penalties Penalties or Punishments will be applied on cells that are for some reasons temporarily undesirable. A Penalty value will decrease the rank of some cells for certain penalty time. SS_punished_DL = SS_corrected_DL Locating Penalties HCS Penalties In the coming slides well talk about the two types of penalties: (C-i) Locating Penalties (C-ii) HCS Penalties

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III. Basic Ranking
Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm C. Subtraction of signal strength penalties (C-i) Locating Penalties 1) Due to HO failure: If HO to a neighbor cell failed then weve to apply a penalty value for some time on this neighbor so when basic ranking is done again we dont go back to this cell. Penalty value will be configured using parameter PSSHF (default 63 dB) Penalty time will be configured using parameter PTIMHF (default 5 sec)

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III. Basic Ranking
Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm C. Subtraction of signal strength penalties (C-i) Locating Penalties 2) Due to Bad Quality (BQ) Urgency HO: If a cell was abandon due to BQ, then it should have been the best cell from SS point of view so without penalties using the basic ranking well be back to this cell. Penalty value will be configured using parameter PSSBQ (default 7 dB) Penalty time will be configured using parameter PTIMBQ (default 5 seconds) 3) Due to Excessive TA Urgency HO: Handled in the same manner like the BQ case. Penalty value will be configured using parameter PSSTA (default 63 dB) Penalty time will be configured using parameter PTIMTA (default 30 seconds)

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III. Basic Ranking
Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm C. Subtraction of signal strength penalties (C-ii) HCS Penalties It is related to the HCS (Hierarchical Cell Structure) feature when a MS is detected as a fast moving mobile. A penalty will be applied on lower layer cells so in ranking we will prioritize cells in the same layer of the serving cell and cells in higher layers and in this way unnecessary HOs are prevented ( ex: layer2 cells will be prioritized than layer1 cells)

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III. Basic Ranking
D. Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm Rank the Candidates after applying Offsets and Hysteresis Ranking for neighbor cells will be done after applying Offsets and Hysteresis.

Offset: Displace the cell border as compared to the border strictly given by SS. Controlling parameter: OFFSET (default: zero dB) Hysteresis: To reduce the risk of ping pong HO a region for Hysteresis is applied around the cell border.

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III. Basic Ranking
D. Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm Rank the Candidates after applying Offsets and Hysteresis If the Hysteresis value is too high there will be a risk that the MS will be connected to the cell of low SS for long time and if the Hysteresis is too low then there will be a risk that ping pong HOs occur. So the applied value of Hysteresis will be variable based on the received SS of the serving cell. SS_corrected_DLservingcell will be compared to value HYSTSEP (default -90 dBm), If SS_corrected_DLservingcell > HYSTSEP, then the serving cell is strong enough and high value of Hysteresis will be applied such that Hysteresis value=HIHYST (default 5 dB) If SS_corrected_DLservingcell < HYSTSEP, then the serving cell is not strong enough and low value of Hysteresis will be applied such that Hysteresis value=LOHYST (default 3 dB)

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III. Basic Ranking
D. Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm Rank the Candidates after applying Offsets and Hysteresis
SS_corrected_DLservingcell > HYSTSEP Yes HYST=HIHYST No HYST=LOHYST

Output from Basic Ranking

Rankservingcell = SS_corrected_Dlservingcell Rankneighbor= SS_punished_DLneighbor OFFSETneighbor HYSTneighbor

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IV. Urgency Conditions Handling
After the Basic Ranking stage a check is made on the serving cell to know if Urgency conditions are detected or not. We have two types of Urgency HO: Bad Quality (BQ) Urgency HO Excessive Time Advance (TA) Urgency HO If Urgency conditions are detected then the serving cell should be abandon as fast as possible, but some of the neighbors will be removed from the candidate list and the MS will not be able to HO to them as we will see later.

1. 2.

As seen before, cells that were abandon due to Urgency HO will be subjected to punishment/penalty.

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IV. Urgency Conditions Handling
1. Bad Quality (BQ) Urgency HO The Quality measured at the DL and UL for the serving cell will be compared with two parameters QLIMDL & QLIMUL (default 50 dtqu) and if: rxqual_DL > QLIMDL Or Urgency HO due to BQ should be performed rxqual_UL > QLIMUL The Quality may drop like that as a result of Co-Channel Interference or when the SS became very low. When Urgency Condition is detected the MS has to leave the cell and make HO to other cell, but in this case the serving cell is the one that has the highest SS so the MS has to HO to a cell of worse SS, but is the MS allowed to HO to any worse cell?

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IV. Urgency Conditions Handling
1. Bad Quality (BQ) Urgency HO Is the MS allowed to HO to any worse cell? No, this will be based on a parameter called BQOFFSET which will ensure that far neighbors wont be selected. If Rankservingcell Rankneighbor < BQOFFSET+HYST, then this neighbor is near to the serving cell and it is not much worse than the serving cell and it can be candidate for HO. If Rankservingcell Rankneighbor > BQOFFSET+HYST, then this neighbor is far from the serving cell and it will be removed from the candidate list.

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IV. Urgency Conditions Handling
1. Bad Quality (BQ) Urgency HO

Example: If Urgency condition is detected where Rankservingcell = -75 dBm and the neighbors: ((RankB = -79 dBm , RankC = -90 dBm , RankD = -87 dBm)) and ((BQOFFSET=5dB, HYST=0 dB)) Rankservingcell RankB = 4dB < BQOFFSET= 5dB Cell B is kept in the candidate list Rankservingcell RankC = 15dB > BQOFFSET= 5dB Cell C is removed from the candidate list Rankservingcell RankD = 8dB > BQOFFSET=5dB Cell D is removed from the candidate list

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IV. Urgency Conditions Handling
2. Excessive Time Advance (TA) Urgency HO TA can be used as a measure for the distance between the BTS and the MS. If TA > TALIM (63 bit period) Urgency HO due to TA is initiated.

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After Basic Ranking and Evaluation of the Urgency Conditions, the Serving Cell and Neighbor Cells will be divided into 3 Groups:

Better Cell

Categorization #1

Serving Cell Worse Cell

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V. Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Assignment to Another Cell Evaluation Cell Load Sharing Evaluation Over Laid/Under Laid sub-cell Evaluation IHO Evaluation HCS Evaluation

After these Evaluations, some candidates will be removed from the HO candidate list and Categorization#2 will be performed.

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V. Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation
1. Assignment to Another Cell Evaluation The Locating Algorithm may be initiated after immediate assignment to know whether it is better for the MS to take a TCH time slot on the current cell or not. If during the signaling phase a Better Cell was found after ranking then Assignment to Better Cell will be initiated. If during the signaling phase no better cell was found, then the MS will normally be assigned a TCH time slot on the current cell. If the Better/Serving Cells were congested then Assignment to Worse Cell will be done.

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V. Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation
1. Assignment to Another Cell Evaluation Is the MS allowed to take TCH time slot on any worse cell? No, this will be based on a parameter called AWOFFSET which will ensure that far neighbors wont be selected. Only if Rankservingcell Rankneighbor < AWOFFSET, then this neighbor is near to the serving cell and it is not much worse than the serving cell and assignment to it can be done. If Rankservingcell Rankneighbor > AWOFFSET, then this neighbor is far from the serving cell and it will be removed from the candidate list.

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V. Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation
2. i) ii) Cell Load Sharing (CLS) Evaluation This feature is used to reduce congestion on the serving cell. When CLS is activated and the load on the serving cell becomes higher than certain threshold then: Valid CLS HO candidates are defined Re-calculation of their ranking values will be performed.

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V. Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation
2. i. Cell Load Sharing (CLS) Evaluation Valid CLS HO candidates are defined as follow: Worse cells: coz if they were better then theyll be chosen at Basic Ranking Load on neighbor cells < CLS load threshold Internal cells: lies in the same BSC Same Layer Re-calculation of their ranking values will be performed: Were going to recalculate the Ranking values of the valid CLS neighbors with reduced Hysteresis so these worse neighbors will appear with higher SS than they really are and the MS can make HO to them and relief the congestion on the current cell.

ii.

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V. Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation
3. OL/UL Sub-Cell Evaluation The OL/UL feature provides a way of increasing the traffic capacity in a cellular network without building new sites. Since OL sub-cell serves smaller area than the corresponding UL sub-cell a smaller reuse distance can be used in in the OL sub-cell than in the under laid. The OL/UL evaluation may result in a recommendation to change the subcell from the one currently in use, this evaluation is based on: DL SS, TA Serving Cell, Distance to cell border, Traffic Load in the cell This feature will be discussed in details afterwards.

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V. Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation
4. Intra Cell HO (IHO) Evaluation The IHO feature provides a way to improve the speech quality during the conservation when bad quality is detected while the SS is high. This is can be accomplished by changing the channel the connection is currently using within the same cell.

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V. Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation
5. Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS) Evaluation The HCS feature provides the possibility to give priority to cells that are not strongest but provide sufficient SS. The priority of a cell is given by associating a layer to the cell. We have 8 layers from layer 1 (Highly prioritized) to layer 8 (least prioritized). Micro cells are prioritized than Macro cells for capacity purposes.

Cells of lower layers will be ranked higher than cells of higher layers in the HO candidate list.

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After the Auxiliary Radio Network features evaluation some candidates may be prioritized and the order of the candidate list will be modified. The Serving Cell and Neighbor Cells will be divided into 3 Groups:

Above S

Categorization #2

Serving Cell (SC) Below S

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VI. Organizing the List
The final list will contain maximum up to Six Neighbors + The Serving Cell and categorized as follows: Serving Cell (SC), Above S, Below S To reach the final form before sending the list the following steps will be done: Removal of Candidates Ordering the Candidate List based on the Current Conditions.

A. B.

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VI. Organizing the List
A. Removal of Candidates Some Candidates may be removed coz: Some Controlling timers are active and preventing HO to certain cell: TALLOC: This timer prevents HO on a target cell for some time after assignment/HO failure due to congestion on target cell. (N.B: No penalties are applied on this cell) TURGEN: This timer prevents HO on a target cell for some time after urgency HO failure due to congestion on target cell. N.B: TALLOC and TURGEN are BSC parameters

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VI. Organizing the List
B. Ordering the Candidate list based on the Current Conditions Means what? Means in what order the 3 categories (Above S, S, Below S) will be arranged before sending the candidate list. This will be based on some condition flags. Condition Flags: Assignment Request Arrived Assignment to Worst Cell is in Use Excessive TA Detected BQ Urgency HO OL/UL Sub-Cell Load Change or IHO

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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VI. Organizing the List
B. Case
1 2 3 4

Ordering the Candidate list based on the Current Conditions 1


0 0 1 1

Condition Flags 2 3 4
x x 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

5
0 0 0 0

Ordering
Above S Above S Below S

Comment
Normal Case

Serving Cell has BQ so it should be abandon either to the Above S or Below S cell An Assignment request came and the AW flag is Above S S not raised An Assignment request came and the AW flag is Above S S Below S raised

Serving Cell has BQ so it should be abandon but coz the OL/UL subcell change flag is raised, then Above S S Below S the serving cell is included coz this subcell change may solve the issue with no need to go for a below worse cell
3 Excessive TA Detected 4 BQ Urgency HO 5 OL/UL Sub-Cell Load Change or IHO

Condition Flags:
1 Assignment Request Arrived 2 Assignment to Worst Cell is in Use
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VII. Sending the List & Allocation Reply
The resulting candidate list will form the basis on which HO will be performed. Empty list means that no options are better than remaining on the current cell and no HO will occur. The channel allocation reply may be success or failure. Failure may be due to congestion or signaling failure on the target cell. Based on the result of allocation either success/failure, some actions will be taken like applying some penalties or enabling of certain timers as we saw previously.

