Liberty Debate Page 1 of 1 99404047.doc N.

Ryan

Understanding Formal Logic
Properly translating requires identifying the sufficient and necessary condition Sufficient condition keywords: o If o All o Every o Any o When/whenever o Always Necessary condition keywords: o Only – words afterwards are always necessary conditions o Only if o Unless o Must o Need o Required If and only if is translated into “but only if” o These mean the two phrases are interchangeable No X unless Y = If X then Y Negative relationships o No o Not o None o Never o Cannot o Neither…nor Uncertain / ambiguous terms: o Some – at least one o Most – over 50% o Many o Few Formal logic in inference questions o Inference: a statement that must be true  If a then b  If b then c Forma logic in flaw questions o Arguments will often:  Confuse necessity and sufficiency  Incorrectly contrapose an argument Formal logic in parallel reasoning: Formal logic in assumption reasoning

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 Liberty Debate

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful