Science Form 1 note

GOOD LUCK

Teacher zaidi@maher2010

CHAPTER 4 : THE
4.1 1. 2. 3. Air 1. 2. 3. 4.

VARIETY OF RESOURCES ON EARTH

THE DIFFERENT RESOURCES ON EARTH Human beings, animals and plants need food, water, air and shelter in order to survive. The Earth has the resources needed to sustain life. The resources are air, water, soil, minerals, fossil fuels and living things.

Air is needed by all living things to survive. The atmosphere is a layer of air that envelops the Earth. Air is a mixture of gases. Air contains gases such as oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are two very important gases that support life on Earth. a. Oxygen i. Used for respiration by living things ii. Used in combustion of materials iii. Used in industries iv. Released during photosynthesis. b. Carbon dioxide i. Used by green plants to carry out photosynthesis ii. Used in fire extinguishers iii. Released during respiration and combustion. Water covers a total of about three quarters of the Earth. The sources of water are oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, rainfall and ground water. Importance of water a. To animals/human i. It provides a medium for chemical process and body metabolism ii. It is the main component of the blood iii. It transports nutrient to all cell in the body iv. It caries excretory products to the kidneys for excretion. v. It helps to control the body temperature. b. To plants i. It helps to maintain the turgidity of plant cells. ii. It is used in photosynthesis. iii. Need for the germination of seeds.

Water 1. 2. 3.

8. 3.Science Form 1 note GOOD LUCK Teacher zaidi@maher2010 iv. Air and water are found in pore spaces between the soil particles. tigers and snakes feed on other animals. fuel. 2. . • humus formed from the composition of organic litter. organic matter. Importance of soil • Source of minerals and fossil fuel • Source of clay for making pottery • Source of sand for making glass and cement • Base for agricultural activities • Foundation for construction of houses. Cool down the plant (transpiration) Soil 1. giraffes and elephants feed on plants. iron. Soil contains mineral matter. 4. 3. twigs. The soil organic matter includes • Organic litter such as fallen leaves. Aquatic plants and animals are also important resources for sustaining life. animal dropping etc. We can obtain food. Some animals for example. building. 6. road and other structures. Soil refers to the outer layer of the Earth. 6. 2. Animal are not able to make their own food. • Microorganism living in the soil. Living things Importance of plants and animals 1. 7. 5. Mineral 1. zinc. air and water. silver and gold. Dissolves minerals slats in the ground for absorbtion by the root of plants v. fruit. 5. tin. Helps to support aquatic plants vi. 2. Some animals for example. The presence of air and water in the soil makes soil a natural habitat for various types of plants and animal. 4. Examples of minerals are feldspar. aluminium. quartz. Flora and fauna (plants and animals) are also natural resources that sustain life. Green plants are able to make their own food by carrying out photosynthesis. Plants and animals are resources needed by human beings. Minerals are inorganic substances found naturally on land and in seas or oceans. materials for making clothes and building materials from plants and animals.

coal and natural gas. An element cannot be broken down into any simpler substances by physical or chemical methods. chorine . carbon. 5. Examples of elements are copper. diesel. nitrogen. platinum. Products of fractional distillation are petrol. petroleum. 4. 3. lead. bromine. phosphorus. Coal and natural gas can be burnt as fuel directly after they mined. ELEMENTS. COMPOUND AND MIXTURE PMR 04. Example of non-metal: hydrogen. Petroleum can be separated into different parts by fractional distillation before use. PMR 04. magnesium. sodium. 06 1. 06 Elements. carbon. 2. silver. gold Examples of metals and non metals Metals Metals Aluminium Tin Silver Potassium Copper Iron Mercury State (at room temperature) Solid Solid Solid Solid Solid Solid Liquid Non metals State (at room Non metals temperature) Carbon Solid Sulphur Solid Iodine Solid Bromine Liquid Oxygen Gas Chlorine Gas Hydrogen Gas Non-metal PMR 06 There are 19 types of non-metals that have been identified so far. iron. There are three types of fossil fuels. 2. gold. 4. sulphur. sulphur and aluminium. potassium. Metal PMR 06 There are 91 types of metals that have been identified so far. 3. Element can be grouped into metals and non-metal. kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas. Examples of metal: mercury. GOOD LUCK Teacher zaidi@maher2010 Some minerals for example aluminium and iron are mined because they can be used as raw materials in various industries.Science Form 1 note 3. iodine. Fossil fuels are formed from the remains of animals and plants that have died millions of years. There are more than 110 elements. 5. Fossil Fuels 1. Elements are substances that are made up of only one type of particle. ( LPG ). oxygen.

