From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Page 1


,,-, ¸~, = ,,


,. _,¯ ¸·


From the
Treasures
of
Arabic
Morphology


NOTE : Treasures of Arabic morphology has been
published by Zam zam Publishers of Pakistan.
Unfortunately the quality of the print is poor and the
publishers have retyped the contents pages with
typing errors. If anyone is prepared to publish the
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Title From the Treasures of Arabic
Morphology

Author

Moulānā Ebrāhīm Muhammad
First Edition

Safar 1427 A.H.
March 2006

Published by
Academy for Islamic Research
Madrasah In’āmiyyah
P.O. Box 39
Camperdown
3720
South Africa

Tel +27 031 785 1519

Fax +27 031 785 1091

email
al_inaam@yahoo.com




Copyright © 2006 Madrasah In’āmiyyah

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in
a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior
permission of Madrasah In’āmiyyah, except in the case of brief
quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.


Typeset on Times New Roman 12 and Traditional Arabic 18 by
Academy for Islamic Research, Madrasah In’āmiyyah, Camperdown,
KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

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Contents

Introduction 10
Some Useful Terms 11
Arabic Terms 12
The Types of Words 14
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs 15
Positive and Negative 15
Active and Passive 15
The Second Category of Verbs 16
Exercise 1 17
Types of Nouns 18
The Scales of Verbs 20
Exercise 2 22
The Categories of Triliteral Verbs 23
Exercise 3 25
The Perfect Active ( ¸.' ,,·' )
26
Exercise 4 28
The Perfect Passive (¸,,- ¸.')
29
Exercise 5 33
The Imperfect (__.')
35
Exercise 6 38
The Imperfect Passive ( __.' ¸,,- )
39
Exercise 7 40
The (·. ,,-)
41
Exercise 8 44
The (··_- ,,-)
45
Exercise 9 49
The (·.) and (.,) of Emphasis
50
Exercise 10 55
The Imperative (,·')
56
Exercise 11 61
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The Prohibition (¸,)
61
Exercise 12 65
The Derived Nouns (·' .-.)
66
The Active Participle (¸· ,)
66
Exercise 13 68
The Passive Participle (¸,·' ,)
69
Exercise 14 70
The Elative (¸,. ,)
71
Exercise 15 73
The (·,· ·.)
74
The Noun of the Instrument (·. ,)
76
Exercise 16 78
The Adverb (,= ,)
79
Exercise 17 81
The Intensive Adjective (··' ··,.)
82
Exercise 18 84
The Categories (.,,') of Verbs
85
The (.,,') of (·,- ¸·)
85
The First (.,)
85
The Second (.,)
86
The Third (.,)
86
The Fourth (.,)
87
The Fifth (.,)
88
The Sixth (.,)
88
Exercise 19 90
The (.,,') of (·,· ,,· ¸·)
91
Construction of the Derived Nouns 95
The Abbreviated Paradigm of each (.,)
97
(¸··¸ .,)
97
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Exercise 20 99
(¸,· .,)
99
Exercise 21 101
(··· .,)
101
Exercise 22 103
(¸·¸ .,)
103
Exercise 23 105
(¸··¸ .,)
105
Exercise 24 110
( , ¸···¸ . )
110
Exercise 25 112
(¸` · .,)
112
Exercise 26 114
(¸· .,)
114
Exercise 27 117
(¸·¸ .,)
117
Exercise 28 119
(¸·,··¸ .,)
119
Exercise 29 121
(¸·,··¸ .,)
121
Exercise 30 123
(¸` ,··¸ .,)
123
Exercise 31 125
Four Root-Letter Verbs 126
Exercise 32 129
The Derived Forms of Four Root-Letter
Verbs
130
( ., · ¸ )
130
Exercise 33 132
( ., ·· ¸ )
132
Exercise 34 134
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( ., ··· ¸ )
134
Exercise 35 136
Other Derived Forms 137
Exercise 36 142
The Seven Categories 143
Exercise 37 146
The Rules of (_,,·)
147
Rule 1 147
Rule 2 147
Rule 3 148
Rule 4 148
Rule 5 150
Rule 6 151
Rule 7 152
Rule 8 153
Rule 9 154
Rule 10 156
Exercise 38 156
The Orthography of the Hamzah 157
The Paradigms of (_,,·)
158
Exercise 39 160
Exercise 40 161
Exercise 41 163
Discussion of (¸· _,,·)
163
Discussion of ( _,,· ·· )
164
Exercise 42 165
The Rules of (¸··)
166
Rule 1 166
Rule 2 167
Rule 3 168
Rule 4 169
Rule 5 170
Rule 6 171
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Rule 7 171
Rule 8 179
Rule 9 184
Rule 10 189
Exercise 43 193
Rule 11 193
Rule 12 194
Rule 13 195
Rule 14 196
Rule 15 199
Rule 16 199
Rule 17 202
Rule 18 203
Rule 19 204
Rule 20 205
Rule 21 206
Rule 22 207
Rule 23 208
Rule 24 209
Rule 25 210
Rule 26 212
Exercise 44 213
The Paradigms of (¸··)
214
Exercise 45 220
The Paradigms of (,-')
221
Exercise 46 228
The Paradigm of (¸, ,-')
229
Exercise 47 240
The Paradigms of (¸·) and (.,)
241
Exercise 48 250
Exercise 49 260
Exercise 50 271
Combination of (_,,·) and (¸··)
272
Exercise 51 283
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The Rules of (.·.·)
284
Rule 1 284
Rule 2 286
Rule 3 287
Rule 4 288
Rule 5 289
Exercise 52 290
Exercise 53 297
A Combination of (.·.·) , (_,,·) and (¸··)
301
Exercise 54 303
Special Meanings ( ,.- . ) of Each (.,)
304
The ( .- , . ) of ( ., ,. )
304
The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., .,. )
304
The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., _- )
305
The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ·,¯ )
305
The Derived Categories 306
The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸··¸ )
306
The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸,· )
309
The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ··· )
311
The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸··¸ )
312
The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸·¸ )
314
The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸···¸ )
314
The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸· )
315
The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸· )
317
The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸·¸ )
318
The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸·,··¸ )
319
The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸·,··¸ )
320
The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸` ,··¸ )
320
The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ··· )
321
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The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸· )
321
The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸···¸ )
322
The ( ,.- . ) of ( ., ¸ ···¸ )
322
Application of the Special Meanings 323
Challenging Words 325
Appendix A - Morphology or Etymology? 352
Bibliography 356

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,,-, ¸~, = ,,

Introduction

Arabic Morphology (,... ,..·) is a branch of Arabic
Grammar dealing with word-forms and patterns. It is
highly essential for the incumbent student of Arabic to
learn this science in order to be proficient in the language.
Acquiring an understanding of word patterns is of prime
importance in learning the language.

This is a comprehensive book dealing with all the
important aspects of the subject. If a student has to study
this book thoroughly, he would develop a very good
foundation in this science and it would absolve him of the
need to study any further books on the subject.

The Arabic names of morphologic terms have been
adopted instead of the Urdu forms commonly found in the
text books of Islamic seminaries. Thus I have used the
term (·´ ¸·) instead of ( ·.¯ ¸.·). Similarly, instead
of writing (...¯,-), the correct Arabic form of (·..¯,-)
has been used while the term (¸...') is used instead of
(¸...·) which is incorrect. This will enable the student to
learn the correct Arabic terms from the initial stages of his
learning.

Included also is a collection of rules of word-changes
which affect many Arabic verbs and nouns. The rules have
been clearly explained with examples and a step by step
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Page 11
method as to how a word is changed from its original form
to its present one.

It is hoped that this book will be beneficial for the students
of Arabic Grammar and Morphology and simplify the path
to understanding the intricacies of the language. Āmīn.

For a detailed discussion on the name of this subject,
whether it is called Morphology or Etymology, refer to
Appendix A at the end of this book.

Some Useful Terms

Conjugation: A paradigm, class, or table of verb forms in
such inflected languages as Latin and French, where
elements are distinguished from each other by patterns of
inflection relating to tense, person, number.
1


Declension: A term used to describe the case system of
nouns and other words.
2


Inflection: The variation or change of form that words
undergo to mark distinctions of case, gender, number,
tense, person, mood, voice, comparison.
3


Linguistics and Philology: The study of language.

Paradigm: pronounced (pa-ra-dime), in grammar, a set of
all the (especially inflected) forms of a word (write, writes,
wrote, writing, written), especially when used as a model
for all other words of the same type.
4



1
The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 256, 1992.
2
Ibid, p. 281.
3
Websters Third New International Dictionary, vol. 2, p. 1160.
4
The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 747, 1992.
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Page 12
Arabic Terms

The following are some of the Arabic terms used
frequently in this book. It would be advisable to learn
them thoroughly as they are frequently used throughout
the book.

Term Meaning
-¬·· A diacritical point . denoting the sound
of ‘a’.
-«= A diacritical point - . denoting the sound
of ‘u’.
·¸.· A diacritical point - . denoting the sound
of ‘i’.
. .,´=
;¸-
A diacritical point - . that serves the
purpose of joining two letters in
pronunciation
_,·«- A letter having a fathah, e.g. ( )
;,«=- A letter having a dammah, e.g. (` ¸)
_,.´- A letter having a kasrah, e.g. ( ·)
. ¸··=
;¸¸=
A letter having a sukûn or jazm, e.g. (` ¸)
-·¸-
The three diacritical points, fathah
dammah and kasrah are each called a
harakah
=¸¬·- A letter having a harakah, e.g. ( )
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-«·´|· ···
The first root letter of a word, also referred
to as consonant or radical, e.g. the () of
( _ ·)
-«·´|· _-
The second root letter of a word, e.g. the
(.) of ( _ ·)
-«·´|· ;v The third root letter of a word, e.g. the (_)
of ( _ ·)
--,=
Word-form denoting the number, gender
and mood of the verb
=·,,| (.,,') is the plural of (.,) which refers
to a category of verbs belonging to one
class. The first verb of the perfect tense
(¸.') and the imperfect tense ( ' __. ),
are used to indicate the diacritical points of
the alphabets of the verbs.
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The Types of Words

Term Meaning
Example
· · « -
word
` . ¯
` , = ·
noun
¸` - _
¸ - ·
verb
¸ · ·
¸ - ` =
particle – it is dependent on either
an ( ,.) or ( ¸.··) in conveying its
meaning
` ¸ ·

With regards to meaning and tense, a verb is of three
types:

Term Meaning Example
_=·'·
Indicates the occurrence of
an action in the past tense. It
is referred to as the perfect
tense in English.
¸.. · · – He
did.
g_·='·
Indicates the occurrence of
an action in the present or
future tense. It is referred to
as the imperfect tense in
English.
¸ · , - He is
doing or he
will do.
¸-v·
a command
¸.. · · – You
do.

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Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

Term Meaning Example
|· ;_:
Intransitive – does
not require an object
` ¸... ` , - He is
walking.
'· ¸=-·
Transitive - requires
an object
.. ` _ , – He is
opening the door.

Positive and Negative

Term Meaning Example
=·,·,
positive
¸ · , – He is doing.
_«·
negative
¸ · , . – He is not doing.
The terms (.··) and (¸·) are also used.

Active and Passive

Term Meaning Example
=¸¸--
active tense – the doer
of the action is known
¸ · , – He is doing.
,,,=
passive tense – the doer
of the action is not
known

¸ · , – It is being
done.


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The Second Category of Verbs

With regard to the root letters (·,.. ,,-) of a verb, they
are of two types:

Term Meaning Example
¸·
3 root letters or
triliteral
, .
¸·,_
4 root letters or
quadriliteral
, ·` · ,

Each of these two types is further divided into two categories:
(1) (·,-) – the (¸.') consists of root letters only, without
any extra letters.
(2) (·,· ,,·) - the (¸.') has root letters plus extra letters.

This results in the following four categories:

Term Meaning Example
·,- ¸·
3 root letters only
, .
·,· ,,· ¸·
3 root letters plus extra
letters
. ` -
·,- ¸·,_
4 root letters only
, ·` · ,
·,· ,,· ¸·,_
4 root letters plus extra
letters
¸ ,` ,

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Exercise 1

(1) Determine whether the following verbs have 3 root-
letters or 4 root-letters.
(a) ¸ ¯ '
(b) _ ,` - ·
(c) _ , -
(d) , ` · _
(e) , =` ·

(2) What do the following terms mean:

Term Meaning
.' ¸

__.'

,·.

¸·

¸·,_

·,-

,,· ·,·

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Types of Nouns

(1) There are three types of nouns - (.-):
[a] _.· , [b] ¸· and [c] ·- .
(2) The ( _..· – verbal noun) is a word that indicates the
occurrence of an action and is free of tense e.g. ( ` ,.` .` ) –
to assist.
(3) The ( ¸.·) is a word derived from a verb e.g. ( ` ,. . ) –
helper is derived from ( , . ).
(4) The (..·-) is neither a (_...·) nor a ( ¸.·) e.g.
( ¸` - _) – man.

(5) The (_...·) and the (¸..·) also fall under the
categories of (¸·), ( ¸·.,_), ( ·,.-) and ( ·.,· .,,·) like
the (¸..··). The categories mentioned under the verb like
(_,-.) etc. also apply to an (,).
(6) The noun (..·-) with regard to its letters can either
have three root letters (triliteral), four root letters
(quadriliteral) or five root letters (quinquiliteral). It is
therefore of six types:
[1] (·,- ¸·) e.g. ( ¸` - _) – a man
[2] (·,· ,,· ¸·) e.g. (` _ -) – a donkey
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[3] (·,- ¸·,_) e.g. (` . , ·) – scorpion
[4] (·,· ,,· ¸·,_) e.g. ( · ` ¸ ~` , ) - paper
[5] (·,- ¸~) e.g. ( ¸ -` , ) - quince
[6] (·,· ,,· ¸~) e.g. (` .` ,` ´` ·) – a
spider

(7) The scholars of morphology generally deal with the
( ¸.··) because most of the changes ( .,,..) occur in a
( ¸.··) while few changes occur in an ( ,.) and none occur
in a (,-).
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The Scales of Verbs

The Arabic verb is constructed from a root which usually
consists of three letters called consonants or radicals.
These consonants form a kind of skeleton which
constitutes the verb-stem to which prefixes and suffixes
may be added.

Arabic verbs are mostly triliteral, that is, they are
constructed of three root letters. The simplest form of the
verb is the third person masculine singular of the perfect
tense ( ¸..' ¸.· ¸.· ..· ,¯.· .-,). In most
dictionaries, all the words derived from a triliteral root are
entered under the third person masculine singular form of
the verb.

In Arabic, there are two main tenses, the perfect or past
tense (¸...'), denoting actions completed at the time to
which reference is made; and the imperfect (__...'), for
incompleted actions, referring to the present or future
tenses. The present and future tenses are thus expressed by
the imperfect form ( __..'). The imperative ( ,.·.) may
be considered a modification of the imperfect.

To indicate patterns or type-forms of verbs, the
grammarians use the three letters of the verb ( ¸.. · ·), where
the () represents the first radical of the verb, the (_)
represents the second radical of the verb and the (¸)
represents the third radical of the verb. This is the scale
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( . ,.` , ·) or standard by which the root letters of a verb are
determined. Accordingly, the word ( ... ¯) is on the scale
of ( ¸ · ·), ( ` ..` ´,) is on the scale of ( ¸.` · ,) and ( ` ..` ¯ ')
is on the scale of ( ¸` · · ').

The letter that corresponds to the () of the (.,..,·) is
called the ( ·. ´ .. · ِ ), that which corresponds to the (_) is
called the (·.. ´ ` ¸` ,.. · ِ ) while the letter corresponding to
the (¸) is called the (· ´ ` · . ِ ).
Example: the word ( . ¯) is on the scale of ( ¸ · ·):

,

g

=

= = =


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Exercise 2

(1) Determine the scales of the following verbs and what
each letter represents. The first one has been done for you.

(a) ( , . )
,

g

=

_ ¸ .

The (.) is the (·´ .·), the (¸) is the ( ·.´ ¸.·), the
(_) is the ( ` · . ·´ ).
(b) (` _ ` ¸)
(c) (` _ )
(d) (` . ,` . )
(e) ( ¸ ·` -,)
(f) ( ·` , ¯)
(g) (` . ` -,)
(h) (` . · ,)
(i) ( ¸ ' )
(j) ( · , )
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The Categories of Triliteral Verbs

(.¸=· _·:·|· =·,,|)

(1) The first and third letters of a simple triliteral verb in
the active tense is always vowelled with a fathah (·..-·).
The second letter or radical may be vowelled by a ( ·.-·),
(·.) or ( ·,.¯). The active perfect tense ( ¸.· ¸..'
,,.·') of triliteral verbs ( ·,.- ¸.·) is used on three
scales:
[a] ¸ · · e.g. ( _ ·)
[b] ¸ · · e.g. ( _ )
[c] ¸` · · e.g. ( ·` , ¯)
(2) The conjugation of the ( ¸. · ·) and ( ¸.` · ·) forms is similar
to the conjugation of ( ¸ · ·).
(3) The imperfect tense (,,..·· __...·) of ( ¸.. · ·) is
sometimes ( ¸. · ,) e.g. ( ` _ . , _ . ·) and sometimes ( ¸.` · ,)
e.g. ( ` ,.` .` , ,. . ) and sometimes ( ¸. · ,) e.g. ( . ,. .
` . ,` .,).
(4) The conjugation of the ( ¸.` · ,) and ( ¸. · ,) is similar to
the conjugation of ( ¸ · ,).
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(5) The ( ,,.·· __.·) of ( ¸. · ·) is sometimes ( ¸. · ,) e.g.
(` _ ` , _ ) and sometimes ( ¸ · ,) e.g. (` . ` -, . -).
(6) The ( ,,.·· __..·) of ( ¸.` · ·) is only ( ¸.` · ,) e.g.
(` ·` , ´, ·` , ¯).
(7) The (¸,,- ¸.') of all three scales is ( ¸ · ·).
(8) The (¸,,- __.·) of all three scales is ( ¸ · `,).
(9) Based on the above-mentioned facts, there are six
categories (.,,') of (·,- ¸·) which are as follows:
(` ,` .` , , . ) , 1 ,
( , . , . ` . ,` . ) , 2 ,
(` _ , _ ·) , 3 ,
(` _ ` , _ ) , 4 ,
(` ·` , ´, ·` , ¯) , 5 ,
(` . ` -, . -) , 6 ,

(10) There is no rule to specify which verb belongs to
which category (...,). It is based on (_..-) – as heard
from the Arabs. One can also ascertain which
category a verb belongs to from a dictionary. There are
however certain guidelines which are as follows:
[a] If the verb belongs to the category of ( _ .. ·
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` _ . ,) the second or third letter will be from the ( ,,.-
·,-)
5
, e.g. ( · · ` . · , . ), ( ¸ '` , ¸ ' ), (` _ ` -, _ -).
[b] If the perfect (¸...' ¸..·) is of the form
( ¸. · ·), the imperfect ( __..' ¸.·) is generally from the
category of (` _ ` , _ ).
[c] If the perfect ( ¸..' ¸·) is of the form ( ¸.` · ·),
the imperfect ( __...' ¸..·) is generally from the
category of (` ·` , ´, ·` , ¯).