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Example: Assume that the o/p from the Filtering stage for the SS measurements is as below and we want to prepare the Basic Ranking Candidate list for HO:
Cell
A B (Serving Cell) C D E F G

SS(dBm)
-70 -74 -78 -68 -80 -92 -95

Where, BSPWR = BSTXPWR, MSRXMIN = -90 dBm, Cell A was abandon due to BQ urgency HO (PSSBQ=7dB) SS based Algorithm is in use where OFFSET=0, HYSTSEP= -90 dBm, HIHYST= 5 dB, LOHYST= 3 dB
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Solution: A) Correction of Base Station output power: Since BSPWR = BSTXPWR then the current measurements will be kept as it is. SS_corrected_DLneighbor = SS_measured_DLneighbor SS_corrected_DLserving = SS_measured_DLserving B) Evaluation of the minimum Signal Strength condition for Neighbors: The SS for neighbors will be compared against MSRXMIN = -90 dBm Cell F and Cell G have SS < MSRXMIN then they will be removed from the list and cant be candidates for HO. Cell SS(dBm)
A B (Serving Cell) C D E F G
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-70 -74 -78 -68 -80 -92 -95

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Solution: C) Subtraction of signal strength penalties: Since Cell A was abandon due to BQ urgency HO (PSSBQ=7dB) then it will be punished, SS_punished_DL Cell A = SS_corrected_DL PSSBQ = -70 7 = -77 dBm The candidate list will now be in the following form:
Cell
A B (Serving Cell) C D E

SS(dBm)
-77 -74 -78 -68 -80

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Solution: D) Rank the Candidates after applying Offsets and Hysteresis Since SSServing cell B = -74 dBm > HYSTSEP= -90 dBm, then it is better to stay on the current cell and high Hysteresis will be applied Cell SS(dBm) A -77 i.e. HYST = HIHYST = 5 dB
B (Serving Cell) C D E -74 -78 -68 -80

Rankservingcell B = -74 dBm Serving Cell RankA= -77 dBm OFFSET HYST = -77 0 5 = -82 dBm RankC= -78 dBm OFFSET HYST = -78 0 5 = -83 dBm RankD= -68 dBm OFFSET HYST = -68 0 5 = -73 dBm RankE= -80 dBm OFFSET HYST = -80 0 5 = -85 dBm

Worse Cell Worse Cell Better Cell Worse Cell

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Solution: Now the final list according to Categorization#1 will be arranged as follows:
Categorization#1 Cell
D B A

SS(dBm)
-73 -74 -82

Category
Better Cell Serving Cell Worse Cell

C
E

-83
-85

Worse Cell
Worse Cell

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Disconnection Criteria
The Disconnection algorithm is not part of the locating algorithm but for completeness, the topic is treated here. The Disconnection algorithm manages when the connection between the MS and the Network shall be dropped when signaling failure is detected. The Disconnection criterion can be made in both the DL and the UL such that: In the DL: managed by the MS and In the UL: managed by the BSC

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Disconnection Criteria
In DL:
Controlled by a parameter RLINKT (max. bucket size) , when the MS couldnt decode a SACCH message (0.48 sec), the bucket will be decreased by 1 unit, when the MS successfully decodes a SACCH message, the bucket will be increased by 2 units, if the bucket reached value = Zero then disconnection will occur, recommended value RLINKT=16

In UL:
The disconnection algorithm will run in the same way, the BSC will make the evaluation, and the controlling parameter is called RLINKUP, , recommended value RLINKUP=16 N.B: The bucket cant have values larger than the max. value given by RLINKT/RLINKUP

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Parameters Summary
Algorithm Selection
Parameter Name EVALTYPE Value Range
1 or 3

Recommended Value
3

Unit

Flow Control Parameters


Parameter Name TINIT TALLOC TURGEN Value Range
0 to 120 0 to 120 0 to 120

Recommended Value
10 2 2

Unit
SACCH period=480 msec SACCH period=480 msec SACCH period=480 msec

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Parameters Summary
Filtering Control Parameters
Parameter Name SSEVALSI SSEVALSD QEVALSI QEVALSD SSLENSI SSLENSD QLENSI QLENSD TAAVELEN Value Range
1 to 9 1 to 9 1 to 9 1 to 9 1 to 20 1 to 20 1 to 20 1 to 20 1 to 20

Recommended Value
6 6 6 6 4 10 4 10 4

Unit
SACCH period=480 msec SACCH period=480 msec SACCH period=480 msec SACCH period=480 msec SACCH period=480 msec

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Parameters Summary
Signal Strength based Basic Ranking Parameters
Parameter Name HYSTSEP LOHYST HIHYST OFFSET Value Range
150 to 0 0 to63 0 to63 63 to 63

Recommended Value
-90 3 3 0

Unit
dBm dB dB dB

Handover Failure Parameters (Signaling Failure)


Parameter Name PSSHF PTIMHF Value Range
0 to 63 0 to 600

Recommended Value
63 5

Unit
dB Seconds

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Parameters Summary
Urgency Conditions Parameters
Parameter Name QLIMUL QLIMDL BQOFFSET PSSBQ PTIMBQ TALIM PSSTA PTIMTA Value Range
0 to 100 0 to 100 0 to 63 0 to 63 0 to 600 0 to 63 0 to 63 0 to 600

Recommended Value
55 55 3 7 15 62 63 30

Unit
dtqu dtqu dB dB Seconds Bit Period (0.577msec) dB Seconds

Disconnection Algorithm Parameters


Parameter Name RLINKT RLINKUP Value Range
4 to 64 in steps of 4 1 to 63

Recommended Value
16 16

Unit
SACCH period=480 msec SACCH period=480 msec

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
HCS feature provides the ability and flexibility to give priority to cells that are not strongest but provide sufficient Signal Strength. The priority of a cell is given by associating an HCS layer to the cell where each cell will be belonging to an HCS band. The lower the layer ( and the HCS band), the priority is higher, i.e. layer 1 has higher priority than layer 2, layer 3, layer 4, .. layer 2 has higher priority than layer 3, layer 4, layer 5, ..

Up to 8 layers (in up to 8 bands) may be defined, where one or several layers can be assigned to the same HCS band.

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
The lower HCS bands will only include lower layers compared to a higher HCS bands.

A mixture of small micro cells (lower layers) and large macro (higher layers) cells will achieve both high capacity and good coverage. Micro cells will be used for capacity issues while macro cells will be used to provide coverage, fill coverage holes and handle the fast moving mobiles.

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
With Basic Ranking only, micro cells will be ranked as the strongest server in very small area, so to let micro cells serve in an area where acceptable SS is guaranteed then HCS should be used.

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
The idea with a layered cell structure is to let lower layer cells serve MSs that receive sufficient SS even if there is other cells with strongest received SS in the area. But how to decide if the lower layer cell has sufficient SS to be prioritized over strongest cells? This will be according to two thresholds LAYERTHR (Layer Threshold) and HCSBANDTHR (HCS Band Threshold) LAYERTHR: Decides if the cell should be prioritized over stronger cells lie in the same HCS band or not. HCSBANDTHR: Decides if the cell should be prioritized over stronger cells from different HCS bands or not.

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
The input to the HCS Evaluation Algorithm is the Basic Ranking list we prepared from the locating process. The output will be in the form of two lists: HCS prioritized list (on Top) then Basic Ranking list. HCS prioritized list: will include cells that fulfilled the HCS conditions & rules and will be ranked according to HCS evaluation (layered ranking) Basic Ranking list: will include cells that didnt fulfill the HCS conditions and will be ranked according to basic ranking rules (SS ranking) Input

Basic Ranking List

HCS Evaluation Algorithm

Output

HCS Prioritized Cell List Basic Ranking List

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Mechanism of the HCS Algorithm

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Mechanism of the HCS Algorithm

(A) Band Evaluation:


In order to be a candidate in the HCS evaluation process, then the SS of serving and neighbor cells should be greater than their band threshold ( HCSBANDTHR )

SSservingcell > HCSBANDTHRservingcell HCSBANDHYSTservingcell SSneigbhorcell > HCSBANDTHRneighborcell + HCSBANDHYSTneighborcell


Cells that will not fulfill the above condition will go to be sorted in the Basic Ranking list in priority order according to SS. Cells that will fulfill the criterion will pass to the next step in the HCS Evaluation. N.B: HCSBANDTHR and HCSBANDHYST are BSC Parameters.

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Mechanism of the HCS Algorithm

(B) Define the strongest Cell (SS) in each Band


Cells that passed the band evaluation in step (A) will be moved to the next step.

In this stage, the strongest cells in each Band from SS point of view will be identified. Strongest cells will pass direct to be HCS Ranked The rest of cells that are not strongest within the band will be moved to Step(C)

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Mechanism of the HCS Algorithm

(C) Layer Threshold Evaluation


Cells that passed the band evaluation in step (A) and they are not strongest within their own band, their SS will be checked against the Layer threshold (LAYERTHR)

SSservingcell > LAYERTHRservingcell LAYERHYSTservingcell SSneigbhorcell > LAYERTHRneighborcell + LAYERHYSTneighborcell


Cells that will not fulfill the above condition will go to be sorted in the Basic Ranking list in priority order according to SS. Cells that will fulfill the criterion will pass to the next step in the HCS Evaluation

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Mechanism of the HCS Algorithm

(D) Identify the Strongest Cells within each layer


Now we will deal with cells that passed the band evaluation (in Step A) and they were not strongest within their own band (in Step B) and they passed the layer threshold condition (in Step C)

Cells that are strongest within their own layer will be identified and theyll pass direct to be HCS ranked. Cells that are not strongest within their own layer will be moved to the next step.

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Mechanism of the HCS Algorithm

(E) Check how many cells from each layer are allowed to pass to be HCS ranked
Now we will deal with cells that passed the band evaluation (in Step A) and they were not strongest within their own band (in Step B) and they passed the layer threshold condition (in Step C) and they are not strongest within their own band (in step D) MAXCELLSINLAYER: will identify how many cells from each layer can pass to be HCS ranked, ex: if MAXCELLSINLAYER = 2 then two cells only are allowed to pass to be HCS ranked. MAXDBDEVINLAYER: will identify how the next strongest cell in the layer is far from the strongest cell in the layer. i.e. if SS_Strongest Celllayer x - SS_next strongest celllayer x<MAXDBDEVINLAYER then the next strongest cell is not weak and it will pass to be HCS ranked.

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Mechanism of the HCS Algorithm

(F) Form the Final list


Now all cells that succeeded to pass to be HCS ranked, will be sorted in ascending order according to their layer not SS (as in Basic Ranking). i.e. layer1 cells, then layer2 cells, and these cells will form an HCS Prioritized List that will lie on Top. All cells that failed to pass to be HCS Ranking, will go to be sorted in a Basic Ranking List and this list will lie after the HCS Prioritized List.

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Example: Assume that the output from the Basic Ranking is as below, where for all cells have HCSBANDTHR = - 90 dBm, LAYERTHR = - 80 dBm, HCSBANDHYST= LAYERHYST= 0, MAXCELLSINLAYER = 3, MAXDBDEVINLAYER = 3
Cell
G E B (Serving) A C F D

SS(dBm)
-68 -72 -73 -74 -75 -75 -95

Band
Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4

Layer
Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 7 Layer 4 Layer 4

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Solution: (A) Band Evaluation: In order to be a candidate in the HCS Evaluation Process, then the SS of serving and neighbor cells should be greater than their band threshold(HCSBANDTHR)
SSservingcell > HCSBANDTHRservingcell HCSBANDHYSTservingcell SSneigbhorcell > HCSBANDTHRneighborcell + HCSBANDHYSTneighborcell HCSBANDTHRservingcell = HCSBANDTHRneighborcell = -90 dBm HCSBANDHYSTservingcell = HCSBANDHYSTneighborcell = 0 dBm Cell
G E B (Serving) A C F D

SS(dBm)
-68 -72 -73 -74 -75 -75 -95

Band
Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4

Layer
Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 7 Layer 4 Layer 4

Cell D didnt fulfill the condition (SS_CellD = -95 dBm < -90 dBm), so it will be out of the HCS evaluation and it will go to be sorted in the Basic Ranking List.

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Solution: (B) Define the strongest Cell (SS) in each Band Cells that passed the band evaluation in step (A) will be moved to the next step. In this stage, the strongest cells in each Band from SS point of view will be identified. Strongest cells will pass direct to be HCS Ranked
Cell SS(dBm) Band
G E B A C F D -68 -72 -73 -74 -75 -75 -95 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4

Layer
Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 7 Layer 4 Layer 4

Comment
Strongest in Band 8 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Will go to the next step: Layer Evaluation Strongest in Band 4 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Will go to the next step: Layer Evaluation Will go to the next step: Layer Evaluation Will go to the next step: Layer Evaluation Out of the HCS Evaluation Back to the Basic Ranking list

Now Cells G & B will go direct to be HCS evaluated, while cells E,A,C&F will be examined in the next steps.
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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Solution: (C) Layer Threshold Evaluation: Cells E,A,C&F that are not strongest within their own band, their SS will be checked against the Layer threshold (LAYERTHR) if
SSservingcell > LAYERTHRservingcell LAYERHYSTservingcell SSneigbhorcell > LAYERTHRneighborcell + LAYERHYSTneighborcell LAYERTHRservingcell = LAYERTHRneighborcell = - 80 dBm LAYERHYSTservingcell = LAYERHYSTneighborcell = 0 dBm Cell SS(dBm) Band Layer Comment
G E B A C F D
-68 -72 -73 -74 -75 -75 -95 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 7 Layer 4 Layer 4 Strongest in Band 8 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list SS > LAYERTHR = -80 dBm, Will go to the next step Strongest in Band 4 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list SS > LAYERTHR = -80 dBm, Will go to the next step SS > LAYERTHR = -80 dBm, Will go to the next step SS > LAYERTHR = -80 dBm, Will go to the next step Out of the HCS Evaluation Back to the Basic Ranking list

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Solution: (D) Identify the Strongest Cells within each layer After Cells E,A,C&F all of them passed the layer threshold condition (LAYERTHR), Cells that are strongest within their own layer will be identified and theyll pass direct to be HCS ranked. Cell SS(dBm) Band Layer Comment
G E B A C F D
-68 -72 -73 -74 -75 -75 -95 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Layer 7 Strongest in Band 8 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 6 Strongest in Layer 6 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 4 Strongest in Band 4 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 3 Strongest in Layer 3 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 7 Not Strongest in Layer-Will be examined in the next step Layer 4 Not Strongest in Layer-Will be examined in the next step Layer 4 Out of the HCS Evaluation Back to the Basic Ranking list

Cells E&A are strongest within their own layer so they will go direct to be HCS ranked. Cells C&F are not the strongest within their own layer, so they will be examined in the next step to know if they can pass to be HCS ranked or not.
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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Solution: (E) Check how many cells from each layer are allowed to pass to be HCS ranked MAXCELLSINLAYER: will identify how many cells from each layer can pass to be HCS In our example MAXCELLSINLAYER = 3 then three cells only are allowed to pass to be HCS ranked.

