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2010

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Introduction
RF people work in either

RF Planning Responsibilities  Nominal Plan Design  Sites Survey  Validation from field  Set RF design (Structure, Azimuth, Height, Tilt, Cables type)  Frequency Plan  Sites Acceptance
They have to provide the coverage either outdoor or indoor.

RF Optimization Responsibilities  Maintain the Network„s Accessibility KPIs  Maintain the Network‟s Retain ability KPIs  Maintain the Network‟s Service Integrity KPIs  Study and Apply new features  Try to think of innovative solutions to maximize the Network capacity
They have to maintain the performance of the Network as good as possible.

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Introduction
 What will be our concern during this part of the course?  RF Optimization

 How the RF Optimization people can maintain the KPIs?  By studying the different radio network features and studying the controlling parameters of each feature and how to tune them in a smart way to achieve the target KPIs.  What are we going to study during this part of the course?  Most of the Radio Network features and their controlling parameters.  KPIs monitoring and analysis.  Trouble shooting and Tuning.

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Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010

Course Outlines
           Idle Mode Behavior. Handover. HCS (Hierarchical Cell Structure). Concentric & Multi Band Cells. CLS ( Cell Load Sharing). Frequency Hopping. Intra Cell Handover. Dynamic HR Allocation. Power Control. GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover. Trouble Shooting and KPIs monitoring.

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2010 .Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR
 MS in Idle Mode
 Doesn’t have a dedicated channel, but able to access the Network and able to be reached by the Network.  MS will always try to camp on the best cell based on the signal strength criterion.  MS will continuously monitor the serving and neighbor BCCH carriers to decide which cell to camp on.  The purpose behind studying the Idle Mode Behavior is to always ensure that the MS is camped on the cell where it has the highest probability of successful communication.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR
 MS Tasks during Idle Mode
I. II. III. IV. V. PLMN Selection. Cell Selection. Cell Reselection. Location Updating. Monitor the Incoming Paging.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR
I. PLMN Selection Criterion
 PLMN identity is defined as “MCC+MNC” which is part of the LAI, where LAI=MCC+MNC+LAC. MCC: Mobile Country Code - MNC: Mobile Network Code - LAC: Location Area Code  When the MS is powered ON, it will perform a Location Update and compare the new LAI with the old stored one.  An MS will need to make a PLMN selection only incase: 1. MS is powered ON for the 1st time i.e. No PLMN was registered on before (No Information on MCC&MNC is stored on SIM) 2. Old PLMN is not available any more.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR
I. PLMN Selection Criterion
 When the MS has to do a PLMN selection due to one of the previous cases, the selection mode will depend on the MS settings either Automatic or Manual.  1. 2. 3. 4. Automatic PLMN Selection Mode steps: Home PLMN. Each PLMN stored on the SIM card in priority order. Other PLMNs have Signal Strength > -85 dBm in random order. All other PLMNs in order of decreasing Signal Strength.

 Manual PLMN Selection Mode: 1. Home PLMN. 2. All other available PLMNs and give the user the choice to select.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR
I. PLMN Selection Criterion
 National Roaming  If National Roaming is permitted then a MS can register on a PLMN in its home country other than its home PLMN.  National Roaming may be allowed on a certain location areas LAs of the visitor PLMN.  MS should periodically try to access back his home PLMN, but this periodic attempts will occur only on Automatic selection mode.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR
II. Cell Selection Criterion
 The Cell Selection algorithm tries to find the most suitable cell in the selected PLMN and make the MS camp on.  Cell Selection is done by the MS itself.  During Idle Mode the Network doesn’t know the cell which the MS is camping on, it only knows the Location Area where the mobile registered himself in.

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IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR
II. Cell Selection Criterion
Scan RF Frequencies one by one and calculates the Average received signal strength over 3  5 seconds

Tune to the RF Frequency with the highest average received signal strength

Tune to the next higher frequency that wasn‟t tried before

Check if the chosen frequency is a BCCH carrier frequency or not Yes MS will synchronize to the BCCH frequency and read system information (LAI,BA List,…etc) Check if PLMN is desired or not Yes Check if Cell is barred or not No Check if C1 > 0 or not Camp on the Cell Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 Yes

No

No
Yes No

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 . (BA list can have maximum 32 frequencies)  If MS found cell belongs to the desired PLMN but not suitable. the MS will start to scan the Idle BA list of this cell. Stored List Scanning: Scan the Frequencies in the Idle BA list (BCCH Allocation) stored on the MS SIM before being switched off. Normal Scanning: Scan all Frequencies in the band ex:124 freq. 2. Cell Selection Criterion  Scanning RF Frequencies may occur in 2 ways: 1.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR II. in GSM900 Band.

2.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR II. Cell belongs to the desired PLMN  If at least 30 strongest frequencies from GSM900 band were tried and no suitable cell was found. C1 > 0 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Cell Selection Criterion  Cell is said to be suitable if: 1. 2010 . Cell is not Barred ( CB = NO)  Some cells can be barred for access at selection and reselection or given lower priority based on settings of parameters: CB and CBQ 3. then the MS will try another PLMN based on PLMN criterion.

If CCHPWR > P then C1 will decrease and so the Received SS should be large enough to keep C1 > 0 (May be this cell is not designed of this MS class) 3. P are all measured in dBm. 2010 . Cell Selection Criterion  C1 is called “Cell Selection Quantity”  It is calculated at the MS based on the below equation: C1 = (Received SS – ACCMIN) – max (CCHPWR-P.B: 1. P  Maximum out put power of the MS according to its class. 2. CCHPWR. ACCMIN and CCHPWR are cell parameters sent to the MS at the BCCH channel. N. where C1&C2 are measured in dBs Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR II.0) ACCMIN  Minimum allowed DL received SS at the MS in order to access the system CCHPWR  Maximum allowed transmitting power by the MS in the UL. ACCMIN.

2. Continuously read system information sent on the BCCH carrier for the six strongest neighbors at least every 5 minutes. 2010 . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.  Cell reselection measurements: 1. Continuously read system information sent on the serving BCCH carrier at least every 30 seconds. the MS will start the cell reselection measurements to know if it is better to stay on the current cell or to camp on another cell. 4. Monitors the SS (Signal Strength) of the BCCH carrier of the serving cell. Cell Reselection Criterion  After a cell has been selected. Try to decode BSIC of the six strongest neighbors every 30 seconds to assure that it is still monitoring the same cells. 3.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR III. Monitors the SS of the BCCH carrier of all defined neighbors in the Idle BA list. 5.

2010 .IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR III. Cell Reselection Criterion  Cell reselection measurements summary: BSIC Serving Cell Six Strongest Neighbors Every 30 Seconds BCCH Data (System Information) Every 30 Seconds Every 5 Minutes Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

MS detects Downlink Signaling Failure. 5. 3. MS tried to access the network through this cell unsuccessfully for the allowed no.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR III. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. C1 serving cell falls below zero for more than 5 seconds. C2 neighbor cell ( one of the six strongest neighbors) became greater than C2 serving cell for more than 5 seconds. 2010 . of times defined by the parameter MAXRET 4. Serving Cell became barred ( CB = YES ) 2. Cell Reselection Criterion  When will Cell Reselection occur ?!!! 1.

 C2 is called “Cell Reselection Quantity” C2 = C1 + CRO – TO * H( PT – T ) where PT ≠ 31 C2 = C1 – CRO where PT = 31 0. X<0 Where H(x) 1. unit = 10 dB. Cell Reselection Criterion  What will happen when the MS needs to make cell reselection?  The MS will camp on the cell that has the highest C2 value. 2010 . unit = 2 dB. value range = 0 to 63  TO  Temporary Offset.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR III. value range = 0 to 7  PT  Penalty Time during which TO is valid  T  Initiated from zero when the MS places the neighbor in the list of the Six Strongest Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. X≥0  CRO  Cell Reselection Offset.

IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR III. this means that a (–ve) SS offset “CRO” will be applied to this cell and it appears less favorite for cell reselection. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Cell Reselection Criterion  CRO : defines a signal strength offset to encourage or discourage MSs to reselect that cell. 2010 .  TO : defines a negative temporary offset for certain time according to settings of PT (Practically this is useful to prevent fast moving MS from camping on microcells)  PT: If PT is set to 31.

if MFRMS=4 then a MS attached to a certain paging group will wait in sleeping mode for 4 multi-frames (4*253msec) until it is up again to listen to paging. where D = 90/MFRMS  MFRMS is a cell parameter defines the no.e. of multi-frames between the transmission of each paging group i.  If D reaches zero. then a Down Link Signaling Failure is detected and cell reselection took place. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR III. Cell Reselection Criterion  Down Link Signaling Failure Algorithm  The Algorithm of type “Leaky Bucket” and used a counter “D”. if the message is not decoded successfully then D is decremented by 4 and if the message is decoded correctly then D is incremented by 1.  When the MS is up to listen to its paging group. 2010 .

2010 .4 = 18. then: D = D . N. If the MS successfully decodes a paging message. Cell Reselection Criterion  Down Link Signaling Failure Algorithm Ex: Assume that MFRMS = 4 Downlink signaling failure counter is initialized: D = round(90/MFRMS)=22.B: D can’t exceed the bucket size given by round(90/MFRMS) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. then a Down Link Signaling Failure is detected and cell reselection took place. If the MS unsuccessfully decodes a paging message. then: D = D + 1 = 19.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR III.  If D reaches zero.

CRH = 4 dB. a parameter CRH is introduced such that a cell in another location area LA2 should have C2LA2 should greater than C2LA1 of serving cell lie in LA1 by at least CRH in order to be selected.  If C2LA1 = 5 dB. will be accompanied by Location Update. 2010 .  To avoid this.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR III. cell reselection may occur many times accompanied by many location updating leading to huge signaling load.  At the border between cells the Signal level may be comparable. Cell Reselection Criterion  CRH ( Cell Reselection Hysteresis )  Cell Reselection between two cells lie in two different Location Areas. then C2LA2 ≥ 9 dB in order to be selected. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2. IMSI attach & IMSI detach (when the MS informs the network when it enters an inactive state) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. There are three different types of location updating defined: Normal Location Updating. 2010 .  1.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR IV. the Network knows the location of the MS on a Location area resolution not on a cell resolution.  In the Idle Mode. the network must know where the MS is located whenever it moves that’s why Location Updating is needed. 3. Location Updating  To make it possible for the mobile subscriber to receive a call and initiate a call whenever needed. Periodic registration.

 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. The MS will compare the LAIold stored on the SIM with the LAInew broadcasted from the new cell and it will found them different so it’ll perform Location Update type normal. 2010 .  Normal Location Updating Initiated by the MS when it enters a cell belongs to a new Location Area (LA). Location Updating 1.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR IV.

to not consider the MS detach before periodic location update is performed. 2010 .   Periodic Registration Regularly the MS should update the Network with its current location Area. the MSC will consider the MS implicitly detached. BTDM+GTDM should > T3212.     Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Based on the value of the Parameter T3212 the MS will know how frequent it should make periodic registration. default = 40 (4 Hours) MSC has a supervision time = BTDM+GTDM if it doesn’t hear from the MS during this period. The Network will inform the MS how often it should report the location Area he is registering himself in. Location Updating 2.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR IV.5 Hours). T3212 take values from 1 (6min) to 255 (25.

IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR IV. so no paging messages will be sent to this MS while it is in this state. then before the MS will be switched off. it will send an IMSI detach request to the Network. If ATT=Yes. Location Updating 3. When the MS is switched on again it will send an IMSI attach request to the Network so now paging messages can be sent normally to this MS.  IMSI Attach/Detach IMSI attach/detach operation is an action taken by the MS to inform the Network either it will go to inactive state (Power off) or it returned back to idle mode. 2010 . ATT is a cell parameter that will inform the MS whether IMSI attach/detach is operational or not.    Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Monitor the Incoming Paging  Let us revise the DL logical channels and their mapping: I) BCH(Broadcast Channels): including  FCCH(Frequency Correction Channel)  SCH(Synchronization Channel) Always Mapped on TS0/C0  BCCH(Broadcast Control Channel) II) CCCH(Common Control Channels): including  PCH(Paging Channel) Always Mapped on TS0/C0  AGCH(Access Grant Channel) III) DCCH(Dedicated Control Channels): including  SDCCH(Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel) May be Mapped on either  SACCH(Slow Associated Control Channel) TS1/C0 or TS0/C0  CBCH(Cell Broadcast Channel) “ Work in Stealing mode by  FACH(Fast Associated Control Channel) replacing the TCH time slot” Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR V.

IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR V. 2010 . Monitor the Incoming Paging Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3 Frame 4 Frame 5 Frame 6 Frame 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 F S B B B B C F S 1 2 3 B 4 6 8 C 10 F S 9 11 12 13 C 14 16 C 18 20 F S 21 22 23 C 24 26 C 28 30 F S 31 32 33 C 34 36 C 38 40 F S 41 42 43 C 44 46 C 48 50 I 51 5 7 15 17 19 25 27 29 35 37 39 45 47 49 Default Mapping on TS0/C0 (BCH+CCCH) “Non Combined Mode” 51 TDMA Frames = 1 Control Multi-frame Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR V. Monitor the Incoming Paging Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3 Frame 4 Frame 5 Frame 6 Frame 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D0 D0 D0 D0 D1 D1 D1 D0 1 2 3 4 5 D1 6 7 8 9 D2 10 11 12 D3 13 14 15 16 17 D4 18 19 20 21 D5 22 23 24 25 D6 26 27 28 D7 29 30 31 32 33 A0 34 35 36 37 A1 38 39 40 41 A2 42 43 44 45 A3 46 47 48 I I I 50 49 51 Default Mapping on TS1/C0 (SDCCH+SACCH+CBCH(optional)) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

BCH&CCCH&SDCCH/4&CBCH) TS1/C0 will be free for TCH Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 . BCH&CCCH&SDCCH/4) TS1/C0 will be free for TCH COMBC (Combined with cell broadcast channel CBCH is in use. BCH&CCCH) TS1/C0 will carry SDCCH+SACCH ═ ═ COMB (Combined. Monitor the Incoming Paging Combination of Control channels (Different Mapping Criteria)  Mapping on TS0/C0 is controlled by Parameter called BCCHTYPE  ═ BCCHTYPE NCOMB (Non Combined.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR V.

Monitor the Incoming Paging Combination of Control channels (Different Mapping Criteria)  SDCCH may have on of the following 4 configurations based on parameter SDCCH  SDCCH ═ (i) SDCCH/8 (8 SDCCH Sub-channels i.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR V. the BCCHTYPE=NCOMB and the mapping of the SDCCH channel is done on TS1/C0 ═ (iii) SDCCH/4 (4 SDCCH Sub-channels) ═ (iv) SDCCH/4 including CBCH(3 SDCCH Sub-channels + 1 CBCH)  For these two cases.e. 2010 . the BCCHTYPE=COMB or COMBC and the mapping of the SDCCH channel is done on TS0/C0 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. make call setup for 8 users) ═ (ii) SDCCH/8 including CBCH (7 SDCCH Sub-channels + 1 CBCH)  For these two cases.

IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR V. 2010 . Monitor the Incoming Paging Combination of Control channels (Different Mapping Criteria) Non Default Mapping on TS0/C0 (BCH+CCCH) 2*51 TDMA Frames = 2 Control Multi-frame Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Monitor the Incoming Paging Combination of Control channels (Different Mapping Criteria)  The Table below summarizes all the previous details: Default Mapping (Non Combined) BCH+CCCH on TS0/C0 and SDCCH+SACCH+CBCH on TS1/C0 CBCH doesn't exist 1 block for BCCH 9 blocks for CCCH 8 blocks for SDDCH Non Default Mapping (Combined) BCH+CCCH+SDCCH+SACCH+CBCH on TS0/C0 CBCH doesn't exist 1 block for BCCH 3 blocks for CCCH 4 blocks for SDDCH CBCH exist 1 block for BCCH 9 blocks for CCCH 7 blocks for SDDCH 1 block for CBCH CBCH exist 1 block for BCCH 3 blocks for CCCH 3 blocks for SDDCH 1 block for CBCH Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR V.

and the rest of the time it will remain in sleeping mode. Monitor the Incoming Paging Paging Groups  The MS will monitor the incoming paging in only specific times.  The Paging Block can be used to page 4/3/2 users according to IMSI or TMSI is used when paging the MS ( Length IMSI = 2 TS.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR V.  When the CCCH block is used for paging it will be called “Paging Block”  The Paging Block consists of 4 consecutive Time slots lie in 4 consecutive frames.  The MS will monitor the incoming paging when the “Paging Group” assigned for this MS is transmitted only.  The CCCH block can be used by either PCH or AGCH.  In this way we save the MS battery and we decrease the UL interference on the system. Length TMSI=1TS)  The group of users belong to the same paging block will be called “Paging Group” Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

2010 . Monitor the Incoming Paging Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3 Frame 4 Frame 5 Frame 6 Frame 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 F S B B B B C F S 1 B C F S 9 C C F S C C F S C C F S C C I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Default Mapping on TS0/C0 (BCH+CCCH) “Non Combined Mode” 51 TDMA Frames = 1 Control Multi-frame Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR V.

Monitor the Incoming Paging Paging Groups  As appeared the MS will listen to paging in only specific times.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR V.  The MS will utilize the time between the 4 TS that lie in 4 consecutive frames to make the required measurements on the neighbor cells. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Default Mapping(Non Combined) BCH+CCCH on TS0/C0 and SDCCH+SACCH+CBCH on TS1/C0 CBCH doesn't exist 9 blocks for CCCH Non Default Mapping(Combined) BCH+CCCH+SDCCH+SACCH+CBCH on TS0/C0 CBCH doesn't exist 3 blocks for CCCH CBCH exist 9 blocks for CCCH CBCH exist 3 blocks for CCCH  The structure of the CCCH will depend on a parameter called AGBLK. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Monitor the Incoming Paging Paging Groups  As we said before the no.  If AGBLK=0  No Blocks are reserved for AGCH and we will have either 9 or 3 blocks assigned for Paging. 2010 .  If AGBLK=1  1 CCCH block will be reserved for AGCH and we will have either 8 or 2 blocks assigned for Paging.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR V. of the CCCH blocks will depend on either noncombined mode or combined mode is in use.

 Negative Side: Call setup time will increase coz may be paging come to the MS while it is still in the sleeping mode. Monitor the Incoming Paging Paging Groups  How many Paging Groups we have? This will depend on a parameter MFRMS  MFRMS is a parameter defined per cell and it defines how frequent the paging group assigned for certain MS will be transmitted.  If MFRMS=1 then the paging group assigned for certain MS will be transmitted every 1 control Multiframes=253 msec  If MFRMS=9 then the paging group assigned for certain MS will be transmitted every 9 control Multiframes = 9*253msec=2.3 seconds. 2010 .  If MFRMS is large:  Positive Side: The MS battery life time will increase coz the MS remains in sleeping mode for long time.  MFRMS takes values from 1 to 9. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR V.

 Setting of parameters will decide whether the paging will be local paging (within the LA) or global paging (within the MSC service area). Setting of parameters will decide also whether paging will be done via IMSI or TMSI. ex: If 1st paging was local with TMSI then we can set the 2nd paging to be global with IMSI.   Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 . Monitor the Incoming Paging Paging Strategies  Paging Strategies are controlled by parameters in the MSC.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR V. Using the parameters we can decide also how the second paging will be incase the first paging failed.

while the TCH channel is used to carry real user traffic (speech/data). and TS2TS7 used to carry speech/data Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. for the SDCCH/8 the GOS=0. 2010 . call setup.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR  Related Feature to the Idle Mode Behavior Adaptive Configuration of Logical Channels (ACLC)  As we know the SDCCH channel is used for signaling i. within 100 calls if 2 of them are blocked then this will be acceptable.e. TS0 is used to carry BCH+CCCH and TS1 used to carry SDCCH+SACCH.  As a rule of thumb GOS for TCH=2% i.5% and for the SDCCH/4 the GOS=1%  As we know in the default settings for frequency C0.e.

IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR  Related Feature to the Idle Mode Behavior Adaptive Configuration of Logical Channels (ACLC)  Now if the signaling load is high i. many users need to make call setup then high blocking will occur exceeding the allowed value 0.e.5%  To solve the blocking we have 2 ways: i) Static Configuration of a TCH TS to be used as SDCCH forever (Now TS1&TS2 used for SDDCH+SACCH and TS3TS7 used to carry speech/data)  But in this case we lost 1 TCH channel i. 5 users can talk simultaneously instead of 6 ii) Adaptive Configuration of a TCH TS to be used as SDCCH/8 when there is blocking only (Now TS1&TS2 used for SDDCH+SACCH and TS3TS7 used to carry speech/data)  But when there is no blocking (TS2 will be configured back automatically as a TCH and used to carry speech/data) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.e. 2010 .

No. of Idle TCHs > Total no. ACSTATE=ON 2. No. of TRXs (Frequencies) 4. 2010 . No. allowed configuration of SDCCHs in the cell.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR  Related Feature to the Idle Mode Behavior Adaptive Configuration of Logical Channels (ACLC)  Main Controlling Parameters:  ACSTATE: Activates/Deactivates the feature on cell basis.  The conditions that should be fulfilled for the ACLC feature to work: 1. of Idle SDCCH sub-channels below which the feature will work. values: ON/OFF  SLEVEL: No. of already defined SDCCH channels/8 < Max. of Idle TCHs > 4 or no. of Idle SDCCH sub-channels < SLEVEL (This is an indication for congestion) 3. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

4.7 Recommended Value 4 Unit ─ Control Channel Parameters Value Range COMB COMBC NCOMB 0 to 16 (0: No SDCCH/8 configured-combined mode) Recommended Value NCOMB 1 Unit ─ ─ IMSI Attach/Detach Parameters Parameter Name ATT Value Range Yes.IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR  Parameters Summary SCH Parameters Parameter Name BSIC Parameter Name MAXRET Parameter Name BCCHTYPE SDCCH Value Range NCC: 0 to 7 BCC: 0 to 7 Recommended Value ─ Unit ─ RACH Control Parameters Value Range 1.2. No Recommended Value Yes Unit ─ Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

2010 .IDLE MODE BEHAVIOR  Parameters Summary Paging Parameters and Periodic Update Parameter Name MFRMS Value Range 2 to 9 0 or 1 0 to 255 (0: infinite-No periodic registeration) Recommended Value 6 0 40 Unit Control Channel Multi frame ─ 6 minutes AGBLK T3212 Cell Selection and Reselection Parameters Parameter Name Value Range − 47 dBm to −110 dBm GSM900: 13 to 43 in steps of 2 GSM1800: 4 to 30 in steps of 2 0 to 63 0 to 7 (7:infinite) 0 to 31 0 to 14 in steps of 2 Recommended Value −110 dBm GSM900: 33 dBm GSM1800: 30 dBm 0 0 0 Unit dBm dBm ACCMIN CCHPWR CRO TO PT CRH 2 dB 10 dB dB Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Cell size control in-order to decrease total interference in the system. Assignment or Immediate Assignment.  Implemented where? In the BSC. ii.  Location process initiated when? After Hand Over (HO).Handover (Locating)  Handover (Locating) Algorithm  The Handover (Locating) Algorithm is the basic feature to provide mobility in the Radio Network.  Aims At? i. Keep the continuity of a current call with acceptable quality. 2010 . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

 Output from the Algorithm? List of candidates which the algorithm judges to be possible candidates for HO (List of HO candidates are ranked and sorted in descending order) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .Handover (Locating)  Handover (Locating) Algorithm  Inputs to the Algorithm? Signal Strength. Quality measurements &TA for serving cell and Signal Strength measurements for neighbor cells.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 . HO decision is taken based on both Signal Strength (SS) and Path Loss. uses less parameters and easy to be maintained in the Radio Network. SS based Algorithm: HO decision is taken based on Signal Strength only and this leads to better performance.Handover (Locating)  Handover (Locating) Algorithm  What types of Handover (locating) algorithm we have? i. ii. SS & Path Loss based Algorithm: Follows the GSM specifications.  It is less complex.

2010 .Handover (Locating)  Handover (Locating) Algorithm  The main Flow of the Handover (locating) Algorithm goes as follow: Initiation Filtering Basic Ranking Urgency Conditions Handling Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation Organizing the List Sending the List & Allocation Reply Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Filtering. Basic Ranking. Organizing the List. IV. VII. II. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 . III. VI. Initiation. Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation. Sending the List & Allocation Reply.Handover (Locating)  Handover (Locating) Algorithm I. V. Urgency Conditions Handling.

Intra Cell HO (IHO). 2010 . Handover: Normal. Sub-cell change (OLUL or ULOL) Assignment: Allocation of TCH channel after completing call setup on SDCCH.Handover (Locating) I. 3. or a TCH to make call setup on when no free SDCCH channels exist. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Immediate assignment: You are assigned SDCCH to make call setup. Initiation of the Handover (Locating) Process/Algorithm  The Locating Process is initiated when one of the following occurs: 1. 2.

Handover (Locating) I. TINIT will disable HO only. TINIT is a BSC parameter not a cell parameter and it measured in SACCH periods. Initiation of the Handover (Locating) Process/Algorithm  Handover on SDCCH can be enabled/disabled based on parameter SCHO  At initiation of Locating after successful HO.    Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. The reason is to leave the connection on the current channel for some time until the locating algorithm produces reliable results we can rely on. but Assignment on own or other cell will occur normally and will not wait TINIT till expired. 2010 . Assignment or Immediate assignment a timer TINIT starts which will disable HO for some time until it expires.

Quality and TA Filtering  1. This is accomplished in two steps: Measurements Preparation SS. 2. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Handover (Locating) II. Filtering  Simply it is the process of collecting the required data on Signal Strength (SS). Quality and Time Advance (TA) for serving and neighbor cells and average these consecutive measurements over a specified period to rank these cells. 2010 .

Filtering 1.Handover (Locating) II.  Measurements Preparation Data that is measured: Cell on which measurements are reported Serving Cell 6 Strongest neighbor cells Measured Quantity SS DL Quality DL (rxqual_DL) Quality UL (rxqual_UL) TA SS DL Who makes the measurements? MS MS BTS BTS MS  The MS can measure the SS of up to 32 neighbor frequencies but only the six strongest neighbors (which it succeeded to decode its BSIC over the last 10 seconds) are reported and considered candidates for HO. 2010 . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

N.B: If TA=1 then the MS is at nearly 0. Measurements Preparation SS measurements are delivered as integer values 0  63 corresponds to real SS from -110 dBm  .47 dBm Quality is measured based on the BER and it may be represented in two forms: Integers 0 (Best)  7 (Worst) Deci Transformed Quality Units (dtqu) from 0 (Best)  70 (Worst)  Time Advance (TA): is reported as values between 0  63 bit period. Filtering 1. 2010 .5 km from the cell Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Handover (Locating) II. ii.   i.

 SS. Recursive 1st Order Butterworth Filter E.Handover (Locating) II. General FIR Filters B. Filtering 2. Quality and TA are averaged in some way based on the equation of the filter used. Recursive Exponential Filter D. each one has its own equation or its way to produce output results from the collected consecutive measurements: A. We’ve 5 Types of Filters that may be used. Median Filter  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Recursive Straight Average Filter C. Quality and TA Filtering: The consecutive measurements for SS. 2010 .

each filter has what we call filter length which is the period over which measurements are considered. Quality and TA Filtering: In addition to the way each filter use to produce output results from the consecutive measurements. Also the type of the filter used in signaling (call setup) and dedicated phases may be configured separately as we’ll see.   Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .  SS.Handover (Locating) II. Filtering 2. We have controlling parameters on cell basis to select the type of filter used and the length of the filter.

Quality and TA Filtering: 2-i) Signal Strength Filters controlling parameters  SSEVALSI  Selects the Type of the filter that will be used during Signaling phase. SS.  SSLENSI  Selects the Length of the filter that will be used during Signaling phase. 2010 .Handover (Locating) II.  SSEVALSD  Selects the Type of the filter that will be used during Connection phase. Filtering 2.8 seconds Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.  SSLENSD  Selects the Length of the filter that will be used during Connection phase. N. if SSLENSD=10.B: SSLENSI & SSLENSD are measured in the form of SACCH periods. i.e.48 sec = 4. then the length of the filter during the connection phase = 10*0.

Quality and TA Filtering: 2-ii) Quality Filters controlling parameters  QEVALSI  Selects the Type of the filter that will be used during Signaling phase. SS.e.  QLENSI  Selects the Length of the filter that will be used during Signaling phase. i. Filtering 2. then the length of the filter during the connection phase = 10*0.48 sec = 4.8 seconds Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.  QLENSD  Selects the Length of the filter that will be used during Connection phase.  QEVALSD  Selects the Type of the filter that will be used during Connection phase.Handover (Locating) II. N.B: QLENSI & QLENSD are measured in the form of SACCH periods. 2010 . if QLENSD=10.

2010 . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. SS. Quality and TA Filtering: 2-iii) Time Advance (TA) controlling parameters  One single type of filters is used which is the Recursive Straight Average Filter and the length of the filter is specified by parameter TAAVELEN which is also measured in SACCH periods. Filtering 2.Handover (Locating) II.

EVALTYPE=3. 2010 .Handover (Locating) III. two algorithms are available for basic ranking (SS&Path loss based Algorithm and SS based Algorithm) and they’re selected according to the parameter EVALTYPE   EVALTYPE=1. SS & Path loss based Algorithm is used for basic ranking taking into consideration both Signal Strength measurements and the path loss. SS based Algorithm is used for basic ranking taking into consideration Signal Strength measurements only. Basic Ranking  It is called “Basic” coz in this stage ranking is done before handling the urgency conditions and evaluation of the auxiliary radio network features. As mentioned earlier.  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Handover (Locating) III. Common Evaluation of the minimum signal strength condition for neighbors. 2010 . A. Algorithms Rank the Candidates after applying Offsets and Hysteresis. Basic Ranking  Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm will be done on four steps: Correction of Base Station output power. B. C. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. for both Subtraction of signal strength penalties. D.

2010 . coz most of the time the seized TCH Time slot will be located on a TCH frequency. (A-ii) Correction for Serving Cell. Correction for the output power will done for both: (A-i) Correction for Neighbor Cells. Basic Ranking  A.Handover (Locating) III.  Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm Correction of Base Station output power The location algorithm aims at making the Pure Traffic Frequencies to control the cell borders and not the BCCH frequencies.    Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. BSPWR is a parameter to set the output power of the BCCH carrier And BSTXPWR is a parameter to set the output power of the TCH frequencies.

( BSPWR . Correction of Base Station output power (A-i) Correction for Neighbor Cells  The MS is informed by the BCCH frequencies of the neighbors cells on which he has to perform his measurements via Active BA list. Basic Ranking  Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm A. 2010 .  SS_corrected_DLneighbor = SS_measured_DLneighbor .BSTXPWR ) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Handover (Locating) III.

Handover (Locating) III. Basic Ranking  Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm A.BSTXPWR )/N .( BSPWR .( BSPWR .BSTXPWR ) 2) TCH TS is hopping between a BCCH frequency and a TCH frequency: SS_corrected_DLservingcell = SS_measured_DLservingcell . Where N is the no. of the hopping frequencies 3) TCH TS is on the OL (Over Laid sub cell) SS_corrected_DLUnderLaid = SS_measured_DLOverLaid+ ( BSTXPWR Under Laid – BSTXPWROverLaid ) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 . Correction of Base Station output power (A-ii) Correction for Serving Cell 1) TCH Time Slot (TS) is on the BCCH frequency SS_corrected_DLservingcell = SS_measured_DLservingcell .

Handover (Locating) III. 2010 . If SS_corrected_DLneighbor ≥ MSRXMIN  this neighbor will be included in ranking If SS_corrected_DLneighbor < MSRXMIN  this neighbor will be excluded from ranking If UL measurements are included then SS_corrected_ULneighbor will be compared with respect to parameter called BSRXMIN. Basic Ranking  B.  SS_corrected_DLneighbor will be compared with respect to parameter called MSRXMIN.   Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm Evaluation of the minimum Signal Strength condition for Neighbors Not all the neighbors are allowed to be ranked!! The neighbor should pass the minimum signal strength condition in order to be ranked. If SS_corrected_ULneighbor ≥ BSRXMIN  this neighbor will be included in ranking If SS_corrected_ULneighbor < BSRXMIN  this neighbor will be excluded from ranking  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

E&F.Handover (Locating) III. Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm Evaluation of the minimum Signal Strength condition for Neighbors Example: Assume that a MS is connected to cell A that has five neighbors B.D. 2010 . the MSRXMIN for all the cells is -104 dBm and the SS_corrected_DLneighbor for each cell after correcting the BTS o/p power is given in the below Table: Neighbors B C D E F SS_corrected_DLneighbor -85 dBm -110 dBm -87 dBm -70 dBm -100 dBm  Cell C will be excluded from ranking and won’t be considered in the next stage and the MS will never HO to it Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.C. Basic Ranking  B.

Handover (Locating) III. SS_punished_DL = SS_corrected_DL – Locating Penalties – HCS Penalties In the coming slides we’ll talk about the two types of penalties: (C-i) Locating Penalties (C-ii) HCS Penalties    Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.  Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm Subtraction of signal strength penalties Penalties or Punishments will be applied on cells that are for some reasons temporarily undesirable. 2010 . Basic Ranking  C. A Penalty value will decrease the rank of some cells for certain penalty time.

Subtraction of signal strength penalties (C-i) Locating Penalties 1) Due to HO failure: If HO to a neighbor cell failed then we’ve to apply a penalty value for some time on this neighbor so when basic ranking is done again we don’t go back to this cell. Basic Ranking  Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm C.Handover (Locating) III.  Penalty value will be configured using parameter PSSHF (default 63 dB)  Penalty time will be configured using parameter PTIMHF (default 5 sec) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

2010 . then it should have been the best cell from SS point of view so without penalties using the basic ranking we’ll be back to this cell. Subtraction of signal strength penalties (C-i) Locating Penalties 2) Due to Bad Quality (BQ) Urgency HO: If a cell was abandon due to BQ.  Penalty value will be configured using parameter PSSBQ (default 7 dB)  Penalty time will be configured using parameter PTIMBQ (default 5 seconds) 3)   Due to Excessive TA Urgency HO: Handled in the same manner like the BQ case. Penalty value will be configured using parameter PSSTA (default 63 dB) Penalty time will be configured using parameter PTIMTA (default 30 seconds) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Handover (Locating) III. Basic Ranking  Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm C.

Basic Ranking  Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm C.  A penalty will be applied on lower layer cells so in ranking we will prioritize cells in the same layer of the serving cell and cells in higher layers and in this way unnecessary HO’s are prevented ( ex: layer2 cells will be prioritized than layer1 cells) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Subtraction of signal strength penalties (C-ii) HCS Penalties  It is related to the HCS (Hierarchical Cell Structure) feature when a MS is detected as a fast moving mobile.Handover (Locating) III. 2010 .

2010 . Controlling parameter: OFFSET (default: zero dB)  Hysteresis: To reduce the risk of ping pong HO a region for Hysteresis is applied around the cell border.   Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm Rank the Candidates after applying Offsets and Hysteresis Ranking for neighbor cells will be done after applying Offsets and Hysteresis.Handover (Locating) III. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Offset: Displace the cell border as compared to the border strictly given by SS. Basic Ranking  D.