Exercise 3
To which category (...,) does each of the following verb
belong:
(1) ( . ·` , . · ,)
(2) (` ·` ,` , · , )
(3) (` , , , , , ·)
(4) (` . =, . ~)
(5) (` · ,` , · , )

5
The (·,- ,,-) are the following six letters:
(_ . _ . _ . _ . · . .).
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The Perfect Active Tense (,,·' ¸.')

(1) There are 14 word-forms (··,...) of the perfect tense
( ¸...' ¸..·). All three diacritical points or vowels
( ..¯,-) can be used on the ( ·.´ ¸.·) as is apparent
from the above-mentioned six categories (.,,').

(2) The Arab Grammarians usually begin the Perfect ( ¸.·
¸..') and Imperfect ( __..' ¸.·) conjugations with the
third person (....·), followed by the second person
(.~-) and finally the first person (,´·).

(3) Unlike English, Arabic also has a dual form for the
second and third persons. As for the first person, the plural
form is used for both the dual and plural.

(4) Hereunder follow the paradigms of the perfect tense.
Note that the first three froms are for the masculine while
the second three are for the feminine of the third person.
The following six forms are for the second person, the first
three being for the masculine and the second three for the
feminine. The final two forms are for the first person.
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.,·'· =¸¸-'· _=·'· ¸-«|·

--,=|· (Word-form)
Verb
.· ,¯· -, ¸ · ·
.· ,¯· ·,· · ·
.· ,¯· _~ ` , · ·
.· .,· -, ` . · ·
.· .,· ·,· · ·
.· .,· _~ ¸ · ·
,.- ,¯· -, . · ·
,.- ,¯· ·,· ` · ·
,.- ,¯· _~ ` ,` · ·
,.- .,· -, . · ·
,.- .,· ·,· ` · ·
,.- .,· _~ ` ¸` · ·
,´· -, ` . · ·
,´· _~ · ·
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Exercise 4

Conjugate the following verbs in the perfect tense ( ¸..'
,,·') in table form :
(a) ( · ` . ` ·, . )
(b) (` _ -` , _ - )
(c) ( ¸` , ¸ ·)
(d) ( . ·` , . · ,)
(e) ( ¸` -` , ¸ - ·)
(f) (` .` ´, . ¯)
(g) (` , ` ·, , ·)
(h) (` , ·` , , · )
(i) (` -` -, - -)
(j) ( ¸ , ¸ ·)
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The Perfect Passive (¸,,- ¸.')

The (¸,..,- ¸...') is constructed from the ( ¸...'
,,.·') in all triliteral verbs ( ·,.- ¸.·). If we take the
first verb, namely the third person singular form, ( ¸.. · ·), a
( ·..) is rendered to the first letter, a ( ·,.¯) is rendered
to the second letter while the third letter remains in its
original condition. The result is ( ¸. · ·). No matter what the
(·..¯,-) of the second letter in the active tense is, in the
passive tense it will always be (_,´·). Examples:

Active – (=¸¸--) Passive – (,,,=)
, . , .`
_ _ `
·` , ¯ · , ¯

Note that the intransitive verbs can be used in the passive tense if
they are used with a particle (,-), e.g.
(· , . · · ) – It was taken.
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.,·'· ,,,=· _=·'· ¸-«|·

Word-form Verb
singular masculine 3
rd
person
¸ · ·
dual masculine 3
rd
person
· · ·
plural masculine 3
rd
person
` , · ·
singular feminine 3
rd
person
` . · ·
dual feminine 3
rd
person
· ·
plural feminine 3
rd
person
¸ · ·
singular masculine 2
nd
person
. · ·
dual masculine 2
nd
person
` · ·
plural masculine 2
nd
person
` ,` · ·
singular feminine 2
nd
person
. · ·
dual feminine 2
nd
person
` · ·
plural feminine 2
nd
person
` ¸` · ·
singular first person
` . · ·
dual and plural first person
· ·

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_«·'· =¸¸-'· _=·'· ¸-«|·
Verb Pronoun
· ¸ · · ,` ·
· · · ` ·
` , · · · ` ,` ·
` . · · · ¸ ·
· · · ` ·
¸ · · · ` ¸` ·
. · · · .` '
` · · · ` ` '
` ,` · · · ` ,` ` '
. · · · .` '
` · · · ` ` '
` ¸` · · · ` ` ' ` ¸
` . · · · '
· · · ` ¸` -
The words ( . ·) or ( .)
are used for the
negative sense. To use
( .) with ( ¸..'), the
condition is that the
( .) must be repeated
eg.
(¸ . . , ·` . · ·).

The column on the
right indicates how the
pronouns (,...) are
used with the verbs.
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_«·'· ,,,=· _=·'· ¸-«|·

Word-form Verb
.· ¸ · · ·
.· · · ·
.,· ` , · · ·
·· ` . · · ·
.· · · ·
.· ¸ · · ·
.~-' . · · ·
-' .~ ` · · ·
.,~-' ` ,` · · ·
·~-' . · · ·
.~-' ` · · ·
.~-' ` ¸` · · ·
,´' ` . · · ·
_· _· ,´' · · ·

Note the Arabic terms used for the different word-forms in
this table.
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Exercise 5

(a) Translate the following sentences:

, 1 , .¯` , , · ,` ·
, 2 , .¯` , . , ·
, 3 , ¸` , ,` ,` ´ · ¯ ` ·
, 4 , ~ . `
, 5 , - ` . ¯ ' .` '
, 6 , · ´ · ¸ ¸ ` ,` · ·` , ` ,` ` '
, 7 , · .` ~ .` ' ,
, 8 , ¸ ` ` ` ¸ ¸ ` ¸` · ·` , ` ¸` ` '
, 9 , ` , , ` ¸` -
, 10 , ` , ´ ` , · ` , · ·

(b) What is the (··,.) of the following verbs:
[1] ( ·,· ··· ¸· ,¯ . , · - = .·,, ·_·¯ ··· )
[2] ( ¸· ¸ · | )
[3] ( ,¯ · , · ¸ · - ¸· . )
[4] ( · = ¸ · ., )
[5] ( ¸· = ¸ = ·· )
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[6] ( · = ¸ , , · ·· )
[7] ( . · · ·,. ,´,· )
[8] ( ··,,,' ·¸, . · · = )
[9] ( .· ` ¸', . · · | )
[10] ( ·, , ·· · | _ _ )

(c) Are the following verbs (,,··) or (¸,,-)?
[1] ( . , -)
[2] ( . ·)
[3] (` ¸` ` , , ~)
[4] ( ` · ,)
[5] ( ` . ·)



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The Imperfect (__.')

The Imperfect (__.') is formed by adding prefixes and/or
suffixes to the perfect tense. The prefixes can either be any of the
letters ( ¸` , '). The suffixes may either be (.), (.,), (¸,) or just
(.).

After adding the prefix, the first radical or letter of the verb has
(.,´), e.g. the () of ( ¸ · ,) has a sukûn. The second letter
can have any of the three harakât, depending on which category
(.,) the verb belongs to.

In the indicative case (_·, ·-), the final vowel of the third
radical (·´ ·.) is (·.) in the singular form of the verb, e.g.
( ¸ · ,), ( ¸ · ), ( ¸ · · ') and ( ¸ · ). For the subjunctive case ( ·-
..), this (·.) is changed to (·-·), e.g. ( ¸ · ,), ( ¸ · ),
( ¸ · · ') and ( ¸ · ); while for the jussive case (·,- ·-), it is
replaced by a (.,´), e.g. ( ¸ · ,), ( ¸ · ), ( ¸ · · ') and ( ¸ · ). The
changes in the singular and dual forms will be discussed later.
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'· ¸-«|· .,·'· =¸¸-'· g_·=

Meaning Verb
He is doing or he will do.
¸ · ,
They (2 males) are doing or they will do.
. · ,
They (plural males) are doing or they will do.
.` , · ,
She is doing or she will do.
¸ ·
They (2 females) are doing or they will do.
. ·
They (plural females) are doing or they will do.
¸ · ,
You (1 male) are doing or you will do.
¸ ·
You (2 males) are doing or you will do.
. ·
You (plural males) are doing or you will do.
.` , ·
You (1 female) are doing or you will do.
¸` , ·
You (2 females) are doing or you will do.
. ·
You (plural females) are doing or you will do.
¸ ·
I am doing or will do.
¸ · · '
We are doing or we will do.
¸ ·

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_«·'· =¸¸-'· g_·='· ¸-«|·

¸ · , .
. · , .
.` , · , .
¸ · .
. · .
¸ · , .
¸ · .
. · .
.` , · .
¸` , · .
. · .
¸ · .
¸ · · ' .
¸ · .

.,·'· ,,,=· g_·='· ¸-«|·

¸ · `,
. · `,
.` , · `,
¸ · `
. · `
¸ · `,
¸ · `
. · `
.` , · `
¸` , · `
. · `
¸ · `
¸ · · '
¸ · `

_«·'· ,,,=· g_·='· ¸-«|·

¸ · `, .
. · `, .
.` , · `, .
¸ · ` .
. · ` .
¸ · `, .
¸ · ` .
. · ` .
.` , · ` .
¸` , · ` .
. · ` .
¸ · ` .
¸ · · ' .
¸ · ` .

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Exercise 6

(1) To which category (...,) do each of the following
verbs belong:
(a) (¸ - ¸ -)
(b) (, =, , ~)
(c) (` ·, ·)
(d) (: · : ·)
(e) (, =, , =)
(2) What is the (··,.) of the following words:
, 1 , ¸·' ¸´, v . , « · - ,
, 2 , · _,,, ', . , · « - ·
, 3 , = .¸ , · = , v ·, ¸
, 4 , c · - | v ` ¸
, 5 , ¸, . , · · | ,
, 6 , = , - | v _,=· ¸
, 7 , . ¸ ¸ = · , : · | ¸,¸ _¸
, 8 , , . , - · « , .,·'
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The Imperfect Passive Tense ( __.' ¸,,- )

The ( __...' ¸,..,- ) is constructed from the ( __...'
,,.·') in all triliteral verbs ( ·,.- ¸.·). If we take the
first verb, namely the third person singular form, ( ¸. · ,), a
( ·..) is rendered to the first letter which is the ( ·.···
__...') – sign of the imperfect tense. A (·..-·) is
rendered to the ( ·.´ ¸.·) while the ( ·.´ ·.)
remains as it is. The result is ( ¸.. · `,). No matter what the
( ·.¯,-) of the ( ·.´ ¸.·) in the active tense is, in the
passive tense, it will always be (_,·). Examples:

Active – (=¸¸--) Passive – ( = ,,, )
` ,` .` , ` , .` `,
` _ ` , ` _ ` `,
` . ,` ., ` . ,` .`,

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Exercise 7

(a) Translate the following into English:

, 1 , .` , ·` `, ,·, ¸ · , ` · ¸ ·` `, .
, 2 , ` ¸ ` . ,` `,
, 3 , ' _` _ . , ` : ` ·` , , ¸ ¯` ,`,
, 4 , · ¸ `, · , _ -` ¸ · ' ¸ , ´`
, 5 , · ´` · ` ¸ · ' ¸ ` · . ` , , `, ¸ ·

(b) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:
[1] The door of the school is being opened.
[2] He is being sent to Madînah.
[3] The disbelievers will be defeated.
[4] The car will be left on the road.
[5] The book will be read today.

(c) Conjugate the following verbs into the ( __....·
¸,,-):

, 5 ,
` _ , ,

, 4 ,
` · ,` ,,

, 3 ,
` , ´` ,

, 2 ,
` ·` _` ,,

, 1 ,
` _ -` ,,


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The (·. ,,-)

The (·. ,,-) are: ( . '), ( ` ¸ ), (` ¸ ¯) and ( . · ¸). When they
precede the (__.· ¸··), they render (..) to the following
five words:
, 1 , .· ,¯· -, . ¸ · ,
, 2 , .· .,· -, . ¸ ·
, 3 , ,.- ,¯· -, . ¸ ·
, 4 , ,´· -, . ¸ · · '
, 5 , ,´· _~ . ¸ ·
The ( .,·¸ ., ) of the following seven words is deleted:
, 1 , .· ,¯· ·,· . . · ,
, 2 , .· ,¯· _~ . .` , · ,
, 3 , .· .,· ·,· . . ·
, 4 , ,.- ,¯· ·,· . . ·
, 5 , ,.- ,¯· _~ . .` , ·
, 6 , ,.- .,· -, . ¸` , ·
, 7 , ,.- .,· ·,· . . ·

The following two words remain unchanged:
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, 1 , .· .,· _~ . ¸ · ,
, 2 , ,.- .,· _~ . ¸ ·
The word (` ¸ ) changes the positive imperfect tense ( __.·
.··) to negative (¸·) with emphasis.

The paradigms of (,,··) – the active tense and (¸,,-) – the
passive tense – when used with the other particles, ( . '), (` ¸ ¯) and
( . · ¸) will be the same as was in the case of (` ¸ ).
Examples:

` , · , . '

· · , . ' ¸ · , . '
, · , ` ¸ ¯

` ¸ ¯ · · , ¸ · , ` ¸ ¯
` , · , . · ¸ · · , . · ¸ ¸ · , . · ¸

Hereunder follow the paradigms of (__.· ¸··) when used with
the particle (` ¸ ).

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|· ¸-«|· _·- ¸| _- _«·|· =,·
=¸¸-'· ¸,«·.'·
¸ · , ` ¸
· , ` ¸
` , · , ` ¸
¸ · ` ¸
· ` ¸
¸ · , ` ¸
¸ · ` ¸
· ` ¸
` , · ` ¸
` ¸ · ` ¸
· ` ¸
¸ · ` ¸
¸ · · ' ` ¸
¸ · ` ¸

¸-«|· _·- ¸| _- _«·|· =,·|·
,,,=· ¸,«·.'·
¸ · `, ` ¸
· `, ` ¸
` , · `, ` ¸
¸ · ` ` ¸
· ` ` ¸
¸ · `, ` ¸
¸ · ` ` ¸
· ` ` ¸
` , · ` ` ¸
` ¸ · ` ` ¸
· ` ` ¸
¸ · ` ` ¸
¸ · · ' ` ¸
¸ · ` ` ¸

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Exercise 8

(1) Conjugate the following verbs using ( . '):
, 1 , ¸` .` -,
, 2 , ` ¸ ,` ,
, 3 , ` , ´` ,
, 4 , , ` . ·
, 5 , ` .` , ,

(2) Conjugate the following verbs using (` ¸ ¯):
, 1 , ` , = ,
, 2 , ` _ ·` ,,
, 3 , ` ` ` ·,
, 4 , ` : ` ,
, 5 , ¸ ` ·,


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The (··_- ,,-)
The (··_- ,,-) are ( . ¸), (` , ), (` ), ( ,` · . ` · .) and ( . .
¸` ,` ). When they precede the (__.· ¸··), they render (·,-)
to the following five words:
, 1 , .· ,¯· -, . ¸ · ,
, 2 , .· .,· -, . ¸ ·
, 3 , ,.- ,¯· -, . ¸ ·
, 4 , ,´· -, . ¸ · · '
, 5 , ,´· _~ . ¸ ·
The (.,·¸ .,) of the following seven words is deleted:
, 1 , · , .· ,¯· ·,· . .
, 2 , .· ,¯· _~ . .` , · ,
, 3 , .· .,· ·,· . . ·
, 4 , ,.- ,¯· ·,· . . ·
, 5 , ,.- ,¯· _~ . .` , ·
, 6 , ,.- .,· -, . ¸` , ·
, 7 , ,.- .,· ·,· . . ·

The following two words remain unchanged:
, 1 , .· .,· _~ . ¸ · ,
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, 2 , ,.- .,· _~ . ¸ ·
The word (` , ) changes the positive imperfect tense ( __.'
.·') to the negative perfect tense ( ¸.' ¸' ).

The paradigms of (,,··) – the active voice and (¸,,-) – the
passive voice – when used with ( . ¸), (` ), ( ,` · . ` · .) and ( . .
¸` ,` ), will be the same as was in the case of (` , ).
Examples:

` , · , . ¸ · · , . ¸ ¸ · , . ¸
, · , ` · · , ` ¸ · , `
· , ` , · · , ¸ · ,
` , · , . · · , . ¸ · , .

The word (` ) means ‘not as yet’. Thus ( ¸ · , ` ) will mean ‘he
did not do as yet’.
The ( ,` · . ` · .) enters all the word-forms of the passive tense
(¸,,-). In the active tense (,,··), it is only used in the third
person (.·) and first person (,´·) word-forms.

If any of the (··_- ,,-) precede a (__.· ¸··) whose ( ·.
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·´) is a (·· ,-), the (·· ,-) is deleted.
Examples:

( =¸¸-
--_·-)
Example of
(¸)
Example of
(¸)
Example of
(·)
` , ` _` , ` ,
·` ,, ` , ¸` -, ` ,
` ` _` , ` ·` ,, ` ¸` -, `
,·. ·. ` _` , ·` , , ¸` - ,
¸, .. ` _` , . ·` ,, . ¸` -, .

Hereunder follow the paradigms of (__.· ¸··) when used with
the particle (` , ).