MAXDBDEVINLAYER: will identify how the next strongest cell in the layer is far from the strongest cell in the layer. i.e. if SS_Strongest Celllayer x - SS_next strongest celllayer x< MAXDBDEVINLAYER = 3 dB, then the next strongest cell is not weak and it will pass to be HCS ranked.

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Solution: (E) Check how many cells from each layer are allowed to pass to be HCS ranked Cell C: Check1: Lies in layer 7 and ranked as the 2nd strongest cell in the layer and since 3 cells are allowed to be ranked according to MAXCELLSINLAYER then Check1 is passed. Check2: Is SS_strongest celllayer 7-SS_next strongest celllayer 7 < MAXDBDEVINLAYER=3dB?! SSCell G - SSCell C = -68-(-75) = 7 dB > MAXDBDEVINLAYER=3dB, then Check2 failed.
Cell SS(dBm) Band Layer
G E B A C F D
-68 -72 -73 -74 -75 -75 -95 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4

Comment

Layer 7 Strongest in Band 8 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 6 Strongest in Layer 6 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 4 Strongest in Band 4 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 3 Strongest in Layer 3 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 7 Out of the HCS Evaluation Back to the Basic Ranking list Layer 4 Layer 4 Out of the HCS Evaluation Back to the Basic Ranking list

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Solution: (E) Check how many cells from each layer are allowed to pass to be HCS ranked Cell F: Check1: Lies in layer 4 and ranked as the 2nd strongest cell in the layer and since 3 cells are allowed to be ranked according to MAXCELLSINLAYER then Check1 is passed. Check2: Is SS_strongest celllayer 4-SS_next strongest celllayer 4 < MAXDBDEVINLAYER=3dB?! SSCell G - SSCell C = -73-(-75) = 2 dB < MAXDBDEVINLAYER=3dB, then Check2 is passed.
Cell SS(dBm) Band Layer
G E B A C F D
-68 -72 -73 -74 -75 -75 -95 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4

Comment

Layer 7 Strongest in Band 8 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 6 Strongest in Layer 6 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 4 Strongest in Band 4 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 3 Strongest in Layer 3 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 7 Out of the HCS Evaluation Back to the Basic Ranking list Layer 4 2nd Strongest in Layer4-Go to HCS Evaluation list Layer 4 Out of the HCS Evaluation Back to the Basic Ranking list

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Solution: (F) Form the Final list Now all cells that succeeded to pass to be HCS ranked, will be sorted in ascending order according to their layer not SS (as in Basic Ranking) i.e. layer1 cells, then layer2 cells, and these cells will form an HCS Prioritized List that will lie on Top. All cells that failed to pass to be HCS Ranking, will go to be sorted in a Basic Ranking List and this list will lie after the HCS Prioritized List.
Cell
A B(Serving) F E G C D

SS(dBm) Band
-74
-73 -75 -72 -68 -75 -95

Layer
Layer 3
Layer 4 Layer 4 Layer 6 Layer 7 Layer 7 Layer 4

Comment
HCS Prioritized List (Layer Ranking)

Band 4
Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4

Final List

Basic Ranking List (SS Ranking)

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Mechanism of the HCS Algorithm

HCS Traffic Distribution Concept


This feature is useful In order to control the traffic distribution between cells. If this feature is active then some cells that were prioritized due HCS Ranking (layer ranking) will be removed if they already have enough traffic.

HCSTRAFDISSTATE: Is a BCS Parameter that shows if HCS Traffic Distribution is enabled within the cells in the BCS or not. If the HCS traffic distribution is allowed then two checks will be made: (i) Check on the serving cells availability vs. parameter on cell level called HCSOUT (ii) Check on the neighbor cells availability vs. parameter on cell level called HCSIN The Availability means: the percentage of Free (non-occupied) Time Slots.

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Mechanism of the HCS Algorithm

HCS Traffic Distribution Concept


(i) Check on the serving cells availability: If AvailabilityServingCell > HCSOUT, then this cells has too many free Time slots and it is not preferred to leave this cell.

(ii)

Check on the neighbor cells availability: If AvailabilityneighborCell < HCSIN, then this cells has few free Time slots and it cant accept HOs due to HCS prioritization.

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
I) Example: When HCS Traffic Distribution is enabled (AvailabilityServingCell < HSCOUT) After ordinary HCS evaluation we formed the below list from the previous example. Assume HCSOUT=50%, HCSIN=30%, Availability of Cell B (serving) = 40% and availability of Cell F (neighbor cell) = 10% only, while all other cells have availability = 45 % What will be the final list form ?
Cell
A B(Serving) Final F List E G C D

SS(dBm)
-74 -73 -75 -72 -68 -75 -95

Band
Band 4 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4

Layer
Layer 3 Layer 4 Layer 4 Layer 6 Layer 7 Layer 7 Layer 4

Comment
HCS Prioritized List (Layer Ranking)

Basic Ranking List (SS Ranking)

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Solution: Availability of Serving Cell (B) = 40% < HCSOUT (50%), then the serving cell has few free Time Slots and we can leave this cell i.e. outgoing HO from this cell is enabled. Availability of Neighbor Cell F=10% < HCSIN (30%), then this cell cant accept HOs due to HCS prioritization coz it has few free TS i.e. this cell is congested. This cell will be removed from the HCS prioritized list and it will be moved to the Basic Ranking List.
Cell
A B(Serving) Final F List E G C D

SS(dBm)
-74 -73 -75 -72 -68 -75 -95

Band
Band 4 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4

Layer
Layer 3 Layer 4 Layer 4 Layer 6 Layer 7 Layer 7 Layer 4

Comment
HCS Prioritized List (Layer Ranking)

Basic Ranking List (SS Ranking)

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Solution: The final list will be as below:
Cell
A B(Serving) E Final List G F C D

SS(dBm)
-74 -73 -72 -68 -75 -75 -95

Band
Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Band 8 Band 4

Layer
Layer 3 Layer 4 Layer 6 Layer 7 Layer 4 Layer 7 Layer 4

Comment
HCS Prioritized List (Layer Ranking)

Basic Ranking List (SS Ranking)

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
II) Example: when HCS Traffic Distribution is enabled (AvailabilityServingCell > HSCOUT) If the serving cell has a channel availability above HCSOUT it is considered to be taking too little traffic so it is decided to not allow handovers out due to HCS from the cell. Instead all the remaining HCS prioritized candidate cells, fulfilling the HCSIN criterion and that are in a lower layer or in the same layer as the serving cell, will be basic ranked among themselves and added to a Prioritized basic ranked cells list that will be put above the other basic ranked cells in the final candidate list.

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
II) Example: when HCS Traffic Distribution is enabled (AvailabilityServingCell > HSCOUT) After ordinary HCS evaluation we formed the below list from the previous example. Assume HCSOUT=50%, HCSIN=30%, Availability of Cell B (serving) = 60% and availability of Cell F (neighbor cell) = 10% only, while all other cells have availability = 45% What will be the final list form ?
Cell
A B(Serving) Final F List E G C D

SS(dBm)
-74 -73 -75 -72 -68 -75 -95

Band
Band 4 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4

Layer
Layer 3 Layer 4 Layer 4 Layer 6 Layer 7 Layer 7 Layer 4

Comment
HCS Prioritized List (Layer Ranking)

Basic Ranking List (SS Ranking)

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Solution: Availability of Serving Cell (B) = 60% > HCSOUT (50%), then the serving cell has Too many Time slots and HO out from this cell due to HCS is not allowed. Availability of Neighbor Cell F=10% < HCSIN (30%), then this cell cant accept HOs due to HCS prioritization coz it has few free TS i.e. this cell is congested. This cell will be removed from the HCS prioritized list and it will be moved to the Basic Ranking List. Cells E&G are layers 6&7 respectively i.e. they are of higher layers than the serving cells. These cells will be removed from the HCS prioritized list and it will be moved to the Basic Ranking List. Now cells A&B will be ranked according to SS Prioritized Basic Ranking list cells C,D,E,F&G will be ranked according to SS Basic Ranking list

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Solution:
Cell
A B(Serving) Final F List E G C D

SS(dBm)
-74 -73 -75 -72 -68 -75 -95

Band
Band 4 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4

Layer
Layer 3 Layer 4 Layer 4 Layer 6 Layer 7 Layer 7 Layer 4

Comment
HCS Prioritized List (Layer Ranking)

Basic Ranking List (SS Ranking)

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Solution: The final list will be as below:
Cell B(Serving) A G E F C D SS(dBm)
-73 -74 -68 -72 -75 -75 -95

Band
Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Band 8 Band 4

Layer
Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 4 Layer 7 Layer 4

Comment
Prioritized Basic Ranking List

Final List

Basic Ranking List (SS Ranking)

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Optimizing a problematic Traffic Case:
Assume we have the below case with 3 Macro cells (layer 4) and 1 Micro cell (layer2) and all of them belong to the same HCS band, HCSBAND 1 One of the Macro cells carries very high traffic and it is about to congest, how could we solve this case?

Macro Cell (L4)

Macro Cell (L4) Micro Cell (L2) Macro Cell (L4)

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Solution 1: Direct more Traffic to the Micro Cell We can decrease the LAYERTHR of the Micro cell (Layer 2) from -75dBm to 80dBm for example, so the micro cell will capture more traffic from the congested macro cell.

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Solution 2: Direct more Traffic to the Adjacent Macro Cells We can increase the Layer of the congested Macro cell (Layer 4 Layer 5) so it will appear less prioritized with respect to the adjacent neighbor cells and it will offload its traffic to them.

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Solution 3: Direct more Traffic to one of the Adjacent Macro Cells We can decrease the Layer of one of the adjacent Macro cell (Layer 4 Layer 3) so it will appear more prioritized with respect to the congested cell and it will capture some of its traffic.

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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Fast Moving MSs
If cell parameter FASTMSREG is ON and MS made no. of HOs >NHO (default=3) in time window THO (default=30sec) then MS is considered as fast moving MS. The stronger cells according to Basic Ranking in all higher layers within the same system type are given priority. For Example: 1800 candidates are in Layers 1,2&3 while 900 candidates are in Layers 4&5, if the MS is considered as fast in layer1, then candidates in layers 2&3 of higher basic ranking than the serving cell are given priority. Highest priority is given for the strongest cell regardless of its layer. To prevent HO back to lower layer cells, a penalty PSSTEMP (0 to 63) is applied for a time PTIMTEMP (0 to 600s) on all neighbor cells within the current system type and all cells in other system types.
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Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


Parameters Summary
HCS Algorithm Control Parameters
Parameter Name HCSBAND HCSBANDTHR HCSBANDHYST LAYER LAYERTHR LAYERHYST MAXCELLSINLAYER MAXDBDEVINLAYER HCSTRAFDISSTATE HCSIN HCSOUT Value Range 1 to 8 1 150 to 0 0 to 63 1 to 8 2 150 to 0 0 to 63 1 to 31 0 to 63 0,1 0 to100 0 to100 Default Value 2 95 2 2 75 2 1 3 0 0 100 Recommended Value 2

Unit

dBm (ve) dB

2 1 3 1

dBm (ve) dB dB

% %

For reduced HCS functionality we have only 2 bands HCS Band1 and HCS Band2 (default) For reduced HCS functionality we have only 3 layers
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Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)


Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)
Traffic Capacity of a cellular network can be increased by either adding more frequencies or reducing the frequency reuse distance. One approach is to apply a second frequency reuse pattern with a tighter frequency reuse (Overlay) on the existing pattern. These cells should be restricted in size, so shorter reuse distance can be accomplished without causing Co-channel/Adjacent channel interference. They are termed Overlaid (OL) Sub-cells, whereas the original cells will be called Under laid (UL) Sub-cells. Now by having more frequencies per cell, then Network capacity is increased.

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Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)


Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)
The fundamental idea behind the OL/UL sub-cells is to let the traffic close to the site to be moved to the OL sub-cell, while traffic close to the cell border to be moved to the UL sub-cell. In that way of treading the traffic, the frequencies in the OL sub-cell can have tighter frequency reuse.