SS_corrected_DLservingcell will be compared to value HYSTSEP (default -90 dBm). So the applied value of Hysteresis will be variable based on the received SS of the serving cell.  If SS_corrected_DLservingcell > HYSTSEP. 2010 . then the serving cell is not strong enough and low value of Hysteresis will be applied such that Hysteresis value=LOHYST (default 3 dB)   Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. then the serving cell is strong enough and high value of Hysteresis will be applied such that Hysteresis value=HIHYST (default 5 dB)  If SS_corrected_DLservingcell < HYSTSEP. Basic Ranking  D.Handover (Locating) III.  Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm Rank the Candidates after applying Offsets and Hysteresis If the Hysteresis value is too high there will be a risk that the MS will be connected to the cell of low SS for long time and if the Hysteresis is too low then there will be a risk that ping pong HO’s occur.

Handover (Locating) III. Basic Ranking Algorithm following the SS based Algorithm Rank the Candidates after applying Offsets and Hysteresis SS_corrected_DLservingcell > HYSTSEP Yes HYST=HIHYST No HYST=LOHYST Output from Basic Ranking Rankservingcell = SS_corrected_Dlservingcell Rankneighbor= SS_punished_DLneighbor – OFFSETneighbor – HYSTneighbor Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Basic Ranking  D. 2010 .

We have two types of Urgency HO: Bad Quality (BQ) Urgency HO Excessive Time Advance (TA) Urgency HO If Urgency conditions are detected then the serving cell should be abandon as fast as possible. 2.  1.   As seen before. cells that were abandon due to Urgency HO will be subjected to punishment/penalty. but some of the neighbors will be removed from the candidate list and the MS will not be able to HO to them as we will see later. Urgency Conditions Handling  After the Basic Ranking stage a check is made on the serving cell to know if Urgency conditions are detected or not. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Handover (Locating) IV. 2010 .

but in this case the serving cell is the one that has the highest SS so the MS has to HO to a cell of worse SS. 2010 .Handover (Locating) IV.  Bad Quality (BQ) Urgency HO The Quality measured at the DL and UL for the serving cell will be compared with two parameters QLIMDL & QLIMUL (default 50 dtqu) and if: rxqual_DL > QLIMDL Or  Urgency HO due to BQ should be performed rxqual_UL > QLIMUL The Quality may drop like that as a result of Co-Channel Interference or when the SS became very low. Urgency Conditions Handling 1. but is the MS allowed to HO to any worse cell?   Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. When Urgency Condition is detected the MS has to leave the cell and make HO to other cell.

2010 .Handover (Locating) IV. If Rankservingcell – Rankneighbor < BQOFFSET+HYST. then this neighbor is near to the serving cell and it is not much worse than the serving cell and it can be candidate for HO.  Bad Quality (BQ) Urgency HO Is the MS allowed to HO to any worse cell? No. If Rankservingcell – Rankneighbor > BQOFFSET+HYST. this will be based on a parameter called BQOFFSET which will ensure that far neighbors won’t be selected. Urgency Conditions Handling 1. then this neighbor is far from the serving cell and it will be removed from the candidate list.   Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

RankC = -90 dBm . 2010 . HYST=0 dB))    Rankservingcell – RankB = 4dB < BQOFFSET= 5dB “Cell B is kept in the candidate list” Rankservingcell – RankC = 15dB > BQOFFSET= 5dB “Cell C is removed from the candidate list” Rankservingcell – RankD = 8dB > BQOFFSET=5dB “Cell D is removed from the candidate list” Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Bad Quality (BQ) Urgency HO Example: If Urgency condition is detected where Rankservingcell = -75 dBm and the neighbors: ((RankB = -79 dBm . Urgency Conditions Handling 1.Handover (Locating) IV. RankD = -87 dBm)) and ((BQOFFSET=5dB.

Handover (Locating) IV.  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.  Excessive Time Advance (TA) Urgency HO TA can be used as a measure for the distance between the BTS and the MS. If TA > TALIM (63 bit period)  Urgency HO due to TA is initiated. Urgency Conditions Handling 2. 2010 .

Handover (Locating)  After Basic Ranking and Evaluation of the Urgency Conditions. 2010 . the Serving Cell and Neighbor Cells will be divided into 3 Groups: Better Cell  Categorization #1 Serving Cell Worse Cell Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Handover (Locating) V. 2010 . Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation 1. some candidates will be removed from the HO candidate list and Categorization#2 will be performed. 4. 2. Assignment to Another Cell Evaluation Cell Load Sharing Evaluation Over Laid/Under Laid sub-cell Evaluation IHO Evaluation HCS Evaluation  After these Evaluations. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 5. 3.

If during the signaling phase a Better Cell was found after ranking then “Assignment to Better Cell” will be initiated.    Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation 1.  Assignment to Another Cell Evaluation The Locating Algorithm may be initiated after immediate assignment to know whether it is better for the MS to take a TCH time slot on the current cell or not. If the Better/Serving Cells were congested then “Assignment to Worse Cell” will be done. If during the signaling phase no better cell was found.Handover (Locating) V. 2010 . then the MS will normally be assigned a TCH time slot on the current cell.

Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation 1. this will be based on a parameter called AWOFFSET which will ensure that far neighbors won’t be selected.  Assignment to Another Cell Evaluation Is the MS allowed to take TCH time slot on any worse cell? No.Handover (Locating) V. If Rankservingcell – Rankneighbor > AWOFFSET. then this neighbor is near to the serving cell and it is not much worse than the serving cell and assignment to it can be done. then this neighbor is far from the serving cell and it will be removed from the candidate list. 2010 . Only if Rankservingcell – Rankneighbor < AWOFFSET.   Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. When CLS is activated and the load on the serving cell becomes higher than certain threshold then: Valid CLS HO candidates are defined Re-calculation of their ranking values will be performed.Handover (Locating) V.   i) ii) Cell Load Sharing (CLS) Evaluation This feature is used to reduce congestion on the serving cell. Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation 2. 2010 .

Cell Load Sharing (CLS) Evaluation Valid CLS HO candidates are defined as follow:  Worse cells: coz if they were better then they’ll be chosen at Basic Ranking  Load on neighbor cells < CLS load threshold  Internal cells: lies in the same BSC  Same Layer Re-calculation of their ranking values will be performed:  We’re going to recalculate the Ranking values of the valid CLS neighbors with reduced Hysteresis so these worse neighbors will appear with higher SS than they really are and the MS can make HO to them and relief the congestion on the current cell. ii. 2010 . Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation 2.Handover (Locating) V. i. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

   Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.  OL/UL Sub-Cell Evaluation The OL/UL feature provides a way of increasing the traffic capacity in a cellular network without building new sites.Handover (Locating) V. The OL/UL evaluation may result in a recommendation to change the subcell from the one currently in use. Distance to cell border. Since OL sub-cell serves smaller area than the corresponding UL sub-cell a smaller reuse distance can be used in in the OL sub-cell than in the under laid. Traffic Load in the cell This feature will be discussed in details afterwards. Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation 3. 2010 . this evaluation is based on: DL SS. TA Serving Cell.

Handover (Locating) V.  Intra Cell HO (IHO) Evaluation The IHO feature provides a way to improve the speech quality during the conservation when bad quality is detected while the SS is high. Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation 4. This is can be accomplished by changing the channel the connection is currently using within the same cell.  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

    Cells of lower layers will be ranked higher than cells of higher layers in the HO candidate list. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. We have 8 layers from layer 1 (Highly prioritized) to layer 8 (least prioritized). Auxiliary Radio Network Features Evaluation 5. Micro cells are prioritized than Macro cells for capacity purposes. The priority of a cell is given by associating a layer to the cell. 2010 .  Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS) Evaluation The HCS feature provides the possibility to give priority to cells that are not strongest but provide sufficient SS.Handover (Locating) V.

2010 .Handover (Locating)  After the Auxiliary Radio Network features evaluation some candidates may be prioritized and the order of the candidate list will be modified.  The Serving Cell and Neighbor Cells will be divided into 3 Groups: Above S  Categorization #2 Serving Cell (SC) Below S Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 . B.Handover (Locating) VI. Below S To reach the final form before sending the list the following steps will be done: Removal of Candidates Ordering the Candidate List based on the Current Conditions. Above S.  A. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Organizing the List  The final list will contain maximum up to Six Neighbors + The Serving Cell and categorized as follows: Serving Cell (SC).

Organizing the List A. 2010 .B: No penalties are applied on this cell)  TURGEN: This timer prevents HO on a target cell for some time after urgency HO failure due to congestion on target cell. Removal of Candidates  Some Candidates may be removed coz: Some Controlling timers are active and preventing HO to certain cell:  TALLOC: This timer prevents HO on a target cell for some time after assignment/HO failure due to congestion on target cell. (N.B: TALLOC and TURGEN are BSC parameters Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. N.Handover (Locating) VI.

2. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Condition Flags: Assignment Request Arrived Assignment to Worst Cell is in Use Excessive TA Detected BQ Urgency HO OL/UL Sub-Cell Load Change or IHO  1. 5. Organizing the List B. Below S) will be arranged before sending the candidate list.  Ordering the Candidate list based on the Current Conditions Means what? Means in what order the 3 categories (Above S. 3. 2010 .Handover (Locating) VI. This will be based on some condition flags. 4. S.

then Above S S Below S the serving cell is included coz this subcell change may solve the issue with no need to go for a below worse cell 3 Excessive TA Detected 4 BQ Urgency HO 5 OL/UL Sub-Cell Load Change or IHO Condition Flags: 1 Assignment Request Arrived 2 Assignment to Worst Cell is in Use Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Organizing the List B. 2010 .Handover (Locating) VI. Case 1 2 3 4 Ordering the Candidate list based on the Current Conditions 1 0 0 1 1 Condition Flags 2 3 4 x x 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 Ordering Above S Above S Below S Comment Normal Case Serving Cell has BQ so it should be abandon either to the Above S or Below S cell An Assignment request came and the AW flag is Above S S not raised An Assignment request came and the AW flag is Above S S Below S raised 5 0 x 0 1 1 Serving Cell has BQ so it should be abandon but coz the OL/UL subcell change flag is raised.

2010 . Empty list means that no options are better than remaining on the current cell and no HO will occur.     Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Based on the result of allocation either success/failure. The channel allocation reply may be success or failure. Sending the List & Allocation Reply  The resulting candidate list will form the basis on which HO will be performed.Handover (Locating) VII. some actions will be taken like applying some penalties or enabling of certain timers as we saw previously. Failure may be due to congestion or signaling failure on the target cell.

Cell A was abandon due to BQ urgency HO (PSSBQ=7dB) SS based Algorithm is in use where OFFSET=0. BSPWR = BSTXPWR. MSRXMIN = -90 dBm. LOHYST= 3 dB Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 . HYSTSEP= -90 dBm.Handover (Locating) Example: Assume that the o/p from the Filtering stage for the SS measurements is as below and we want to prepare the Basic Ranking Candidate list for HO: Cell A B (Serving Cell) C D E F G SS(dBm) -70 -74 -78 -68 -80 -92 -95 Where. HIHYST= 5 dB.

Cell SS(dBm) A B (Serving Cell) C D E F G Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Handover (Locating) Solution: A) Correction of Base Station output power:  Since BSPWR = BSTXPWR then the current measurements will be kept as it is. 2010 -70 -74 -78 -68 -80 -92 -95 .  SS_corrected_DLneighbor = SS_measured_DLneighbor  SS_corrected_DLserving = SS_measured_DLserving B) Evaluation of the minimum Signal Strength condition for Neighbors:  The SS for neighbors will be compared against MSRXMIN = -90 dBm Cell F and Cell G have SS < MSRXMIN then they will be removed from the list and can‟t be candidates for HO.

2010 .  SS_punished_DL Cell A = SS_corrected_DL – PSSBQ = -70 – 7 = -77 dBm  The candidate list will now be in the following form: Cell A B (Serving Cell) C D E SS(dBm) -77 -74 -78 -68 -80 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Handover (Locating) Solution: C) Subtraction of signal strength penalties:  Since Cell A was abandon due to BQ urgency HO (PSSBQ=7dB) then it will be punished.

Handover (Locating) Solution: D) Rank the Candidates after applying Offsets and Hysteresis  Since SSServing cell B = -74 dBm > HYSTSEP= -90 dBm. then it is better to stay on the current cell and high Hysteresis will be applied Cell SS(dBm) A -77  i. 2010 .e. HYST = HIHYST = 5 dB B (Serving Cell) C D E -74 -78 -68 -80      Rankservingcell B = -74 dBm  “Serving Cell” RankA= -77 dBm – OFFSET – HYST = -77 – 0 – 5 = -82 dBm RankC= -78 dBm – OFFSET – HYST = -78 – 0 – 5 = -83 dBm RankD= -68 dBm – OFFSET – HYST = -68 – 0 – 5 = -73 dBm RankE= -80 dBm – OFFSET – HYST = -80 – 0 – 5 = -85 dBm  “Worse Cell”  “Worse Cell”  “Better Cell”  “Worse Cell” Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .Handover (Locating) Solution: Now the final list according to Categorization#1 will be arranged as follows: Categorization#1 Cell D B A SS(dBm) -73 -74 -82 Category Better Cell Serving Cell Worse Cell C E -83 -85 Worse Cell Worse Cell Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 . The Disconnection algorithm manages when the connection between the MS and the Network shall be dropped when signaling failure is detected. the topic is treated here. The Disconnection criterion can be made in both the DL and the UL such that: In the DL: managed by the MS and In the UL: managed by the BSC     Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Handover (Locating)  Disconnection Criteria  The Disconnection algorithm is not part of the locating algorithm but for completeness.

the bucket will be increased by 2 units.B: The bucket can’t have values larger than the max. . if the bucket reached value = Zero then disconnection will occur. and the controlling parameter is called RLINKUP.48 sec). value given by RLINKT/RLINKUP  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. when the MS successfully decodes a SACCH message.Handover (Locating)  Disconnection Criteria  In DL:  Controlled by a parameter RLINKT (max. bucket size) . when the MS couldn’t decode a SACCH message (0. the BSC will make the evaluation. recommended value RLINKT=16  In UL:  The disconnection algorithm will run in the same way. recommended value RLINKUP=16 N. the bucket will be decreased by 1 unit. 2010 .

Handover (Locating)  Parameters Summary Algorithm Selection Parameter Name EVALTYPE Value Range 1 or 3 Recommended Value 3 Unit ─ Flow Control Parameters Parameter Name TINIT TALLOC TURGEN Value Range 0 to 120 0 to 120 0 to 120 Recommended Value 10 2 2 Unit SACCH period=480 msec SACCH period=480 msec SACCH period=480 msec Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Handover (Locating)  Parameters Summary Filtering Control Parameters Parameter Name SSEVALSI SSEVALSD QEVALSI QEVALSD SSLENSI SSLENSD QLENSI QLENSD TAAVELEN Value Range 1 to 9 1 to 9 1 to 9 1 to 9 1 to 20 1 to 20 1 to 20 1 to 20 1 to 20 Recommended Value 6 6 6 6 4 10 4 10 4 Unit ─ ─ ─ ─ SACCH period=480 msec SACCH period=480 msec SACCH period=480 msec SACCH period=480 msec SACCH period=480 msec Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

2010 .Handover (Locating)  Parameters Summary Signal Strength based Basic Ranking Parameters Parameter Name HYSTSEP LOHYST HIHYST OFFSET Value Range −150 to 0 0 to63 0 to63 −63 to 63 Recommended Value -90 3 3 0 Unit dBm dB dB dB Handover Failure Parameters (Signaling Failure) Parameter Name PSSHF PTIMHF Value Range 0 to 63 0 to 600 Recommended Value 63 5 Unit dB Seconds Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .577msec) dB Seconds Disconnection Algorithm Parameters Parameter Name RLINKT RLINKUP Value Range 4 to 64 in steps of 4 1 to 63 Recommended Value 16 16 Unit SACCH period=480 msec SACCH period=480 msec Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Handover (Locating)  Parameters Summary Urgency Conditions Parameters Parameter Name QLIMUL QLIMDL BQOFFSET PSSBQ PTIMBQ TALIM PSSTA PTIMTA Value Range 0 to 100 0 to 100 0 to 63 0 to 63 0 to 600 0 to 63 0 to 63 0 to 600 Recommended Value 55 55 3 7 15 62 63 30 Unit dtqu dtqu dB dB Seconds Bit Period (0.

2010 .Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

 The lower the layer ( and the HCS band). layer 5.. the priority is higher. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. layer 4.Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm  HCS feature provides the ability and flexibility to give priority to cells that are not strongest but provide sufficient Signal Strength.e. …..  The priority of a cell is given by associating an HCS layer to the cell where each cell will be belonging to an HCS band. …. 2010 .  Up to 8 layers (in up to 8 bands) may be defined. layer 1 has higher priority than layer 2. layer 4. layer 2 has higher priority than layer 3. layer 3. i. where one or several layers can be assigned to the same HCS band.

2010 .  A mixture of small micro cells (lower layers) and large macro (higher layers) cells will achieve both high capacity and good coverage.  Micro cells will be used for capacity issues while macro cells will be used to provide coverage. fill coverage holes and handle the fast moving mobiles.Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm  The lower HCS bands will only include lower layers compared to a higher HCS bands. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm  With Basic Ranking only. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. so to let micro cells serve in an area where acceptable SS is guaranteed then HCS should be used. 2010 . micro cells will be ranked as the strongest server in very small area.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.  HCSBANDTHR: Decides if the cell should be prioritized over stronger cells from different HCS bands or not.  But how to decide if the lower layer cell has sufficient SS to be prioritized over strongest cells?  This will be according to two thresholds LAYERTHR (Layer Threshold) and HCSBANDTHR (HCS Band Threshold)  LAYERTHR: Decides if the cell should be prioritized over stronger cells lie in the same HCS band or not.Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm  The idea with a layered cell structure is to let lower layer cells serve MSs that receive sufficient SS even if there is other cells with strongest received SS in the area. 2010 .

2010 .  HCS prioritized list: will include cells that fulfilled the HCS conditions & rules and will be ranked according to HCS evaluation (layered ranking)  Basic Ranking list: will include cells that didn’t fulfill the HCS conditions and will be ranked according to basic ranking rules (SS ranking) Input Basic Ranking List HCS Evaluation Algorithm Output HCS Prioritized Cell List Basic Ranking List Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.  The output will be in the form of two lists: HCS prioritized list (on Top) then Basic Ranking list.Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm  The input to the HCS Evaluation Algorithm is the Basic Ranking list we prepared from the locating process.

2010 .Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm  Mechanism of the HCS Algorithm Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm  Mechanism of the HCS Algorithm (A) Band Evaluation:  In order to be a candidate in the HCS evaluation process.  N.  Cells that will fulfill the criterion will pass to the next step in the HCS Evaluation. then the SS of serving and neighbor cells should be greater than their band threshold ( HCSBANDTHR )  SSservingcell > HCSBANDTHRservingcell – HCSBANDHYSTservingcell  SSneigbhorcell > HCSBANDTHRneighborcell + HCSBANDHYSTneighborcell  Cells that will not fulfill the above condition will go to be sorted in the Basic Ranking list in priority order according to SS. 2010 . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.B: HCSBANDTHR and HCSBANDHYST are BSC Parameters.

Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm  Mechanism of the HCS Algorithm (B) Define the strongest Cell (SS) in each Band  Cells that passed the band evaluation in step (A) will be moved to the next step.  Strongest cells  will pass direct to be HCS Ranked  The rest of cells that are not strongest within the band will be moved to Step(C) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. the strongest cells in each Band from SS point of view will be identified.  In this stage. 2010 .

Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm  Mechanism of the HCS Algorithm (C) Layer Threshold Evaluation  Cells that passed the band evaluation in step (A) and they are not strongest within their own band. their SS will be checked against the Layer threshold (LAYERTHR)  SSservingcell > LAYERTHRservingcell – LAYERHYSTservingcell  SSneigbhorcell > LAYERTHRneighborcell + LAYERHYSTneighborcell  Cells that will not fulfill the above condition will go to be sorted in the Basic Ranking list in priority order according to SS. 2010 .  Cells that will fulfill the criterion will pass to the next step in the HCS Evaluation Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

 Cells that are not strongest within their own layer will be moved to the next step. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm  Mechanism of the HCS Algorithm (D) Identify the Strongest Cells within each layer  Now we will deal with cells that passed the band evaluation (in Step A) and they were not strongest within their own band (in Step B) and they passed the layer threshold condition (in Step C)  Cells that are strongest within their own layer will be identified and they’ll pass direct to be HCS ranked.

Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm  Mechanism of the HCS Algorithm (E) Check how many cells from each layer are allowed to pass to be HCS ranked  Now we will deal with cells that passed the band evaluation (in Step A) and they were not strongest within their own band (in Step B) and they passed the layer threshold condition (in Step C) and they are not strongest within their own band (in step D)  MAXCELLSINLAYER: will identify how many cells from each layer can pass to be HCS ranked. if SS_Strongest Celllayer x . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.e. 2010 .SS_next strongest celllayer x<MAXDBDEVINLAYER then the next strongest cell is not weak and it will pass to be HCS ranked. ex: if MAXCELLSINLAYER = 2 then two cells only are allowed to pass to be HCS ranked.  MAXDBDEVINLAYER: will identify how the next strongest cell in the layer is far from the strongest cell in the layer.  i.

then layer2 cells. …… and these cells will form an HCS Prioritized List that will lie on Top. 2010 .e. will go to be sorted in a Basic Ranking List and this list will lie after the HCS Prioritized List.Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm  Mechanism of the HCS Algorithm (F) Form the Final list  Now all cells that succeeded to pass to be HCS ranked.  All cells that failed to pass to be HCS Ranking. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.  i. will be sorted in ascending order according to their layer not SS (as in Basic Ranking). layer1 cells.

2010 . MAXCELLSINLAYER = 3. where for all cells have HCSBANDTHR = .90 dBm. HCSBANDHYST= LAYERHYST= 0. LAYERTHR = .80 dBm. MAXDBDEVINLAYER = 3 Cell G E B (Serving) A C F D SS(dBm) -68 -72 -73 -74 -75 -75 -95 Band Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Layer Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 7 Layer 4 Layer 4 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm Example: Assume that the output from the Basic Ranking is as below.

2010 . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. so it will be out of the HCS evaluation and it will go to be sorted in the Basic Ranking List. then the SS of serving and neighbor cells should be greater than their band threshold(HCSBANDTHR)     SSservingcell > HCSBANDTHRservingcell – HCSBANDHYSTservingcell SSneigbhorcell > HCSBANDTHRneighborcell + HCSBANDHYSTneighborcell HCSBANDTHRservingcell = HCSBANDTHRneighborcell = -90 dBm HCSBANDHYSTservingcell = HCSBANDHYSTneighborcell = 0 dBm Cell G E B (Serving) A C F D SS(dBm) -68 -72 -73 -74 -75 -75 -95 Band Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Layer Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 7 Layer 4 Layer 4  Cell D didn’t fulfill the condition (SS_CellD = -95 dBm < -90 dBm).Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm Solution: (A) Band Evaluation: In order to be a candidate in the HCS Evaluation Process.

C&F will be examined in the next steps.  Strongest cells  will pass direct to be HCS Ranked Cell SS(dBm) Band G E B A C F D -68 -72 -73 -74 -75 -75 -95 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Layer Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 7 Layer 4 Layer 4 Comment Strongest in Band 8 .Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm Solution: (B) Define the strongest Cell (SS) in each Band  Cells that passed the band evaluation in step (A) will be moved to the next step. while cells E. the strongest cells in each Band from SS point of view will be identified.Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Will go to the next step: Layer Evaluation Will go to the next step: Layer Evaluation Will go to the next step: Layer Evaluation Out of the HCS Evaluation – Back to the Basic Ranking list    Now Cells G & B will go direct to be HCS evaluated. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.A. 2010 .Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Will go to the next step: Layer Evaluation Strongest in Band 4 .  In this stage.

Will go to the next step SS > LAYERTHR = -80 dBm. Will go to the next step Strongest in Band 4 . their SS will be checked against the Layer threshold (LAYERTHR) if  SSservingcell > LAYERTHRservingcell – LAYERHYSTservingcell  SSneigbhorcell > LAYERTHRneighborcell + LAYERHYSTneighborcell  LAYERTHRservingcell = LAYERTHRneighborcell = .A. 2010 . Will go to the next step Out of the HCS Evaluation – Back to the Basic Ranking list    Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.C&F that are not strongest within their own band.80 dBm  LAYERHYSTservingcell = LAYERHYSTneighborcell = 0 dBm Cell SS(dBm) Band Layer Comment G E B A C F D -68 -72 -73 -74 -75 -75 -95 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 7 Layer 4 Layer 4 Strongest in Band 8 .Go direct to HCS Evaluation list SS > LAYERTHR = -80 dBm.Go direct to HCS Evaluation list SS > LAYERTHR = -80 dBm.Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm Solution: (C) Layer Threshold Evaluation: Cells E. Will go to the next step SS > LAYERTHR = -80 dBm.

Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 7 Not Strongest in Layer-Will be examined in the next step Layer 4 Not Strongest in Layer-Will be examined in the next step Layer 4 Out of the HCS Evaluation – Back to the Basic Ranking list      Cells E&A are strongest within their own layer so they will go direct to be HCS ranked.  Cells C&F are not the strongest within their own layer.Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 3 Strongest in Layer 3 .Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm Solution: (D) Identify the Strongest Cells within each layer  After Cells E. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. so they will be examined in the next step to know if they can pass to be HCS ranked or not.A.Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 6 Strongest in Layer 6 . Cells that are strongest within their own layer will be identified and they‟ll pass direct to be HCS ranked.Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 4 Strongest in Band 4 . Cell SS(dBm) Band Layer Comment G E B A C F D -68 -72 -73 -74 -75 -75 -95 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Layer 7 Strongest in Band 8 .C&F all of them passed the layer threshold condition (LAYERTHR). 2010  .

e. 2010 . if SS_Strongest Celllayer x . i. then the next strongest cell is not weak and it will pass to be HCS ranked. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.SS_next strongest celllayer x< MAXDBDEVINLAYER = 3 dB.  MAXDBDEVINLAYER: will identify how the next strongest cell in the layer is far from the strongest cell in the layer.Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm Solution: (E) Check how many cells from each layer are allowed to pass to be HCS ranked  MAXCELLSINLAYER: will identify how many cells from each layer can pass to be HCS In our example MAXCELLSINLAYER = 3 then three cells only are allowed to pass to be HCS ranked.

Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)
 HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Solution: (E) Check how many cells from each layer are allowed to pass to be HCS ranked  Cell C:  Check1: Lies in layer 7 and ranked as the 2nd strongest cell in the layer and since 3 cells are allowed to be ranked according to MAXCELLSINLAYER then Check1 is passed.  Check2: Is SS_strongest celllayer 7-SS_next strongest celllayer 7 < MAXDBDEVINLAYER=3dB?!  SSCell G - SSCell C = -68-(-75) = 7 dB > MAXDBDEVINLAYER=3dB, then Check2 failed.
Cell SS(dBm) Band Layer
G E B A C F D
-68 -72 -73 -74 -75 -75 -95 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4

Comment

Layer 7 Strongest in Band 8 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 6 Strongest in Layer 6 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 4 Strongest in Band 4 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 3 Strongest in Layer 3 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 7 Out of the HCS Evaluation – Back to the Basic Ranking list Layer 4 Layer 4 Out of the HCS Evaluation – Back to the Basic Ranking list

     

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010

Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)
 HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Solution: (E) Check how many cells from each layer are allowed to pass to be HCS ranked  Cell F:  Check1: Lies in layer 4 and ranked as the 2nd strongest cell in the layer and since 3 cells are allowed to be ranked according to MAXCELLSINLAYER then Check1 is passed.  Check2: Is SS_strongest celllayer 4-SS_next strongest celllayer 4 < MAXDBDEVINLAYER=3dB?!  SSCell G - SSCell C = -73-(-75) = 2 dB < MAXDBDEVINLAYER=3dB, then Check2 is passed.
Cell SS(dBm) Band Layer
G E B A C F D
-68 -72 -73 -74 -75 -75 -95 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 4 Band 4

Comment

Layer 7 Strongest in Band 8 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 6 Strongest in Layer 6 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 4 Strongest in Band 4 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 3 Strongest in Layer 3 - Go direct to HCS Evaluation list Layer 7 Out of the HCS Evaluation – Back to the Basic Ranking list Layer 4 2nd Strongest in Layer4-Go to HCS Evaluation list Layer 4 Out of the HCS Evaluation – Back to the Basic Ranking list

      

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010

Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)
 HCS Evaluation Algorithm
Solution: (F) Form the Final list  Now all cells that succeeded to pass to be HCS ranked, will be sorted in ascending order according to their layer not SS (as in Basic Ranking) i.e. layer1 cells, then layer2 cells, …… and these cells will form an HCS Prioritized List that will lie on Top.  All cells that failed to pass to be HCS Ranking, will go to be sorted in a Basic Ranking List and this list will lie after the HCS Prioritized List.
Cell
A B(Serving) F E G C D

SS(dBm) Band
-74
-73 -75 -72 -68 -75 -95

Layer
Layer 3
Layer 4 Layer 4 Layer 6 Layer 7 Layer 7 Layer 4

Comment
HCS Prioritized List (Layer Ranking)

Band 4
Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4

Final List

Basic Ranking List (SS Ranking)

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010

Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)
 HCS Evaluation Algorithm
 Mechanism of the HCS Algorithm

 HCS Traffic Distribution Concept
 This feature is useful In order to control the traffic distribution between cells.  If this feature is active then some cells that were prioritized due HCS Ranking (layer ranking) will be removed if they already have enough traffic.

 HCSTRAFDISSTATE: Is a BCS Parameter that shows if HCS Traffic Distribution is enabled within the cells in the BCS or not.  If the HCS traffic distribution is allowed then two checks will be made: (i) Check on the serving cell’s availability vs. parameter on cell level called HCSOUT (ii) Check on the neighbor cells’ availability vs. parameter on cell level called HCSIN − The Availability means: the percentage of Free (non-occupied) Time Slots.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010

Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)
 HCS Evaluation Algorithm
 Mechanism of the HCS Algorithm

 HCS Traffic Distribution Concept
(i) Check on the serving cell’s availability:  If AvailabilityServingCell > HCSOUT, then this cells has too many free Time slots and it is not preferred to leave this cell.

(ii)

Check on the neighbor cell’s availability:  If AvailabilityneighborCell < HCSIN, then this cells has few free Time slots and it can’t accept HO’s due to HCS prioritization.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010

Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)
 HCS Evaluation Algorithm

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010

Assume HCSOUT=50%. HCSIN=30%.Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm    I) Example: When HCS Traffic Distribution is enabled (AvailabilityServingCell < HSCOUT) After ordinary HCS evaluation we formed the below list from the previous example. while all other cells have availability = 45 % What will be the final list form ? Cell A B(Serving) Final F List E G C D  SS(dBm) -74 -73 -75 -72 -68 -75 -95 Band Band 4 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Layer Layer 3 Layer 4 Layer 4 Layer 6 Layer 7 Layer 7 Layer 4 Comment HCS Prioritized List (Layer Ranking) Basic Ranking List (SS Ranking) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Availability of Cell B (serving) = 40% and availability of Cell F (neighbor cell) = 10% only. 2010 .

 Availability of Neighbor Cell F=10% < HCSIN (30%).Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm Solution:  Availability of Serving Cell (B) = 40% < HCSOUT (50%). Cell A B(Serving) Final F List E G C D SS(dBm) -74 -73 -75 -72 -68 -75 -95 Band Band 4 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Layer Layer 3 Layer 4 Layer 4 Layer 6 Layer 7 Layer 7 Layer 4 Comment HCS Prioritized List (Layer Ranking) Basic Ranking List (SS Ranking) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. then the serving cell has few free Time Slots and we can leave this cell i. outgoing HO from this cell is enabled.e. 2010 . then this cell can‟t accept HO‟s due to HCS prioritization coz it has few free TS i.e. this cell is congested.  This cell will be removed from the HCS prioritized list and it will be moved to the Basic Ranking List.

Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm Solution:  The final list will be as below: Cell A B(Serving) E Final List G F C D SS(dBm) -74 -73 -72 -68 -75 -75 -95 Band Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Band 8 Band 4 Layer Layer 3 Layer 4 Layer 6 Layer 7 Layer 4 Layer 7 Layer 4 Comment HCS Prioritized List (Layer Ranking) Basic Ranking List (SS Ranking) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

2010 .Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm II) Example:  when HCS Traffic Distribution is enabled (AvailabilityServingCell > HSCOUT)  If the serving cell has a channel availability above HCSOUT it is considered to be taking too little traffic so it is decided to not allow handovers out due to HCS from the cell.  Instead all the remaining HCS prioritized candidate cells. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. will be basic ranked among themselves and added to a “Prioritized basic ranked cells list” that will be put above the other basic ranked cells in the final candidate list. fulfilling the HCSIN criterion and that are in a lower layer or in the same layer as the serving cell.

Assume HCSOUT=50%. HCSIN=30%. Availability of Cell B (serving) = 60% and availability of Cell F (neighbor cell) = 10% only. 2010 . while all other cells have availability = 45% What will be the final list form ? Cell A B(Serving) Final F List E G C D SS(dBm) -74 -73 -75 -72 -68 -75 -95 Band Band 4 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Layer Layer 3 Layer 4 Layer 4 Layer 6 Layer 7 Layer 7 Layer 4 Comment HCS Prioritized List (Layer Ranking) Basic Ranking List (SS Ranking) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm     II) Example: when HCS Traffic Distribution is enabled (AvailabilityServingCell > HSCOUT) After ordinary HCS evaluation we formed the below list from the previous example.

then the serving cell has Too many Time slots and HO out from this cell due to HCS is not allowed.D. they are of higher layers than the serving cells.  Availability of Neighbor Cell F=10% < HCSIN (30%). then this cell can‟t accept HO‟s due to HCS prioritization coz it has few free TS i. 2010 .  Cells E&G are layers 6&7 respectively i.e.  These cells will be removed from the HCS prioritized list and it will be moved to the Basic Ranking List.e.E.F&G will be ranked according to SS  “Basic Ranking list” Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.  This cell will be removed from the HCS prioritized list and it will be moved to the Basic Ranking List.Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm Solution:  Availability of Serving Cell (B) = 60% > HCSOUT (50%). this cell is congested.  Now cells A&B will be ranked according to SS  “Prioritized Basic Ranking list” cells C.

Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm Solution: Cell A B(Serving) Final F List E G C D SS(dBm) -74 -73 -75 -72 -68 -75 -95 Band Band 4 Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Layer Layer 3 Layer 4 Layer 4 Layer 6 Layer 7 Layer 7 Layer 4 Comment HCS Prioritized List (Layer Ranking) Basic Ranking List (SS Ranking) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

2010 .Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm Solution:  The final list will be as below: Cell B(Serving) A G E F C D SS(dBm) -73 -74 -68 -72 -75 -75 -95 Band Band 4 Band 4 Band 8 Band 8 Band 4 Band 8 Band 4 Layer Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 4 Layer 7 Layer 4 Comment Prioritized Basic Ranking List Final List Basic Ranking List (SS Ranking) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm  Optimizing a problematic Traffic Case:  Assume we have the below case with 3 Macro cells (layer 4) and 1 Micro cell (layer2) and all of them belong to the same HCS band. how could we solve this case? Macro Cell (L4) Macro Cell (L4) Micro Cell (L2) Macro Cell (L4) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. HCSBAND 1  One of the Macro cells carries very high traffic and it is about to congest. 2010 .