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, | _- _«·|· g_·='· _·-
=¸¸-'·
¸ · , ` ,
· , ` ,
` , · , ` ,
¸ · ` ,
· ` ,
¸ · , ` ,
¸ · ` ,
· ` ,
` , · ` ,
` ¸ · ` ,
· ` ,
¸ · ` ,
¸ · · ' ` ,
¸ · ` ,

, | _- _«·|· =,·|· g_·='· _·-
,,,=·
¸ · `, ` ,
· `, ` ,
` , · `, ` ,
¸ · ` ` ,
· ` ` ,
¸ · `, ` ,
¸ · ` ` ,
· ` ` ,
` , · ` ` ,
` ¸ · ` ` ,
· ` ` ,
¸ · ` ` ,
¸ · · ' ` ,
¸ · ` ` ,

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Exercise 9

(1) Conjugate the following verbs using (` , ):
, 1 , ` ·` , ´,
, 2 , ` _ ` ,
, 3 , ` , ´` ,
, 4 , ` . · ,
, 5 , ` .` , ,

(2) Conjugate the following verbs using (,·. ·.):
, 1 , ` ,` - ,
, 2 , ` _ ¯` ,,
, 3 , ` ` ` ·,
, 4 , ` : ` ,
, 5 , ¸ ` ·,
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The (·.) and (.,) of Emphasis
(·,, ` , ¯ '` ` · .) – The Energetic Forms

(1) To create emphasis in the meaning of (__.· ¸··), the ( ` · .
` , ¯ '` ) is prefixed to it and (·, .,) or (·,- .,) suffixed to
it. The (·, .,) is (·` ` ·) and is suffixed to all the word-forms
(_ , .). The (·,- .,) is (¸¯) and is not suffixed to the
(·,·) and (.,· _~) word-forms.
(2) The letter prededing the (·, .,) is (_,·) in the
following word-forms:
, 1 , · , ` ¸ · , . .· ,¯· -, . ¸
, 2 , ` ¸ · . .· .,· -, . ¸ ·
, 3 , ` ¸ · . ,.- ,¯· -, . ¸ ·
, 4 , ` ¸ · · ' . ,´· -, . ¸ · · '
, 5 , ` ¸ · . ,´· _~ . ¸ ·

(3) The (.,·¸ .,) is deleted in the following words before
attaching the (,¯' .,):

, 1 , . · , . .· ,¯· ·,· . . · ,
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, 2 , ` ¸ · , . .· ,¯· _~ . .` , · ,
, 3 , . · . .· .,· ·,· . . ·
, 4 , . · . ,.- ,¯· ·,· . . ·
, 5 , ` ¸ · . ,.- ,¯· _~ . .` , ·
, 6 , ` ¸ · . ,.- .,· -, . ¸` , ·
, 7 , ,.- .,· ·,· . . · ¸ . ·

(4) The (.) of the (·,·) is retained while the (·, .,) itself
becomes (_,´·), e.g. ( . · , ).
(5) The (,,) of (,¯· _~) and the (¸) of (.,· -,) are also
deleted. The (·.) before the (,,) and the (·,¯) before the
(¸) are retained, e.g. (` ¸ · , ) and (` ¸ · ).
(6)In the (.,· _~) word-forms, an (.) is inserted between
the ( , . ) of (_~) and the (·, .,) so that three nûns do not
occur in one place. This will occur in the following two word-
forms:

, 1 , . · , . .· .,· _~ . ¸ · ,
, 2 , . · . ,.- .,· _~ . ¸ ·

(7) The (·, .,) itself is (_,´·) in these two words. In short,
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the (·, .,) is (_,´·) after (.) and (_,·) in the other
instances.

(8) The (·,- .,) is similar to the (·, .,) except in the
(·,·) and (.,· _~) word-forms. The (·,- .,) is only used
in those words where there is no (.) before (·, .,) and
these are eight word-forms.
Once (·, .,) and (·,- .,) enter a (__.· ¸··), its
meaning changes to the future tense.


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_·- -·,«·|· .,·|· _- =,·|·|· ;v
=¸¸-'· g_·='·
` ¸ · ,
. · ,
` ¸ · ,
` ¸ ·
. ·
. · ,
` ¸ ·
. ·
` ¸ ·
· ` ¸
. ·
. ·
` ¸ · · '
` ¸ ·

_·- -·,«·|· .,·|· _- =,·|·|· ;v
,,,=· g_·='·
` ¸ · ` ,
. · ` ,
` ¸ · ` ,
` ¸ · `
. · `
. · ` ,
` ¸ · `
. · `
· ` ` ¸
` ¸ · `
. · `
. · `
` ¸ · · '
` ¸ · `

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_·- -«,«-· .,·|· _- =,·|·|· ;v
=¸¸-'· g_·='·
` ¸ · ,

` ¸ · ,
` ¸ ·


` ¸ ·

` ¸ ·
` ¸ ·


` ¸ · · '
` ¸ ·

;v _·- -«,«-· .,·|· _- =,·|·|·
,,,=· g_·='·
` ¸ · ` ,

` ¸ · ` ,
` ¸ · `


` ¸ · `

` ¸ · `
` ¸ · `


` ¸ · · '
` ¸ · `

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Exercise 10

(1) Conjugate the following verbs using ( ·., .,.) in the
active and passive tenses:

, 1 , ` . ` -,
, 2 , ` _ ` ,
, 3 , ` , ´` ,
, 4 , ` . · ,
, 5 , ` .` , ,

(2) Conjugate the following verbs using ( ·.,- .,.) in the
active and passive tenses:

, 1 , ` : ` ,
, 2 , ` _ ·` ,,
, 3 , ` ` ` ·,
, 4 , ` ¸ ` -,
, 5 , ¸ ` ·,
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The Imperative (,·')

The ( ,..- ,.·' – imperative second person) is constructed
from the (__.· ¸··) in the following manner:
(1) The ( __..' ·.···) – the sign of the imperfect tense -
is deleted.
(2) If the following letter is (·,..-·), the final letter is
rendered (¸¯). Example: the verb (` · ) changes to (` ·).
(3) If the following letter is ( ¸¯.), a ( ¸.., ·,.·) is
inserted at the beginning and the end is rendered (¸¯).
(4) If the ( ·.´ ¸·) has a ( ·..), the ( ¸.., ·,.·) is
rendered a (·.). Example: (` ,` .` ) becomes (` ,` .` ').
(5) If the (·´ ¸·) has a ( ·.-·) or ( ·,.¯), the ( ·,.·
¸.,) is rendered a (·,¯). Examples:
(` _ ) becomes (` _ · ¸).
(` . ,` . ) becomes (` . ,` . ¸).
(6) The ( .,.·¸ .,) is deleted while the ( ·,. .,.) –
the nūn of the feminine plural - is retained. Examples:
( . · ) becomes ( · · ¸).
( ¸ · ) becomes ( ¸ · · ¸).
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(7) The (·..· ,..-) at the end is deleted. Examples:
(` ,` ·` ) becomes (` _` · ').
(` ¸ ·` , ) becomes ( ·` _ ¸).
(¸ ` - ) becomes ( ¸` - ¸).

(8) The imperative of the first and third persons ( ,..·'
,´..', ...·) is formed by adding a (·.) at the
beginning of ( __..· ¸.··). This (·.) has the same effect
on the verbs as (` , ).

(9) The ( .,¯' ·.) and ( .,¯' .,.) can also be attached
to the (,·') word-forms.

Hereunder follow the paradigms of (,,..·' ,..·. - the
imperative active) and ( ¸,...,- ,...·. - the imperative
passive).
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=¸¸-'· ¸-v·
¸ · ,
· ,
` , · ,
¸ ·
·
¸ · ,
¸ · · ¸
· · ¸
` , · · ¸
` ¸ · · ¸
· · ¸
¸ · · ¸
¸ · · '
¸ ·

,,,=· ¸-v·
¸ · ` ,
· ` ,
` , · ` ,
¸ · `
· `
¸ · ` ,
¸ · `
· `
` ` , ·
` ¸ · `
· `
¸ · `
¸ · · '
¸ · `

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-·,«·|· .,·|· _- =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
` ¸ · ,
· · , .
` ¸ · ,
` ¸ ·
· · .
. · ,
` ¸ · · ¸
· · ¸ · .
` ¸ · · ¸
` ¸ · · ¸
¸ · · · .
. · · ¸
` ¸ · · '
` ¸ ·

-·,«·|· .,·|· _- ,,,=· ¸-v·
` ¸ · ` ,
· ` , · .
` ¸ · ` ,
` ¸ · `
· ` · .
. · ` ,
` ¸ · `
· · ` .
` ¸ · `
` ` ¸ ·
· ` · .
. · `
` ¸ · · '
` ¸ · `

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«,«-· .,·|· _- =¸¸-'· ¸-v· -
` ¸ · ,

` ¸ · ,
` ¸ ·


` ¸ · · ¸

` ¸ · · ¸
` ¸ · · ¸


` ¸ · · '
` ¸ ·

-«,«-· .,·|· _- ,,,=· ¸-v·
` ¸ · ` ,

` ¸ · ` ,
` ¸ · `

X
` ¸ · `

` ¸ · `
` ¸ · `


` ¸ · · '
` ¸ · `

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Exercise 11

Conjugate the imperative (,..·') of the following verbs in
the active and passive forms first and then conjugate them
using the (,¯' ·.) and (,¯' .,):
, 1 , ¸ ` ·,
, 2 , ¸` -` ,
, 3 , ` . ` -,
, 4 , ¸ ,` -,
, 5 , _ ` .,




The Prohibition (¸,)

(1) The particle ( .) is used before ( __..· ¸.··) to denote
prohibition. It has the same effect as (` ,.. ) in changing the
different word-forms.
(2) The ( ·., .,) and ( ·.,- .,.) can be attached to all
the forms of (¸,).
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=¸¸-'· _,·|·
¸ · , .
· , . ·
` , · , .
¸ · .
· . ·
¸ · , .
¸ · .
. · ·
` , · .
` ¸ · .
· . ·
¸ · .
¸ · · ' .
¸ · .

,,,=· _,·|·
¸ · `, .
· `, . ·
` , · `, .
¸ · ` .
· ` . ·
¸ · `, .
¸ · ` .
· · ` .
` , · ` .
` ¸ · ` .
· ` . ·
¸ · ` .
¸ · · ' .
¸ · ` .

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-·,«·|· .,·|· _- =¸¸-'· _,·|·
` ¸ · , .
· , . · .
` ¸ · , .
` ¸ · .
· . · .
. · , .
` ¸ · .
· . · .
` ¸ · .
` ¸ · .
· . · .
. · .
` ¸ · · ' .
` ¸ · .

-·,«·|· .,·|· _- ,,,=· _,·|·
` ¸ · `, .
· `, . · .
` ¸ · `, .
` ¸ · ` .
· ` . · .
. · `, .
` ¸ · ` .
· ` . · .
` . ` ¸ ·
` ¸ · ` .
· ` . · .
. · ` .
` ¸ · · ' .
` ¸ · ` .

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-«,«-· .,·|· _- =¸¸-'· _,·|·
` ¸ · , .

` ¸ · , .
` ¸ · .


` ¸ · .

` ¸ · .
` ¸ · .


` ¸ · · ' .
` ¸ · .

-«,«-· .,·|· _- ,,,=· _,·|·
` ¸ · `, .

` ¸ · `, .
` ¸ · ` .


` ¸ · ` .

` ¸ · ` .
. ` ¸ · `


` ¸ · · ' .
` ¸ · ` .

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Exercise 12

(1) Conjugate the prohibition (¸,..) of the following
verbs in the active and passive forms first and then
conjugate them using the (,¯' ·.) and (,¯' .,):
, 1 , ` _ ` -,
, 2 , ` _` ,` -,
, 3 , ` . ` -,
, 4 , ¸ ,` -,
, 5 , _ ` .,

(2) What is the (··,.) of the following verbs?

, 1 , . ` -` , .
, 2 , ` ¸ ` ' .
, 3 , . ` .
, 4 , ` ¸ · ` ` .
, 5 , . ` - ,` - .
, 6 , ·` , . ` ¸`
, 7 , . ` ,` .
, 8 , ` ¸` ¯` ,, .
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THE DERIVED NOUNS (·' .-.)

The following six nouns are derived from the verb:
, 1 , ¸· , , 2 , ¸,·' , , 3 , ¸,. , , 4 , ·.
·,' , 5 , ·. , , 6 , ,= ,

The Active Participle (¸· ,)

The active participle (¸· ,) indicates the person or being
from whom the action emanates, e.g. (` _ · ) – a person who
listens.
In 3-root letter verbs (·,- ¸·), the (¸· ,) is formed by
adding an (.) after the first letter, rendering a (·,¯) to the
second letter and (¸,,) to the final letter. Thus, ( ¸ · ·) becomes
( ¸ · ·). In the dual forms (·,·), (.) and (.,) are attached to
the end, e.g. ( · · · . ). For the feminine form, a round (·) is
inserted at the end. For the masculine plural (,¯· _~), (.,) is
inserted, e.g. ( .` , · ·), while for the feminine plural (.,· _~),
the syllable, (.) is attached, e.g. ( · · · ` . ). There are three
scales for the masculine form and three for the feminine form of
the word.

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--,=|· ¸-·«|· ,=·
,¯· -, ¸ · ·
,¯· ·,· · · · .
,¯· _~ .` , · ·
.,· -, · · ·
.,· ·,· . · ·
.,· _~ · · · ` .

In the indicative case (_·, ·-), the (·,·) is used with an (.)
while in the accusative and genative cases (,-, .. ·-), it
is used with a (¸) preceded by a (·-·). The (.,) of the (·,·) is
(_,´·), e.g. ( · · · . ) and ( ¸` , · ·).

For the masculine plural in (_·, ·-), a (,) is used while in
( - ,-, .. · ), a (¸) preceded by a (·,¯) is used. The
(.,) of (_~) is (_,·), e.g. ( .` , · ·) and ( ¸` , · ·).

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Exercise 13

Conjugate the (¸· ,) of the following verbs:
, 1 , ` _ ` -,
, 2 , ` _` ,` -,
, 3 , ` . ` -,
, 4 , ¸ ,` -,
, 5 , ` _ ` ,
, 6 , ¸ ` ·,
, 7 , ¸` -` ,
, 8 , ` _ ,` -,
, 9 , ` ` ,
, 10 , _ ` .,



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The Passive Participle (¸,·' ,)

The passive participle (¸,·' ,) is that entity on which the
action occurs, e.g. (` _` ,` ·) – the thing which is opened. It is
formed by adding a (_,· ·) at the beginning, a (,) after the
second letter and (¸,,) at the end. The first root letter ( ,-
¸.') becomes (¸¯) while the second one becomes (·,.·).
The additions for the dual and plural forms are the same as the
(¸· ,). Like the (¸· ,), it also has six word-forms.


--,=|· ,,-«'· ,=·
,¯· -,
¸` ,` · ·
,¯· ·,· ` ,` · · . .
,¯· _~
.` , ` ,` · ·
.,· -,
· ` ,` · ·
.,· ·,·
. ` ,` · ·
.,· _~ ` ,` · · . ` .

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Exercise 14

Conjugate the ( ' , ¸,· ) of the following verbs:

, 1 , ` , =,
, 2 , ` . ´,
, 3 , ` , ` ·,
, 4 , ` ,` ,
, 5 , _ ` .,
, 6 , ¸ ` ·,
, 7 , ¸` -` ,
, 8 , ` . ` -,
, 9 , ¸ ,` -,
, 10 , ` _ ` ,

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The Elative (¸,. ,)

The (¸,. ,) is a derived noun that indicates the comparative
or superlative degree e.g. ( ¸ . · ') – more virtuous or most
virtuous. The scale of ( ¸ · · ') is used for this purpose, except for
colours and defects. In the case of colours and defects, the scale
of ( ¸ · · ') is used for (·,' ·.) e.g. ( ` - ' ` , ) – red, (_` · ') –
blind. Tanwīn never enters the end of (¸,. ,). The ( ,
¸,.) generally renders the meaning of the doer (¸··) but
sometimes it can render the meaning of the object (¸,··), e.g.
(` , ,` ') - more famous.

Hereunder follows the paradigm of the (¸,. ,):
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--,=|· ¸,=«·|· ,=·
,¯· -, ¸ · · '
,¯· ·,· · · · ' .
,¯· ,. _~ .` , · · '
,¯· ,´· _~ ¸ · · '
.,· -, ¸ ` · ·
.,· ·,· . , ` · ·
.,· ,. _~ ` . , ` · ·
.,· ,´· _~ ¸ · ·


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Exercise 15

Conjugate the (¸,. ,) of the following verbs:

, 1 , ` ·` , ´,
, 2 , ¸` ` -,
, 3 , ` ¸` ` -,
, 4 , ` ,` ·` ,
, 5 , _ ` .,
, 6 , ¸ ` ·,
, 7 , ¸` -` ,
, 8 , ` . ` -,
, 9 , ¸ ,` -,
, 10 , ` _ ` ,

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The (·,· ·.)

The ( ·. ·,· ) is a derived noun referring to the permanent
quality of an entity, e.g. ( ¸` , -) – beautiful. The (¸· ,) on
the other hand describes a temporary quality e.g. (` _ · ) –
listening at the moment. A person will only be referred to as
(` . _ .) if the quality of (.` , .) emanates from him whereas the
attribute of ( ¸` , -) applies to a person all the time.The ( ·.
·,·) is always intransitive (·_.) even though it may be
constructed from a transitive verb (¸··). Hence the difference
between (` _ · ) and (` _` , ) is that (` _ · ) indicates a being
listening at the moment while (` _` , ) indicates a being which
permanently has the quality of listening even though there may
be no object. Therefore one can say ( : · ¯ ` _ · ), but to say
( : · ¯ ` _` , ) is incorrect. The (·,· ·.) has six word-forms
like the (¸· ,). For the dual and plural forms, changes are
made to the end as in the (¸· ,).

Hereunder follows the paradigm of the ( ·. ·,· ):
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--,=|· -,,=- -«=
,¯· -, ` ¸ -
,¯· ·,· - .
,¯· _~ .` ,` -
.,· -, · -
.,· ·,· . -
.,· _~ ` . -

The (·,· ·.) is used on many scales for which there is no
rule. It is based on (_-) – as heard from the Arabs. Sometimes
a (), (,) or (¸) is inserted after the second alphabet, e.g.
(` _ -` ), (` _` , · ,), (` .`, , ). Sometimes the root-form remains
intact but a change occurs in the harakāt, e.g. (` .` · .), (` .` ` -),
(` , .). Some of the more common scales are listed hereunder.

Scale Example Meaning
¸ · · - ` ¸
handsome
¸` · · ` .` ` -
impure
¸ · · ` _ -`
brave
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¸ · · . . -
chaste
¸` · · ` ,` - .
thick
¸` · · ` , .
empty
¸` · · ¯ ,` -
free
¸ · · ` _ , ·
happy
¸ · · ` . - .
companion
¸` , · · ` ,`, , ¯
noble
¸ · · ' ` , ` - '
red
. ` · · = · .
thirsty

The Noun of the Instrument ( , ·. )

The (·. ,) is a derived noun that indicates the instrument
used for the action. It is formed by adding a (_,´· ·) at the
beginning of the root letters. It has three scales.