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Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)


Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)
Example: Assume that cell A has frequencies: f1&f2, cell B has frequencies: f3&f4 and now cell A has increase in the traffic, so were going to assign cell A frequency f4 also.

Now high Co-channel interference will occur on f4 at the border between the two cells, coz f4 is reused between two adjacent cells.
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Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)


Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)
Using the OL/UL concept we can solve the case as follows:

f4 will be used in the OL sub-cell and it will be restricted to serve in a small area only near to the site so interference from the neighbor cell will be minimized and a good C/I can be enjoyed.
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Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)


Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)
To maintain the service area of the OL sub-cell restricted to a certain region we have three thresholds we can play with: A. Path Loss Threshold B. Timing Advance Threshold C. Distance to Cell Border Threshold With the ordinary OL/UL sub-cells, the MS near the cell will camp on the overlaid sub-cell but even if the OL sub-cell got congested there is no way to push traffic to the UL sub-cell and blocking will occur.

Using Sub-cell Load Distribution (SCLD) Concept, we can configure the cell to use the OL as the preferred sub-cell initially and when traffic on the OL increased beyond certain load, any extra traffic will be offloaded to the UL sub-cell.

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Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)


Algorithm
I. OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Deactivated As we stated before, the service area of the OL sub-cell can be defined based on one of three criteria: Path Loss, Time Advance and Distance to cell border. A. Path Loss Criterion: Controlling Parameters are the path Loss threshold LOL and the path Loss hysteresis LOLHYST DL Path Loss L=(BSTXPWR - BTS power reduction) Received_SS_DLfiltered BSTXPWR: BTS output power for the TCH frequencies. DL Path Loss L will be checked vs. LOL (Path Loss Threshold) and LOLHYST to know whether a sub-cell change from OLUL or ULOL is needed.

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Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)


Algorithm
I. OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Deactivated B. Time Advance Criterion: Time Advance can be used as a measure for the distance between the BTS and MS. Controlling Parameters are the Time Advance Threshold TAOL and the Time Advance Hysteresis TAOLHYST The ta of the MS will be measured via BTS and checked vs. TAOL and TAOLHYST to know whether sub-cell change is needed or not.

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Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)


Algorithm
I. OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Deactivated C. Distance to Cell Border Criterion: DTCBSC: Is a BSC parameter that enables/disables the Distance to Cell Border Evaluation Criterion on whole cells on the BSC. Controlling Parameters are the Distance to Cell Border Threshold DTCB and the Distance to Cell Border Hysteresis DTCBHYST The Cell Border is defined as the difference between the Received_SSServingCell and the Received_SSStrongest Neighbor , where this strongest neighbor should meet the following: Non Co-sited, Same System Type (900/1800), Same HCS Layer.

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Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)


Algorithm
I. OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Deactivated C. Distance to Cell Border Criterion: Received_SSServingCell - Received_SSStrongest Neighbor will be checked vs. DTCB and DTCBHYST to see whether sub-cell change is needed or not. But for the evaluation to be triggered (initiated), the serving cell should have number of neighbor cells > NNCELLS (if NNCELLS=2, at least 2 neighbor cells) that are measured by the MS having enough SS such that: Received_SSServingCell - Received_SSNeighbor < DTCB+DTCBHYST+NDIST where, NDIST is a threshold measured in dBs.

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Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)


Algorithm
I. OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Deactivated OL UL Sub-cell change: for a sub-cell change from OL UL then one of the following should be fulfilled. L (Path Loss) > LOL + LOLHYST OR ta (Time Advance) TAOL + TAOLHYST OR SSServing - SSNeighbor < DTCB - DTCBHYST Strongest, Non Co-sited, Same Type, Same HCS Layer But as mentioned before, for this evaluation to be initiated then, No. of neighbor cells NNCELLS should be reported meeting the following equation: SSServing - SSNeighbor < DTCB + DTCBHYST + NDIST

Non Co-sited, Same Type, Same HCS Layer

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Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)


Algorithm
I. OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Deactivated UL OL Sub-cell change: for a sub-cell change from UL OL then one of the following should be fulfilled. L (Path Loss) LOL - LOLHYST and ta (Time Advance) < TAOL - TAOLHYST and SSServing - SSNeighbor DTCB + DTCBHYST Strongest, Non Co-sited, Same Type, Same HCS Layer But as mentioned before, for this evaluation to be initiated then, No. of neighbor cells NNCELLS should be reported meeting the following equation: SSServing - SSNeighbor < DTCB + DTCBHYST + NDIST Non Co-sited, Same Type, Same HCS Layer

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Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)


Algorithm
I. OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Deactivated N.B: If parameter TAOL is set to its maximum value = 61 bit periods and DTCB is set to its minimum value = - 63 dB then the OL/UL sub-cell change will only be controlled by the path loss using LOL coz: OLUL: Time Advance & Distance to cell border conditions will never be met and so the Path Loss only using LOL will control the evaluation. ULOL: Time Advance & Distance to Cell Border Conditions will always be met and so the Path Loss only LOL will control the evaluation.

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Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)


Algorithm
II. OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Activated A sub-cell load distribution is used to control the traffic between the OL/UL sub-cells, so if the initially preferred cell got congested we will try to allocate resources in the other sub-cell. (Activated by setting cell parameter SCLD = ON) SCLDSC: Is a cell parameter used to define the preferred cell in allocation whether UL or OL i.e. the sub-cell which will carry traffic first. But if the OL sub-cell is the preferred one, i.e. if SCLDSC=OL, then the below conditions should be met otherwise a TCH on the UL sub-cell will be allocated. L < LOL LOLHYST and ta < TAOL TAOLHYST and SSServing - SSNeighbor DTCB + DTCBHYST Strongest, Non Co-sited, Same Type, Same HCS Layer No. of neighbor cells NNCELLS should be reported meeting the following equation: SSServing - SSNeighbor < DTCB + DTCBHYST + NDIST
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Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)


Algorithm
II. OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Activated A sub-cell change may occur due to load based on the settings of the parameters SCLDLUL an SCLDLOL.

Example: If serving cell is the OL sub-cell and the following occur Percentage of idle TCHs in the OL sub-cell < SCLDLOL and Percentage of idle TCHs in the UL sub-cell > SCLDLUL then sub-cell change from OLUL due to SCLD will occur.

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Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)


Algorithm
II. OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Activated A sub-cell change may occur due to load based on the settings of the parameters SCLDLUL an SCLDLOL

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Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)


Algorithm
II. OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Activated If some traffic will be moved from the OL UL sub-cell due to load distribution, then the MSs with the high path loss will be chosen first i.e. MSs that are near to cell border. If some traffic will be moved from the UL OL sub-cell due to load distribution, then the MSs with the low path loss will be chosen first i.e. MSs that are near to the site. A part from the sub-cell change due to SCLD, as we mentioned before the MS can also request to move from OL UL because of path loss, TA or distance to cell border criterion and in this case the load is not checked coz the thresholds : SCLDLUL&SCLDLOL are only controlling the load incase of sub-cell change due to load distribution.

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Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)


Parameters Summary
Overlaid/Underlaid Control Parameters
Parameter Name SCTYPE LOL LOLHYST TAOL TAOLHYST DTCBSC DTCB DTCBHYST NDIST NNCELLS SCLD SCLDLOL SCLDLUL SCLDSC Value Range
UL,OL 0 to 200 0 to 63 0 to 61 0 to 61 0,1 63 to 63 0 to 63 0 to 63 1 to 5 ON,OFF 0 to 99 0 to 99 UL,OL

Default Value
3 0 -63 2 10 3 OFF 20 20 UL

Recommended Value
3 2 1 OL

Unit
dB dB Bit Periods (3.69 sec) Bit Periods (3.69 sec) dB dB dB % %

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Multi Band Cells (MBC)


Multi Band Cells (MBC)
A multi band network consists of cells from different frequency bands for example: 900/1800 MHz By combining these frequencies in the same cell with 1 common BCCH, the radio performance and traffic capacity are improved where the no. of cells and neighbor relations are significantly reduced. Using 1 BCCH instead of two will increase the no. of time slots that will be used for traffic.

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Multi Band Cells (MBC)


Multi Band Cells (MBC)
Using MBC concept with only 1 BCCH, this will reduce the no. of defined neighbors to 50% leading to better accuracy for the measurement reports coz there will be more time available for measurements for each neighbor.

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Multi Band Cells (MBC)


Multi Band Cells (MBC)
The Dynamic OL/UL sub-cells (Concentric Cells) is a prerequisite feature for the Multi Band Cells. Mostly the frequency band with Better Coverage (i.e. lower frequency band) is configured as the Under laid sub-cell while the other frequency band with Worse Coverage (i.e. higher frequency band) is configured as the Overlaid Sub-cell. Ex: 900MHz frequency band UL, while 1800MHz frequency band OL

It is recommended to select the BCCH frequency to lie in the Better Coverage i.e. UL sub-cell.
For the previous example then BCCH frequency will belong to the 900MHz band.

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Multi Band Cells (MBC)


Multi Band Cells (MBC)
A parameter CSYSTYPE defines the band of the used BCCH frequency in a multi band cell. A parameter BAND defines the band of the Channel Group, where the channel group consists of no. of frequencies as will be seen later.

As mentioned before, the Path Loss/Distance to Cell Border/Time Advance Criteria will define the coverage limit of the frequency band used in the OL sub-cell vs. UL sub-cell, (In this case the OL&UL will belong to two different bands) Also the traffic load can be maintained between the two sub-cells (that belong to two different bands) using the sub-cell load distribution feature where the SCLD parameter will define which sub-cell is preferred first.

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Multi Band Cells (MBC)


Multi Band Cells (MBC)
The propagation of the radio waves depend on the used frequency band, i.e. the reported signal strength from one MS will differ depending on the frequency band used. MS MS

MS is in the same location but the reported SS differs depend on the used frequency band

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Multi Band Cells (MBC)


Multi Band Cells (MBC)
1. So to locate the MS correctly regardless of the band it is using we have 2 possible ways: Applying a frequency Band Offset: If OL sub-cell is on 1800MHz band and the UL is on the 900MHz band so when the MS is located on the OL sub-cell and report a certain SS then it should be compensated for the UL sub-cell. Includes the BCCH carrier frequency in the Active BCCH Allocation (BA) list: The Active BA list is the list which the serving cell uses to inform the MS the neighbors which he has to monitor and make measurements on while it is in dedicated mode and in this way no compensation is needed.

2.

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Multi Band Cells (MBC)


Applying a Frequency Band Offset:
FBOFFS (Frequency Band Offset): is the parameter that determines the difference between the path loss between bands, it is measured in dBs and take values between - 40 40 dBs If the MS is served by 1800 band frequency and reporting SS 1800 band = -85 dbm and FBOFFS=7dB then the compensated SS if the MS was served by the 900 band frequency will be SS 900 band = -85 dbm + 7 = -78 dBm

FBOFFS has to be adjusted in a correct way coz: a. It will be used to locate the MS correctly with respect to neighbors. b. It will be used to locate the MS correctly in the Sub-cell Change Evaluation.

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Multi Band Cells (MBC)


Applying a Frequency Band Offset:
a. FBOFFS will be used to locate the MS correctly with respect to neighbors

Ex: MS is on the OL subcell (1800 band) and reporting SS_Serving_cellA1800 band = -85 dBm FBOFFS =7dB, and after applying the offset and Hysteresis SS_neighbor_cellB900 band = -83dBm
Without applying FBOFFS
With applying FBOFFS

SS_Serving_cellA 1800 band < SS_neighbor_cellB900 band SS_Serving_cellA 900band = SS_Serving_cellA1800 band+ 7 dB SS_Serving_cellA 900band = -78 dBm SS_Serving_cellA 900 band > SS_neighbor_cellB900 band

HO from Cell A Cell B will occur

Cell A will remain the serving cell but sub-cell change may occur if needed.

Wrong Decision
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Right Decision

Multi Band Cells (MBC)


Applying a Frequency Band Offset:
b. FBOFFS will be used to locate the MS correctly during the Sub-cell Change Evaluation When the MS is served by the OL 1800 band sub-cell (non-BCCH Band), the path loss in this case will be checked vs. LOL LOLHYST + FBOFFSET

Ex: Assume a MS is served by the OL 1800 sub-cell and reporting SS1800 band = -90 dBm, BSTXPWR=46dBm, FBOFFSET=7dB, LOL=131dB, LOLHYST=zero

Subcell change OLUL

-83 dBm -85 dBm

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Multi Band Cells (MBC)


Applying a Frequency Band Offset:
b. FBOFFS will be used to locate the MS correctly during the Sub-cell Change Evaluation

Ex: Assume a MS is served by the OL 1800 subcell and reporting SS1800 band = -90 dBm, BSTXPWR=46dBm, FBOFFSET=7dB, LOL=131dB, LOLHYST=zero
Without applying FBOFFS
With applying FBOFFS

Path loss= BSTXPWR - SS1800 band = 46-(-90)=136 dB Path loss= BSTXPWR - SS1800 band = 46-(-90)=136 dB

Path loss=136 dB > LOL LOLHYST=131 dB

Path loss=136 < LOLLOLHYST+FBOFFSET=138dB The MS will stay on the OL sub-cell

Sub-cell change from OL UL will occur

Wrong Decision

Right Decision

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Multi Band Cells (MBC)


Parameters Summary:

Multi Band Cells Control Parameters


Parameter Name BAND CSYSTYPE Value Range GSM800, GSM900, GSM1800, GSM1900 GSM800, GSM900, GSM1800, GSM1900 40 to 40 Default Value Recommended Value Unit

FBOFFS

dB

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Cell Load Sharing


Cell Load Sharing
The Purpose of the Cell Load Sharing Feature is to distribute some of a cells traffic load to surrounding cells during peaks in traffic. This is achieved by moving established connections to neighboring cells that have idle resources. Cell Load Sharing increases the number of handovers in the part of the network where the traffic load is unevenly distributed.