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. so the micro cell will capture more traffic from the congested macro cell.Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm Solution 1:  Direct more Traffic to the Micro Cell  We can decrease the LAYERTHR of the Micro cell (Layer 2) from -75dBm to 80dBm for example. 2010 .

Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm Solution 2:  Direct more Traffic to the Adjacent Macro Cells  We can increase the Layer of the congested Macro cell (Layer 4  Layer 5) so it will appear less prioritized with respect to the adjacent neighbor cells and it will offload its traffic to them. 2010 . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm Solution 3:  Direct more Traffic to one of the Adjacent Macro Cells  We can decrease the Layer of one of the adjacent Macro cell (Layer 4  Layer 3) so it will appear more prioritized with respect to the congested cell and it will capture some of its traffic. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

 Highest priority is given for the strongest cell regardless of its layer.  The stronger cells according to Basic Ranking in all higher layers within the same system type are given priority. of HOs >NHO (default=3) in time window THO (default=30sec) then MS is considered as fast moving MS. a penalty PSSTEMP (0 to 63) is applied for a time PTIMTEMP (0 to 600s) on all neighbor cells within the current system type and all cells in other system types. 2010 . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.2&3 while 900 candidates are in Layers 4&5.Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  HCS Evaluation Algorithm Fast Moving MSs  If cell parameter FASTMSREG is “ON” and MS made no. if the MS is considered as fast in layer1. then candidates in layers 2&3 of higher basic ranking than the serving cell are given priority.  To prevent HO back to lower layer cells.  For Example:  1800 candidates are in Layers 1.

Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  Parameters Summary HCS Algorithm Control Parameters Parameter Name HCSBAND HCSBANDTHR HCSBANDHYST LAYER LAYERTHR LAYERHYST MAXCELLSINLAYER MAXDBDEVINLAYER HCSTRAFDISSTATE HCSIN HCSOUT Value Range 1 to 8 1 150 to 0 0 to 63 1 to 8 2 150 to 0 0 to 63 1 to 31 0 to 63 0.1 0 to100 0 to100 Default Value 2 95 2 2 75 2 1 3 0 0 100 Recommended Value 2 ─ Unit ─ 2 ─ ─ dBm (–ve) dB ─ 2 1 3 1 ─ ─ dBm (–ve) dB dB ─ % %  For reduced HCS functionality we have only 2 bands HCS Band1 and HCS Band2 (default)  For reduced HCS functionality we have only 3 layers Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  Traffic Capacity of a cellular network can be increased by either adding more frequencies or reducing the frequency reuse distance. 2010 . then Network capacity is increased.  Now by having more frequencies per cell. so shorter reuse distance can be accomplished without causing Co-channel/Adjacent channel interference.  One approach is to apply a second frequency reuse pattern with a tighter frequency reuse (Overlay) on the existing pattern.  They are termed Overlaid (OL) Sub-cells. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.  These cells should be restricted in size. whereas the original cells will be called Under laid (UL) Sub-cells.

the frequencies in the OL sub-cell can have tighter frequency reuse. while traffic close to the cell border to be moved to the UL sub-cell.Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  The fundamental idea behind the OL/UL sub-cells is to let the traffic close to the site to be moved to the OL sub-cell.  In that way of treading the traffic. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

cell B has frequencies: f3&f4 and now cell A has increase in the traffic. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells) Example:  Assume that cell A has frequencies: f1&f2.  Now high Co-channel interference will occur on f4 at the border between the two cells. 2010 . so we‟re going to assign cell A frequency f4 also. coz f4 is reused between two adjacent cells.

Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  Using the OL/UL concept we can solve the case as follows:  f4 will be used in the OL sub-cell and it will be restricted to serve in a small area only near to the site so interference from the neighbor cell will be minimized and a good C/I can be enjoyed. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Path Loss Threshold B. 2010 . Distance to Cell Border Threshold  With the ordinary OL/UL sub-cells. Timing Advance Threshold C. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  To maintain the service area of the OL sub-cell restricted to a certain region we have three thresholds we can play with: A. we can configure the cell to use the OL as the preferred sub-cell initially and when traffic on the OL increased beyond certain load. the MS near the cell will camp on the overlaid sub-cell but even if the OL sub-cell got congested there is no way to push traffic to the UL sub-cell and blocking will occur.  Using Sub-cell Load Distribution (SCLD) Concept. any extra traffic will be offloaded to the UL sub-cell.

Time Advance and Distance to cell border. 2010 .BTS power reduction) –Received_SS_DLfiltered BSTXPWR: BTS output power for the TCH frequencies. DL Path Loss L will be checked vs. OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Deactivated  As we stated before. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.     Path Loss Criterion: Controlling Parameters are the path Loss threshold LOL and the path Loss hysteresis LOLHYST DL Path Loss L=(BSTXPWR . A.Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  Algorithm I. the service area of the OL sub-cell can be defined based on one of three criteria: Path Loss. LOL (Path Loss Threshold) and LOLHYST to know whether a sub-cell change from OLUL or ULOL is needed.

Time Advance Criterion:  Time Advance can be used as a measure for the distance between the BTS and MS. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  Algorithm I.  Controlling Parameters are the Time Advance Threshold TAOL and the Time Advance Hysteresis TAOLHYST  The “ta” of the MS will be measured via BTS and checked vs. 2010 . OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Deactivated B. TAOL and TAOLHYST to know whether sub-cell change is needed or not.

2010 .Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  Algorithm I. Distance to Cell Border Criterion:  DTCBSC: Is a BSC parameter that enables/disables the Distance to Cell Border Evaluation Criterion on whole cells on the BSC. where this strongest neighbor should meet the following: Non Co-sited. OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Deactivated C. Same HCS Layer. Same System Type (900/1800).  Controlling Parameters are the Distance to Cell Border Threshold DTCB and the Distance to Cell Border Hysteresis DTCBHYST The Cell Border is defined as the difference between the Received_SSServingCell and the Received_SSStrongest Neighbor .  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

the serving cell should have number of neighbor cells > NNCELLS (if NNCELLS=2. OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Deactivated C. at least 2 neighbor cells) that are measured by the MS having enough SS such that: Received_SSServingCell .Received_SSStrongest Neighbor will be checked vs.  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. NDIST is a threshold measured in dBs.  But for the evaluation to be triggered (initiated). DTCB and DTCBHYST to see whether sub-cell change is needed or not.Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  Algorithm I. Distance to Cell Border Criterion:  Received_SSServingCell .Received_SSNeighbor < DTCB+DTCBHYST+NDIST where. 2010 .

Same HCS Layer Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Same HCS Layer But as mentioned before. Same Type.SSNeighbor < DTCB .SSNeighbor < DTCB + DTCBHYST + NDIST Non Co-sited. Same Type. of neighbor cells ≥ NNCELLS should be reported meeting the following equation: SSServing . No.DTCBHYST Strongest. 2010 . OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Deactivated OL  UL Sub-cell change: for a sub-cell change from OL  UL then one of the following should be fulfilled. for this evaluation to be initiated then. Non Co-sited.Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  Algorithm I.  L (Path Loss) > LOL + LOLHYST “OR”  ta (Time Advance) ≥ TAOL + TAOLHYST “OR”  SSServing .

Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  Algorithm I.TAOLHYST “and”  SSServing . Same HCS Layer Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. of neighbor cells ≥ NNCELLS should be reported meeting the following equation: SSServing . No. Same Type. Same HCS Layer But as mentioned before. Non Co-sited. 2010 .LOLHYST “and”  ta (Time Advance) < TAOL .SSNeighbor ≥ DTCB + DTCBHYST Strongest.SSNeighbor < DTCB + DTCBHYST + NDIST Non Co-sited.  L (Path Loss) ≤ LOL . Same Type. OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Deactivated UL  OL Sub-cell change: for a sub-cell change from UL  OL then one of the following should be fulfilled. for this evaluation to be initiated then.

2010 .Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  Algorithm I.  ULOL: Time Advance & Distance to Cell Border Conditions will always be met and so the Path Loss only LOL will control the evaluation.B:  If parameter TAOL is set to its maximum value = 61 bit periods and DTCB is set to its minimum value = . OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Deactivated  N.63 dB then the OL/UL sub-cell change will only be controlled by the path loss using LOL coz:  OLUL: Time Advance & Distance to cell border conditions will never be met and so the Path Loss only using LOL will control the evaluation. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Same Type. Non Co-sited. the sub-cell which will carry traffic first. 2010 . (Activated by setting cell parameter SCLD = ON)  SCLDSC: Is a cell parameter used to define the preferred cell in allocation whether UL or OL i.Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  Algorithm II. OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Activated  A sub-cell load distribution is used to control the traffic between the OL/UL sub-cells.  L < LOL – LOLHYST and ta < TAOL – TAOLHYST and  SSServing .e.  But if the OL sub-cell is the preferred one. if SCLDSC=OL. then the below conditions should be met otherwise a TCH on the UL sub-cell will be allocated.SSNeighbor < DTCB + DTCBHYST + NDIST Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. of neighbor cells ≥ NNCELLS should be reported meeting the following equation: SSServing . Same HCS Layer No. i.SSNeighbor ≥ DTCB + DTCBHYST Strongest. so if the initially preferred cell got congested we will try to allocate resources in the other sub-cell.e.

Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  Algorithm II. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 . Example:  If serving cell is the OL sub-cell and the following occur Percentage of idle TCHs in the OL sub-cell < SCLDLOL and Percentage of idle TCHs in the UL sub-cell > SCLDLUL  then sub-cell change from OLUL due to SCLD will occur. OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Activated  A sub-cell change may occur due to load based on the settings of the parameters SCLDLUL an SCLDLOL.

2010 . OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Activated  A sub-cell change may occur due to load based on the settings of the parameters SCLDLUL an SCLDLOL Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  Algorithm II.

Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  Algorithm II. MSs that are near to cell border. then the MSs with the low path loss will be chosen first i. A part from the sub-cell change due to SCLD.e. MSs that are near to the site.e. as we mentioned before the MS can also request to move from OL  UL because of path loss. TA or distance to cell border criterion and in this case the load is not checked coz the thresholds : SCLDLUL&SCLDLOL are only controlling the load incase of sub-cell change due to load distribution. 2010 . OL/UL Sub-cell Change with Sub-cell Load Distribution Activated  If some traffic will be moved from the OL  UL sub-cell due to load distribution.  If some traffic will be moved from the UL  OL sub-cell due to load distribution. then the MSs with the high path loss will be chosen first i.  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

OFF 0 to 99 0 to 99 UL.OL 0 to 200 0 to 63 0 to 61 0 to 61 0. 2010 .1 −63 to 63 0 to 63 0 to 63 1 to 5 ON.Concentric Cells (Over laid Under laid Sub-cells)  Parameters Summary Overlaid/Underlaid Control Parameters Parameter Name SCTYPE LOL LOLHYST TAOL TAOLHYST DTCBSC DTCB DTCBHYST NDIST NNCELLS SCLD SCLDLOL SCLDLUL SCLDSC Value Range UL.69 µsec) Bit Periods (3.OL Default Value − − 3 − − 0 -63 2 10 3 OFF 20 20 UL Recommended Value − − 3 − − − − 2 − 1 − − − OL Unit − dB dB Bit Periods (3.69 µsec) − dB dB dB − − % % − Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

2010 .Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Multi Band Cells (MBC)  Multi Band Cells (MBC)  A multi band network consists of cells from different frequency bands for example: 900/1800 MHz By combining these frequencies in the same cell with 1 common BCCH. of time slots that will be used for traffic.   Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. of cells and neighbor relations are significantly reduced. Using 1 BCCH instead of two will increase the no. 2010 . the radio performance and traffic capacity are improved where the no.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. this will reduce the no. 2010 .Multi Band Cells (MBC)  Multi Band Cells (MBC)  Using MBC concept with only 1 BCCH. of defined neighbors to 50% leading to better accuracy for the measurement reports coz there will be more time available for measurements for each neighbor.

Ex: 900MHz frequency band  UL.e. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. while 1800MHz frequency band  OL     It is recommended to select the BCCH frequency to lie in the “Better Coverage” i. lower frequency band) is configured as the Under laid sub-cell while the other frequency band with “Worse Coverage” (i. higher frequency band) is configured as the Overlaid Sub-cell.e. Mostly the frequency band with “Better Coverage” (i.e. 2010 .Multi Band Cells (MBC)  Multi Band Cells (MBC)  The Dynamic OL/UL sub-cells (Concentric Cells) is a prerequisite feature for the Multi Band Cells. For the previous example then BCCH frequency will belong to the 900MHz band. UL sub-cell.

of frequencies as will be seen later. where the channel group consists of no. (In this case the OL&UL will belong to two different bands) Also the traffic load can be maintained between the two sub-cells (that belong to two different bands) using the sub-cell load distribution feature where the SCLD parameter will define which sub-cell is preferred first. the Path Loss/Distance to Cell Border/Time Advance Criteria will define the coverage limit of the frequency band used in the OL sub-cell vs. UL sub-cell.  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.   As mentioned before. A parameter BAND  defines the band of the Channel Group. 2010 .Multi Band Cells (MBC)  Multi Band Cells (MBC)  A parameter CSYSTYPE  defines the band of the used BCCH frequency in a multi band cell.

Multi Band Cells (MBC)  Multi Band Cells (MBC)  The propagation of the radio waves depend on the used frequency band. i.e. 2010 . MS MS MS is in the same location but the reported SS differs depend on the used frequency band Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. the reported signal strength from one MS will differ depending on the frequency band used.

 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2.Multi Band Cells (MBC)  Multi Band Cells (MBC)  1. Includes the BCCH carrier frequency in the Active BCCH Allocation (BA) list: The Active BA list is the list which the serving cell uses to inform the MS the neighbors which he has to monitor and make measurements on while it is in dedicated mode and in this way no compensation is needed. 2010 .  So to locate the MS correctly regardless of the band it is using we have 2 possible ways: Applying a frequency Band Offset: If OL sub-cell is on 1800MHz band and the UL is on the 900MHz band so when the MS is located on the OL sub-cell and report a certain SS then it should be compensated for the UL sub-cell.

40  40 dBs If the MS is served by 1800 band frequency and reporting SS 1800 band = -85 dbm and FBOFFS=7dB then the compensated SS if the MS was served by the 900 band frequency will be SS 900 band = -85 dbm + 7 = -78 dBm   FBOFFS has to be adjusted in a correct way coz: a. It will be used to locate the MS correctly with respect to neighbors. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. It will be used to locate the MS correctly in the Sub-cell Change Evaluation. it is measured in dBs and take values between .Multi Band Cells (MBC)  Applying a Frequency Band Offset:  FBOFFS (Frequency Band Offset): is the parameter that determines the difference between the path loss between bands. 2010 . b.

Wrong Decision Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010  Right Decision  . FBOFFS will be used to locate the MS correctly with respect to neighbors  Ex: MS is on the OL subcell (1800 band) and reporting SS_Serving_cellA1800 band = -85 dBm FBOFFS =7dB.Multi Band Cells (MBC)  Applying a Frequency Band Offset: a. and after applying the offset and Hysteresis SS_neighbor_cellB900 band = -83dBm Without applying FBOFFS With applying FBOFFS SS_Serving_cellA 1800 band < SS_neighbor_cellB900 band SS_Serving_cellA 900band = SS_Serving_cellA1800 band+ 7 dB SS_Serving_cellA 900band = -78 dBm SS_Serving_cellA 900 band > SS_neighbor_cellB900 band HO from Cell A  Cell B will occur Cell A will remain the serving cell but sub-cell change may occur if needed.

Multi Band Cells (MBC)  Applying a Frequency Band Offset: b. BSTXPWR=46dBm. FBOFFS will be used to locate the MS correctly during the Sub-cell Change Evaluation  When the MS is served by the OL 1800 band sub-cell (non-BCCH Band). FBOFFSET=7dB. LOL=131dB. LOLHYST=zero Subcell change OLUL -83 dBm -85 dBm -90 dBm -92 dBm Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. LOL – LOLHYST + FBOFFSET  Ex: Assume a MS is served by the OL 1800 sub-cell and reporting SS1800 band = -90 dBm. the path loss in this case will be checked vs. 2010 .

SS1800 band = 46-(-90)=136 dB Path loss= BSTXPWR . BSTXPWR=46dBm. 2010 . LOLHYST=zero Without applying FBOFFS With applying FBOFFS Path loss= BSTXPWR .SS1800 band = 46-(-90)=136 dB Path loss=136 dB > LOL – LOLHYST=131 dB Path loss=136 < LOL–LOLHYST+FBOFFSET=138dB − The MS will stay on the OL sub-cell − Sub-cell change from OL  UL will occur Wrong Decision  Right Decision  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Multi Band Cells (MBC)  Applying a Frequency Band Offset: b. FBOFFS will be used to locate the MS correctly during the Sub-cell Change Evaluation  Ex: Assume a MS is served by the OL 1800 subcell and reporting SS1800 band = -90 dBm. FBOFFSET=7dB. LOL=131dB.

GSM900. GSM1900 −40 to 40 Default Value − − Recommended Value − − Unit − − FBOFFS 0 − dB Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Multi Band Cells (MBC)  Parameters Summary: Multi Band Cells Control Parameters Parameter Name BAND CSYSTYPE Value Range GSM800. GSM1800. GSM900. 2010 . GSM1800. GSM1900 GSM800.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

2010 .Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

 Cell Load Sharing increases the number of handovers in the part of the network where the traffic load is unevenly distributed.Cell Load Sharing  Cell Load Sharing  The Purpose of the Cell Load Sharing Feature is to distribute some of a cells traffic load to surrounding cells during peaks in traffic. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.  This is achieved by moving established connections to neighboring cells that have idle resources. 2010 .