Scales
¸ · · · · · ¸ · ·
Examples
,` - · · - ,` , · ` _ ·
Meanings needle fan key
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The paradigm including the dual and plural cases is as follows:

Scales Examples
¸ · · ` , .` ·
. · · . , .` ·
¸ · · ` , . ·
· · · · , .` ·
· . · . , .` ·
¸ · · ` , . ·
¸ · · ` _ .` ·
. · · . _ .` ·
¸` , · · ` ,` , . ·

Sometimes the underived noun (·-) is used to denote an
instrument. Different scales are used for this purpose but there is
no rule for arriving at a particular scale. Examples:
(` ¸ ' ·) - axe , (` ·` ,` ·) – adze
6
, (` ¸` , ´ ) - knife.


6
Adze: kind of axe with arched blade used for shaping wood.
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Exercise 16

(a) Conjugate the ( , ·. ) of the following verbs:

, 5 , , =

, 4 , · , ~ , 3 , · , , , 2 , ¸ ¯ , 1 , _ ·

, 10 , ¸ ¯ ' , 9 , _ . , 8 , _ = · , 7 , ¸ - ·

, 6 , ¸ ·

(b) Identify the derived nouns in the following sentences:

, 1 , _,, .= ¸·- ¸_., ., ¸- = .
, 2 , ,,,' ,·=·· ··_, ·_ .
, 3 , ··,.,· .,¯', ··,·,· _, ,,· ·,_- ¸· ,,· .
, 4 , ´' ,. ., .,,', ¸, .
, 5 , ._·, _·· ,,· ,·, .
, 6 , _. ,··,· .¸ .

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The Adverb (,= ,)

The (,= ,) is a derived noun that indicates the place or
time of the action. If the word indicates the place of the action, it
is called (.´' ,~) and if it indicates the time of the action, it
is called (.·, ,~). It is made by adding a (_,· ·) at the
beginning of the root letters. It has two scales, namely ( ¸ · ·) and
( ¸ · ·). If the (__.·) is (¸· _,·) or (¸· ·,.·) or
( · ¸ ), the (,= ,) will be on the scale of ( ¸ · ·), e.g.
(` _ ·), (` , .` ·) and (¸ ·` , ·). If the (__.·) is (¸· _,´·) or
(¸··), the (,= ,) will be on the scale of ( ¸ · ·), e.g.
(` . ,` . ·) and (` _ ·` , ·).

The paradigm including the dual and plural forms is as follows:

_< -,··· =-·¸
¸ · · · · · . ¸ · ·
scale
` _ · . - · ` _ ·
example

The (,= ,) is often constructed from the underived noun
(·-) on the scale of ( · · ·) to indicate an excess of that object
in that place, e.g.
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( · ·) – a place of many lions - derived from (` ') – lion,
( · · ` ·)– a place of many predators - derived from (` _` ) –
predator,
( · - =` ·) – a place of many ducks - derived from (` _` , = ,) – duck.

There are certain words, which according to the rule should have
a (·-·) on the (·´ ¸·), but have been used with a (·,¯)
instead. These may be regarded as exceptions to the rule. The
scholars have written that it is permissible to pronounce these
words with a (·-·) as well. These words are:

Word Meaning Word Meaning
` -` ·
place of
prostration
` , ` - ·
place of assembly
` _ = ·
place of rising
` ·
place of falling
` ¸ ´` ·
place of staying
` · , ·
intersection
` : ` ·
place of
slaughtering
` _ ,` - ·
place of slaughtering
` . ` ·
place of
germinating
` · ,` ·
east
` ¸ ·` , ·
place of resting
the elbow
` . ,` · ·
west
` , -` ·
nostril
·` = ·
place where one
expects something

Sometimes the (,= ,) is used on the scale of ( · · ` ·), e.g.
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( · - ´` ·) – antimony bottle, from ( ¸` - ¯) - antimony.
The scale of ( · · ·) indicates the place where a thing falls during
the action, e.g.
( · ·) – the water which falls during bathing,
( · ¯) – the dirt which falls off the broom when sweeping.


Exercise 17

(a) Conjugate the (,= ,) of the following verbs:

, 1 , _ ·
, 2 , ¸ ¯
, 3 , · , ,
, 4 , · , ~
, 5 , , =
, 6 , ¸ ·
, 7 , ¸ - ·
, 8 , _ = ·
, 9 , _ .
, 10 , ¸ ¯ '

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The Intensive Adjective (··' ··,.)

The (··' ··,.) is a noun that indicates excess in meaning of
the verbal noun e.g. (` .` , .) – one who hits a lot. The difference
between (··' ··,.) and (¸,. ,) is that in (··' ··,.),
the excess meaning is limited to itself without taking others into
consideration whereas in the (¸,. ,), the excess in
meaning is in comparison to others. Hence (¸ ` -` · ` ¸ · ` . ,` . ') or
( ·` , ` . ,` . ') is in comparison to others while (` .` , .) is not in
comparison to anyone.

In the (··' ··,.), there is no difference in gender. Sometimes
a (·) is added for excess in meaning, e.g. ( · · · ¸` - _) – a very
learned man, ( · · · · ' ,` · ) - a very learned woman.

When ( ¸` , · ·) is in the meaning of ( ¸ · ·), or ( ¸` ,` · ·) is in the
meaning of ( ¸` ,` · ·), a differentiation is made between the
masculine and feminine forms. Examples:
(` ,` , · ,` ·) , ( · ` , · ¸ ·)
( ¸` ,` - ¸ -) , ( · ` ,` - · · ).

The following scales are the ones most frequently used for
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( ,. ··' ·· ):

Scale Example Meaning
¸ · · ` _ -
very cautious
¸` , · · ` ,` , ·
very knowledgeable
¸` ,` · · ¸` , ¯ '
big eater
¸` · · ` ·
shedder of blood
¸` · · ` _` ¯
very great
¸` ,` · · ` ¸`,` .
very truthful
¸ · · ` · ,` - ·
one who cuts a lot
¸ · · ` · ·` ·
one who awards many prizes
¸` , · · ` ¸` , =` ·
chatterbox
¸ · · ` . -` ·
very strange
¸` ,` · · ` ·` ,` _ ·
very decisive
· ` · · · ´` -` .
one who habitually laughs
¸` ,' · · ` ·` ,' , ·
eternal
¸` ,' · · ` ¸` ,' ·
most holy
¸` · · ` . ·
very agile

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Exercise 18

(A) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:
(1) He is very agile.
(2) This book is very strange.
(3) The principal awards many prizes.
(4) Abū Bakr is very truthful.
(5) She is a big eater.
(6) Allāh is very knowledgeable.
(7) The king was a shedder of blood.
(8) The student is very cautious.
(9) His mother is very patient.
(10) The mujāhid is extremely brave.

(B) What is the scale of the following (··' _,.):
, 1 , ` _` -
, 2 , ¸ . ·
, 3 , . ` ¸`,`
, 4 , · ·` , ·
, 5 , ` ¸` , ´` ·
, 6 , ` .` ,` ,`
, 7 , ` ,` , ·
, 8 , ` _ -
, 9 , ` _` ¯
, 10 , ` ¸` ,' ·
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The Categories (.,,') of Verbs
The (.,,') of (·,- ¸·)

You have already learnt that the verbs of (·,- ¸·) –three root-
letter verbs – have six categories (.,,') – plural of (.,).

The First (.,): ( , . ` ,` .` , )
( ¸` · , ¸ · ·) – the (· ´ ` ¸` , ·) of the (¸.') has a (·-·) while
the (__.·) has a (·.), e.g. (` ,` .` ) – to help. The abbreviated
paradigm
7
of this (.,) is as follows:



7
The abbreviated paradigm is where the first (··,...) of each paradigm
of the active and passive tenses is used.
,` . ` ,` .` , , . ,` , · ,` . ` , .` `, , .` , ` , . ,` , ·
` ·` · ` ` , = ` ,` .` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` ,` .` ' ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` _` ,` .` ·
¸` , . ` ¸ · · ' , ` _ .` · , · , .` · , ` , .` · ` ·` · · ¯ , ` , .` ·
.` ,` , ` , .` ' ` ·` · ¸ ,` .` ` ·` ·
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The Second (.,) : ( . , . ` . ,` ., )
( ¸ · , ¸ · ·) – the (· ´ ` ¸` , ·) of the (¸.') has a (·-·) while
the (__.·) has a (·,¯), eg (` .` ,` .) – to hit. The abbreviated
paradigm of this (.,) is as follows:












The Third (.,) : ( _ · ` _ , )
( · ¸ · , ¸ · ) – the (· ´ ` ¸` , ·) of the (¸.') has a (·-·) while
the (__.·) also has a (·-·), e.g. (` _` ) – to open. The
condition for this (.,) is that if the verb is (_,-.)
8
, the ( ` ¸` , ·
· ´ ) or (· ´ ` · .) must be from the (·,- ,,-). This
does not mean that every verb which is (_,-.) and whose ( ` ¸` , ·

8
( _,-..) is that word which has no ( ·.· ,.-), two letters of the
same type or (·,·) as its root letter.
. ,` ., ` . _ . ,` , · ,` , . ` . ,` ., . , . ,` , . ` . ,` .`,
` . ,` . . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` . ,` . ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` .` ,` ,` . · ,` , ·
, · , ,` . · , ` . ,` . · ` ·` · · ¯ , ` . ,` . · ` ·` · ` ` , =
` ¸ · · ' , ` . ,` . · ¸ ,` ,` . ` ·` · .` ,` , ` . ,` . ' ` ·` · ¸` , .
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· ´ ) or (· ´ ` · .) is from the (·,- ,,-), will be from
(_· .,). The abbreviated paradigm of this (.,) and the
remaining (.,,') is similar to the above-mentioned examples.










The Fourth (.,) : ( _ , ` _ ` )
( ¸ · , ¸ · ·) – the (· ´ ` ¸` , ·) of the (¸.') has a (·,¯) while
the (__.·) has a (·-·), e.g. (` _` ` ) – to listen.







` _` ,` · ,` , · -` · ` _ `, _ · , ` _ · ,` , · -` · ` _ , _ ·
` _ · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` _ . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` _ · ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · '
· , ` _ · ` ·` · · ¯ , ` ·` · ¸` , . ` ¸ · · ' , ` _ · , · -
¸ -` · ` ·` · .` ,` , ` _ · '
,` , · ·` ` _ ` `, _ ` , ` _ · ,` , · ·` ` _` , _
` ·` · ` ` , = ` _ ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` _ ` ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` _` ,` ` ·
` · ¸ · · ' , ` _ ` · , · · ` · , ` _ ` · ` ·` · · ¯ , ` _
¸ ·` ` ` ·` · .` ,` , ` _ ` ' ` ·` · ¸` ,. `
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The Fifth (.,) : ( ·` , ¯ , ` ·` , ´ )
( ¸` · , ¸` · ·) – the (· ´ ` ¸` , ·) of the (¸.') has a (·.) while
the (__.·) also has a (·.), e.g. (` ·` , ´ ) – to be noble. The
verbs of this (.,) are intransitive. In this (.,), instead of the
(¸· ,), the (·,· ·.) on the scale of ( ¸` , · ·) has been
used, e.g. (` ,`, , ¯).







The Sixth (.,) : ( . - , ` . ` - )
( ¸ · , ¸ · ·) – the (· ´ ` ¸` , ·) of the (¸.') has a (·,¯) while
the (__.·) also has a (·,¯), e.g. (` .` - ) – to ponder.
Besides ( . -), no other (_,-. ¸··) has been used in this
(.,). Acccording to some scholars, the verb (` , ·` , , · ) is also
,` , · · , ¯ ` · , ´`, · , ¯ , ` ,`, , ¯ ,` , · · , ¯ ` ·` , ´, ·` , ¯
` ¸` ,` , ` ·` , ¯ ' ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` ·` ,` , ´ · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` ·` , ´ . ` ·` ·
¸` , . ` ¸ · · ' , ` · , ´ · , · · , ´ · , ` · , ´ · ` ·` · · ¯ , ` · , ´ ·
¸ ·` , ¯ ` ·` · .` ,` , ` · , ¯ ' ` ·` ·
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from this (.,). However, verbs that are (¸··)
9
or (.,)
10
have
been used, e.g. ( . ,, . _ ,) and (` ¸ , ¸ ,). The verb ( . -) has
also been used with a (·-·) on the (· ´ ` ¸` , ·) of (__.·),
that is (` . ` -,).














9
A word having a (,) or (¸) as the ( .· ·´ ).
10
A word having two ( ,,- ·· ).
` . ` -`, . ` - , ` . - ,` , · ` - ` . ` -, . -
` .` ,` ` - · ,` , · ` - . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` . ` - ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · '
, ` . ` - · ` ·` · · ¯ , ` . ` - · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` . ` -
.` ,` , ` . ` - ' ` ·` · ¸` , . ` ¸ · ·' , ` . ` - · , · ` - ·
¸ ` ` - ` ·` ·
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Exercise 19

Conjugate the following verbs as done above:

, 1 , . ¯
, 2 , _
, 3 , , ·
, 4 , , ·
, 5 , ¸ -
, 6 , .` · .
, 7 , ` ,
, 8 , . ·
, 9 , _ ·
, 10 , . , ·
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The (.,,') of ( ,,· ¸· ·,· )
The Derived Forms of the Triliteral Verb

Arabic is extremely rich and copious in derived forms
which extend or modify the meaning of the root form of
the verb, giving many exact shades of meaning. This is a
common feature of Semitic languages and perhaps it
reaches its pinnacle in Arabic.

Derived forms are made by adding letters before or between the
root letters of the simple verb. Accordingly, ( , . ), which is the
root, means to help. From this verb the following verbs are
derived with differing meanings:

Verb Meaning
, .
to support
,` .
to try to help
, .
to render mutual assistance
, . ` '
to come to someone’s aid
, .` ` '
to ask for assistance

Another example of derived verbs is ( ¸ ·) which means to kill.
When extra letters are added to this root, the following meanings
are achieved.
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Verb Meaning
¸` ·
to massacre
¸ ·
to combat, battle
¸ · '
to fight with one another
¸ ` '
to risk one’s life

Very few verb roots have all the other derived forms. Some have
only one (like – ` . · to drive away) or two (like . - – to sink),
while others have four or five as in the above examples. There is
often a good deal of overlapping of meaning between the forms.

Sometimes the root form is not in use while the derived forms
are used, e.g. ( .` _ - to arrange).

The (.,,') of (·,· ,,· ¸·) are twelve in total. They are
formed by adding extra letters to the (¸.' ¸·) of ( ¸·
·,-). Upto a maximum of three extra letters can be added to a
verb, thus bringing the maximum number of letters of a verb to
six (root letters plus extra letters).

Seven of these (.,,') have (¸., ·,·) at the beginning while
five do not have. Besides (·,- ¸·), every letter with a (·¯,-)
will become (·,.·) in the (¸,,- ¸.') except for the
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penultimate letter which will be (_,´·). The (¸¯) will
remain as it is,
e.g. ( . ` ` - '), ( , .` ` ` ').

When ( ·) or ( .) are used in the (¸' ¸.'), the (¸., ·,·)
will not be pronounced as will the (.) of the ( ·) and ( .), e.g.
( . ` - ·), ( , = ` .).



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The 12 (.,,') of (·,· ,,· ¸·) are as follows:

=·,
Example Extra Letters
¸=,|· ·¸'
,· - · , · , ¯ ' ' _= ·,·
¸ , - « · ` , . ` _
no hamza
- · -· « - ¸ ·
no hamza
,· - · · , . ` - ¸ . . ' ¸., ·,·
,· - « · , , = ` ¸ . . ' ¸., ·,·
,· · - · , ` , ` - ¸ ¸ . ' ¸., ·,·
¸- « · ¸` ` _ . .
no hamza
¸ -· « · ¸ , . .
no hamza
,· - « · = , , .` ` ¸ . . ¸ . ' ¸., ·,·
- · , ,· - , ¸ ` , ` - ¸ , . ' ¸., ·,·
,· · , - · , ` · ·` · ¸ ¸ . . ' ¸., ·,·
,·, - · , ·` , ` - ¸ ` , . ' ¸., ·,·



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Construction of the Derived Nouns

To construct the (¸· ,) of any (.,) besides (·,- ¸·),
the (,,·· __.·) is modified by adding a (·,.· ·) at the
beginning and making the penultimate letter (_,´·) if it is not
already (_,´·).
Examples:
` · , ´`, ` · , ´` ·
` ` , .`, ` ` , .` ·
¸ `, ¸ ` ·

The (¸,·' ,) is like the (¸· ,) except that the
penultimate letter is (_,·).
Examples:
` · , ´`, ` · , ´` ·
` ` , .`, ` ` , .` ·
¸ `, ¸ ` ·

The (,= ,) of these (.,,') is used on the scale of the
(¸,·' ,). There is neither (·. ,) nor (¸,. ,) in
these (.,,'). In ordert to express the meaning of the (·. ,),
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the words ( · , ·) are added to the (_.·) for this purpose, e.g.
(` . ` - , · , ·) – the means of refraining.

To express the (¸,. ,), the word (' ') is used before the
(.,.· _.·), e.g. ( , ` - ¸ ' ') – more refraining. Words like
(` , · ¯ '), ( ¸ · ') etc. can also be used.

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The Abbreviated Paradigm (_·. ,.) of Each
(.,)
,·-·, =·,
` · , ´` · ,` , · · , ¯ ¸ ` · , ´`, · , ¯ ' , `· , ´` · ,` , · · , ¯ ¸ ` · , ´`, · , ¯ ' ` ,` · '
` · , ´` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` · , ¯ ' ` ·` ·

The sign of ( ..., ¸..··¸ ) is a (_..= ·,..·)
11
in the
( ¸..' ¸.·) and ( ,.·') while the ( __..' ·.···) is
always (·,...·). The (_..= ·,..·) of the (¸...') is
deleted from the ( __..·). Thus ( .`, ` · , ¯ ' ) becomes ( ` · ,. ´`,).
The remaining word-forms follow the same pattern.

The detailed paradigms of this verb are provided
hereunder.