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Cell Load Sharing


Cell Load Sharing
Cell Load Sharing is activated on the BSC level via parameter LSSTATE (Active/Inactive) The traffic load (amount of idle full rate TCHs) on each cell is examined by the BSC every CLS time Interval defined by a parameter CLSTIMEINTERVAL (default=100msec) If the percentage of idle full rate traffic channels is parameter CLSLEVEL, then this cell will try to get rid of some traffic by initiating cell load sharing handovers to neighbors.

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Cell Load Sharing


Cell Load Sharing
For a neighbor cell to accept HOs due to cell load sharing then parameter HOCLSACC should be set to ON The traffic load on the neighbor cells should also be examined so handovers due to cell load sharing will only be done to neighbors having enough idle full rate TCHs (percentage of idle full rate TCHs > CLSACC in order to accept HO due to CLS)

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Cell Load Sharing


Cell Load Sharing
CLS evaluation is performed after normal locating evaluation for neighboring cells. The normal Basic ranking evaluation was done as follows: Rankservingcell = SS_Dlservingcell Rankneighbor= SS_DLneighbor OFFSETneighbor HYSTneighbor Now when the % idle full rate TCHs < CLSLEVEL, then the HYST for neighbors will be recalculated with reduced values based on parameter RHYST Rankneighbor= SS_DLneighbor OFFSETneighbor HYSTnew neighbor , where HYSTnew neighbor = HYSTneighbor [1-2 (RHYST/100)]

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Cell Load Sharing


Cell Load Sharing
Rankneighbor= SS_DLneighbor OFFSETneighbor HYSTnew neighbor , Where HYSTnew neighbor = HYSTneighbor [1-2 (RHYST/100)]

RHYST
0 50 100

Hysteresis Reduction
No reduction of the Hysteresis area Cell Border is reduced to the nominal cell border All the Hysteresis area is removed

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Cell Load Sharing


Cell Load Sharing
For a neighbor cell to be candidate for HO due to CLS, then it should satisfy the following: Lies in the same BSC as the source cell. Has the same HCS layer. Can Accept HO due to CLS i.e. HOCLSACC= ON % Idle full rate TCHs > CLSACC The settings for CLSLEVEL and CLSACC should be adjusted such that CLSACC > CLSLEVEL in order to not having unstable situation.
100% idle TCHs

Accept Incoming HOs due to CLS


CLSACC=50% CLSLEVEL=30%

Make Outgoing HOs due to CLS

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Cell Load Sharing


Cell Load Sharing
Parameters Summary

Parameter
CLSLEVEL CLSACC HOCLSACC RHYST CLSTIMERINTERVAL LSSTATE

Default Value
20 40 OFF 75 100 Inactive

Recommended Value Value Range


ON 100 100 Active 0 to 99 1 to 100 ON/OFF 0 to 100 100 to 1000 Active/Inactive

Unit
% % % ms

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Frequency Hopping
Frequency Hopping
During a call connection, a time slot (burst) can easily be lost when the mobile station happens to be located in a fading dip for that particular frequency or if it is subjected to interference. If the next time slot is sent on another frequency, there is high probability that this time slot will be received correctly and this can be done via frequency hopping. With frequency hopping: Tighter frequency reuse can be implemented and so higher capacity can be maintained. More robust environment can be obtained. There will be a possibility to give subscribers more uniform speech quality.

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Frequency Hopping
Frequency Hopping
In frequency hopping, a set of predefined frequencies is used in each cell and the MS will be allowed to transmit on different frequency every TDMA frame (4.61 msec) i.e. The MS will change its frequency 217 times per second With frequency hopping we can get: i. Frequency Diversity ii. Interference Diversity

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Frequency Hopping
I.

Frequency Diversity
Frequency hopping can solve the multipath fading (fast fading) problem.

The multipath fading results from reflections from the surrounding buildings resulted in low signal strength fading dips.
The multipath fading is frequency and location dependent. With frequency hopping, slow and non-moving MS wont still in a low signal strength fading dip more than 1TDMA frame.

F1 F2

Average
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Frequency Hopping
II.

Interference Diversity
Frequency hopping can also offer better quality when the currently used frequency is interfered. Interference depends on the time, frequency and the MS location. With frequency hopping, certain MS will experience interference only for 1time during number of hops i.e. if a MS will hop on 4 frequencies one of them is interfered, then the MS will be subjected to interference1 time every 4 hops. Using frequency hopping will result in spreading the interference on many MSs which will lead to a radio environment that is more even (symmetric). The interference diversity can be expressed as a gain in the C/I ratio.

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Frequency Hopping
Channel Group Concept (CHGR)
Each number of frequencies (Transmitters) in the cell are grouped in what we called channel group (CHGR), some parameters are defined per the CHGR and not per cell, for example: within the same cell frequency hopping can be enabled on certain CHGRs and disabled on others. HOP: Is a parameter that is used to enable or disable frequency hopping on certain CHGR, it has two values either ON/OFF

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Frequency Hopping
Frequency Hopping
Frequency Hopping is applied on Traffic channels (TCHs), on SDCCHs and packet data channels but it is not applied on Broadcast and Common control channels which are mapped on TS#0 on F0 Methods of Hopping: we have two methods of hopping: A. Base Band Hopping (BB Hopping) B. Synthesized frequency Hopping (SY Hopping) FHOP: Is a parameter to specify the method of hopping, it takes values:BB/SY

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Frequency Hopping
A. Base Band Hopping (BB Hopping)
Each Transmitter is assigned certain frequency and connected to many MSs, each Time slot out of the transmitter will belong to different MS but at the same frequency. From MS prospective, each MS will transmit each TS via different transmitter and on different frequency. MS1-TS1-F1 TRX1 Transmitter F1
TS1 TS2 TS3

MS1

TRX2 MS2
TS1 TS2 TS3

Transmitter F2

MS2-TS1-F2 MS1-TS2-F2

TRX3 MS3
TS1 TS2 TS3

Transmitter F3

MS3-TS1-F3 MS2-TS2-F3

MS1-TS3-F3

TRX4
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Transmitter F4
Bus for routing the time slots

Frequency Hopping
B. Synthesizer Frequency Hopping (SY Frequency Hopping)
With Synthesized frequency hopping, the MS will transmit all its time slots via only 1 transmitter and the transmitter will change its frequency consequently every TDMA frame based on certain sequence.

TRX1
MS1
TS1 TS2 TS3

Trans F1.Fn

MS1-TS1-F1 MS1-TS2-F2 MS1-TS3-F3

TRX2 MS2
TS1 TS2 TS3

Trans F1.Fn

MS2-TS1-F2 MS2-TS2-F3 MS2-TS3-F4

TRX3 MS3
TS1 TS2 TS3

Trans F1..Fn

MS3-TS1-F3 MS2-TS2-F4 MS1-TS3-F5

TRX4
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Trans F1Fn

Frequency Hopping
B. Synthesizer Frequency Hopping (SY Frequency Hopping)
The Advantage of Synthesized frequency hopping is that the number of hopping frequencies can be larger than the number of the already existing transmitters causing the hopping gain to increase without a need to use more hardware. Modes of Hopping: i. Cyclic Frequency Hopping ii. Random Frequency Hopping

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Frequency Hopping
Modes of Hopping
i. Cyclic Frequency Hopping With this type of hopping, frequencies are changed every TDMA frame in a consecutive order starting with the frequency of the lowest Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN). For P-GSM (UL 890-915 MHz, DL 935-960MHz), ARFCNs: 1,2,3,4, 124 For example for four frequencies the cyclic hopping between them will appear as follow: f1, f2, f3, f4, f1, f2, f3, f4, f1, f2, f3, f4, f1, HSN (Hopping Sequence Number) : Is a parameter defined per CHGR (number of frequencies) that will be used to specify the mode of hopping with Synthesized frequency hopping, it take values from 0 63 When HSN = 0, this means that Cyclic frequency hopping will be used.

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Frequency Hopping
Modes of Hopping
ii. Random Frequency Hopping With this type of hopping, frequencies are changed every TDMA frame randomly based on a pseudo-random sequence. The sequence is stored in a look-up table in the MS as well as the BTS and up to 63 independent sequences can be defined. Based on the settings of the parameter HSN (163), one of the 63 independent random sequences will be used. The period of the Random sequence=6 minutes, i.e. the random sequence repeats itself once every 6 minutes.

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Frequency Hopping
Synthesizer Frequency Hopping (SY Frequency Hopping)
MAIO Concept As we mentioned before that HSN is defined per CHGR, so if a CHGR contains 4 Transmitters and HSN=0, then this means that cyclic hopping will be used over these 4 transmitters. But in order for the transmitters within the same CHGR to not interfere each other they must start their hopping with different frequencies. And in order to do so a MAIO Same CHGR, HSN=0 (Mobile Allocation Index Offset)will Transmitter#1 (f0,f1,f2,.fn) f0,f1,f2,f3,f4,f5,f0, . Be assigned for each transmitter so f1,f2,f3,f4,f5,f0,f1 each of them will start the hoppingTransmitter#1 (f0,f1,f2,.fn) . sequence either cyclic/random from

a different starting point, based the MAIO assigned to it.

Transmitter#1 (f0,f1,f2,.fn) Transmitter#1 (f0,f1,f2,.fn)

f2,f3,f4,f5,f0,f1,f2 . f3,f4,f5,f0,f1,f2,f3 .

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Frequency Hopping
Synthesizer Frequency Hopping (SY Frequency Hopping)
MAIO Concept We have different MAIOs, i.e. there are different ways through which each transmitter will start the cyclic/random hopping. Using the default MAIO, the even MAIO values in increasing order are picked first then the odd values, example: for a CHGR of 4 Transmitters, the default MAIO list is 0,2,4,1 Transmitter#1 (f0,f1,f2,.fn) Same CHGR, HSN=0 Transmitter#1 (f0,f1,f2,.fn) Transmitter#1 (f0,f1,f2,.fn) Transmitter#1 (f0,f1,f2,.fn)
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f0,f1,f2,f3,f4,f5,f0,.
f2,f3,f4,f5,f0,f1,f2.

f4,f5,f0,f1,f2,f3,f4.
f1,f2,f3,f4,f5,f0,f1.

N.B: Number of used frequencies can exceed the no. of Transmitters.

Frequency Hopping
Parameters Summary

Frequency Hopping Control Parameters


Parameter Name HOP FHOP HSN MAIO Value Range
ON,OFF BB,SY 0 to 63 0 to 31 or Default

Default Value
OFF Default

Recommended Value
ON

Unit

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Intra Cell Handover


Intra Cell Handover
Intra Cell means within the same cell. Intra Cell Handover aims at maintaining good quality of a current connection by performing handover to a new channel within the same cell when bad quality is detected. f1 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS8 Same Cell f2 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS8 Channel suffering from bad quality New channel

When a connection suffers from bad quality and at the same time the Signal Strength is still high, there is a reason to believe that the bad quality is due to interference.

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Intra Cell Handover


Intra Cell Handover
Changing the serving channel on a certain cell to another channel within the same cell may be useful due to the fact that most likely the interference on different channels is not the same, and the reason for this could be: The cell that interferes a certain connection (channel/call) may be not fully loaded and not transmitting on all its channels. If power control is in use in the interferer cell, then power used on each channel will differ based on the MS location from the BTS.

For uplink interference, the MSs connected to the interferer cell will be located in different places from the cell causing different levels of interference.

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Intra Cell Handover


Intra Cell Handover
After Intra cell handover is performed, the quality of a connection will be enhanced if the radio conditions on the new channel is better than the old channel, and this may be expected when intra cell handover is performed at high signal strength while the quality (rxqual) is bad. Intra Cell Handover can be triggered due to bad quality either in the downlink or in the uplink. But at which conditions Intra Cell Handover will be triggered ?