2010 . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. then this cell will try to get rid of some traffic by initiating cell load sharing handovers to neighbors.Cell Load Sharing  Cell Load Sharing  Cell Load Sharing is activated on the BSC level via parameter LSSTATE (Active/Inactive)  The traffic load (amount of idle full rate TCHs) on each cell is examined by the BSC every CLS time Interval defined by a parameter CLSTIMEINTERVAL (default=100msec)  If the percentage of idle full rate traffic channels is ≤ parameter CLSLEVEL.

2010 .Cell Load Sharing  Cell Load Sharing  For a neighbor cell to accept HOs due to cell load sharing then parameter HOCLSACC should be set to “ON”  The traffic load on the neighbor cells should also be examined so handovers due to cell load sharing will only be done to neighbors having enough idle full rate TCHs (percentage of idle full rate TCHs > CLSACC in order to accept HO due to CLS) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .Cell Load Sharing  Cell Load Sharing  CLS evaluation is performed after normal locating evaluation for neighboring cells.  The normal Basic ranking evaluation was done as follows:  Rankservingcell = SS_Dlservingcell  Rankneighbor= SS_DLneighbor – OFFSETneighbor – HYSTneighbor  Now when the % idle full rate TCHs < CLSLEVEL. then the HYST for neighbors will be recalculated with reduced values based on parameter RHYST  Rankneighbor= SS_DLneighbor – OFFSETneighbor – HYSTnew neighbor . where HYSTnew neighbor = HYSTneighbor [1-2 (RHYST/100)] Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Where HYSTnew neighbor = HYSTneighbor [1-2 (RHYST/100)] RHYST 0 50 100 Hysteresis Reduction No reduction of the Hysteresis area Cell Border is reduced to the nominal cell border All the Hysteresis area is removed Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .Cell Load Sharing  Cell Load Sharing  Rankneighbor= SS_DLneighbor – OFFSETneighbor – HYSTnew neighbor .

 Can Accept HO due to CLS i.Cell Load Sharing  Cell Load Sharing  For a neighbor cell to be candidate for HO due to CLS. HOCLSACC= ON  % Idle full rate TCHs > CLSACC  The settings for CLSLEVEL and CLSACC should be adjusted such that  CLSACC > CLSLEVEL in order to not having unstable situation.  Has the same HCS layer. then it should satisfy the following:  Lies in the same BSC as the source cell. 2010 .e. 100% idle TCHs Accept Incoming HOs due to CLS CLSACC=50% CLSLEVEL=30% Make Outgoing HOs due to CLS Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .Cell Load Sharing  Cell Load Sharing  Parameters Summary Parameter CLSLEVEL CLSACC HOCLSACC RHYST CLSTIMERINTERVAL LSSTATE Default Value 20 40 OFF 75 100 Inactive Recommended Value Value Range − − ON 100 100 Active 0 to 99 1 to 100 ON/OFF 0 to 100 100 to 1000 Active/Inactive Unit % % % ms Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

there is high probability that this time slot will be received correctly and this can be done via frequency hopping.  With frequency hopping:  Tighter frequency reuse can be implemented and so higher capacity can be maintained.  More robust environment can be obtained. a time slot (burst) can easily be lost when the mobile station happens to be located in a fading dip for that particular frequency or if it is subjected to interference. 2010 .Frequency Hopping  Frequency Hopping  During a call connection.  There will be a possibility to give subscribers more uniform speech quality.  If the next time slot is sent on another frequency. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

e. The MS will change its frequency 217 times per second  With frequency hopping we can get: i. 2010 . Frequency Diversity ii. a set of predefined frequencies is used in each cell and the MS will be allowed to transmit on different frequency every TDMA frame (4.61 msec) i.Frequency Hopping  Frequency Hopping  In frequency hopping. Interference Diversity Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

The multipath fading is frequency and location dependent.Frequency Hopping I.  The multipath fading results from reflections from the surrounding buildings resulted in low signal strength fading dips. With frequency hopping. 2010 .   F1 F2 Average Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. slow and non-moving MS won’t still in a low signal strength fading dip more than 1TDMA frame.  Frequency Diversity Frequency hopping can solve the multipath fading (fast fading) problem.

e. 2010 .Frequency Hopping II. The interference diversity can be expressed as a gain in the C/I ratio. With frequency hopping. frequency and the MS location.  Interference Diversity Frequency hopping can also offer better quality when the currently used frequency is interfered. certain MS will experience interference only for 1time during number of hops i. then the MS will be subjected to interference1 time every 4 hops. if a MS will hop on 4 frequencies one of them is interfered. Interference depends on the time.     Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Using frequency hopping will result in spreading the interference on many MSs which will lead to a radio environment that is more even (symmetric).

for example: within the same cell frequency hopping can be enabled on certain CHGRs and disabled on others.Frequency Hopping Channel Group Concept (CHGR)  Each number of frequencies (Transmitters) in the cell are grouped in what we called channel group (CHGR). HOP: Is a parameter that is used to enable or disable frequency hopping on certain CHGR. 2010 . some parameters are defined per the CHGR and not per cell. it has two values either ON/OFF  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

it takes values:BB/SY Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. on SDCCHs and packet data channels but it is not applied on Broadcast and Common control channels which are mapped on TS#0 on F0  Methods of Hopping: we have two methods of hopping: A.Frequency Hopping  Frequency Hopping  Frequency Hopping is applied on Traffic channels (TCHs). Base Band Hopping (BB Hopping) B. Synthesized frequency Hopping (SY Hopping)  FHOP: Is a parameter to specify the method of hopping. 2010 .

each Time slot out of the transmitter will belong to different MS but at the same frequency.Frequency Hopping A. Base Band Hopping (BB Hopping)  Each Transmitter is assigned certain frequency and connected to many MSs. 2010 Transmitter F4 Bus for routing the time slots . From MS prospective. each MS will transmit each TS via different transmitter and on different frequency. MS1-TS1-F1 TRX1 Transmitter F1 TS1 TS2 TS3  MS1 TRX2 MS2 TS1 TS2 TS3 Transmitter F2 MS2-TS1-F2 MS1-TS2-F2 TRX3 MS3 TS1 TS2 TS3 Transmitter F3 MS3-TS1-F3 MS2-TS2-F3 MS1-TS3-F3 TRX4 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

.Fn MS1-TS1-F1 MS1-TS2-F2 MS1-TS3-F3 TRX2 MS2 TS1 TS2 TS3 Trans F1……. Synthesizer Frequency Hopping (SY Frequency Hopping)  With Synthesized frequency hopping. TRX1 MS1 TS1 TS2 TS3 Trans F1…….Frequency Hopping B.Fn MS3-TS1-F3 MS2-TS2-F4 MS1-TS3-F5 TRX4 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 Trans F1………Fn .Fn MS2-TS1-F2 MS2-TS2-F3 MS2-TS3-F4 TRX3 MS3 TS1 TS2 TS3 Trans F1……. the MS will transmit all its time slots via only 1 transmitter and the transmitter will change its frequency consequently every TDMA frame based on certain sequence.

Cyclic Frequency Hopping ii. 2010 . Modes of Hopping: i. Random Frequency Hopping  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Synthesizer Frequency Hopping (SY Frequency Hopping)  The Advantage of Synthesized frequency hopping is that the number of hopping frequencies can be larger than the number of the already existing transmitters causing the hopping gain to increase without a need to use more hardware.Frequency Hopping B.

f1. DL 935-960MHz). this means that Cyclic frequency hopping will be used. f3. f3. f4.2. f4. f2. it take values from 0  63 When HSN = 0. f2. frequencies are changed every TDMA frame in a consecutive order starting with the frequency of the lowest Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN). ARFCNs: 1.…… 124 For example for four frequencies the cyclic hopping between them will appear as follow: f1. f1. ……… HSN (Hopping Sequence Number) : Is a parameter defined per CHGR (number of frequencies) that will be used to specify the mode of hopping with Synthesized frequency hopping.  Cyclic Frequency Hopping With this type of hopping.4. f2.Frequency Hopping  Modes of Hopping i. 2010 .     Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. f3. For P-GSM (UL 890-915 MHz. f1. f4.3.

Frequency Hopping  Modes of Hopping ii. The period of the Random sequence=6 minutes.  Random Frequency Hopping With this type of hopping.   Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. The sequence is stored in a look-up table in the MS as well as the BTS and up to 63 independent sequences can be defined.e. the random sequence repeats itself once every 6 minutes. frequencies are changed every TDMA frame randomly based on a pseudo-random sequence. Based on the settings of the parameter HSN (163). one of the 63 independent random sequences will be used. 2010 . i.

so if a CHGR contains 4 Transmitters and HSN=0.f2. HSN=0 (Mobile Allocation Index Offset)will Transmitter#1 (f0.f0. then this means that cyclic hopping will be used over these 4 transmitters.fn) f2.fn) . f3.f1… each of them will start the hoppingTransmitter#1 (f0.f3.f4.Frequency Hopping Synthesizer Frequency Hopping (SY Frequency Hopping) MAIO Concept  As we mentioned before that HSN is defined per CHGR.fn) Transmitter#1 (f0.….….… .….f2.f1.  And in order to do so a MAIO Same CHGR.f1.f0.….f1.f0.f2. Be assigned for each transmitter so f1.f1.f2.f4.f4.f5. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.f5.f3.f0. Transmitter#1 (f0.f1.  But in order for the transmitters within the same CHGR to not interfere each other they must start their hopping with different frequencies.f2. 2010 . based the MAIO assigned to it.f4.f5.f2.f2… .f3.f1.f3… .f5.fn) f0. sequence either cyclic/random from a different starting point.f1.f2.

of Transmitters.…. f1.fn) Transmitter#1 (f0.f1.fn) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.….f0.f0. HSN=0 Transmitter#1 (f0.f3.f2.….f2.….f5. example: for a CHGR of 4 Transmitters. N.fn) Transmitter#1 (f0.Frequency Hopping Synthesizer Frequency Hopping (SY Frequency Hopping) MAIO Concept  We have different MAIOs. f2. the default MAIO list is 0.B: Number of used frequencies can exceed the no.4.f2.2.f2.f4.f3.f5. there are different ways through which each transmitter will start the cyclic/random hopping.f1.f1.f2….f1.f2.f2.f0.fn) Same CHGR.f3.f5. i.1 Transmitter#1 (f0.f3. .….f1….f1.f1.f4.f0.f4….f4.  Using the default MAIO. the even MAIO values in increasing order are picked first then the odd values.f5.e.f2. 2010 f0.f1. f4.

Frequency Hopping  Parameters Summary Frequency Hopping Control Parameters Parameter Name HOP FHOP HSN MAIO Value Range ON.OFF BB.SY 0 to 63 0 to 31 or Default Default Value OFF − − Default Recommended Value ON − − − Unit − − − − Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

2010 .Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 . f1 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS8 Same Cell f2 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS8 Channel suffering from bad quality New channel  When a connection suffers from bad quality and at the same time the Signal Strength is still high.  Intra Cell Handover aims at maintaining good quality of a current connection by performing handover to a new channel within the same cell when bad quality is detected.Intra Cell Handover  Intra Cell Handover  Intra Cell means within the same cell. there is a reason to believe that the bad quality is due to interference.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. then power used on each channel will differ based on the MS location from the BTS. and the reason for this could be:  The cell that interferes a certain connection (channel/call) may be not fully loaded and not transmitting on all its channels.  If power control is in use in the interferer cell. the MSs connected to the interferer cell will be located in different places from the cell causing different levels of interference.Intra Cell Handover  Intra Cell Handover  Changing the serving channel on a certain cell to another channel within the same cell may be useful due to the fact that most likely the interference on different channels is not the same. 2010 .  For uplink interference.

the quality of a connection will be enhanced if the radio conditions on the new channel is better than the old channel.Intra Cell Handover  Intra Cell Handover  After Intra cell handover is performed. and this may be expected when intra cell handover is performed at high signal strength while the quality (rxqual) is bad.  Intra Cell Handover can be triggered due to bad quality either in the downlink or in the uplink.  But at which conditions Intra Cell Handover will be triggered ? Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

signal strength function that specify at each signal level the quality beyond which an intra cell handover should be triggered.Intra Cell Handover  Intra Cell Handover  At which conditions Intra Cell Handover will be triggered ?  Intra cell handover is triggered/initiated when signal strength is high and at the same time the quality is bad based on the following equation:  rxqual_DL > QOFFSETDL + FQSS (RXLEV_DL + SSOFFSETDL) Or  rxqual_UL > QOFFSETUL + FQSS (RXLEV_UL + SSOFFSETUL)  FQSS is a quality vs. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

38 39 .41 42 . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.58 59 .45 46 .Intra Cell Handover  Conditions at which Intra Cell Handover is initiated:  rxqual_DL > QOFFSETDL + FQSS (RXLEV_DL + SSOFFSETDL) Or  rxqual_UL > QOFFSETUL + FQSS (RXLEV_UL + SSOFFSETUL)  RXLEV_DL and RXLEV_UL both are measured in rxlev units 0  63.48 49 . which corresponds to -110 dBm  .55 56 .35 36 . 2010 .52 53 .62 >=63 infinity 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 Example:  If RXLEV_DL = 57 and QOFFSETDL=SSOFFSETDL= zero. then when rxqual_DL > 52 dtqu an intra cell handover will be initiated. The rxqual Values Is Given in dtqu (deci Transformed Quality Units) RXLEV Rxqual <=30 31 32 .47 dBm The FQSS Table.

increasing them will make the measured signal strength to appear better than the actual situation causing the intra cell handover to be triggered more often.Intra Cell Handover  Intra Cell Handover  SSOFFSETDL & SSOFFSETUL are signal strength offset parameters.  QOFFSETDL & QOFFSETUL are quality offset parameters. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 . decreasing them will trigger the intra cell handover more often.

2010 .Intra Cell Handover  Selection of a new channel at IHO  The primary target is to find a new channel that differs as much as possible from the currently used channel.  The selection of a new channel will depend on whether frequency hopping is used or not. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

select a channel that lies on a different frequency than the current channel is using.Intra Cell Handover  Selection of a new channel at IHO (A) With Frequency Hopping Not Used  Among the idle channels. 2010 . 1st choice at IHO (Change frequency) 2nd choice at IHO (Change Time Slot on the same frequency) Interfered Channel f1 f2 f3 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.  If no idle channels were found then select one of the idle timeslots that are on the same frequency as the current channel.

 If no idle channels were found or only 1 CHGR is defined then select one of the idle timeslots that are on the same CHGR as the current channel. 2010 .  If no idle channels were found select idle channels on the same CHGR and time slot as the current channel. same TS but different channel) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. CHGR0 f1 f2 CHGR1 f3 f4 Interfered Channel 1st choice at IHO(Change CHGR) 2nd choice at IHO (Change Time Slot within the same CHGR ) 3rd choice at IHO (Same CHGR.Intra Cell Handover  Selection of a new channel at IHO (B) With Frequency Hopping In Use  Select one of the idle channels that belongs to a different CHGR than the current channel.

2010 .  We can limit the number of consecutive IHOs for certain connection to certain number using parameter MAXIHO ex: If MAXIHO=3. this means that all channels are suffering from poor quality and may be a part of the cell is subjected to high interference.Intra Cell Handover  Intra Cell Handover  If quality is not improved after making number of consecutive IHOs. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. then the maximum number of allowed consecutive IHOs=3 and if the MS tried to make the 4th IHO it will be disabled and a timer TIHO will start to inhibit any further attempts to make IHO until this timer is released.

e. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. then a sub-cell change from OLUL or ULOL will be attempted. 2010 .Intra Cell Handover  Intra Cell Handover  Intra cell handover and bad quality urgency are both triggered at poor quality situations.  If the dynamic OL/UL sub-cell feature is in use and if the number of consecutive IHOs reached its maximum based on the settings of the parameter MAXIHO.  Intra cell handover has higher priority over bad quality urgency handover. if the criteria for both are fulfilled then IHO will be triggered/initiated first. i.

2010 .Intra Cell Handover  Parameters Summary Intra Cell Handover Control Parameters Parameter Name IHO SSOFFSETDL SSOFFSETUL QOFFSETDL QOFFSETUL MAXIHO TIHO Value Range ON.OFF −30 to 30 −30 to 30 −50 to 50 −50 to 50 0 to 15 10 to 60 Default Value OFF 0 0 0 0 3 10 Recommended Value ON 0 −10 − − 3 10 Unit − dB dB dtqu dtqu − Seconds Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.  This will result in high utilization of the channels while keeping good speech quality for the existing connections. 2010 .Dynamic HR Allocation  Dynamic HR Allocation  In high load situations it is important that the allocation of a traffic channel is done efficiently for a new connection.