11
A hamzah that is not deleted in pronunciation when prefixed by any
letter.

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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
. `, ` · , ´ ` · , ´` , ` · , ´`, · , ¯ '
´`, . · , · , ´` , · , ´`, . · , ¯ '
` · , ´`, . ` , ` · , ´` , ` , ` · , ´`, .` , ` · , ¯ ' ` ,
` · , ´` . ` · , ´` ` · , ´` · , ¯ ' ` .
· , ´` . · , ´` · , ´` . · , ¯ '
` · , ´`, . ¸ ` · , ´` , ¸ ` · , ´`, ¸ ¸` · , ¯ '
` · , ´` . ` · , ¯ ' ` · , ´` .` · , ¯ '
· , ´` . · , ¯ ' · , ´` . ` · , ¯ ' `
` ,` · , ´` . ` · , ¯ ' ` , ` ,` · , ´` . ` · , ¯ ' ` ,`
` ¸ · , ´` . · , ¯ ' ` ¸ ` , · , ´` ¸ ` · , ¯ ' .
· , ´` . · , ¯ ' · , ´` . ` · , ¯ ' `
` · , ´` . ¸ ' ` · , ¯ ¸ ` · , ´` ¸ ` · , ¯ ' ` ¸`
` · , ¯ ' . ` · , ¯ ' ` · , ¯ ' ` · , ¯ ' ` .
` · , ´` . ` · , ´` ` · , ´` ` · , ¯ '

¸..· ,.. · . ·.. · , ´` · . .` ,..` · , ´` · . ... · , ´` · . ` · ,.. ´` ·
` . · , ´` · . . · , ´` · .
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Exercise 20

Conjugate the following verbs:

, 1 , ¸ ` - ' , 2 , ·` , ' , 3 , , .` - ' , 4 , ¸ ` _ ' , 5 , , ` - '

¸,-«· =·,
,` , · `, ,` . ` ` , .`, ` ,` . , ` ` , .` · ,` , · `, ,` . ` ` , .`, ` , .
` ` , .` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` ` , . ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` ` , .` ·

The sign of (¸,· .,) is the tashdîd of the (·´ ¸·) in the
(¸.') and (,.- ,·') without a (.) preceding the ( .·
·´). The (__.' ····) of this (.,) is also always
(·,.·).
The (_.·) of this (.,) is also used on the following scales:
( · · ¸ ) e.g. (` · . ` · ¯);
( ¸` · ·) e.g. (` . ¯);
( · · ) e.g. ( · , ¯` , );
( ¸ · ) e.g. (` _ , ´ ).

The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
. ` ` , .`, ` , ` ` , . ` ` , .`, ` , .
. ·` , .`, ·` , .` , ·` , .`, . ·` , .
. ·` , .`, ` , ·` , .` , ` , ·` , .`, .` , ·` , . ` ,
. ` ` , .` ` ` , .` ` ` , .` ·` , . ` .
. ·` , .` ·` , .` ·` , .` . ·` , .
. ·` , .`, ¸ ` , ·` , . ¸ ·` , .`, ¸ ·` , . ¸
` ` , .` . ` ` , . ` ` , .` ·` , . .
. ·` , .` ·` , . ·` , .` . ·` , . `
. ·` , .` ` , ·` , . ` , ·` , .` ` , . ·` , . ` ,`
. ·` , .` ` ¸ ·` , . ` ¸ ·` , .` ` , ¸ ·` , . .
. ·` , .` ·` , . ·` , .` . ·` , . `
. ·` , .` ¸ ·` , . ¸ ·` , .` ¸ ·` , . ` ¸`
. ` ` , . ' ` ` , . ' ' ` ` , . ·` , . ` .
. ` ` , .` ` ` , .` ` ` ` , . ·` , .

¸.· , · . · ·` ,. .` · . .` , ·` ,. .` · . . ·` ,. .` · . ` ` ,. .` ·
` , .` · ` . ·` , .` · . . · .
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Exercise 21

Conjugate the following verbs:

, 1 , , , 2 , ¸` · , 3 , ,` , , 4 , _` · , 5 , ·` .


-·-·«- =·,
` · ` ,` · ' ¸ ` · ,` , · · ` · ¸ `, ¸ ` , · , ¸ ` · ,` , · · ` · ¸ `, ¸ · ` ·
¸ ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ¸ ·

The sign of (··· .,) is the (·_ .) after the (·´ .·)
in the (¸.' ¸·) and (,.- ,·. ¸··) without a (.)
preceding it. The (__.' ····) of this (.,) is always
(·,.·).
The (_.·) of (··· .,) is also used on the following scales:
( ¸ · ·) e.g. ( ¸ ·);
( ¸ ·` , ·) e.g. ( ¸ ` , ·).


The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
. ¸ `, ¸ ` , `, ¸ ¸ ·
. · `, · ` , · `, . · ·
. ` , `, ` , ` , ` , `, . · ` ,
. ¸ ` ¸ ` ¸ ` · ` .
. · ` · ` · ` . ·
. `, ¸ ` , ¸ `, ¸ ¸ ·
¸ ` . ¸ · ¸ ` . ·
. · ` · · · ` . · `
. ` , ` ` , · ` ` , . · ` ,`
. ` ¸ ` ` ¸ · ` ` , ¸ · .
. · ` · · · ` . · `
. ` ¸ · ¸ ` ¸ · ` ¸`
. ¸ · ' ¸ · ' ¸ · ' · ` .
. ¸ ` ¸ ` ¸ ` ·

¸· , · . ¸ ` · · ` · . . . ` · . .` , . ` · . · ` · ..
. ` · · ` . .
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Exercise 22

Conjugate the following verbs:

, 1 , . · _ , 2 , · , 3 , _ · · , 4 , , · , 5 , , - ·


,·-«·· =·,
` , = ` ` · ,` , · _ = ` ¸ ` , = ` `, , = ` ' , ` , = ` ` · ,` , · _ = ` ¸ ` , = ` , , = ` ¸
¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` , = ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` , = `

The sign of (¸· .,) is the (.) before the (·´ .·). This
(.,) is always intransitive (·_.).

The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
·'· _=
=¸¸-'·
. ` , = ` , ` , = ` , ` , = ` , , = ` ¸
. , = ` , , = ` , , = ` , . , = ` ¸
. ` ,` , = ` , ` ,` , = ` , ` ,` , = ` , . ` , = ` ¸ ` ,
. ` , = ` ` , = ` ` , = ` , = ` ¸ ` .
. , = ` , = ` , = ` . , = ` ¸
. ` , = ` , . ` , = ` , . ` , = ` , . ` , = ` ¸ .
` , = ` . ` , = ` ¸ ` , = ` ` , = ` ¸ .
. , = ` , = ` ¸ , = ` . ` , = ` ¸ `
. ` ,` , = ` ` , = ` ¸ ` , ` , = ` ` , . ` , = ` ¸ ` ,`
. ` ¸ , = ` , = ` ¸ ` ¸ , = ` `, ¸ ` , = ` ¸ .
. , = ` , = ` ¸ , = ` . ` , = ` ¸ `
. ` , = ` . ` , = ` ¸ . ` , = ` . ` , = ` ¸ ` ¸`
. ` , = ` ' ` , = ` ' ` , = ` ' ` , = ` ¸ ` .
. ` , = ` ` , = ` ` , = ` ` , = ` ¸

¸.· , · ` ,. = ` ` · . ,. = ` ` · . . ` ,. = ` ` · . .` , ,. = ` ` · . ·
, = ` ` · . . , = ` ` · ` . .
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Exercise 23

Conjugate the following verbs:

, 1 , , ´` ¸ , 2 , . ´` ¸ , 3 , . ` ¸ , 4 , ·` ¸ , 5 , , .` ¸


,·-··· =·,
,` , · , ` - ¸ ` . ` -`, . ` ` - ' , ` . ` -` · ,` , · , ` - ¸ ` . ` -, . ` - ¸
` . ` - . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` . ` - ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` . ` -` ·

The sign of (¸·· .,) is the (.) after the (·´ .·).

Rule 1

If the (·´ .·) of (¸·· .,) is (·), (·), or (_), the (.) of
(¸··) is changed to (·). If the (·´ .·) is a (·), then (···¸ -
assimilation) is compulsory, e.g. ( , · ` · ¸) changes to (¸ ·` · ¸).

If the (·´ .·) of (¸·· .,) is (·), then after changing the
(.) to (·), the following three changes are permissible:
(1) The (·) is changed to (·) and the rule of (···¸) is applied,
e.g. ( , ´ · ¸) changes to ( , ¯` · ¸).
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(2) Sometimes the (·) is changed to (·) and then the rule of
(···¸) is applied to the (·´ .·), e.g. ( , ´ · ¸) changes to
( , ¯ · ¸).
(3) Sometimes the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of
(···¸), e.g. ( , ¯ · · ¸).

If the (·´ .·) of (¸·· .,) is (_), then after changing the
(.) to (·), the following two changes are permissible:
(1) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of (···¸),
e.g. ( , - ·` _ ¸).
(2) Sometimes the (·) is changed to (_) and then the rule of
(···¸) is applied to the (·´ .·), e.g. ( , - ` _ ¸) changes to
( , -` _ ¸).

Rule 2

If the (·´ .·) of (¸·· .,) is (¸), (¸), (), or (), the
(.) of (¸··) is changed to (). If the (·´ .·) is a (), then
it is compulsory to apply (···¸) e.g. ( . ~ ¸) changes to ( ~ ¸ . ).
If the (·´ .·) of (¸·· .,) is (), then after changing the
(.) to (), the following three changes are permissible:
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(1) The () is changed to () and the rule of (···¸) is applied,
e.g. ( , ~ ¸) changes to ( , ~ ¸).
(2) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of (···¸),
e.g. ( , = ~ ¸).
(3) The () is changed to () and the rule of (···¸) is applied,
e.g. ( , ~ ¸) changes to ( , ~ ¸).

If the (·´ .·) of (¸·· .,) is (¸) or (¸), then after
changing the (.) to (), the following two possibilities are
permissible:
(1) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of (···¸),
e.g. ( , =` . ¸) and ( . , =` . ¸).
(2) Sometimes the () is changed to (¸) or (¸) and then the
rule of (···¸) is applied, e.g. ( , ` . ¸) changes to ( , ` . ¸) and
( . , ` . ¸) changes to ( . ,` . ¸).

Rule 3

If the (·´ .·) of (¸·· .,) is (.), then it is permissible to
change the (.) to (.) and apply the rule of (···¸), e.g. ( _ ¸)
changes to ( _ ¸).
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Rule 4

If the (·´ ¸·) of (¸·· .,) is (.), (.), (_), (_), (·),
(·), (¸), (¸), (¸), (¸), (), or (), then after changing the
(.) to the same letter as the (·´ ¸·), the (·¯,-) of the (.)
is transferred to the preceding letter and the rule of (···¸) is
applied. The (¸., ·,·) is deleted, e.g. ( , . ` - ¸) changes to
( ,` . -) and (¸ ` · ¸) changes to (¸` ·).

(4.2) The (__.·) of these verbs - ( ,` . -) and (¸` ·) - will be
(` ,` . -,) and (` ¸` ,,).

(4.3) It is permissible to have a (·,¯) on the (·´ .·), e.g.
(` ,` . -, ,` . -) and (` ¸` ,, ¸` ·). The words ( .` ,` ` . -,) and
(` ¸` ,,) which have appeared in the Qur’ân are from this (.,).
(4.4) It is permissible to read a (·.) on the (·´ .·) of the
( , ¸· ). Therefore all three harakats are permissible, e.g.
(` ,` . -` ·), (` ,` . -` ·), (` ,` .` -` ·).

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
. ` . ` -, ` . ` - , ` -, ` . . ` - ¸
. ` -, ` - , ` -, . ` - ¸
. ` ,` ` -, ` ` - , ` , ` ` -, ` , . ` ,` ` - ¸
. ` . ` - ` . ` - ` . ` - ` - ¸ ` .
. ` - ` - ` - . ` - ¸
. , ` ` - ¸ ` ` - , ¸ ` ` -, ¸ ` ` - ¸ ¸
. ` . ` - ` . ` - ¸ ` . ` - ` ` - ¸ .
. ` - ` - ¸ ` - . ` ` - ¸ `
. ` ,` ` - ` ` - ¸ ` , ` ` - ` , . ` ` - ¸ ` ,`
. ` ¸ ` - ` - ¸ ` ¸ ` - ` , ¸ ` ` - ¸ .
. ` - ` - ¸ ` - . ` ` - ¸ `
. ` ` - ¸ ` ` - ¸ ¸ ` ` - ¸ ` ` - ¸ ` ¸`
. ` . ` - ' ` . ` - ' ` . ` - ' ` ` - ¸ ` .
. ` . ` - ` . ` - ` . ` - ` ` - ¸

¸.· , · ` .. ` -` · . . ` -` · . . .` ` -` · . .` , . ` -` · . ·
` -` · . . ` -` · ` . .
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Exercise 24

Conjugate the following verbs:

, 1 , _ ` - ¸ , 2 , ¸ ` - ¸ , 3 , · , ` - ¸ , 4 , _ ` ¸ , 5 , ¸ · ` ¸



,· · - · , =·,
` , ` - ¸ ` _ , ` - ¸ ` , ` - ¸ ` , ` - ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¯ ,` -` · ,` , · _ , ` - ¸ ' , ` -,
` _ , ` - . ` , ` - . ` , ` - . ` · · ` ¸` ,` ,

The sign of (¸···¸ .,) is the repetition of the (·´ ·.) and
four letters after the (¸., ·,·) in the (¸.' ¸·). The ( ·.
·´) of this (.,) is always (·` ·) except in (¸·).
12


Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.

12
The rules of (¸·) will be discussed later.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
. ` , ` -, ` , ` - , ' , ` -, ¸ ` , ` -
. ` , ` -, ` , ` - , ` , ` -, . ` , ` - ¸
. ' , ` -, ` , ' , ` - , ` , ' , ` -, ` , . ' , ` - ¸ ` ,
. ` , ` - ` , ` - ' , ` - ` , ` - ¸ ` .
. ` , ` - ` , ` - ` , ` - . ` , ` - ¸
. ` _ , ` -, . ` _ , ` - , . ` _ , ` -, . ` _ , ` - ¸ .
. ` , ` - ` , ` - ¸ ' , ` - ` _ , ` - ¸ .
. ` , ` - ` , ` - ¸ ` , ` - . ` _ , ` - ¸ `
. ' , ` - ` , ' , ` - ¸ ` , ' , ` - ` , . ` _ , ` - ¸ ` ,`
. ` , ` - ` ¸ ` , ` - ¸ ` ¸ ` , ` - `, ¸ ` _ , ` - ¸ .
. ` - ` , ` , ` - ¸ ` , ` - . ` _ , ` - ¸ `
. ` _ , ` - . ` _ , ` - ¸ . ` _ , ` - . ` _ , ` - ¸ ` ¸`
. ' ` , ` - ' ` , ` - ' ' , ` - ` _ , ` - ¸ ` .
. ` , ` - ` , ` - ' , ` - ` _ , ` - ¸

¸.· , · ¯ ,. ` -` · . ` ,. ` -` · . . . ` -` · ' , . .` , ` ,. ` -` · . ·
` , ` -` · . . ` , ` -` · ` . .
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Exercise 25

Conjugate the following verbs:

, 1 , ` · ,` ¸ , 2 , ` , .` - ¸ , 3 , ` , · ¸ , 4 , ` , ` . ¸ , 5 , ` ¸ ,` , ¸



¸- « · =·,
¸` ` , ¸` ` · ,` , · ' ¸` , ¸` ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¸` ` · ,` , · ' ¸` `,
¸` . ` · · ` ¸` ,` , ¸`

The sign of (¸` · .,) is the tashdīd of the (·´ ¸·) and (.)
precedes the (·´ .·) in the (¸.' ¸·).

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
. ¸` , ¸` , ¸` , ¸`
. ·` , ·` , ·` , . ·`
. ` , ` , ` , ` , ` , ` , . ` ` ,
. ¸` ¸` ¸` ` ` .
. ·` ·` ·` . `
. ` , ¸ ` , ¸ ` , ¸ ` ¸
. ¸` ¸` ¸` ` .
. ·` ·` ·` . ` `
. ` ` , ` ` , ` ` , . ` ` ,`
. ` ` ¸ ` ` ¸ ` ` , ¸ ` .
. ·` ·` ·` . ` `
. ` ¸ ` ¸ ` ¸ ` ` ¸`
. ¸` ' ¸` ' ¸` ' ` ` .
. ¸` ¸` ¸` `

¸· , · ¸` ` · . ·` ` · . . ` ` · . .` , . ` ` · . · ` ` · . ..
·` ` · ` . .
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Exercise 26

Conjugate the following verbs:

, 1 , , , 2 , ·` , 3 , , ´ , 4 , .` - · , 5 , , ·


¸ - ·« · =·,
·` , ¸ , , ¸ , ` , ¸ , ` · ,` , · ·` , ¸ , `, ¸ ,` , ¸ , ` · ,` , ·
` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¸ , . ` · · ` ¸` ,` , ¸ ,

The sign of (¸· .,) is that the (.) precedes the (·´ .·)
in the (¸.' ¸·) and there is an extra (.) after the ( .·
·´).

Rule 1

In (¸` · .,) and (¸· .,), when two (.)’s are adjacent to
one another in the (__.· ¸··), it is permissible to delete one,
e.g.
( ¸` ) ( ¸` )
( .` ,` , · = ) ( .` ,` , · = ).

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Rule 2

If the (·´ .·) of (¸` · .,) and (¸· .,) is (.), (.),
(_), (·) ,(·), (_), (¸), (¸), (¸), (¸), () or (), it is
permissible to change the (.) into the (·´ .·) and apply the
rule of (···¸). In this case, the (¸.' ¸·) and (,·') require a
(¸., ·,·) at the beginning. The ( ¸' · · ¸ .,) and ( ¸` · · ¸ .,)
have been created due to this rule.

Examples:
( ,` , = ) ( ,` , =~) ( ,` , ~ ¸)
( ¸ · · ) ( ¸ · ·) ( ¸ · ¸)

¸-· , =·, ¸,, ` ,` , ~ ¸ ·· ,·. ` ,` , =` · ,,· ,' , ~ ¸ `,` , =, ,` , ~ ¸ .
` ,` , = . ··
¸ -·· , =·, ¸ · ¸ ¸ · ·, ¸ · ¸ ¸,, ¸ · ¸ ·· ,·. ¸ · ·` · ,,·
¸ · · . ··

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
. ¸ , , ¸ , , ¸ , , ¸ ,
. , · , · , , · , , . · ,
. , , ` , , , ` , , , ` , . , ` ,
. ¸ , ¸ , ¸ , , ` .
. · , · , · , . ,
. , , ¸ , , ¸ , , ¸ , ¸
. ¸ , ¸ , ¸ , ` .
. , · · , · , . , `
. , ` , , ` , , ` , . , ` ,`
. , ` ¸ , ` ¸ , ` , ¸ ` .
. · , · , · , . , `
. , ¸ , ¸ , ¸ , ` ¸`
. ¸ , ' ¸ , ' ¸ , ' , ` .
. ¸ , ¸ , ¸ , ,

¸· , · ¸ , ` · . · , ` · . . , ` · . .` , , ` · . · , ` · . .
· , ` · ` . .
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Exercise 27

Conjugate the following verbs:

, 1 , . · - , 2 , ¸ , 3 , · _ , 4 , , · = , 5 , , . -

,· - « · = , =·,
` , , .` ` ¸ _ .` ` ¸ ` , .` ` `, , .` ` ` ' , ` , .` ` ` · ,` , · _ .` ` ¸ ` , .`
` , .` ` . ·· ¸,, ` , .` ` ¸ ·· ,·. ` , .` ` ` · ,` , ·

The sign of ( ¸ · ` ¸ .,) is the extra (¸) and (.) before the
(·´ .·).
It is permissible to delete the (.) from the verb ( _ = ` ¸
` _` , = ` ,). The verbs (` ,` · =` ·) and (` _ =` ` , ·) mentioned
in the Qur’ân are from this (.,).