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Intra Cell Handover


Intra Cell Handover
At which conditions Intra Cell Handover will be triggered ? Intra cell handover is triggered/initiated when signal strength is high and at the same time the quality is bad based on the following equation: rxqual_DL > QOFFSETDL + FQSS (RXLEV_DL + SSOFFSETDL) Or rxqual_UL > QOFFSETUL + FQSS (RXLEV_UL + SSOFFSETUL) FQSS is a quality vs. signal strength function that specify at each signal level the quality beyond which an intra cell handover should be triggered.

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Intra Cell Handover


Conditions at which Intra Cell Handover is initiated: rxqual_DL > QOFFSETDL + FQSS (RXLEV_DL + SSOFFSETDL) Or rxqual_UL > QOFFSETUL + FQSS (RXLEV_UL + SSOFFSETUL)
RXLEV_DL and RXLEV_UL both are measured in rxlev units 0 63, which corresponds to -110 dBm - 47 dBm
The FQSS Table. The rxqual Values Is Given in dtqu (deci Transformed Quality Units) RXLEV Rxqual
<=30 31 32 - 35 36 - 38 39 - 41 42 - 45 46 - 48 49 - 52 53 - 55 56 - 58 59 - 62 >=63 infinity 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50

Example: If RXLEV_DL = 57 and QOFFSETDL=SSOFFSETDL= zero, then when rxqual_DL > 52 dtqu an intra cell handover will be initiated.

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Intra Cell Handover


Intra Cell Handover
SSOFFSETDL & SSOFFSETUL are signal strength offset parameters, increasing them will make the measured signal strength to appear better than the actual situation causing the intra cell handover to be triggered more often. QOFFSETDL & QOFFSETUL are quality offset parameters, decreasing them will trigger the intra cell handover more often.

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Intra Cell Handover


Selection of a new channel at IHO
The primary target is to find a new channel that differs as much as possible from the currently used channel. The selection of a new channel will depend on whether frequency hopping is used or not.

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Intra Cell Handover


Selection of a new channel at IHO
(A) With Frequency Hopping Not Used Among the idle channels, select a channel that lies on a different frequency than the current channel is using. If no idle channels were found then select one of the idle timeslots that are on the same frequency as the current channel. 1st choice at IHO (Change frequency) 2nd choice at IHO (Change Time Slot on the same frequency) Interfered Channel

f1

f2
f3

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Intra Cell Handover


Selection of a new channel at IHO
(B) With Frequency Hopping In Use Select one of the idle channels that belongs to a different CHGR than the current channel. If no idle channels were found or only 1 CHGR is defined then select one of the idle timeslots that are on the same CHGR as the current channel. If no idle channels were found select idle channels on the same CHGR and time slot as the current channel. CHGR0 f1 f2 CHGR1 f3 f4 Interfered Channel 1st choice at IHO(Change CHGR) 2nd choice at IHO (Change Time Slot within the same CHGR ) 3rd choice at IHO (Same CHGR, same TS but different channel)

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Intra Cell Handover


Intra Cell Handover
If quality is not improved after making number of consecutive IHOs, this means that all channels are suffering from poor quality and may be a part of the cell is subjected to high interference. We can limit the number of consecutive IHOs for certain connection to certain number using parameter MAXIHO ex: If MAXIHO=3, then the maximum number of allowed consecutive IHOs=3 and if the MS tried to make the 4th IHO it will be disabled and a timer TIHO will start to inhibit any further attempts to make IHO until this timer is released.

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Intra Cell Handover


Intra Cell Handover
Intra cell handover and bad quality urgency are both triggered at poor quality situations. Intra cell handover has higher priority over bad quality urgency handover, i.e. if the criteria for both are fulfilled then IHO will be triggered/initiated first. If the dynamic OL/UL sub-cell feature is in use and if the number of consecutive IHOs reached its maximum based on the settings of the parameter MAXIHO, then a sub-cell change from OLUL or ULOL will be attempted.

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Intra Cell Handover


Parameters Summary

Intra Cell Handover Control Parameters


Parameter Name IHO SSOFFSETDL SSOFFSETUL QOFFSETDL QOFFSETUL MAXIHO TIHO Value Range ON,OFF 30 to 30 30 to 30 50 to 50 50 to 50 0 to 15 10 to 60 Default Value OFF 0 0 0 0 3 10 Recommended Value ON
0 10 3 10

Unit dB dB dtqu dtqu Seconds

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Dynamic HR Allocation
Dynamic HR Allocation
In high load situations it is important that the allocation of a traffic channel is done efficiently for a new connection. This will result in high utilization of the channels while keeping good speech quality for the existing connections.

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Dynamic HR Allocation
Dynamic HR Allocation
For a new connection the Dynamic HR Allocation Algorithm evaluates the traffic load in the cell and based on this decides the connection mode: FR, HR or AMR HR To Activate the feature, set the parameter: DHA to ON The feature differentiates between AMR and NAMR MSs and can be controlled on cell level.

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Dynamic HR Allocation
Dynamic HR Allocation
New Connection No Yes Yes No. of Idle TCHs % < DTHNAMR Total no. of TCHs Yes No No. of Idle TCHs % < DTHAMR Total no. of TCHs Yes Dual Rate MS ? (Supports HR?) Support AMR HR?

No

HR Allocation

AMR HR Allocation

FR/AMR FR Allocation
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Dynamic HR Allocation
Dynamic HR Allocation
DTHAMR: The threshold below which the Dynamic HR Allocation starts for AMR supported MSs DTHNAMR: The threshold below which the Dynamic HR Allocation starts for Non AMR supported MSs

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Dynamic HR Allocation
Parameters Summary

Intra Cell Handover Control Parameters


Parameter Name DHA DTHAMR DTHNAMR Value Range ON,OFF 0 to 100 0 to 100 Default Value OFF 30 15 Recommended Value ON 30 15 Unit % %

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Dynamic Power Control


Dynamic Power Control
In this chapter well talk on both BTS and MS Dynamic Power Control. The aim with Power Control is to increase the number of connections while maintaining good C/I (Carrier to Interference Ratio). Why Power Control is important ? i. Decreases the total interference in the system ( Interference ) So when Traffic increases (no. of MSs) then good C/I can be maintained. When Traffic is normal, C/I is improved. When Interference is low, MSs with poor quality will be able to successfully complete their calls. ii. Decreases the consumption of the MS battery and the BTS backup batteries when the main supply is down.
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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Dynamic BTS Power Control
The Algorithms for both BTS and MS dynamic power control are the same. The below graph shows the relation between BTS o/p power and the measured (received) signal strength at the MS vs. the path loss between BTS and MS.

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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Dynamic BTS Power Control
For the area before point 1, the received power at the MS in the DL is very good and sufficient, however the BTS cant make any sort of down regulation and sends with power less than its minimum power. As the MS is moving away from the BTS, the received power is decreasing, so after crossing point 1, the BTS will start up regulating its power in steps to compensate for the path loss. At point 2, the BTS cant up regulate its power for a value above the max. allowed power level even if the received power in the MS is deteriorated or the path loss increased.

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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Dynamic BTS Power Control
For Quality measurements the below graph shows the up regulations in the BTS o/p power when quality is deteriorated (SS is not into consideration here)

As the Quality got worse ( 0 7), the BTS will try to increase its power to compensate for the quality drop.
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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Dynamic BTS Power Control
Algorithm:
The Dynamic BTS Power Control algorithm is done on 3 stages: 1. Preparation of the Input Data. 2. Filtering of measurements. 3. Calculation of Power Order.

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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Algorithm:
1) Preparation of The Input Data Dynamic Power Control is made on TCHs time slots as well as on the SDCCH time slots, while the BCCH frequency with all its time slots is sent with max. power with no power control. Type of Measurements: Measurement
SS_DL Quality_DL power level used by the BTS_DL

Source
MS MS BTS

Both SS_DL and Quality_DL measurements will be used in the equation through which the next power order is calculated.

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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Algorithm:
1) Preparation of The Input Data REGINTDL: A parameter that defines the minimum time period between two consecutive power orders in the DL. Measured in SACCH periods (0.48 Seconds) from 1 to 10 SACCH periods i.e. Regulating Interval in DL. (It is a BSC parameter) The BTS is able to changes its output power , the resolution in o/p power is in the form of steps of 2 dBs and maximum change is 30 dBs. (ex: 2dBs, 4dBs,. , max to 30 dBs) When power control is in use the BTS output power level will be given as: Down Regulation: BTS o/p power (dBm) = BSPWRT 2*PLused , Up Regulation: BTS o/p power (dBm) = BSPWRMIN 2*PLused , where PLused = 0to 15 PLused is the power regulation step
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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Algorithm:
1) Preparation of The Input Data SSDESDL: A parameter that defines the desired Signal Strength in DL which we aim to maintain using power control. Measured in dBm The SS measured will be checked against SSDESDL to know if Down regulation in the BTS power or up regulation is needed QDESDL: A parameter that defines the desired Quality in DL which we aim to maintain using power control. Measured in dtqu ( 0 to 70) The Quality measured will be checked against QDESDL to know if Down regulation in the BTS power or up regulation is needed.

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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Algorithm:
1) Preparation of The Input Data The equation used to calculate the power order in the next SACCH period contains information on SSDESDLSS_DLmeasured and QDESDLQuality_DLmeasured. SSDESDL SS_DLmeasured is measured in dBm, while QDESDL Quality_DLmeasured is measured in dtqu so to be used in the same equation some sort of mapping should be done, i.e. QDESDLQuality_DLmeasured should be represented in the form of dBs as well.

QDESDL (dtqu) Quality_DLmeasured dB transformation C/I calculation (dB)

0
0 23

10
1 19

20
2 17

30
3 15

40
4 13

50
5 11

60
6 8

70
7 4

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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Algorithm:
1) Preparation of The Input Data SS Compensation We aim to get the SS of the pure TCH time slot compensated for both frequency hopping when BCCH frequency is included and compensated for power control. i. Compensating for frequency hopping: When the MS is using a TS on BCCH carrier SS_DLTCH = SS_DLMeasured [ BSPWR (BSTXPWR - 2*PLused) ] SS_DLTCH = SS_DLMeasured ( BSPWR BSTXPWR + 2*PLused ) When the MS is using a TS on TCH frequency SS_DLTCH = SS_DLMeasured By Averaging the results then: SS_DLTCH = SS_DLMeasured ( BSPWR BSTXPWR + 2*PLused )/ Nf , Nf = no. of hopping frequencies
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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Algorithm:
1) Preparation of The Input Data SS Compensation ii. Compensating for power control: SS_DLCompensated = SS_DLTCH + 2*PLused Now in further calculations SS_DLCompensated will be used, where SSCompensated is the signal strength compensated for both frequency hopping and power regulations. Quality Compensation Quality_DLCompensated is calculated in the same way such that: Quality_DLCompensated = Quality_DLmeasured (in dBs) + 2*Plused Where the Quality_DLmeasured (in dBs) is the Quality_DLmeasured (07) after transforming it into dBs

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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Algorithm:
2) Filtering of Measurements Filtering for both SS and Quality is done with exponential non-linear filters in order to eliminate variations of temporary nature and get partial results. (A) Filtering of SS Measurements SS_DLFiltered (k) = b* SS_DLCompensated (k) + a* SS_DLFiltered (K-1), k is the SACCH period a & b (b=1-a) are the non-linear filters coefficients and a will define the length of the filter L, where each filter length L corresponds to certain value of a . But how the length of the non-linear filter is calculated?

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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Algorithm:
2) Filtering of Measurements (A)Filtering of SS Measurements SS_DLFiltered (k) = b* SS_DLCompensated (k) + a* SS_DLFiltered(K-1), k is the SACCH period

If SS_DLCompensated (k) < SS_DLFiltered(K-1) then L = SSLENDL where, SSLENDL = 3 15 SACCH periods In this case up regulation is needed and it should be done very fast in order to not lose the connection.

If SS_DLCompensated (k) > SS_DLFiltered(K-1) then L = SSLENDL *UPDWNRATIO/100 where, SSLENDL = 3 15 SACCH periods UPDWNRATIO = 100 700 In this case Down regulation is needed and it should be done in a smooth way, coz decreasing the power suddenly may harm the connection.

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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Algorithm:
2) Filtering of Measurements (B) Filtering of Quality Measurements Quality_DLFiltered (k) = b* Quality_DLCompensated (k) + a* Quality_DLFiltered(K-1), k is the SACCH period

If Quality_DLCompensated (k) < Quality_DLFiltered(K-1) then L = QLENDL where, QSLENDL = 1 20 SACCH periods In this case up regulation is needed and it should be done very fast in order to not lose the connection.

If Quality_DLCompensated (k) >Quality_DLFiltered(K-1) then L = QSLENDL *UPDWNRATIO/100 where, QSLENDL = 1 20 SACCH periods UPDWNRATIO = 100 700 In this case Down regulation is needed and it should be done in a smooth way, coz decreasing the power suddenly may harm the connection.

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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Algorithm:
2) Filtering of Measurements SS_DLFiltered(K-1) is set initially = SSDESDL, that will lead to start power regulations immediately after the first valid measurement report. Also Quality_DLFiltered(K-1) is set initially = QDESDL, that will lead to start power regulations immediately after the first valid measurement report. SSDESDL: has value range from -110 to -47 dbm and recommended value is -90 dbm QDESDL: has value range from 0 to 70 dtqu and recommended value is 30 dtqu

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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Algorithm:
Till now we finalized two stages from the algorithm: 1. Preparation of the Input Data. 2. Filtering of measurements. SS_DLmeasured Compensation SS_DLCompensated Quality units to dB transformation Q_DLmeasured(dB) Filtering Q_DLFiltered Filtering SS_DLFiltered

Q_DLmeasured (Quality Units)

Compensation

Q_DLCompensated

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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Algorithm:
3) Calculation of Power Order (PU) This will be done on three stages:

(A) Calculating the two basic Power Orders.


(B) Applying the Power Orders constraints. (C) Conversion of output data.

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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Algorithm:
3) Calculation of Power Order (PU) (A) Calculating the two basic Power Orders

pui = i * (SSDESDL - SS_DLFiltered) + i * (QDESDL - Q_DLFiltered)

i = 1,2 and 1 & 1 are parameters to compensate for the path loss and quality.
1 = LCOMPDL/100, 1 = QCOMPDL/100, 2 = 0.3, 2 = 0.4 PU1 is calculated according to settings of 1 & 1 ( The operator will set the proper values from his point of view for LCOMPDL & QCOMPDL),

Default values: LCOMPDL=5 and COPMDL=55


PU2 is calculated according to recommended settings of 2 & 2 based on trials and field measurements.

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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Algorithm:
3) Calculation of Power Order (PU) (A) Calculating the two basic Power Orders

pui = i * (SSDESDL - SS_DLFiltered) + i * (QDESDL - Q_DLFiltered)

i = 1,2 and 1 & 1 are parameters to compensate for the path loss and quality.
PU1 and PU2 both of them aim to maintain the SS within the desired value defined according to SSDESDL and to maintain the Quality within the desired value defined according to QDESDL but each will calculate the path loss in different way. PU_used = max (PU1, PU2), max of pu1 and PU2 will be used as the desired power order in the next measurement report coz the max of both of them will mean lower down regulation/higher up regulation.
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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Algorithm:
3) Calculation of Power Order (PU) (B) Applying Power Order constraints

The highest allowed power order PU_used = zero, which means keeping the output power at maximum value with no power control.
The lowest allowed power order is given by the minimum of the following:

PU_used= minimum (30 dB, BSPWRT- minimum BTS o/p power)


i.e. it is not allowed to decrease the o/p power or increase it by a value > 30dB

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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Algorithm:
3) Calculation of Power Order (PU) (C) Conversion of output data

pu_used will be interpreted into final form PL_used which takes values from 0 15
PL_used =Integer(-pu_used/2)

Ex: if PL_used = 3 and Down regulation for power is required, then in the next measurement report the BSC will inform the BTS to decrease its current power by 2* PL_used = 6 dBs

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Dynamic BTS Power Control


Parameters Summary
Dynamic BTS Power Control Parameters
Parameter Name
SSDESDL QDESDL SSLENDL QLENDL LCOMPDL

Value Range
110 to 47 0 to 76 3 to 15 1 to 20 0 to 100

Default Value Recommended Value


90 30 3 8 5 90 30 3 3 5

Unit
dBm dtqu SACCH period (0.48 Seconds) SACCH period (0.48 Seconds)

QCOMPDL
UPDWNRATIO

0 to 100
100 to 700

55
200

55
300

REGINTDL

1 to 10

SACCH period (0.48 Seconds)

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Dynamic MS Power Control


Dynamic MS Power Control
The Objective of the MS power control algorithm is to adjust the output power of the MS so that a desired signal strength is received in the BTS. The below graph shows the relation between MS o/p power and the measured (received) signal strength at the BTS vs. the path loss between BTS and MS.

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Dynamic MS Power Control


Dynamic MS Power Control
For the area before point 1, the received power at the BTS in the UL is very good and sufficient, however the MS cant make any sort of down regulation and sends with power less than its minimum power. As the MS is moving away from the BTS, the received power is decreasing, so after crossing point 1, the MS will start up regulating its power in steps to compensate for the path loss. At point 2, the MS cant up regulate its power for a value above the max. allowed power level even if the received power in the MS is deteriorated or the path loss increased.

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Dynamic MS Power Control


Dynamic MS Power Control
For Quality measurements the below graph shows the up regulations in the MS o/p power when quality is deteriorated (SS is not taken into consideration here).

As the Quality got worse ( 0 7), the MS will try to increase its power to compensate for the quality drop.

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Dynamic MS Power Control


Dynamic MS Power Control
Algorithm:
The Dynamic MS Power Control algorithm is done on 3 stages: 1. Preparation of the Input Data. 2. Filtering of measurements. 3. Calculation of Power Order.

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Dynamic MS Power Control


Algorithm:
1) Preparation of The Input Data Dynamic Power Control is made on TCHs time slots as well as on the SDCCH time slots, while the BCCH frequency with all its time slots is sent with max. power with no power control. Type of measurements: Measurement
SS_UL Quality_UL power level used by the MS_UL

Source
BTS BTS MS

Both SS_UL and Quality_UL measurements will be used in the equation through which the next power order is calculated.

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Dynamic MS Power Control


Algorithm:
1) Preparation of The Input Data REGINTUL: A parameter that defines the minimum time period between two consecutive power orders. Measured in SACCH periods (0.48 Seconds) from 1 to 30 SACCH periods. The BTS is able to changes its output power in the form of steps of 2 dBs (ex: 2dBs, 4dBs,. , max to 16 dBs) When power control is in use the MS output power level will be given as: PWR_used = min(MSTXPWR,MSPWRMAX) 2*PLused , where PLused = 0 to 8 and PWR_used is the power used by the MS during the connection

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Dynamic MS Power Control


Algorithm:
1) Preparation of The Input Data SSDESUL: A parameter that defines the desired Signal Strength in UL which we aim to maintain using power control in the UL. Measured in dBm The SS measured will be checked against SSDESUL to know if Down regulation in the MS power or up regulation is needed QDESUL: A parameter that defines the desired Quality in UL which we aim to maintain using power control in the UL. Measured in dtqu ( 0 to 70) The Quality measured will be checked against QDESUL to know if Down regulation in the MS power or up regulation is needed.

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Dynamic MS Power Control


Algorithm:
1) Preparation of The Input Data The equation used to calculate the power order in the next SACCH period contains information on SSDESULSS_ULmeasured and QDESULQuality_ULmeasured. SSDESUL SS_ULmeasured is measured in dBm, while QDESUL Quality_ULmeasured is measured in dtqu so to be used in the same equation some sort of mapping should be done, i.e. QDESULQuality_ULmeasured should be represented in the form of dBs as well. QDESUL (dtqu) Quality_ULmeasured
0 0 10 1 20 2 30 3 40 4 50 60 70 5 6 7

dB transformation (dB) 23 19

17

15

13

11

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Dynamic MS Power Control


Algorithm:
1) Preparation of The Input Data SS Compensation Compensating for power control: SS_ULCompensated = SS_ULmeasured + 2*PLused Now in further calculations SS_ULCompensated will be used, where SSCompensated is the signal strength compensated for power regulations. Quality Compensation Quality_ULCompensated is calculated in the same way such that: Quality_ULCompensated = Quality_ULmeasured (in dBs) + 2*PLused Where the Quality_ULmeasured (in dBs) is the Quality_ULmeasured (07) after transforming it into dBs.

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Dynamic MS Power Control


Algorithm:
2) Filtering of Measurements Filtering for both SS and Quality is done with exponential non-linear filters in order to eliminate variations of temporary nature and get partial results. (A) Filtering of SS Measurements SS_ULFiltered (k) = b* SS_ULCompensated (k) + a* SS_ULCompensated(K-1), k is the SACCH period. a & b (b=1-a) are the non-linear filters coefficients and a will define the length of the filter L, where each filter length L corresponds to certain value of a But how the length of the non-linear filter is calculated?

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Dynamic MS Power Control


Algorithm:
2) Filtering of Measurements (A) Filtering of SS Measurements SS_ULFiltered (k) = b* SS_ULCompensated (k) + a* SS_ULFiltered(K-1), k is the SACCH period If SS_ULCompensated (k) < SS_ULFiltered(K-1) then L = SSLENUL where, SSLENUL = 3 15 SACCH periods In this case up regulation is needed and it should be done very fast in order to not lose the connection. If SS_ULCompensated (k) > SS_ULFiltered(K-1) then L = SSLENUL *UPDWNRATIO/100 where, SSLENDL = 3 15 SACCH periods UPDWNRATIO = 100 700 In this case Down regulation is needed and it should be done in a smooth way, coz decreasing the power suddenly may harm the connection.

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Dynamic MS Power Control


Algorithm:
2) Filtering of Measurements (B) Filtering of Quality Measurements Quality_ULFiltered (k) = b* Quality_ULCompensated (k) + a* Quality_ULFiltered(K-1), k is the SACCH period

If Quality_ULCompensated (k) < Quality_ULFiltered(K-1) then L = QLENUL where, QSLENUL = 1 20 SACCH periods In this case up regulation is needed and it should be done very fast in order to not lose the connection.

If Quality_ULCompensated (k) >Quality_ULFiltered(K-1) then L = QSLENUL *UPDWNRATIO/100 where, QSLENUL = 1 20 SACCH periods UPDWNRATIO = 100 700 In this case Down regulation is needed and it should be done in a smooth way, coz decreasing the power suddenly may harm the connection.

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Dynamic MS Power Control


Algorithm:
2) Filtering of Measurements SS_ULFiltered(K-1) is set initially = SSDESUL, that will lead to start power regulations immediately after the first valid measurement report. Also Quality_ULFiltered(K-1) is set initially = QDESUL, that will lead to start power regulations immediately after the first valid measurement report. SSDESUL: has value range from -110 to -47 dbm and recommended value is -92 dbm QDESUL: has value range from 0 to 70 dtqu and recommended value is 30dtqu

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Dynamic MS Power Control


Algorithm:
Till now we finalized two stages from the algorithm: 1. Preparation of the Input Data. 2. Filtering of measurements. SS_ULmeasured Compensation SS_ULCompensated Filtering SS_ULFiltered

Q_ULmeasured (Quality Units)

Quality units to dB transformation

Q_ULmeasured(dB)

Compensation

Q_ULFiltered

Filtering

Q_ULCompensated

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Dynamic MS Power Control


Algorithm:
3) Calculation of Power Order (PU) This will be done on three stages:

(A) Calculating the two basic Power Orders


(B) Applying the Power Orders constraints (C) Conversion of output data.

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Dynamic MS Power Control


Algorithm:
3) Calculation of Power Order (PU) (A) Calculating the two basic Power Orders

pui = i * (SSDESUL - SS_ULFiltered) + i * (QDESUL - Q_ULFiltered)

i = 1,2 and 1 & 1 are parameters to compensate for the path loss and quality.
1 = LCOMPUL/100, 1 = QCOMPUL/100, 2 = 0.3, 2 = 0.4 pu1 is calculated according to settings of 1 & 1 ( The operator will set the proper values from his point of view for LCOMPUL & QCOMPUL)

pu2 is calculated according to recommended settings of 2 & 2 based on trials and field measurements.

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Dynamic MS Power Control


Algorithm:
3) Calculation of Power Order (PU) (A) Calculating the two basic Power Orders

pui = i * (SSDESUL - SS_ULFiltered) + i * (QDESUL - Q_ULFiltered)

i = 1,2 and 1 & 1 are parameters to compensate for the path loss and quality.
pu1 and pu2 both of them aim to maintain the SS within the desired value defined according to SSDESUL and to maintain the Quality within the desired value defined according to QDESUL but each will calculate the path loss in different way. pu_used = max (pu1,pu2), max of pu1 and pu2 will be used as the desired power order in the next measurement report coz the max of both of them will mean lower down regulation/higher up regulation
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Dynamic MS Power Control


Algorithm:
3) Calculation of Power Order (PU) (B) Applying Power Order constraints

The highest allowed power order pu_used = zero, which means keeping the output power at maximum value with no power control.
The lowest allowed power order is given by the minimum of 16 dB i.e. it is not allowed to decrease the o/p power or increase it by a value > 16 dB

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Dynamic MS Power Control


Algorithm:
3) Calculation of Power Order (PU) (C) Conversion of output data

pu_used will be interpreted into final form PL_used which takes values from 0 8
PL_used =Integer(-pu_used/2) Ex: if PL_used = 3 and Down regulation for power is required, then in the next measurement report the BSC will inform the MS to decrease its current power by 2* PL_used = 6 dBs

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Dynamic MS Power Control


Parameters Summary
Dynamic BTS Power Control Parameters
Parameter Name SSDESUL QDESUL SSLENUL Value Range 110 to 47 0 to 76 3 to 15 Default Value Recommended Value 92 30 3 92 30 3 Unit dBm dtqu SACCH period (0.48 Seconds)

QLENUL
LCOMPUL QCOMPUL UPDWNRATIO REGINTUL

1 to 20
0 to 100 0 to 100 100 to 700 1 to 30

3
6 75 200 1

3
6 75 300 1

SACCH period (0.48 Seconds)


SACCH period (0.48 Seconds)

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GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover


GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover
All 3G user equipments (UEs) can support Multi RATs(Radio Access Technology) i.e. Both GSM and UMTS. With feature GSM-UMTS cell reselection and HO feature an operator can make use of both GSM and UMTS systems to complement each other. Multi RAT users can have good coverage even in areas where no UMTS coverage and this can be accomplished using UMTS-GSM cell reselection and HO.