2010 . HR or AMR HR  To Activate the feature. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. set the parameter: DHA to “ON”  The feature differentiates between AMR and NAMR MSs and can be controlled on cell level.Dynamic HR Allocation  Dynamic HR Allocation  For a new connection the Dynamic HR Allocation Algorithm evaluates the traffic load in the cell and based on this decides the connection mode: FR.

of Idle TCHs % < DTHAMR Total no. of TCHs Yes No No.Dynamic HR Allocation  Dynamic HR Allocation New Connection No Yes Yes No. of Idle TCHs % < DTHNAMR Total no. of TCHs Yes Dual Rate MS ? (Supports HR?) Support AMR HR? No HR Allocation AMR HR Allocation FR/AMR FR Allocation Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Dynamic HR Allocation  Dynamic HR Allocation  DTHAMR: The threshold below which the Dynamic HR Allocation starts for AMR supported MSs  DTHNAMR: The threshold below which the Dynamic HR Allocation starts for Non AMR supported MSs Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Dynamic HR Allocation  Parameters Summary Intra Cell Handover Control Parameters Parameter Name DHA DTHAMR DTHNAMR Value Range ON. 2010 .OFF 0 to 100 0 to 100 Default Value OFF 30 15 Recommended Value ON 30 15 Unit − % % Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

 When Interference is low. of MSs) then good C/I can be maintained.  The aim with Power Control is to increase the number of connections while maintaining good C/I (Carrier to Interference Ratio). Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 . Decreases the consumption of the MS battery and the BTS backup batteries when the main supply is down. C/I is improved. MSs with poor quality will be able to successfully complete their calls.Dynamic Power Control  Dynamic Power Control  In this chapter we’ll talk on both BTS and MS Dynamic Power Control. Decreases the total interference in the system ( Interference )  So when Traffic increases (no.  When Traffic is normal.  Why Power Control is important ? i. ii.

2010 .Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Dynamic BTS Power Control  Dynamic BTS Power Control  The Algorithms for both BTS and MS dynamic power control are the same. 1 2 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. the path loss between BTS and MS.  The below graph shows the relation between BTS o/p power and the measured (received) signal strength at the MS vs. 2010 .

the received power at the MS in the DL is very good and sufficient. so after crossing point 1. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. allowed power level even if the received power in the MS is deteriorated or the path loss increased. the BTS can’t up regulate its power for a value above the max.  As the MS is moving away from the BTS. however the BTS can’t make any sort of down regulation and sends with power less than its minimum power.  At point 2.Dynamic BTS Power Control  Dynamic BTS Power Control  For the area before point 1. 2010 . the received power is decreasing. the BTS will start up regulating its power in steps to compensate for the path loss.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Dynamic BTS Power Control  Dynamic BTS Power Control  For Quality measurements the below graph shows the up regulations in the BTS o/p power when quality is deteriorated (SS is not into consideration here)  As the Quality got worse ( 0  7). 2010 . the BTS will try to increase its power to compensate for the quality drop.

Filtering of measurements. 3. Calculation of Power Order. 2. 2010 . Preparation of the Input Data.Dynamic BTS Power Control  Dynamic BTS Power Control  Algorithm:  The Dynamic BTS Power Control algorithm is done on 3 stages: 1. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 . power with no power control.  Type of Measurements: Measurement SS_DL Quality_DL power level used by the BTS_DL Source MS MS BTS  Both SS_DL and Quality_DL measurements will be used in the equation through which the next power order is calculated. while the BCCH frequency with all its time slots is sent with max. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Dynamic BTS Power Control  Algorithm: 1) Preparation of The Input Data  Dynamic Power Control is made on TCHs time slots as well as on the SDCCH time slots.

e.Dynamic BTS Power Control  Algorithm: 1) Preparation of The Input Data  REGINTDL: A parameter that defines the minimum time period between two consecutive power orders in the DL. (ex: 2dBs. Regulating Interval in DL. Up Regulation: BTS o/p power (dBm) = BSPWRMIN – 2*PLused . (It is a BSC parameter)  The BTS is able to changes its output power .………. 2010 . max to 30 dBs)  When power control is in use the BTS output power level will be given as: Down Regulation: BTS o/p power (dBm) = BSPWRT – 2*PLused . Measured in SACCH periods (0. .48 Seconds) from 1 to 10 SACCH periods i. the resolution in o/p power is in the form of steps of 2 dBs and maximum change is 30 dBs. 4dBs. where PLused = 0to 15  PLused is the power regulation step Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Dynamic BTS Power Control  Algorithm: 1) Preparation of The Input Data  SSDESDL: A parameter that defines the desired Signal Strength in DL which we aim to maintain using power control. 2010 . Measured in dBm  The SS measured will be checked against SSDESDL to know if Down regulation in the BTS power or up regulation is needed  QDESDL: A parameter that defines the desired Quality in DL which we aim to maintain using power control. Measured in dtqu ( 0 to 70)  The Quality measured will be checked against QDESDL to know if Down regulation in the BTS power or up regulation is needed. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

QDESDL−Quality_DLmeasured should be represented in the form of dBs as well.Dynamic BTS Power Control  Algorithm: 1) Preparation of The Input Data  The equation used to calculate the power order in the next SACCH period contains information on SSDESDL−SS_DLmeasured and QDESDL−Quality_DLmeasured.  SSDESDL− SS_DLmeasured is measured in dBm.e. while QDESDL− Quality_DLmeasured is measured in dtqu so to be used in the same equation some sort of mapping should be done. 2010 . QDESDL (dtqu) Quality_DLmeasured dB transformation C/I calculation (dB) 0 0 23 10 1 19 20 2 17 30 3 15 40 4 13 50 5 11 60 6 8 70 7 4 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.  i.

i.2*PLused) ]  SS_DLTCH = SS_DLMeasured – ( BSPWR – BSTXPWR + 2*PLused )  When the MS is using a TS on TCH frequency  SS_DLTCH = SS_DLMeasured  By Averaging the results then:  SS_DLTCH = SS_DLMeasured – ( BSPWR – BSTXPWR + 2*PLused )/ Nf . Compensating for frequency hopping:  When the MS is using a TS on BCCH carrier  SS_DLTCH = SS_DLMeasured – [ BSPWR – (BSTXPWR . Nf = no.Dynamic BTS Power Control  Algorithm: 1) Preparation of The Input Data  SS Compensation  We aim to get the SS of the pure TCH time slot compensated for both frequency hopping when BCCH frequency is included and compensated for power control. 2010 . of hopping frequencies Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

where SSCompensated is the signal strength compensated for both frequency hopping and power regulations.Dynamic BTS Power Control  Algorithm: 1) Preparation of The Input Data  SS Compensation ii. Compensating for power control:  SS_DLCompensated = SS_DLTCH + 2*PLused  Now in further calculations SS_DLCompensated will be used.     Quality Compensation Quality_DLCompensated is calculated in the same way such that: Quality_DLCompensated = Quality_DLmeasured (in dBs) + 2*Plused Where the Quality_DLmeasured (in dBs) is the Quality_DLmeasured (07) after transforming it into dBs Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

2010 . k is the SACCH period  a & b (b=1-a) are the non-linear filter’s coefficients and “a” will define the length of the filter “L”. (A) Filtering of SS Measurements  SS_DLFiltered (k) = b* SS_DLCompensated (k) + a* SS_DLFiltered (K-1).Dynamic BTS Power Control  Algorithm: 2) Filtering of Measurements  Filtering for both SS and Quality is done with exponential non-linear filters in order to eliminate variations of temporary nature and get partial results. where each filter length “L” corresponds to certain value of “a” .  But how the length of the non-linear filter is calculated? Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

If SS_DLCompensated (k) > SS_DLFiltered(K-1) then L = SSLENDL *UPDWNRATIO/100 where.Dynamic BTS Power Control  Algorithm: 2) Filtering of Measurements (A)Filtering of SS Measurements  SS_DLFiltered (k) = b* SS_DLCompensated (k) + a* SS_DLFiltered(K-1). Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. SSLENDL = 3 15 SACCH periods In this case “up regulation is needed” and it should be done very fast in order to not lose the connection. SSLENDL = 3 15 SACCH periods UPDWNRATIO = 100  700 In this case “Down regulation is needed” and it should be done in a smooth way. coz decreasing the power suddenly may harm the connection. k is the SACCH period If SS_DLCompensated (k) < SS_DLFiltered(K-1) then L = SSLENDL where. 2010 .

coz decreasing the power suddenly may harm the connection. QSLENDL = 1 20 SACCH periods In this case “up regulation is needed” and it should be done very fast in order to not lose the connection. QSLENDL = 1 20 SACCH periods UPDWNRATIO = 100  700 In this case “Down regulation is needed” and it should be done in a smooth way. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. k is the SACCH period If Quality_DLCompensated (k) < Quality_DLFiltered(K-1) then L = QLENDL where. 2010 . If Quality_DLCompensated (k) >Quality_DLFiltered(K-1) then L = QSLENDL *UPDWNRATIO/100 where.Dynamic BTS Power Control  Algorithm: 2) Filtering of Measurements (B) Filtering of Quality Measurements  Quality_DLFiltered (k) = b* Quality_DLCompensated (k) + a* Quality_DLFiltered(K-1).

 SSDESDL: has value range from -110 to -47 dbm and recommended value is -90 dbm  QDESDL: has value range from 0 to 70 dtqu and recommended value is 30 dtqu Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Dynamic BTS Power Control  Algorithm: 2) Filtering of Measurements  SS_DLFiltered(K-1) is set initially = SSDESDL.  Also Quality_DLFiltered(K-1) is set initially = QDESDL. that will lead to start power regulations immediately after the first valid measurement report. that will lead to start power regulations immediately after the first valid measurement report. 2010 .

Preparation of the Input Data. 2010 .Dynamic BTS Power Control  Algorithm:  Till now we finalized two stages from the algorithm: 1. SS_DLmeasured Compensation SS_DLCompensated Quality units to dB transformation Q_DLmeasured(dB) Filtering Q_DLFiltered Filtering SS_DLFiltered Q_DLmeasured (Quality Units) Compensation Q_DLCompensated Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2. Filtering of measurements.

2010 . (B) Applying the Power Orders constraints. (C) Conversion of output data. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Dynamic BTS Power Control  Algorithm: 3) Calculation of Power Order (PU)  This will be done on three stages: (A) Calculating the two basic Power Orders.

Dynamic BTS Power Control  Algorithm: 3) Calculation of Power Order (PU) (A) Calculating the two basic Power Orders pui = αi * (SSDESDL .Q_DLFiltered) i = 1. 2010 . β2 = 0.3.  Default values: LCOMPDL=5 and COPMDL=55  PU2 is calculated according to recommended settings of α2 & β2 based on trials and field measurements. α1 = LCOMPDL/100. α2 = 0.2 and α1 & β1 are parameters to compensate for the path loss and quality. β1 = QCOMPDL/100.SS_DLFiltered) + βi * (QDESDL . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.4  PU1 is calculated according to settings of α1 & β1 ( The operator will set the proper values from his point of view for LCOMPDL & QCOMPDL).

SS_DLFiltered) + βi * (QDESDL .  PU_used = max (PU1.Q_DLFiltered) i = 1.  PU1 and PU2 both of them aim to maintain the SS within the desired value defined according to SSDESDL and to maintain the Quality within the desired value defined according to QDESDL but each will calculate the path loss in different way. 2010 . PU2).Dynamic BTS Power Control  Algorithm: 3) Calculation of Power Order (PU) (A) Calculating the two basic Power Orders pui = αi * (SSDESDL . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. max of pu1 and PU2 will be used as the desired power order in the next measurement report coz the max of both of them will mean lower down regulation/higher up regulation.2 and α1 & β1 are parameters to compensate for the path loss and quality.

which means keeping the output power at maximum value with no power control.Dynamic BTS Power Control  Algorithm: 3) Calculation of Power Order (PU) (B) Applying Power Order constraints  The highest allowed power order PU_used = zero.e.  The lowest allowed power order is given by the minimum of the following:  PU_used= minimum (30 dB. it is not allowed to decrease the o/p power or increase it by a value > 30dB Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. BSPWRT.minimum BTS o/p power)  i. 2010 .

2010 .Dynamic BTS Power Control  Algorithm: 3) Calculation of Power Order (PU) (C) Conversion of output data  pu_used will be interpreted into final form  PL_used which takes values from 0 15  PL_used =Integer(-pu_used/2)  Ex: if PL_used = 3 and Down regulation for power is required. then in the next measurement report the BSC will inform the BTS to decrease its current power by 2* PL_used = 6 dBs Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Dynamic BTS Power Control  Parameters Summary Dynamic BTS Power Control Parameters Parameter Name SSDESDL QDESDL SSLENDL QLENDL LCOMPDL Value Range −110 to −47 0 to 76 3 to 15 1 to 20 0 to 100 Default Value Recommended Value −90 30 3 8 5 −90 30 3 3 5 Unit dBm dtqu SACCH period (0.48 Seconds) SACCH period (0.48 Seconds) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.48 Seconds) − QCOMPDL UPDWNRATIO 0 to 100 100 to 700 55 200 55 300 − − REGINTDL 1 to 10 1 1 SACCH period (0. 2010 .

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Dynamic MS Power Control  Dynamic MS Power Control  The Objective of the MS power control algorithm is to adjust the output power of the MS so that a desired signal strength is received in the BTS.  The below graph shows the relation between MS o/p power and the measured (received) signal strength at the BTS vs. 2010 . 1 2 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. the path loss between BTS and MS.

Dynamic MS Power Control  Dynamic MS Power Control  For the area before point 1. the MS will start up regulating its power in steps to compensate for the path loss. the received power at the BTS in the UL is very good and sufficient. 2010 . so after crossing point 1.  At point 2. the received power is decreasing. allowed power level even if the received power in the MS is deteriorated or the path loss increased. the MS can’t up regulate its power for a value above the max.  As the MS is moving away from the BTS. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. however the MS can’t make any sort of down regulation and sends with power less than its minimum power.

 As the Quality got worse ( 0  7). the MS will try to increase its power to compensate for the quality drop. 2010 .Dynamic MS Power Control  Dynamic MS Power Control  For Quality measurements the below graph shows the up regulations in the MS o/p power when quality is deteriorated (SS is not taken into consideration here). Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2. 2010 . Preparation of the Input Data.Dynamic MS Power Control  Dynamic MS Power Control  Algorithm:  The Dynamic MS Power Control algorithm is done on 3 stages: 1. 3. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Calculation of Power Order. Filtering of measurements.

Dynamic MS Power Control  Algorithm: 1) Preparation of The Input Data  Dynamic Power Control is made on TCHs time slots as well as on the SDCCH time slots. power with no power control. while the BCCH frequency with all its time slots is sent with max. 2010 . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.  Type of measurements: Measurement SS_UL Quality_UL power level used by the MS_UL Source BTS BTS MS  Both SS_UL and Quality_UL measurements will be used in the equation through which the next power order is calculated.

. max to 16 dBs)  When power control is in use the MS output power level will be given as: PWR_used = min(MSTXPWR.  The BTS is able to changes its output power in the form of steps of 2 dBs (ex: 2dBs. Measured in SACCH periods (0. 2010 .Dynamic MS Power Control  Algorithm: 1) Preparation of The Input Data  REGINTUL: A parameter that defines the minimum time period between two consecutive power orders. where PLused = 0 to 8 and PWR_used is the power used by the MS during the connection Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.………. 4dBs.48 Seconds) from 1 to 30 SACCH periods.MSPWRMAX) – 2*PLused .

2010 . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Measured in dtqu ( 0 to 70)  The Quality measured will be checked against QDESUL to know if Down regulation in the MS power or up regulation is needed.Dynamic MS Power Control  Algorithm: 1) Preparation of The Input Data  SSDESUL: A parameter that defines the desired Signal Strength in UL which we aim to maintain using power control in the UL. Measured in dBm  The SS measured will be checked against SSDESUL to know if Down regulation in the MS power or up regulation is needed  QDESUL: A parameter that defines the desired Quality in UL which we aim to maintain using power control in the UL.

Dynamic MS Power Control  Algorithm: 1) Preparation of The Input Data  The equation used to calculate the power order in the next SACCH period contains information on SSDESUL−SS_ULmeasured and QDESUL−Quality_ULmeasured.e.  i. while QDESUL− Quality_ULmeasured is measured in dtqu so to be used in the same equation some sort of mapping should be done.  SSDESUL− SS_ULmeasured is measured in dBm. 2010 . QDESUL (dtqu) Quality_ULmeasured 0 0 10 1 20 2 30 3 40 4 50 60 70 5 6 7 dB transformation (dB) 23 19 17 15 13 11 8 4 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. QDESUL−Quality_ULmeasured should be represented in the form of dBs as well.

 Quality Compensation  Quality_ULCompensated is calculated in the same way such that:  Quality_ULCompensated = Quality_ULmeasured (in dBs) + 2*PLused  Where the Quality_ULmeasured (in dBs) is the Quality_ULmeasured (07) after transforming it into dBs. 2010 . where SSCompensated is the signal strength compensated for power regulations.Dynamic MS Power Control  Algorithm: 1) Preparation of The Input Data  SS Compensation  Compensating for power control:  SS_ULCompensated = SS_ULmeasured + 2*PLused  Now in further calculations SS_ULCompensated will be used. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Dynamic MS Power Control
 Algorithm:
2) Filtering of Measurements  Filtering for both SS and Quality is done with exponential non-linear filters in order to eliminate variations of temporary nature and get partial results. (A) Filtering of SS Measurements  SS_ULFiltered (k) = b* SS_ULCompensated (k) + a* SS_ULCompensated(K-1), k is the SACCH period.  a & b (b=1-a) are the non-linear filter’s coefficients and “a” will define the length of the filter “L”, where each filter length “L” corresponds to certain value of “a”  But how the length of the non-linear filter is calculated?