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· g_·='· =¸¸-'· _=·'·
. ` , .` ` , ` , .` ` , ` , .` ` , , .` ` ¸
. , .` ` , , .` ` , , .` ` , . , .` ` ¸
. ` , .` ` , ` , ` , .` ` , ` , ` , .` ` , ` , . ` , .` ` ¸ ` ,
. ` , .` ` .` ` ` , ` , .` ` , .` ` ¸ ` .
. , .` ` , .` ` , .` ` . , .` ` ¸
. ` , .` ` , . ` , .` ` , . ` , .` ` , . ` , .` ` ¸ .
. ` , .` ` ` , .` ` ¸ ` , .` ` ` , .` ` ¸ .
. , .` ` , .` ` ¸ , .` ` . ` , .` ` ¸ `
. ` , .` ` ` , ` , .` ` ¸ ` , ` , .` ` ` , . ` , .` ` ¸ ` ,`
. , .` ` ` ¸ , .` ` ¸ ` ¸ , .` ` `, ¸ ` , .` ` ¸ .
. , .` ` , .` ` ¸ , .` ` . ` , .` ` ¸ `
. .` ` ` , . ` , .` ` ¸ . ` , .` ` . ` , .` ` ¸ ` ¸`
. ` , .` ` ' ` , .` ` ' ' ` , .` ` ` , .` ` ¸ ` .
. ` , .` ` ` , .` ` ` , .` ` ` , .` ` ¸

¸· , · ` , .` ` ` · . , .` ` ` · . . ` , .` ` ` · . .` , , .` ` ` · · .
, .` ` ` · . . , .` ` ` · ` . .
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Exercise 28

Conjugate the following verbs:

, 1 , ¸ ` - ` ¸ , 2 , ¸ ` ¸ , 3 , , ` · ` ¸ , 4 , ,` ` ¸ , 5 , · ` - ` ¸



,· - , - · , =·,
` ¸ ` , ` -` · ,` , · ` , ` - ¸ ` ¸ ` , ` -, ¸ ` , ` - ¸ ` ¸ ` , ` - ¸ ·· ,·.
` ¸ ` , ` - . ·· ¸,,

The sign of ( ¸ ·` , · · ¸ .,) is the repetition of the (_) and the
appearance of a (,) between the two (_)’s. This (,) has changed
to a (¸) in the (_.·) due to the preceding (·,¯). This (.,)
is mostly intransitive (·_.).

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· g_·='· =¸¸-'· _=·'·
. ` ¸ ` , ` -, ` ¸ ` , ` - , ` ¸ ` , ` -, ¸ ` , ` - ¸
. ` , ` -, ` , ` - , ` , ` -, . ` , ` - ¸
. ` ` , ` -, ` , ` ` , ` - , ` , ` ` , ` -, ` , . ` ` , ` - ¸ ` ,
. ` ¸ ` , ` - ` ¸ ` , ` - ` ¸ ` , ` - ` , ` - ¸ ` .
. ` , ` - ` , ` - ` , ` - . ` , ` - ¸
. ` , ` -, ` ¸ ` , ` - , ` ¸ ` -, ` , ` ¸ ` , ` - ¸ ` ¸
. ` ¸ ` , ` - ` ¸ ` , ` - ¸ ` ¸ ` , ` - ` ` , ` - ¸ .
. ` , ` - ` , ` - ¸ ` , ` - . ` ` , ` - ¸ `
. ` ` , ` - ` , ` ` , ` - ¸ ` , ` ` , ` - ` , . ` ` , ` - ¸ ` ,`
. ` , ` - ` ¸ ` , ` - ¸ ` ¸ ` , ` - ` , ¸ ` ` , ` - ¸ .
. ` , ` - ` , ` - ¸ ` , ` - . ` , .` ` ¸ `
. ` , ` - ` ¸ ` , ` - ¸ ` ¸ ` , ` - ` ¸ ` ` , ` - ¸ ` ¸`
. ` ¸ ` , ` - ' ` ¸ ` , ` - ' ` ¸ ` , ` - ' ` ` , ` - ¸ ` .
. ` ¸ ` , ` - ` ¸ ` , ` - ` ¸ ` , ` - ` , ` - ¸ `

¸· , · ` ¸ ` , ` -` · . ` , ` -` · . . ` ` , ` -` · . .` , ` , ` -` · ·
. ` , ` -` · . . ` , ` -` · ` . .
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Exercise 29

Conjugate the following verbs:

, 1 , . ·` , ` - ¸ , 2 , _ ` , ` · ¸ , 3 , ¸ ` , ` - ¸


, =·, ,· · , - ·
` , · ·` · ¸ ` · ·` · ¸ ` · ·` · ¸ ·· ,·. ¯ · ·` ` · ,` , · · ` , ·` · ¸ ' · ·` , ` · ·` · ¸
` , · ·` . ` · ·` . ` · ·` . ·· ¸,,

The sign of ( ¸ ` , · · ¸ .,) is the repetition of the (¸) and the
appearance of an extra (.) before the first (¸) in the ( ¸·
¸.'). This (.) changes to a (¸) in the (_.·).

The (···¸) in this (.,) is similar to the (···¸) of (¸ · · ¸ .,).
The verbs of (¸ · · ¸ .,) and ( ¸ ` , · · ¸ .,) mostly have the
meanings of colours and defects and they are intransitive (·_.).

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· g_·='· =¸¸-'· _=·'·
. ` · ·` , ` · ·` , ' · ·` , ` · ·` · ¸
. ` · ·` , ` · ·` , ` · ·` , . ` · ·` · ¸
. ' · ·` , ` , ' · ·` , ` , ' · ·` , ` , . ' · ·` · ¸ ` ,
. ` · ·` ` · ·` ' · ·` ` · ·` · ¸ ` .
. ` · ·` ` · ·` ` · ·` . ` · ·` · ¸
. ` · ·` , ¸ ` · ·` , ¸ ` · ·` , ¸ ¸ ¸` · ·` ·
. ` · ·` ` · ·` · ¸ ' · ·` ` · ·` · ¸ .
. ` · ·` ` · ·` · ¸ ` · ·` . ` · ·` · ¸ `
. ' · ·` ` , ' · ·` · ¸ ` , ' · ·` ` , . ` ` · ·` · ¸ ` ,
. ` ¸` · ·` ` · ·` · ¸ ` ¸ ` ,` · ·` ¸ ` · ·` · ¸ .
. ` · ·` ` · ·` · ¸ ` · ·` . ` · ·` · ¸ `
. ` · ·` ¸ ¸` · ·` · ¸ ` · ·` ¸ ` · ·` · ¸ ` ¸`
. ` · ·` · ' ` · ·` · ' ' · ·` · ' ` · ·` · ¸ ` .
. ` · ·` ` · ·` ' · ·` ` · ·` · ¸

¸· , · ¯ · ·` ` · . ` ` · ` · · . . ' · ·` ` · . .` , ` · ·` ` · . · ` · ·` ` · . .
` · ·` ` · ` . .

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Exercise 30

Conjugate the following verbs:

, 1 , ` . ,` ¸ , 2 , ` . ¯ ¸ , 3 , ` _ ` ¸ , 4 , ` _ ` - ¸


,·, - · , =·,
` - ,` , · ·` , ` - ¸ ·` , ` -, ·` , ` - ¸ . ·· ¸,, ·` , ` - ¸ ·· ,·. ·` ,
·` , ` -

The sign of ( ¸` , · · ¸ .,) is the (` ,) after the (·´ ¸·).

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· g_·='· =¸¸-'· _=·'·
. , ·` , ` - ·` , ` - , ·` , ` -, ·` , ` - ¸
. ·` , ` -, ·` , ` - , ·` , ` -, . ·` , ` - ¸
. ·` , ` -, ` , ·` , ` - , ` , ·` , ` -, ` , . ·` , ` - ¸ ` ,
. ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ¸ ` .
. ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ·` , ` - . ·` , ` - ¸
. ·` , ` -, . ·` , ` - , . ·` , ` -, . ·` , ` - ¸ .
·` , ` - . ·` , ` - ¸ ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ¸ .
. ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ¸ ·` , ` - . ·` , ` - ¸ `
. ·` , ` - ` , ·` , ` - ¸ ` , ·` , ` - ` , . ·` , ` - ¸ ` ` ,
. ·` , ` - ` ¸ ·` , ` - ¸ ` ¸ ·` , ` - `, ¸ ·` , ` - ¸ .
. ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ¸ ·` , ` - . ·` , ` - ¸ `
. ·` , ` - . . ·` , ` - ¸ . ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ¸ ` ¸`
. ·` , ` - ' ·` , ` - ' ' ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ¸ ` .
. ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ·` , ` - ¸

¸· , · ` · ·` , ` - . ·` , ` -` · . . ·` , ` -` · . .` , ·` , ` -` · . · ·` , ` -` · .
. ·` , ` -` · ` . .
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Exercise 31

(A) Conjugate the following verbs:

, 1 , ` - ¸ ` , ,
, 2 , ` , ` · ¸

(B) What is the (··,.) of the following words:
, 1 , ·` , ` -` · .` ,
, 2 , ·` , ` - , .
, 3 , . ~` , ` · ` ¸
, 4 , ~` , ,` -` · ·
, 5 , ·` , ` - ¸
, 6 , ` ¸` ~` , ,` - ¸
, 7 , ~` , ` · ¸
, 8 , ` .` _ _ ` - ¸
, 9 , .` ´,
, 10 , . ` _ _ ` .


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Four-Root letter Verbs
The (.,,') of (¸·,_)

- · · - · =·, . .¸= _-·,_
·· ,·. ` , ·` · ` · ,` , · · , ·` · , ` , ·` · `, , ·` ·` , , ` , ·` · ` · ,` , · · , ·` · , ` , ·` · `, , ·` · ,
` , ·` · ` . ·· ¸,, ` , ·` · ,

The sign of ( · ` · · .,) is the presence of four root letters in the
(¸.' ¸·). The (__.' ····) of this (.,) is (·,.·).

The rule for the (·¯,-) of the (__.' ····) is that if the ( ¸·
¸.') has four letters, whether root letters or extra letters, the
(__.' ····) will be (·,.·) even in the active tense
(,,··), e.g. (` · , ´`,), (` ` , .`,), ( ¸ `,), (` , ·` · `,). If the ( ¸·
¸.') has less than or more than four letters, the ( ····
__.') will be (_,·), e.g. (` ,` .` ,), ( ` -, ` . ), ( ¸ , ,).


Four-root letter verbs are of three types:
(1) those of genuine four-radical origin, e.g. ( , -` , ) – to translate.

(2) verbs formed by the doubling of a biliteral root, e.g. ( , ·` , ·) –
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to gargle, ( , ` ) – to stammer.

(3) composite roots taken from a familiar phrase or combination
of roots, e.g. ( ¸ ` -) – to say Al-hamdulillāh, ( ¸ ` ,) – to say
Bismillāh.

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· g_·='· '· =¸¸-'· _=·
. ` , ·` · `, ` , ·` · ` , ` , ·` · `, , ·` · ,
. , ·` · `, , ·` · ` , , ·` · `, . , ·` · ,
. ` , ·` · `, ` , ` , ·` · ` , ` , ` , ·` · `, ` , . ` , ·` · , ` ,
. ` , ·` · ` ` , ·` · ` ` , ·` · ` , ·` · , ` .
. , ·` · ` , ·` · ` , ·` · ` . , ·` · ,
. ` , ·` · `, . ` , ·` · ` , . ` , ·` · `, . ` , ·` · , .
` , ·` · ` . ` , ·` · , ` , ·` · ` ` , ·` · , .
. , ·` · ` , ·` · , , ·` · ` . ` ` , ·` · ,
. ` , ·` · ` ` , ` , ·` · , ` , ` , ·` · ` ` , . ` , ·` · , ` ` ,
. ` , ·` · ` ¸ , ·` · , ` ¸ , ·` · ` `, ¸ ` , ·` · , .
. , ·` · ` , ·` · , , ·` · ` . ` , ·` · , `
. .` , ·` · ` ` , ·` · , . ` , ·` · ` . ` , ·` · , ` ¸`
. ` , ·` · , ' ` , ·` · , ' ` , ·` · , ' ` , ·` · , ` .
. ` , ·` · ` ` , ·` · ` ` , ·` · ` ` , ·` · ,

¸· , · ` , ·` · ` · . , ·` · ` · . . ` , ·` · ` · . .` , , ·` · ` · . · , ·` · ` · . .
, ·` · ` · ` . .

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Exercise 32

Conjugate the following verbs:

, 1 , _ ,` - ·
, 2 , , ´` ·
, 3 , ,` - _
, 4 , ¸ ` ·
, 5 , , =` ·
(B) What is the (··,.) of the following words:
, 1 , . ` _ ,` - `
, 2 , ` , ´` ·` ·
, 3 , . · ` · ` ` ¸
, 4 , ¸ , _
, 5 , ` ¸ ` ,` ·
, 6 , .` ,` , =` `,
, 7 , ` ,` ` · ·` , ·
, 8 , ` , - -
, 9 , · · , · ,` ·
, 10 , . ¸ · ,` - ,`
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The Derived Forms of Four-Root Letter Verbs

-,· =,¸- _-·,_
·, ¸ · - « · =
. ·· ¸,, ¸ ,` , ·· ,·. ¸ ,` , ` · ,`, · ` ,` , ¸ ,` , , ¸ ,` ,
¸ ,` ,

The sign of ( ¸ ` · .,) is the extra (.) before the four root
letters.

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· g_·='· =¸¸-'· _=·'·
. ¸ ,` , , ¸ ,` , , ¸ ,` , , ¸ ,` ,
. · ,` , , · ,` , , · ,` , , . · ,` ,
. ,` , , ` , ,` , , ` , ,` , , ` , . ,` , ` ,
. ¸ ,` , ¸ ,` , ¸ ,` , ,` , ` .
. · ,` , · ,` , · ,` , . ,` ,
. ,` , , ¸ ,` , , ¸ ,` , , ¸ ¸ ,` ,
¸ ,` , . ¸ ,` , ¸ ,` , ,` , .
. ,` , · · ,` , · ,` , . ,` , `
. ,` , ` , ,` , ` , ,` , ` , . ` ,` , ` ,
. ,` , ` ¸ ,` , ` ¸ ,` , ` , ¸ ,` , .
. · ,` , · ,` , · ,` , . ,` , `
. ¸ ,` , ¸ ,` , ¸ ,` , ,` , ` ¸`
. ' ¸ ,` , ' ¸ ,` , ¸ ,` , ' ,` , ` .
. ¸ ,` , ¸ ,` , ¸ ,` , ,` ,

¸· , · ¸ ,` , ` · . · ,` , ` · . . ,` , ` · . .` , ,` , ` · . ·
,` , ` · . . · ,` , ` · ` . .

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Exercise 33

Conjugate the following verbs:

, 1 , . · , 2 , ¸ ,` , , 3 , · ` , , 4 , , ` - , 5 , , `


,·· - · , =·,
· · ¸ ·· ,·. ¯ , · ` · ,` , · _ ,` · · ¸ ' , · , ` , · · ¸ ` _ ,` · · ¸ ` , · · ¸ ` ,
` _ ,` · . ` , · . ` , · . ·· ¸,,

The sign of ( ¸ · · ¸ .,) is having four root letters, the repetition
of the second (¸) and the inclusion of (¸., ·,·) in the ( ¸·
¸.') and (,·').

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· g_·='· =¸¸-'· _=·'·
. ` , · , ` , · , ' , · , ` , · · ¸
. ` , · , ` , · , ` , · , . ` , · · ¸
. ' , · , ` , ' , · , ` , ' , · , ` , . ' , · · ¸ ` ,
. ` , · ` , · ' , · ` , · · ¸ ` .
. ` , · ` , · ` , · . ` , · · ¸
. ` _ ,` · , . ` _ ,` · , . ` _ ,` · , . .` _ , · · ¸
` , · . · ¸ ` , · ' , · ` _ , · · ¸ .
. ` , · ` , · · ¸ ` , · . ` _ , · · ¸ `
. ' , · ` , ' , · · ¸ ` , ' , · ` , . ` ` _ , · · ¸ ` ,
. ` , · ` ¸ ` , · · ¸ ` ¸ ` , · `, ¸ ` _ , · · ¸ .
. ` , · ` , · · ¸ ` , · . ` _ , · · ¸ `
. ` _ ,` · . ` _ ,` · · ¸ . ` _ ,` · . ` _ , · · ¸ ` ¸`
. ` , · · ' ` , · · ' ' ' , · · ` _ , · · ¸ ` .
. ` , · ` , · ' , · ` _ , · · ¸

¸· , · ¯ , · ` · . ` · ` , · . . ' , · ` · . .` , ` , · ` · . · ` , · ` · .
. ` , · ` · ` . .

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Exercise 34

Conjugate the following verbs:

, 1 , ¸ - ` . ¸ , 2 , . ' ~ ¸ , 3 , ` , = · ¸ , 4 , ` , ` ¸ , 5 , ` , , ·` _ ¸



,· · · - · , =·,
¸ ` ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ·· ¸,, ` ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ·· ,·. ` ¸ ` ,` ` · ,` , · · ` ,` ,
` ¸ ` ,` .

The sign of ( ¸ ` · · ¸ .,) is the inclusion of (¸., ·,·) in the
(¸.' ¸·) and (,·') and the extra (.) after the (_).