COEXUMTS: Is a BSC parameter used to activate the feature GSM-UMTS cell reselection and Handover.

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GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover


GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover
New concepts will be introduced to understand how the feature works: CPICH Ec/No: Common Pilot Channel - Energy per chip/Noise level power density. Used as a measure of the Quality of the neighbor UMTS cell.

CPICH RSCP: Common Pilot Channel - Received Signal Code Power. Used as a measure of the SS of the neighbor UMTS cell after dispreading.

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GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover


Measurements on UMTS Cells
In order to be able to make cell reselection or HO to a UMTS neighbor cell, the multi RAT UE should be able to make measurements on this neighbor as well as the ordinary GSM cells. But when or at which conditions the UE will perform measurements on the UMTS neighbors? This will be based on the settings of the parameters QSI and QSC: QSI: used to manage the conditions of measuring the UMTS cell in Idle Mode. QSC: used to manage the conditions of measuring the UMTS cell in Active Mode.

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GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover


Measurements on UMTS Cells
When to start measuring the neighbor UMTS cell ?
QSI/QSC
0 to 6 7 8 to 14

Signal Strength of the serving GSM Cell


"Below" -98dBm to -74 dBm in steps of 4 dB Always "Above" -78dBm to -54 dBm in steps of 4 dB

15 Never Example: If QSC=8, then the UE is allowed to measure the neighbor UMTS cell only when the SS of the serving GSM Cell > -78 dBm SS(dBm) -78 dBm -90 dBm GSM GSM&UMTS measurements measurements
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GSM measurements

GSM&UMTS measurements

time

GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover


(I) GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection:
This is controlled through set of parameters: QSI: Which defines at which conditions the UMTS cell will be measured in idle mode, because there wont be any kind of cell reselection without performing measurements. FDDQMIN: Defines the minimum quality of a UMTS cell inorder to be candidate for cell reselection i.e. this condition should be satisfied CPICH Ec/No >FDDQMIN condition#1 default value = 5 (-10 dB) FDDRSCPMIN: Defines the minimum SS of a UMTS cell inorder to be candidate for cell reselection i.e. this condition should be satisfied CPICH RSCP >FDDRSCPMIN condition#2 default value= 6 (-102 dBm)

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GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover


(I) GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection:
This is controlled through set of parameters: FDDQOFF: It is the key parameter to control the behavior of the cell reselection provided that condition#1 and condition#2 are fulfilled. If CPICH RSCP > RLA (S+N) + FDDQOFFS for at least 5 sec condition#3 then Cell reselection will occur RLA (S+N): It is the Received Level Average of the signal strength of the serving+neighbor GSM cells measured in dBm, averaging is made on at least 5 measurements over a period of 35 seconds. N.B: If the criteria for inter system cell reselection from GSM to UMTS is fulfilled then the multi RAT UE will perform cell reselection to the UMTS cell even if the criteria for selection another ordinary GSM cell is fulfilled.

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GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover


(II) GSM to UMTS Handover:
FDDMRR: The multi RAT UE is informed on how many UMTS cells (03) he should report in the measurement report using this parameter. Upon receiving the measurements from the multi RAT UE, the BSC will handle the GSM and UMTS cells separately by filtering out the UMTS measurements before the GSM locating algorithm.
Filtering out the UMTS cells Filtering Basic Ranking Urgency Condition

UMTS Evaluation

% idle TCHs ISOLEV Ec/No > MRSL

Aux. Radio features Organizing the list Add UMTS cells to Candidate list Sending the list and allocation reply

GSM Evaluation

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GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover


(II) GSM to UMTS Handover:
This is controlled through set of parameters: QSC: Which defines at which conditions the UMTS cell will be measured in active mode, because there wont be any kind of cell reselection without performing measurements. MRSL: It is a BSC parameter that gives the minimum threshold for the quality (Ec/No) for a UMTS neighbor cell in order to be added to the HO candidate list, recommended value=-9dB ISHOLEV: It is a Cell parameter. The percentage of idle TCHs in the serving GSM cell will be compared vs. ISHOLEV to decide if the UMTS will be added to the HO candidate list or not.

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GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover


(II) GSM to UMTS Handover:
Conditions that should be fulfilled for a UMTS cell to be added to the HO candidate list: (1) No. of Idle TCHsGSM ServingCell ISHOLEV, or urgency conditions are detected in the GSM serving cell either due to BQ or TA (2) CPICH Ec/No UMTS Neighbor MRSL

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GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover


(II) GSM to UMTS Handover:
Now all the valid neighboring UMTS cells will be sorted in order of decreasing CPICH Ec/No in order to form the UMTS candidate list. But how the two lists, the GSM and UMTS will be sorted? Ans.: this will depend on the urgency conditions and the load as follow: Non-Urgency HO Condition
No Load
GSM list

Urgency HO Condition
No Load
GSM list UMTS list

Load
UMTS list GSM list

Load
UMTS list GSM list

N.B: To have balance between the behavior in the idle & active modes it is recommended to set the values for FDDQMIN (idle) = MRSL (active)

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GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover


Parameters Summary
GSM-UMTS Cell Reselection and HO Control Parameters
Parameter Name COEXUMTS QSI Value Range
0(OFF),1(ON) 0 to 6(Below:-98dBm t o -74dBm) 7(Always) 8 to 14(Above:-78dBm to -54dBm) 15 (Never) 0 to 6(Below:-98dBm t o -74dBm) 7(Always) 8 to 14(Above:-78dBm to -54dBm) 15 (Never) 0 to 7 (-20dB, -6dB, -18dB, -8dB, -16dB, -10dB, -14dB, -12dB) 0 to 15(-114 dBm to -84 dBm in steps of 2dBm) 0 to 15 (-inf, -28dB to 28dB in steps of 4 dB) 0 to 3 0 to 49 0 to 99

Default Value Recommended Value Unit


0(OFF) 15 1(ON)

QSC FDDQMIN FDDRSCPMIN FDDQOFF FDMRR MRSL ISHOLEV

15 0 (-20dB) 6(-102 dBm) 8(0 dB) 0 20

5(-10dB) 6(-102 dBm) 0(-inf) 1 or 2 30 (-9 dB)

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Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring


Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring
The Quality of service means that how the subscriber is satisfied with the overall service. To keep the quality of service good as much as possible, we have to enhance the following: (A) Accessibility: The ability of users to access the network. (B) Retainability: The ability of users to successfully continue their connections with the network until it is terminated in a normal way.

(C) Service Integrity: The ability to keep the quality of the service good enough during the connection with the network.

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Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring


Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring
KPIs: Key Performance Indicators it is a general term used to define the keys or observations through which you can judge if the performance is good or not.

(A) Accessibility KPIs:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Paging Success Rate Random Access SDCCH Congestion (Blocking) TCH Blocking SDCCH Drop

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Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring


Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring
(B) Retainability KPIs:
1. 2. TCH Drop Rate Handover Success Rate

(C) Service Integrity KPIs:


1. 2. Rxqual (Received Signal Quality) SQI (Speech Quality Indicator)

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Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring


Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring
(A) Accessibility KPIs:
1. Paging On MSC level there is counters to count: No. of attempts of paging to the Location Area. No. of paging response to first paging. No. of paging response to the repeated paging. Using these counters we can form the equation to calculate the paging success rate.

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Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring


Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring
(A) Accessibility KPIs:
1. Paging The Paging Success rate on certain LA as appeared from the statistics:

Paging Attempts Paging Success Rate

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Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring


Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring
(A) Accessibility KPIs:
1. Paging What are the causes of bad paging performance? Implicit detach is not used: parameter ATT is set to Off Low Signal Strength Not optimized paging strategy Use of combined BCCH mapping in high traffic location areas. Location area dimensioning Using of IMSI most of the time instead of TMSI

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Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring


Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring
(A) Accessibility KPIs:
2. Random Access A failure in the random access doesnt mean a call setup failure because the MS sends many random access bursts each time it tries to access the network. There are counters to count the no. of accepted random access requests, and the no. of discarded requests (incremented for random access requests that are received with too high Time Advance) through which the random access success rate can be calculated.

Causes of low random access success rate may be due to: Too high Time Advance (TA) High Interference Bad BSIC Planning

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Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring


Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring
(A) Accessibility KPIs:
3. SDCCH Congestion It is the failure of call/connection setup due to high signaling load. There are counters to count the no. failed allocations due to SDCCH congestion and the no. of call attempts through which the SDCCH congestion rate can be calculated. Causes of high SDCCH congestion? This is may be due to: Location Area border cell. High SMS Traffic. Hardware Availability. No. of configured SDCCHs is low.

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Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring


Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring
(A) Accessibility KPIs:
4. TCH Blocking It is the failure of setup a call/connection due to TCH congestion. There are counters to count the no. of released connections on SDCCH due to TCH congestion and the no. of assignment attempts on TCH channel through which the TCH blocking rate can be calculated. Causes of high TCH Blocking may be due to: Hardware problem. Too few TCH resources defined. Missing neighbor cell definition.

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Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring


Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring
(A) Accessibility KPIs:
4. TCH Blocking The TCH Blocking as appeared from the Statistics

TCH Traffic TCH Blocking Defined TCH Channels

TCH Blocking was solved after expansion (adding new frequency)


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Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring


Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring
(A) Accessibility KPIs:
5. SDCCH Drop It is the failure of setup a call/connection due to SDCCH channel drop. N.B: when a connection is dropped at call setup it will affect the accessibility KPIs. There are counters to count the no. of dropped connections on SDCCH and the no. of successful MS channel establishments on SDCCH through which the SDCCH drop rate can be calculated. Causes of high SDCCH drop rate may be due to: Bad Coverage. Interference. Hardware problems. Wrong parameters settings (Offsets and Hysteresis).

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Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring


Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring
(B) Retainability KPIs:
1. TCH Drop It is the drop of the connection on the traffic channel which was assigned to the MS. There are counters to count the no. of dropped connections and the initiated connections on TCH channels through which the TCH drop rate can be calculated. Causes of high TCH drop rate may be due to: Bad coverage. Interference. Hardware problems. Missing Neighbors. Wrong parameters' settings.

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Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring


Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring
(B) Retainability KPIs:
1. TCH Drop The TCH drop as appeared from the statistics.

TCH Traffic TCH Drop Rate

High drop rate was solved after fixing a hardware problem.


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Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring


Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring
(B) Retainability KPIs:
1. TCH Drop The TCH drop reasons as appeared from the statistics. BQ Both Links BQ Downlink BQ Uplink Low SS Both Links Low SS Downlink Low SS Uplink Sudden Lost

Main drop reason is due to BQ in downlink


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Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring


Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring
(B) Retainability KPIs:
1. TCH Drop The TCH drop reasons as appeared from the statistics. BQ Both Links BQ Downlink BQ Uplink Low SS Both Links Low SS Downlink Low SS Uplink Sudden Lost

Main drop reason is due to low SS Both link


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Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring


Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring
(B) Retainability KPIs:
2. Handover Success Rate There are counters to measure the number of Handover attempts from cell to cell and the Handover success rate.

Poor Handover Success rate may be due to: Bad Frequency plan. Wrong definitions and missing neighbors. Wrong parameters settings. Hardware problems.
Handover failure does not mean a drop call will occur.

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Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring


Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring
(C) Service Integrity KPIs:
1. Rxqual It is obtained by averaging the Bit Error Rate over a certain period ~ 0.5 sec and it is measured in both the Downlink and Uplink

Rxqual take values from 0 (Best) 7 (Worst) and gives indication for the quality of the radio environment.
There are counters to measure the no. of samples that received with Rxqual 0,1,2,.7

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Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring


Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring
(C) Service Integrity KPIs:
2. SQI (Speech Quality Index) Is a good measure for the end user perceived speech quality. The algorithm used for calculation the SQI takes into account the BER, the distribution of BER, the FER (Frame Erasure Rate) and the codec used (HR, FR, EFR). The output values are measured on a dBQ scale. Typically, the SQI take values from 0 (Worst) 30 (Best), on HR connection SQImax=17dBQ, FR connection SQImax=22dBQ, EFR connection SQImax=30dBQ N.B: HR Half Rate, FR Full Rate, EFR Enhance Full Rate
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