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010

Dynamic MS Power Control
 Algorithm:
2) Filtering of Measurements (A) Filtering of SS Measurements  SS_ULFiltered (k) = b* SS_ULCompensated (k) + a* SS_ULFiltered(K-1), k is the SACCH period If SS_ULCompensated (k) < SS_ULFiltered(K-1) then L = SSLENUL where, SSLENUL = 3 15 SACCH periods In this case “up regulation is needed” and it should be done very fast in order to not lose the connection. If SS_ULCompensated (k) > SS_ULFiltered(K-1) then L = SSLENUL *UPDWNRATIO/100 where, SSLENDL = 3 15 SACCH periods UPDWNRATIO = 100  700 In this case “Down regulation is needed” and it should be done in a smooth way, coz decreasing the power suddenly may harm the connection.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010

Dynamic MS Power Control
 Algorithm:
2) Filtering of Measurements (B) Filtering of Quality Measurements − Quality_ULFiltered (k) = b* Quality_ULCompensated (k) + a* Quality_ULFiltered(K-1), k is the SACCH period

If Quality_ULCompensated (k) < Quality_ULFiltered(K-1) then L = QLENUL where, QSLENUL = 1 20 SACCH periods In this case “up regulation is needed” and it should be done very fast in order to not lose the connection.

If Quality_ULCompensated (k) >Quality_ULFiltered(K-1) then L = QSLENUL *UPDWNRATIO/100 where, QSLENUL = 1 20 SACCH periods UPDWNRATIO = 100  700 In this case “Down regulation is needed” and it should be done in a smooth way, coz decreasing the power suddenly may harm the connection.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010

Dynamic MS Power Control
 Algorithm:
2) Filtering of Measurements  SS_ULFiltered(K-1) is set initially = SSDESUL, that will lead to start power regulations immediately after the first valid measurement report.  Also Quality_ULFiltered(K-1) is set initially = QDESUL, that will lead to start power regulations immediately after the first valid measurement report.  SSDESUL: has value range from -110 to -47 dbm and recommended value is -92 dbm  QDESUL: has value range from 0 to 70 dtqu and recommended value is 30dtqu

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Dynamic MS Power Control
 Algorithm:
 Till now we finalized two stages from the algorithm: 1. Preparation of the Input Data. 2. Filtering of measurements. SS_ULmeasured Compensation SS_ULCompensated Filtering SS_ULFiltered

Q_ULmeasured (Quality Units)

Quality units to dB transformation

Q_ULmeasured(dB)

Compensation

Q_ULFiltered

Filtering

Q_ULCompensated

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010

Dynamic MS Power Control
 Algorithm:
3) Calculation of Power Order (PU)  This will be done on three stages:

(A) Calculating the two basic Power Orders
(B) Applying the Power Orders constraints (C) Conversion of output data.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010

β1 = QCOMPUL/100.Q_ULFiltered) i = 1.2 and α1 & β1 are parameters to compensate for the path loss and quality.Dynamic MS Power Control  Algorithm: 3) Calculation of Power Order (PU) (A) Calculating the two basic Power Orders pui = αi * (SSDESUL . 2010 .SS_ULFiltered) + βi * (QDESUL . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.4  pu1 is calculated according to settings of α1 & β1 ( The operator will set the proper values from his point of view for LCOMPUL & QCOMPUL)  pu2 is calculated according to recommended settings of α2 & β2 based on trials and field measurements. α2 = 0.3. α1 = LCOMPUL/100. β2 = 0.

2010 .Dynamic MS Power Control  Algorithm: 3) Calculation of Power Order (PU) (A) Calculating the two basic Power Orders pui = αi * (SSDESUL .Q_ULFiltered) i = 1. max of pu1 and pu2 will be used as the desired power order in the next measurement report coz the max of both of them will mean lower down regulation/higher up regulation Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.pu2).SS_ULFiltered) + βi * (QDESUL .  pu1 and pu2 both of them aim to maintain the SS within the desired value defined according to SSDESUL and to maintain the Quality within the desired value defined according to QDESUL but each will calculate the path loss in different way.  pu_used = max (pu1.2 and α1 & β1 are parameters to compensate for the path loss and quality.

2010 .Dynamic MS Power Control  Algorithm: 3) Calculation of Power Order (PU) (B) Applying Power Order constraints  The highest allowed power order pu_used = zero. it is not allowed to decrease the o/p power or increase it by a value > 16 dB Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.e. which means keeping the output power at maximum value with no power control.  The lowest allowed power order is given by the minimum of 16 dB i.

Dynamic MS Power Control  Algorithm: 3) Calculation of Power Order (PU) (C) Conversion of output data  pu_used will be interpreted into final form  PL_used which takes values from 0 8  PL_used =Integer(-pu_used/2)  Ex: if PL_used = 3 and Down regulation for power is required. 2010 . then in the next measurement report the BSC will inform the MS to decrease its current power by 2* PL_used = 6 dBs Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

48 Seconds) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.48 Seconds) − − − SACCH period (0.Dynamic MS Power Control  Parameters Summary Dynamic BTS Power Control Parameters Parameter Name SSDESUL QDESUL SSLENUL Value Range −110 to −47 0 to 76 3 to 15 Default Value Recommended Value −92 30 3 −92 30 3 Unit dBm dtqu SACCH period (0. 2010 .48 Seconds) QLENUL LCOMPUL QCOMPUL UPDWNRATIO REGINTUL 1 to 20 0 to 100 0 to 100 100 to 700 1 to 30 3 6 75 200 1 3 6 75 300 1 SACCH period (0.

2010 .Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Both GSM and UMTS.e.  Multi RAT users can have good coverage even in areas where no UMTS coverage and this can be accomplished using UMTS-GSM cell reselection and HO.  With feature GSM-UMTS cell reselection and HO feature an operator can make use of both GSM and UMTS systems to complement each other.GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover  GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover  All 3G user equipments (UEs) can support Multi RATs(Radio Access Technology) i. 2010 .  COEXUMTS: Is a BSC parameter used to activate the feature GSM-UMTS cell reselection and Handover.

 Used as a measure of the Quality of the neighbor UMTS cell.Received Signal Code Power.  CPICH RSCP:  Common Pilot Channel .  Used as a measure of the SS of the neighbor UMTS cell after dispreading. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Energy per chip/Noise level power density.GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover  GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover  New concepts will be introduced to understand how the feature works:  CPICH Ec/No:  Common Pilot Channel . 2010 .

2010 . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover  Measurements on UMTS Cells  In order to be able to make cell reselection or HO to a UMTS neighbor cell.  QSC: used to manage the conditions of measuring the UMTS cell in Active Mode. the multi RAT UE should be able to make measurements on this neighbor as well as the ordinary GSM cells.  But when or at which conditions the UE will perform measurements on the UMTS neighbors?  This will be based on the settings of the parameters QSI and QSC:  QSI: used to manage the conditions of measuring the UMTS cell in Idle Mode.

GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover  Measurements on UMTS Cells When to start measuring the neighbor UMTS cell ? QSI/QSC 0 to 6 7 8 to 14 Signal Strength of the serving GSM Cell "Below" -98dBm to -74 dBm in steps of 4 dB Always "Above" -78dBm to -54 dBm in steps of 4 dB 15 Never Example: If QSC=8. then the UE is allowed to measure the neighbor UMTS cell only when the SS of the serving GSM Cell > -78 dBm SS(dBm) -78 dBm -90 dBm ─ GSM GSM&UMTS measurements measurements Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 GSM measurements GSM&UMTS measurements time .

GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover (I) GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection:  This is controlled through set of parameters:  QSI: Which defines at which conditions the UMTS cell will be measured in idle mode. this condition should be satisfied CPICH Ec/No >FDDQMIN condition#1 default value = 5 (-10 dB)  FDDRSCPMIN: Defines the minimum SS of a UMTS cell inorder to be candidate for cell reselection i. this condition should be satisfied CPICH RSCP >FDDRSCPMIN condition#2 default value= 6 (-102 dBm) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.e. 2010 . because there won’t be any kind of cell reselection without performing measurements.e.  FDDQMIN: Defines the minimum quality of a UMTS cell inorder to be candidate for cell reselection i.

2010 . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.B: If the criteria for inter system cell reselection from GSM to UMTS is fulfilled then the multi RAT UE will perform cell reselection to the UMTS cell even if the criteria for selection another ordinary GSM cell is fulfilled.GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover (I) GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection:  This is controlled through set of parameters:  FDDQOFF: It is the key parameter to control the behavior of the cell reselection provided that condition#1 and condition#2 are fulfilled. averaging is made on at least 5 measurements over a period of 35 seconds.  N. • If CPICH RSCP > RLA (S+N) + FDDQOFFS for at least 5 sec  condition#3 then “Cell reselection will occur”  RLA (S+N): It is the Received Level Average of the signal strength of the serving+neighbor GSM cells measured in dBm.

2010 .  Upon receiving the measurements from the multi RAT UE.GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover (II) GSM to UMTS Handover:  FDDMRR: The multi RAT UE is informed on how many UMTS cells (03) he should report in the measurement report using this parameter. the BSC will handle the GSM and UMTS cells separately by filtering out the UMTS measurements before the GSM locating algorithm. Filtering out the UMTS cells Filtering Basic Ranking Urgency Condition UMTS Evaluation % idle TCHs ≤ ISOLEV Ec/No > MRSL Aux. Radio features Organizing the list Add UMTS cells to Candidate list Sending the list and allocation reply GSM Evaluation Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

The percentage of idle TCHs in the serving GSM cell will be compared vs. 2010 . ISHOLEV to decide if the UMTS will be added to the HO candidate list or not.  MRSL: It is a BSC parameter that gives the minimum threshold for the quality (Ec/No) for a UMTS neighbor cell in order to be added to the HO candidate list. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. recommended value=-9dB  ISHOLEV: It is a Cell parameter. because there won’t be any kind of cell reselection without performing measurements.GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover (II) GSM to UMTS Handover:  This is controlled through set of parameters:  QSC: Which defines at which conditions the UMTS cell will be measured in active mode.

2010 . of Idle TCHsGSM ServingCell ≤ ISHOLEV.GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover (II) GSM to UMTS Handover:  Conditions that should be fulfilled for a UMTS cell to be added to the HO candidate list: (1) No. or urgency conditions are detected in the GSM serving cell either due to BQ or TA (2) CPICH Ec/No UMTS Neighbor ≥ MRSL Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover (II) GSM to UMTS Handover:  Now all the valid neighboring UMTS cells will be sorted in order of decreasing CPICH Ec/No in order to form the UMTS candidate list. 2010 .: this will depend on the urgency conditions and the load as follow: Non-Urgency HO Condition No Load GSM list Urgency HO Condition No Load GSM list UMTS list Load UMTS list GSM list Load UMTS list GSM list  N. the GSM and UMTS will be sorted?  Ans.  But how the two lists.B: To have balance between the behavior in the idle & active modes it is recommended to set the values for FDDQMIN (idle) = MRSL (active) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

-16dB. -14dB. 2010 . -18dB. -12dB) 0 to 15(-114 dBm to -84 dBm in steps of 2dBm) 0 to 15 (-inf. -6dB. -8dB. -28dB to 28dB in steps of 4 dB) 0 to 3 0 to 49 0 to 99 Default Value Recommended Value Unit 0(OFF) 15 1(ON) − − − QSC FDDQMIN FDDRSCPMIN FDDQOFF FDMRR MRSL ISHOLEV 15 0 (-20dB) 6(-102 dBm) 8(0 dB) 0 − 20 − 5(-10dB) 6(-102 dBm) 0(-inf) 1 or 2 30 (-9 dB) − − − − − − % Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.1(ON) 0 to 6(Below:-98dBm t o -74dBm) 7(Always) 8 to 14(Above:-78dBm to -54dBm) 15 (Never) 0 to 6(Below:-98dBm t o -74dBm) 7(Always) 8 to 14(Above:-78dBm to -54dBm) 15 (Never) 0 to 7 (-20dB. -10dB.GSM to UMTS Cell Reselection and Handover  Parameters Summary GSM-UMTS Cell Reselection and HO Control Parameters Parameter Name COEXUMTS QSI Value Range 0(OFF).

2010 .Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

we have to enhance the following: (A) Accessibility: The ability of users to access the network.  To keep the quality of service good as much as possible. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  The Quality of service means that how the subscriber is satisfied with the overall service. (C) Service Integrity: The ability to keep the quality of the service good enough during the connection with the network. (B) Retainability: The ability of users to successfully continue their connections with the network until it is terminated in a normal way.

2. 2010 . 5. (A) Accessibility KPIs: 1. 3. 4.Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  KPIs: “Key Performance Indicators” it is a general term used to define the keys or observations through which you can judge if the performance is good or not. Paging Success Rate Random Access SDCCH Congestion (Blocking) TCH Blocking SDCCH Drop Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2. 2010 . TCH Drop Rate Handover Success Rate (C) Service Integrity KPIs: 1. Rxqual (Received Signal Quality) SQI (Speech Quality Indicator) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring (B) Retainability KPIs: 1. 2.

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. of attempts of paging to the Location Area. of paging response to first paging. Paging  On MSC level there is counters to count:  No. of paging response to the repeated paging. 2010 .  Using these counters we can form the equation to calculate the paging success rate.Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring (A) Accessibility KPIs: 1.  No.  No.

Paging  The Paging Success rate on certain LA as appeared from the statistics: Paging Attempts Paging Success Rate Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring (A) Accessibility KPIs: 1.

       Paging What are the causes of bad paging performance? Implicit detach is not used: parameter ATT is set to “Off” Low Signal Strength Not optimized paging strategy Use of combined BCCH mapping in high traffic location areas.Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring (A) Accessibility KPIs: 1. Location area dimensioning Using of IMSI most of the time instead of TMSI Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

and the no.Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring (A) Accessibility KPIs: 2. Random Access  A failure in the random access doesn’t mean a call setup failure because the MS sends many random access bursts each time it tries to access the network. 2010 . of accepted random access requests. of discarded requests (incremented for random access requests that are received with too high Time Advance) through which the random access success rate can be calculated.  There are counters to count the no.     Causes of low random access success rate may be due to: Too high Time Advance (TA) High Interference Bad BSIC Planning Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Hardware Availability. SDCCH Congestion  It is the failure of call/connection setup due to high signaling load. High SMS Traffic.      Causes of high SDCCH congestion? This is may be due to: Location Area border cell. No. of call attempts through which the SDCCH congestion rate can be calculated. failed allocations due to SDCCH congestion and the no.Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring (A) Accessibility KPIs: 3. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 . of configured SDCCHs is low.  There are counters to count the no.

2010 . TCH Blocking  It is the failure of setup a call/connection due to TCH congestion.     Causes of high TCH Blocking may be due to: Hardware problem. Missing neighbor cell definition. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. of assignment attempts on TCH channel through which the TCH blocking rate can be calculated. Too few TCH resources defined. of released connections on SDCCH due to TCH congestion and the no.  There are counters to count the no.Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring (A) Accessibility KPIs: 4.

2010 . TCH Blocking The TCH Blocking as appeared from the Statistics TCH Traffic TCH Blocking Defined TCH Channels  TCH Blocking was solved after expansion (adding new frequency) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring (A) Accessibility KPIs: 4.

Interference. of dropped connections on SDCCH and the no.  N. SDCCH Drop  It is the failure of setup a call/connection due to SDCCH channel drop.      Causes of high SDCCH drop rate may be due to: Bad Coverage. Wrong parameters’ settings (Offsets and Hysteresis). Hardware problems.Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring (A) Accessibility KPIs: 5. 2010 .  There are counters to count the no. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. of successful MS channel establishments on SDCCH through which the SDCCH drop rate can be calculated.B: when a connection is dropped at call setup it will affect the accessibility KPIs.

TCH Drop  It is the drop of the connection on the traffic channel which was assigned to the MS. Hardware problems.       Causes of high TCH drop rate may be due to: Bad coverage.Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring (B) Retainability KPIs: 1. Wrong parameters' settings. of dropped connections and the initiated connections on TCH channels through which the TCH drop rate can be calculated. 2010 .  There are counters to count the no. Missing Neighbors. Interference. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

TCH Drop The TCH drop as appeared from the statistics. 2010 . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring (B) Retainability KPIs: 1. TCH Traffic TCH Drop Rate  High drop rate was solved after fixing a hardware problem.

BQ Both Links BQ Downlink BQ Uplink Low SS Both Links Low SS Downlink Low SS Uplink Sudden Lost  Main drop reason is due to BQ in downlink Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. TCH Drop The TCH drop reasons as appeared from the statistics. 2010 .Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring (B) Retainability KPIs: 1.

TCH Drop The TCH drop reasons as appeared from the statistics. BQ Both Links BQ Downlink BQ Uplink Low SS Both Links Low SS Downlink Low SS Uplink Sudden Lost  Main drop reason is due to low SS Both link Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring (B) Retainability KPIs: 1.

Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring (B) Retainability KPIs: 2. 2010 . Handover Success Rate  There are counters to measure the number of Handover attempts from cell to cell and the Handover success rate.  Poor Handover Success rate may be due to:  Bad Frequency plan.  Hardware problems. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.  Handover failure does not mean a drop call will occur.  Wrong definitions and missing neighbors.  Wrong parameters settings.

Rxqual  It is obtained by averaging the Bit Error Rate over a certain period ~ 0.  There are counters to measure the no.5 sec and it is measured in both the Downlink and Uplink  Rxqual take values from 0 (Best)  7 (Worst) and gives indication for the quality of the radio environment.2.Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring (C) Service Integrity KPIs: 1.….7 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. of samples that received with Rxqual 0.1. 2010 .

B: HR ≡ Half Rate. The output values are measured on a dBQ scale. the distribution of BER. FR ≡ Full Rate. SQI (Speech Quality Index)  Is a good measure for the end user perceived speech quality. 2010 . EFR connection SQImax=30dBQ  N.Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring  Trouble Shooting & KPIs monitoring (C) Service Integrity KPIs: 2. FR connection SQImax=22dBQ. FR. on HR connection SQImax=17dBQ.  Typically. the SQI take values from 0 (Worst)  30 (Best). EFR ≡ Enhance Full Rate Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.  The algorithm used for calculation the SQI takes into account the BER. the FER (Frame Erasure Rate) and the codec used (HR. EFR).

2010 .Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

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