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow
hereunder.
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|· _,· =¸¸-'· =¸¸-'· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· g_·='· =¸¸-'· _=·'·
. ` ¸ ` ,` , ` ¸ ` ,` , ` ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ` ,` , ¸
. ` ,` , ` ,` , ` ,` , . ` ,` , ¸
. ` ,` , ` , ` ,` , ` , ,` , ` ` , . ` ,` , ¸ ` ,
. ` ¸ ` ,` ` ¸ ` ,` ` ¸ ` ,` ` ,` , ¸ ` .
. ` ,` ` ,` ` ,` . ` ,` , ¸
. ` ,` , ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ¸
. ` ¸ ` ,` ` ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ` ¸ ` ,` ` ,` , ¸ .
. ` ,` ` ,` , ¸ ` ,` . ` ,` , ¸ `
. ` ,` ` , ` ,` , ¸ ` , ` ,` ` , . ` ,` , ¸ ` ` ,
. ` ,` ` ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ` ¸ ` ,` ` , ¸ ` ,` , ¸ .
. ` ,` ,` , ¸ ` ` ,` . ` ,` , ¸ `
. ` ,` ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ¸ ` ,` ¸ ` ,` , ¸ ` ¸`
. ` ¸ ` ,` , ' ` ¸ ` ,` , ' ' ` ¸ ` ,` , ` ,` , ¸ ` .
. ` ¸ ` ,` ` ¸ ` ,` ` ¸ ` ,` ` ,` , ¸

¸· , · ` ,` ` · ` ¸ . ` ,` ` · . . ` ,` ` · . .` , ` ,` ` · . ·
` ,` ` · . . ` ,` ` · ` . .

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Exercise 35

(A) Conjugate the following verbs:

, 1 , , =` ,` - ¸
, 2 , _ ` ` , ¸
, 3 , ¸ ´` ,` · ¸
, 4 , _ =` ` ¸
, 5 , ¸ .` ,` - ¸

(B) What is the (··,.) of the following words:
, 1 , . ¸ .` ,` -
, 2 , ` · . - =` ` .
, 3 , ` ¸ ´` ,` · '
, 4 , ` . - ` ` ` ·
, 5 , ` =` ,` -
, 6 , ` ¸ - ` ` , ¸
, 7 , . .` ,` -` ·
, 8 , ` ,` · ` , ·
, 9 , ` · . ´` ,` ·
, 10 , . ¸` =` ,` -
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Other Derived Forms
The (=·,,|) of (¿¬·- -,· =,¸- _·:·)

There are two categories of (.,,') here:
(1) (·,- ¸·,,, ¸-·)
(2) (,,· ¸·,,, ¸-·)

The first category (·,- ¸·,,, ¸-·) has seven (.,,'):
(1) ( -. · · - ·) – the (¸) is repeated, e.g. ( ·. -) – to don a
shawl.

` · `, ,` . · ¸,, ` . - ·· ,·. ` . -` · ,` , · · - ` . -`, . -
` . -` . ··

(2) ( -.. | , - ·) – there is an extra (,) after the (_), e.g.
( · ,` , ) – to don a trouser.

` · `, ,` . · ,` , ¸ ,` , `, ¸ ,` , ¸ ,` , ·· ,·. ¸ ,` , ` · ,` , · ·
¸ ,` , ` . ·· ¸,,

(3) ( - · - , ·) – there is an extra (¸) after the (), e.g.
( · , =` , .) – to command. This word can be used as ( , =` , ) as well.
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` · `, ,` . · , =` , . ` , =` , .`, , =` , . ` , =` , . ·· ,·. ` , =` , .` · ,` , · ·
` , =` , .` . ·· ¸,,

(4) ( - · , - ·) – there is an extra (¸) after the (_), e.g.
( · ,` , ) – to trim the extra leaves of a plant.

` · `, ,` . · ` .,` , ` · ,` , · · ,` , ` .,` , `, .,` , ` .,` , ·· ,·.
` .,` , ` . ·· ¸,,

(5) ( - · - , ·)– there is an extra (,) after the (), e.g.
( · , _` , -) – to make someone don socks.

` · `, ,` . · ` . _` , - ·· ,·. ` . _` , -` · ,` , · · , _` , - ` ._` , -`, . _` , -
. ·· ¸,, ` . _` , -`

(6) ( - · · - ·)– there is an extra (.) after the (_), e.g. ( · ·) – to
make someone don a hat.

` · `, ,` . · ¸,, ` ¸ · ·· ,·. ` ¸ ` · ,` , · · · ` ¸ `, ¸ ·
` ¸ ` . ··

(7) ( ·· · - ·)– there is an extra (¸) after the (¸), e.g. ( · ·) – to
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make someone don a hat.

` · `, ,` . · ,` , · · · ¸ `, ¸ · , ¸ ¸ ` · ,`, · · · ` ¸ `, ¸ ·
¸ ` . ·· ¸,, ¸ · ·· ,·. ¸ ` ·

(¸ ·) was originally ( · ¸ ). (` ¸ `,) was originally
(` ¸ `,). ( · ·) was originally ( · , ·). These changes will be
discussed later.

The second category - (,,· ¸·,,, ¸-·) has three groups:
(1) ( ¸ ` · , ¸-·)
(2) ( ¸ ` · · ,, ¸-·)
(3) ( · ,, ¸-· ¸ · )

The first group ( ¸ ` · , ¸-·) has 8 (.,,'):

(1) ( ¸ · -« ·) – the extra letters are (.) before the () and the (¸)
is repeated, e.g. (` .` - ) – to don a shawl.

(2) ( , , -« ·) – the extra letters are (.) before the () and the (,)
between the (_) and the (¸), e.g. ( ¸` ,` , ) – to don a trouser.

(3) ( ¸ - , « ·) – the extra letters are (.) before the () and a (¸)
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after the (), e.g. (` ¸ =` , ) – to be a satan.

(4) ( ¸ - , « ·) – the extra letters are (.) before the () and a (,)
after the (), e.g. (` .` _` , - ) – to don socks.

(5) ( ¸ · - « ·) – the extra letters are (.) before the () and a (.)
after the (_), e.g. (` ¸` ) – to don a trouser.

(6) ( ¸ - « « ·) – the extra letters are a (.) and a (·) before the (),
e.g. ( ` ¸ ´` ) – to be poor.

(7) (` . · - « ·) – the extra letters are a (.) before the () and a
(.) after the (¸), e.g. (` .` , · ) – to behave like a devil.

(8) (¸ ¸ - « ·) – the extra letters are a (.) before the () and a (¸)
after the (¸), e.g. (¸ ¸ ) – to don a hat.

The conjugation of these (.,,') should be done like
( ¸ ,` , ), while the last one, namely, (¸ ¸` · ) is like ( _ · ` ¸ `, ).

The second group, ( ¸ ` · · ,, ¸-·) has two (.,,'):
(1) ( ,· · · - · ,) – The second (¸), the (.) after the (_) and the ( ·,·
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¸.,) are extra, e.g. (` ¸ ` · · ¸) – to walk with the chest and
neck protruding out.

` · `, ,` . · ·· ,·. ` ¸ ` · ` · ,` , · ` · · ¸ ` ¸ ` · , ¸ ` · · ¸
` ¸ ` · . ·· ¸,, ` ¸ ` · · ¸

(2) ( ·· · · - · ,) – The (¸) after the (¸), the (.) after the (_) and the
(¸., ·,·) are extra, e.g. ( . ` ` ¸) – to lie on one’s back.

` · `, ,` . · _` ` ¸ ¸` ` ¸ ·· ,·. ¸ ¸` ` ` · ,` , · . ` ` ¸ ` ¸ ` ` ,
` . ·· ¸,, ¸`

The (_.·) of this (.,) – ( . ` ` ¸) was originally
(` ¸ ` ` ¸). The (¸) was changed to a (·,·).

The third group - ( ¸ · · ,, ¸-·) has one (.,):
( ,· · - , · ,) – The (,) after the () and one (¸) is extra, e.g.
( ` · , ¯ ¸ ` · ) – to strive.

` · `, ,` . · ` · , ¯ ¸ ·· ,·. ¯ · , ´` · ,` , · · ` · , ¯ ¸ ' · , ´, ` · , ¯ ¸
` · ` · , ´ . ` · , ´ . ` · , ´ . ·· ¸,, ` · ` · , ¯ ¸ ` · , ¯ ¸
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In all the word-forms of this (.,), (···¸) has been applied and
the changes are similar to those of (` , · · ¸).



Exercise 36

What is the word-form (··,.) of the following words and which
(.,) are they from:

, 1 , .` , ,` , ` ·
, 2 , .` · ` · , ´ .
, 3 , ` .,` ,
, 4 , ¸` , _` , -`
, 5 , =` , ` ¸
, 6 , ` ¸ ` ` '
, 7 , ` ¸ ` · · ¸
, 8 , ¸` , ·
, 9 , ` ,
, 10 , ` . =` ,


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The Seven Categories

With regards to the letters of verbs, they fall into seven
categories, namely:
., . .·.· . _,,· . ¸· . ,-' . ¸·· . _,-.
Definitions

Term Meaning Example
_,-.
A word whose root letters do
not have a (·,·), ( ·.· ,.-)
13

or two letters of the same type
, .
¸··
A word having a ( ·.· ,.-)
in the (·´ .·)
· ,
,-'
A word having a ( ·.· ,.-)
in the (·´ ¸·)
¸ ·
¸·
A word having a ( ·.· ,.-)
in the (·´ ·.)
· ·
_,,· A word having a (·,..·) as a
root letter – a hamzated verb
, · '
.·.·
A word having, as its root
letters, two letters of the same
type
` ·
.,
A word having two ( ,,..-
··) as the root letters
¸ · ,

13
The (·· ,,-) are (,), (.) and (¸).
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1) The term (¸..··) refers to any verb that contains a
(·· ,-).
2) If there is a ( ·.· ,-) in the ( ·.´ ..·), it is called
( ¸ ` ·` ·) or (¸··), eg ( · ,).
3) If there is a ( ·.· ,-) in the ( ·.´ ¸.·), it is called
(¸` , · ¸ ` ·` ·) or (,-'), e.g. ( ¸ ·).
4) If there is a ( ·.· ,.-) in the ( ·.´ ·.), it is called
( · ¸ ` ·` ·) or (¸·), e.g. ( · ·).

5) If the ( ·.´ ..·) has a (,), it is called ( ¸,, ¸.··) eg
( · ,).
6) If the ( ·.´ .·) has a (¸), it is called ( ¸., ¸.··). eg
( , ,).
7) If the ( ·.´ ¸.·) has a (,), it is called ( ¸,, ,.-' )
eg ( ¸ ·).
8) If the ( ·.´ ¸·) has a (¸), it is called ( ¸., ,.-')
eg ( _ ,).

9) If the ( ·.´ ·.) has a (,), it is called ( ¸,, ¸·.) eg
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( · · ).
10) If the (·´ ·.) has a (¸), it is called ( ¸., ¸·.) eg
(¸ · _).

11) If the (·´ .·) has a ( ·,.·), it is called ( . _,.,·)
eg ( , · ').
12) If the ( ·.´ ¸.·) has a ( ·,.·), it is called ( _,.,·
¸·) eg ( ¸ ' ).
13) If the ( ´ ·. · ) has a (·,·), it is called ( ··. _,.,·)
eg ( ' , ·).

14) ( ..,) is of two types: ( ·,,.· ..,) and ( ..,
.,,·).
15) (·,,..· ...,) is when the two (·..· ,..-) are
separate, e.g. (¸ · ,).
16) (.,,..· ...,) is when the two (·..· ,..-) are
adjacent to one another, e.g. (¸ , ~).
17) If the ( ·.´ ¸.·) and ( ·.´ ·.) are the same, it is
called (¸· .·.·) e.g. (` ·).
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18) If the () and the first (¸) and the (_) and the second
(¸) are the same letters, it is called ( ¸·.,_ .·..·) e.g.
( ¸ , _).



Exercise 37

Classify the following verbs according to the seven categories:

, 1 , ` _` ,` -,
, 2 , ¸ ,
, 3 , ` , ·
, 4 , · ` · ·
, 5 , ¸ , ~
, 6 , ` ¸`, ,
, 7 , - '
, 8 , · _ ,
, 9 , ¸` ,
, 10 , , ·



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The Rules of (_,,·)
Rule 1:
It is permissible to change a (·,..·), that is alone and
(¸¯) to correspond to the previous (·¯,-).
That is,
(a) after a (·-·), change the (·,·) into an (.).
Example
( _ ' ` ¸ )(head) becomes( ` ¸ _. )

(b) after a (·.), change the (·,·) into a (,).
Example
` ¸` ,` , (destitute) becomes (` ¸` ,` ,).

(c) after a (·,¯), change the (·,·) into a (¸).
Example
· ` . (wolf) becomes (` .`, ·).

n n n n n
Rule 2
If a hamzah mutaharrik ( ·,..· ·,..-· ) appears before a
( ·,.·) that is ( ¸¯.), it becomes necessary to change the
(¸¯) letter to the corresponding (·· ,-).

Examples
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' ¸ · becomes ¸ ·¯
¸ · becomes ¸ ·` ,
· becomes `, .
n n n n n

Rule 3
(3.1) It is permissible to change a ( ·,.·) that is ( _,.·)
and is preceded by a (·.) to a (,).
Example
,` - . becomes . ,` -
,` - . is the plural of ,` - · which means a perfume holder.
(3.2) It is permissible to change a ( ·,.·) that is ( _,.·)
and is preceded by a (·,¯) into a (¸).
Example
` , · · becomes ` , , · .
n n n n n

Rule 4
(4.1) If two ( ,..· · )’s are (·,..-·) and one of them is
( _,.´·), then it is permissible to change the second ( ·,.·)
into a (¸).
Example
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¸ ·` · can also be read as ·` , .
If there are two ( ·,.·)'s which are ( ·,.-·) and none of
them are (_,..´·), then it is necessary to change the
second (·,·) into a (,).

Examples
i) ' ' ` · · will be read as ` · · ,
ii) ' ' ` · ¸ will be read as ¸` · , '

(¸ . -) originally was ( - _., ) ( ¸.·· ,. of .. -). The
(¸) which comes after ( ._ ..) will change into a
( ·,.·). It becomes ( . - . _ ). Now there are two ( ·,.·
·,.-·) and one of them is ( _,.´·) . The second ( ·,.·)
changes into a (¸) becoming (` ¸ .. -) (according to the
rule of ·..` · - rule 4.1). (` ¸ .. -) can also be written as
` ¸`, ... -. The ( ... · ) on the (¸) is ¸.., (difficult to
pronounce). Therefore it is removed and ( ... - . ` ¸` , )
remains. Now due to (¸¯.. _..-¸) (the coming
together of two [ ¸¯.] letters), the ( ¸¯. ¸) is deleted.
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We are left with - . ` ¸ which can also be read as ¸ . - .

Step by Step
- _., _ - (` ¸ -) ( . - ` ¸`, )
( . - ` ¸`, ) - ` ¸ (¸ . -)

n n n n n
Rule 5
If a ( ·,.·) comes after the (,) or (¸) that are .· · and
_ · or if a ( ·,.·) comes after the (¸) of ( _·.. ,.), it is
permissible to change the (·,...·) into the letter that
precedes it and then (·..··¸) (incorporation of one letter
into another) is made.

Example of (,) ·_ ··
` · · ` ,` , ` · · ,` ,` , ·` ,` , ` ·

The word ( ` · · ` ,` , ) is the (¸,·· ,) of ( ' , , ' , ·).
Example (¸) ·_ ··
· ·` , = - · ,` , = - ·` , = -.
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Example of _·. ,
` ¸ ·` , · ' ` ¸ ,` , · ' ` ¸` , · ' .

The word ( ` ¸ ·.` , · ') is the ( _·.. ,.) of ( ` ¸` ,. · ') which is
the (_~) of (` ¸ ' ·) - meaning axe.

n n n n n

Rule 6
If there occurs a ( ·,.·) after the ( ..) of ¸.·· and before
a (¸), the (·,..·) changes to (·..-,· ..,) and the (¸)
changes to (.).
Example
The word (, = -) is the plural of ( · ·` , = -).
The word ( ., = -) was originally ( _,. = -). The (¸) which
comes after the (...) of (_..~) as the second last letter,
changes into a (·,..·).
14
It becomes ( . ... = -). Now we
have two ( ·,.-· ·,.·)’s and one of them is ( _,.´·).
The rule of ( ·..` , ) applies, whereby the second (·,..·)
changes into a (¸) and becomes ` ¸ . = -. Now there is a

14
This refers to rule no. 18 which you will read under the rules of ¸·· .
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( ·,.·) after the ( ..) of ¸.·· and it is before a (¸). It
changes to ( ·.-,· .,) and the (¸) changes to ( ..). The
word becomes (, = -).

NOTE: This law is compulsory ( ,,-,).

Step by Step

= - , _ . . = - = - ` ¸ , = -
n n n n n

Rule 7
If a ( ·,.·) is ( ·,.-·) and it comes after a ( ¸¯.) that is
not a ( ·._ ··) nor is it ( ¸ _·.. ) , then the ( ·.¯,-) of
the (·,·) is given to the letter preceding it.

This law is permissible ( _,-).
Examples
1) In the word ( ¸ ·.` ,), the ( ·.¯,-) of the ( ·,.·) is given to
the (¸) and the (·,·) is then deleted. It becomes
( ¸ ,).
2) In the words _. · ' ` · the ( ·.¯,-) of the ( ·,.·) is given to
the (·) and the (·,·) is then deleted. It becomes
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( _ · · ).
3) In the words ` ·. - ' ` ¸. ·` ,, the ( ·.¯,-) of the ( ·,.·) is
transferred to the (¸) and the (·,..·) is then deleted. It
becomes (` · - ¸ ·` ,,).

n n n n n

Rule 8
The rule of ( ¸ ·..` ,) is compulsorily applied to all the
( ' ¸.·· ) (verbs) of ( ,., ¸ ) and ( ,.`, ¸ ) ( ,,.·' __..'
¸,,-,).

Example
In ( ` ,, ' ` ¸ ) the ( ·.-·) of the ( ·,.·) is given to the (_) and the
(·,·) is deleted. It becomes ( ,, ¸ ).

NOTE:
It is permissible to apply this rule to the ( ...· ..-)
(derived nouns) too.
The ( ,· _.· _ ) can be read as ( ` , · ¸ ) or ( ¸, ·).
The (·¯ ,) can be read as ( ·¯` , ·) or ( , · · ).
The ( ·.-·) of the ( ·,.·) of ( · '` ,. ·) is given to the (_) and
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then the (·,·) is removed leaving ( , · · ).
The (¸,·· ,) can be read as (¯ ¸ ` , ·) or (¯ ¸ , ·).

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Rule 9
If a ( ·,.-· ·,.·) is preceded by a ( ·,.-·) letter, then
both ( ..,,· ¸.., ¸.., . ) and (..,·, ¸.., ¸..,) are both
permissible.
9.1 ( .,,· ¸, ¸, . ) is to read the ( ·,.·) between its ( _,.-)
and the (_,-) of the ( ·· ,-) corresponding to its
(hamza’s) ·¯,-.
9.2 ( .,·, ¸., ¸,) is to read a letter between its ( _,.-) and
the (_,..-) of the ( ·..· ,..-) corresponding to the
preceding (·¯,-).
(¸, ¸,) is also known as ¸,,.