chlorine Baking soda Sodium. sulphur. The particles can only be separated by chemical methods such as electrolysis or by using strong heat and cannot be separated by physically methods. xenon. argon. oxygen 3. oxygen. Hydrogen. Hydrogen. neon. chloride. phosphorus Bromine Hydrogen. oxygen Sugar Carbon. chlorine Properties of metals and non-metals metals Have shiny surface Malleable (can be shaped) Ductile (can be stretched) Have high melting point Good conductors of heat and electricity Non-metals Have dull surface Brittle Not ductile Have low melting point Poor conductor of heat and electricity. oxygen Hydrochloric acid Hydrogen. 08 1. Compounds PMR 04. chlorine Calcium chloride (lime water) Calcium. . oxygen Sulphuric acid Hydrogen. 2. carbon. sulphur. For example : water made up of one oxygen particle and two hydrogen particles.Science Form 1 note GOOD LUCK Teacher zaidi@maher2010 Solid Liquid Gas Examples of non-metals State at room temperature Examples of non-metals Carbon. These particles combine chemically according to a fixed proportion. nitrogen. radon. helium. hydrogen Carbon dioxide Carbon. krypton. 5. Carbon dioxide is a compound made up of one carbon particle and two oxygen particles. Compounds Component elements Water Oxygen. oxygen Nitric acid Hydrogen. Water can be broken down into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas by electrolysis. Compounds are substances that are made up of two or more types of particles. 4. oxygen Sodium chloride (Common salt) Sodium. iodine.

Examples : blood. bitumen Stones. • • Ration of component is fixed. filtration. minerals. • Can be separated by chemical method (electrolysis) It cannot be broken • It can be broken down • down into simpler into simpler substances substances by any by chemical method. It can easily separated into its components by physical method. properties of components are not formed. water vapour. milo powder. humus.Science Form 1 note GOOD LUCK Teacher zaidi@maher2010 Mixtures 1. salt Water. mineral salts. sand. water. coffee etc. • • Heat is released or absorbed. sugar. water. milk Petrol. Mixtures Air Salt solution Milo drink Petroleum Soil 3. air. 4. hydrogen. and mixture Mixture It is made up of more than one type of particle which combined physically. Can be separated by physical method: Example: using magnet. • • New properties are formed. soil. diesel. The components of a mixture can be separated easily by physical methods such as evaporation and filtration or by the use of magnet. distillation. 2. Example : Gold • Example : Sugar • . No new substance are formed. chemical method. Components Oxygen. The different types of particles in a mixtures are not chemically combined and they can mix in any proportion. Ration of component are not formed. bacteria and other substances. dust. compound Element Compound It is made up of only one • It is made up of more • type of particle than one type of particle which combined chemically • • New substance are formed. air.. Example : Soil • • • Comparison between an element. inert gases. evaporation …. kerosene. Mixtures are substances that are made up of two or more types of particles which combine physically.

1. Fossil Fuels. used to run motor vehicles. needed for drinking. clothing and shelter. 3.Science Form 1 note GOOD LUCK Teacher zaidi@maher2010 Separation of Mixtures. contains carbon dioxide needed for photosynthesis. cleaning and bathing. computers and other inventions. used to generate electricity. • Filtration • Sieving/Sifting • Evaporation • Distillation • Using a magnet • Precipitation • Extraction • Chromatography. . needed by our body systems to function normally. machines. 2. The Earth`s resources fulfill our basic needs. used as raw materials for buildings. needed by plants to grow well. Our basic needs are oxygen. cooking. used to run machines. contains oxygen needed for respiration. Minerals. Air. water. washing. Figure below gives an overview of the importance of the resources on Earth to human beings. food. Water. PMR 05 Components of a mixture can be separated by any of these methods. needed by our body to function normally. THE IMPORTANCE OF EARTH`S RESOURCES.

Preservation ensures that we do not lose our natural resources to development such us farming. food. Conservation of resources ensures that we maintain sufficient quantities of resources for future generation to use. companion and labour. These efforts ensure that the flora and fauna in these protected areas would still be around for the future generations to see. Recycling refers to the processing of waste materials to become useful things in order to save Earth`s resources. - support plants from falling. national parks and marine parks. THE IMPORTANCE OF APPRECIATING EARTH`S RESOURCES TO HUMAN BEINGS 1. Reusing refers to using discarded or unwanted materials to save on nature`s resources. animals provide us with food. 7. plants provide us with oxygen. reuse and recycle. housing or tourism. colouring and medicines. Enables humans to carry out farming. habitat to various types of living things. pigments spices. Conservation also means using Earth`s resources wisely and not in wasteful ways. clothing. 4. mining and building constructions. 3. 4. We can show that we appreciate the importance of Earth`s resources by using the resources wisely and not in wasteful ways. 5.Science Form 1 note GOOD LUCK Teacher zaidi@maher2010 Living Things. 6. Soil. supplies plants with minerals and water. You may practice reduce. tammat . state parks. Reducing means using less resources to ensure that will be there for our future use as well as for the future generations. Preservation means maintaining certain areas of Earth in their natural condition. 3. 5. industry. clothing. PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES ON EARTH 1. 2. Conservation means the sustainable use and management of Earth`s resources. Examples of efforts in preservation are the setting up of forest reserves. 2. building materials.

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