Examples
When (¸, ¸,) is made on the word ( ¸ ' ), then in both
( ¸, ¸, .,,· ) and ( .,·,) the ( _,.-) will be that of ( ·,.·)
and (.).
In the word ( , ·. ) if ( ..,,· ¸., ¸.,) is made, then the
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(_,-) will be between (·,·) and (¸). If ( .,·, ¸., ¸.,) is
made, then the (_,-) will be between (·,·) and
(.).
In the word ( ` , · ) if (.,,· ¸, ¸,) is made, then the
(_,-) will be between (·,·) and (,). If ( .,·, ¸., ¸.,) is
made then the (_,-) will be between (·,·) and (.).

(9.3) If there is a (·..¯,-· ·,..·) after (...), it is
permissible to apply (.,,· ¸, ¸,) only. ( ¸., .,·, ¸., ) is
not permissible in this case.

Examples
[1] In the word ( .` , ·), the (·,·) is (_,·). Therefore the
(·,·) will be read between the (_,-) of the (·,·) and the
(.).
[2] If ( .` , ·) is read with a (·.), the (·,·) will be read
between the (_,-) of the (·,·) and (,,).
[3] If ( .` , ·) is read with a (·,¯), the (·,·) will be read
between the (_,-) of the (·,·) and (¸).
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Rule 10

If a (·,¸ ·,·) comes before a (·,·) as in the word
(` ,` ` ' '), then it is permissible to apply the rule of
(` · · , ') (Rule 4). Thus, (` ,` ` ' ') will be read as ( ' , ` ,` ` ) .
It is also permissible to make ( ¸,,.), whether ( ..,,·) or
(,·,).
It is also permissible to bring an (.) between the two
(·,·)’s and read it as (` ,` ` '¯).

n n n n n

Exercise 38

(1) Apply rule no.1 to the following words:

, 1 , ¸ ' , . , 2 , ` , · · , 3 , ` _` ,`

(2) Which rule applies to the word ( -¯) and how?
(3)Analyse the changes to the word (¸ . ).
(4) Apply the rule of (_,,·) to the word ( · ` ,` ` ·).
(5) What can ( .` ' ') also be read as?
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The Orthography
15
of the Hamzah

The following rules are general guidelines with regards to
how a hamzah is written:
(a) Hamzah is invariably written over or under an alif at
the beginning of a word, e.g. ( , · '), ( , · ') and ( . ` ¸).
(b) When the initial hamzah is followed by an alif of
prolongation (long vowel .. ), the latter is replaced by a
madd over the initial alif, e.g. (` , ·¯) for (` , · ').
(c) The hamzah tends to be written over the semi-
consonant ( ·..· ,..-) corresponding to the vowel
(·¯,-) of the preceding letter.
Examples:
(` ,` · ',), (` , ·` ,`,), ( , = ,), (` . · = -)

(d) Where the previous consonant has a (.,´..), the
hamzah tends to be written over the semi-consonant
(·· ,-) coinciding with its own vowel (·¯,-).
Examples:
( ¸` ,` ,` ·), ( · ·` '), ( · ' )
This rule is applied for ( ¸..' ¸.·) instead of (c) above.
Thus, ( ¸` ,. ,) is written with a (,) and ( , ·. ) with a (¸)
without dots.

15
the correct spelling
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The Paradigms of (_,,·)
· _,«,- = - | |· . ¸ = · =·, ¸- ··«|
·` ,` - '. · ,.` , · .` - ' . -` ,`, - ' , -¯ ,` , · ` - ' ` - ', - '
. . - ' · . - ' · ` ·.` · ` ` , = ` - ' . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` - ` ·` · ` ,` · '
. -¯ · . . -` , · -` , · ` ·` · · ¯ , -¯ · . . -` , · · . -` , · ,
. -¯ ` ·.` · ¸` ,. . ` ¸. · · ' , ` ,-¯ · . · -` , · · -` , · , -¯ ·
, . - ' ., .` - ' ¸ ` - ' ` ·` · .` ,` , - , ' , .` , -¯ . -¯
` ., ` - '

Analysis of the changes

(1) The ( ,.·') of this ( ..,) is ( .` -) which is an exception
from the normal method of constructing the ( ,.·'). ( .` -)
was originally ( ` -` , ').
(2) Similarly, the (,..·') of ( ¸.. ¯ , ¸.. ¯ ') is ( ¸.. ¯). It is
necessary to delete the (·,·) from both ( ` -) and ( ¸ ¯).
(3) In the verb, ( ` ,` · '., ,. · '), it is permissible to delete the
hamzas and to retain them. Therefore, both (` ,..` ·) and
(` ,..` ·` , ') are correct to use. If the verb is used at the
beginning of the sentence, it is more eloquent to delete the
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(·,·), e.g. it is stated in a hadîth, ( · ` . , ` , ¯ · ` , ' ` ,` ,` ·).
(4) If the verb is used in the middle of the sentence, then
most often the hamzah is retained, e.g. The Qur’ânic verse,
( · ` . , : ` · ' ` ,` · ' ,).
(5) In the word-forms of ( ,,.·' __..') of this ( ..,),
besides the singular first person ( ,´.· .-,), the rule of
(` ¸ ' _) has been applied. The same rule applies to the
(¸,·' ,) and (,= ,).
(6) The rule of (` , · ,) applies in the (·. ,).
(7) The rule of (` ¸` ,..` ,) applies in the (¸,..,- __...')
except for the singular first person (,´· -,).
(8) In the singular first person ( ,´.· .-,) of ( __..'
,,·') and the (¸,. ,), the rule of (¸·¯) applies.
(9) In the plural ( _.~) of ( ¸,.. ,.), the rule of (` · · , ')
applies.
(10) In the singular first person of the (¸,..,- __...'),
the rule of ( ¸ ·` , ') applies.

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Exercise 39

(a) Conjugate the following verbs:
, 1 , ¸ ¯ '
, 2 , , · '

(b) What is the paradigm of the ( ¸,..,- __...·) of
( . · ')?
(c) What is the paradigm of the ( ,,..·· ,..·') of
( , · ')?
(d) What is the paradigm of the (,,..·' ¸...') of
( ¸ ¯ ')?
(e) How has the word (` , , ') changed from its original?



¸ = | |· . = ¸ = =·, ¸- ··«|· _,«,-
,` ' ` , ', , ' ` ,` · '. ` _` ,.` ' · ,.` , · ,` ' ` , ` ,`, , ' , ` , ¯ ,` , ·
` ,. ¯ · . ,. ' · ` , ' · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` , ' . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` , `, ¸ ` ·` ·
` _. ` , · ` ,. ¯ · . ,. ` , · · , ` , · ` , ¯ · . , ` , · ` , ` , · ` ·` · · ¯ ,
· .` ,` ,. ¯ . ,. ¯ ` ,. ¯ ` ·.` · ¸` ,. . ` ¸ · · ' , ` ,` , ¯ · . _ ` ,
` ., ,` ' , ` , ' , ., ,` ' ¸ ,` ' ` ·` · .` ,` , ` , , ' ,
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Analysis of the changes

(1) The changes of this ( ..,) are similar to those of ( .-'
.-',) except for the imperative ( ,.·') – ( ` ,. `, ¸) – where the
rule of ( . `, ¸) applies.
(2) The other (.,..,') of (·,..- ¸..·) follow the same
pattern.



Exercise 40

Conjugate the following verbs:
, 1 , , '
, 2 , ¸ · '

(b) What is the paradigm of the (__...· ,,..··) of
( ¸ · ')?
(c) What is the paradigm of the (¸,,- ,·') of ( · ')?
(d) What is the paradigm of the (¸,,- ¸.') of ( ¸ · ')?
(e) How has the word (` ,` , `, ¸) changed from its original?


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_· « · , , | · . ,·-··, =·, ¸- ··«|· _,«,-
`, ¸ ` ,` · ' ` , ` ,` · ,` , · _ `, ¸ ` , ` ,`, , ` ` , ' , ` , ` ,` · ,` , · _ `, ¸ ` , ', ,
` , ` ,` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` , ' . ` ·` · ` ¸`,` , ` , `, ¸ ` ·` ·

Analysis of the changes

(1) The rule of ( .. `, ¸) applies in the ( ,,.·' ¸..'),
(,,·· ,·') and (_.·).
(2) The rule of ( ¸ ·` , ') applies in the (¸,,- ¸.').
(3) The rule of (` ¸ ' _) applies in the (,,·' __.').
(4) The rule of (` ¸` ,..` ,) applies in the (¸,..,- __...'),
(¸· ,), ( ¸,·' , ) and (,= ,).

.· = , · =, | · . ,·-«·=, =·, ¸- ··«|· _,«,-
,` , · ` , ` ¸ . · ' ` `, . · '` ` ' , . · ' ` ` · ,` , · ` , ` ¸ . · ' ` , . ·' ` ¸
` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , . · ' ` ¸ ` ·` · ` ,`· ' . · ' ` ` · . · ' ` ` · ` ·` · ` ` , = . · '

Analysis of the changes

(1) Conjugate all the verbs of ( ·.,· .,,· ¸.· .,,') like
the conjugations of ( - ') and ( , `, ¸).

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Exercise 41

Conjugate the following verbs:
, 1 , . ' ` ¸
, 2 , ¸ ¸
, 3 , '` ¸ , ~

(b) What is the paradigm of the (__...· ,,..··) of
( ¸ · ')?
(c) What is the paradigm of the (¸,,- ,·') of ( · ')?
(d) What is the paradigm of the (¸,,- ¸.') of ( ¸ · ')?
(e) How has the word (` ,` , `, ¸) changed from its original?


Discussion of ( _,,· ¸· )

(1) The rule of ( ¸., ¸.,) or ( ¸,,.) applies to all the verbs
of (¸.') of ( ·,.- ¸.· ¸.· _,,·). Note that this rule
is optional.
(2) The rule of ( ¸ ·.` ,) applies to the ( __..·) and ( ,.·') of
(·,- ¸· ¸· _,,·).
(3) (` , ` ,, _ ' _) is from ( .., .,.. ), ( ¸ '. ¸ ·.` , ) is from
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( ., _· ), (` , ·` , , · ) is from ( ., _- ), ( ` ·` ,. , ·` ,. ) is from
( ., ·,¯ ).
(4) In the imperative (,..·'), after applying the rule of
( ¸ ·..` ,), the (¸..., ·,..·) is deleted. Therefore (` ,.. ` _ ¸)
becomes (` _ _), ( ¸ ·..` ¸) becomes ( ¸.. ), ( , ·..` ') becomes
(` , ) and (` , · ') becomes (` , ).
The conjugation of the imperative second person ( ,..·'
,,·· ,.-) form is as follows:

.` _ _ _ _ ` ¸ _ _ ` ,` _ _ _ _ ` _ _
¸ ` ¸ ` , ¸
¸` ` ¸ ` ,` ` ,
¸` ` ¸ ` ,` ` ,


Discussion of (·· _,,·)

(1) In most of the word-forms of ( ··. _,.,·), the rule of
(¸, ¸,) or (¸,,) applies, e.g. ( , , ' , · ' ).
(2) The rule of (` , , ·) applies to ( ¸,.,- ¸..' .-,), e.g.
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( . , ·).
(3) The rule of ( ·¯. ··,.· ·,.·), that is the rule of
(` ¸ ' _) applies to all the word-forms of ( ,.·') and ( __..·
·,,-). Accordingly, in the words ( ' ,. · ¸) and ( ` ,. ' ,. , ), the
hamzah can become (...), in the words ( .` ·` _ ') and ( ` ,..
.` ·` ,.,), the hamzah can become (,) and in the words ( _. ` ')
and ( _ ` , ` , ), the hamzah can become (¸).


Exercise 42

Conjugate the following verbs:

, 1 , '` ` ,, ' ·
, 2 , ` ¸ ¸` ,, ¸ ' _
, 3 , ¸` · '
, 4 , -¯
, 5 , ¸ '` , '
, 6 , ¸` · '
, 7 , ' ~ -
, 8 , ' ´` ¸
, 9 , ' ` , ¸
, 10 , . ' ` ¸
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The Rules Of (¸··)
Rule 1
(1.1) The (,) which appears between ( .··· ' __. )
16

which is (_,·) and the ( ·.´ .· ¸ ) which is ( _,.´·),
falls off.

Example
The word ` ·` ,, becomes ` ·, .
Every (,) that comes between the
(_,· __.· .···) and the (·¯ _) which is
(_,..·), the (,) falls off, on condition that either the
(·¯ _) or the (·¯ ¸) is from the ( - ,,- ¸ )
17
.
Example
The word ` . ·` ,, becomes ` . ,,.

Note:
Every (¸,, ¸..··) on the scale of (.,...) follows this
rule.
n n n n n

16
__.· .··· are the following letters . . ¸ .
17
The _- ,,- are the following letters: _ _ _ · . _
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Rule 2
If a (_.·) is on the scale of ( ¸` · ·) and its (·´ .·) is a
(,), that (,) is deleted and the (·¯ _) is given a
( ¯ ·, ). A (·) is then added at the end of the word.

Step by Step Example

` ` · , ` ` · ` · · ·

Note:
If the ( __..·) has a ( ·.-·) on its ( ·.¯ _), for example
in the word (` _ ,), the ( ·.´ ..·) of the ( _..·) can also
be given a (·-·).

Step by Step Example
The word ( · · ) the (_.·) of (` _ , _ ,).
` _` , ` _` ` _ · ·

Note:
It is also permissible to read ( · · ) as ( · · ).

n n n n n
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Rule 3
(3.1) If a (¸¯ ,) is not (·` ·) and is preceded by a
(·,¯), it changes into a (¸).

Example
The word ` · ·` , · changes to ` · ·` , ·.

Exception
The word (` _` ,.. ` - ¸) will remain unchanged, because the (,)
is ,·· (·` ·).

(3.2) If ( ¸¯. ¸) is not ( ,·.·) and it is preceded by a
(·.), the (¸) changes into a (,).
Example
The word (` , ` ,` ·) changes to (` , ` ,` ·).

Exceptions
The word (` ,` ,` ·) remains unchanged because the (¸) is
(,··).
(3.3) If an ( ..) is preceded by a ( ·..), it will change
into a (,).

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Step by Step Example

¸ · · ¸ ¸ ` , ·
(3.4) If an ( ..) is preceded by a ( ·,.¯), it will change
into a (¸).

Example
The plural of (` . ,` - ·) is (` . _ - ·). This changes to
(` .`, _ - ·) because the (.) is preceded by a (·,¯).

n n n n n

Rule 4
If the (·´ .·) of (¸·· .,) is a (_.' ,) or
( ¸ _.' ), the (,) or (¸) will change into a (.) and
(·..··) will be made, that is, both the (.)’s will be
assimilated.

Step by Step Example of (¸,, ¸··)

` , ¸ ` ¸ . ` ¸ .
Step by Step Example of (¸, ¸··)
`, . , ` . , , `

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n n n n n

Rule 5

(5.1) If at the beginning of a word there is a ( ·,..· ,), it
is permissible to change it into a (·,·).

Examples
( ` ·` ,.` -` , – plural of ` ·.` - ,) changes to ( ` ·` ,.` - ). (This is an
example of an ,).
( ·` , . ` . – the [ .' ¸,,- ¸ ] of ` .,·,) changes to
( · . ` . ). (This is an example of a ¸··).

(5.2) If ( , _,..´· ) appears at the beginning of a word, it
is permissible to change it to a (·,·).

Example
(` _ , – swordbelt) can be read as (` _ ¸).

(5.3) If a ( ,.·,· , _ ) appears in the middle of a word, it is
permissible to change it into a (·,·).

Example
(` _` ,` · ) can be read as (` _` ,` · ).
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Rarely is a (_,· ,) changed into a (·,·).

Examples
(` - , - one) can be read as (` - ).
( · , – a lazy woman) can be read as ( · ).

n n n n n
Rule 6
When two ( , , ·,..-· ) come together at the beginning of
a word, it is compulsory (...-,) to change the first (,)
into a (·,·).
Example
( ¸ . , ,) is read as ( ¸ . , ) (This is the plural of · . ,).
( ¸ .`, ,` ,) is read as ( ¸. .`, , '). This is the ( ,.¸ _..·. ) of
( ¸ . ,).
n n n n n

Rule 7
(7.1) If (,) or (¸) ( ·,.-·) is preceded by a ·.-·, the (,)
or (¸) is changed into an (.).

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Examples
Example of a (·,-· ,) in the middle of a (¸··):
( ¸ , ·) changes to ( ¸ ·).
Example of a (·,-· ¸) in the middle of a (¸··):
( _ , ,) changes to ( _ ,).
Example of a (·,-·,) at the end of a (¸··):
( , · ·) changes to ( · ·).
Example of a (·,-· ¸) at the end of a (¸··):
( · _ ¸ ) changes to (¸ · _).

Example of a ( , ·,-· ) in an (,):
(` . , ,) changes to (` . ,).
Example of a (·,-· ¸) in an (,):
(` . , ) changes to (` . ).

Conditions for the above rule

This rule only applies if the following conditions are met:

[1] The (,) or (·,-· ¸) must not be in the place of the
( ·.´ ..·). Therefore this rule will not apply to the word
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· , · - the (,) is in the place of the (·´ .·) and the
() is a (.=· ,-). It will also not apply to (_ · , )
because the (,) is in the place of the ( ·.´ ..·) of ( ..,
¸' ·).
It will also not apply to ,` , - (¸) is in the place of the
(·´ .·) of ( ., ¸' · ).

[2] The (,) or (¸) must not be in place of the ( ·.¯ _) of
a word which is ( ..,). ( .., is that word which has two
·.· ,.-). Therefore this law will not apply to the word
( ¸ ,. ~) . Here (,) is in the place of the ( ·.¯ _). The
law will also not apply in the word ( - ¸. , ). Here (¸) is in
the place of the (·¯ _).

[3] The (,) or (¸) must not come before the (...) of
(·,...·.). Therefore this law will not apply to the word
( ,. · ·), since there is a (,) before the ( ..) of ( ·,..·.)
and in the word (.. ,· _), since there is a (¸) before the
(.) of (·,.·.).

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[4] The (,) or (¸) must not come before a (·.._ ·` ..·).
Therefore this law will not apply to the word ( ¸..`, , ~)
because the (,) is before a (¸) which is not a ( ,..-
' ¸..). It will also not apply in the word ( ` _` ,.` , ·) because
the (,) after the (¸) is not a ( ¸.. ,.-). Also in the
word ( ·.. , , ·), the (¸) is before an (...) which is not a
(¸. ,-).

Objection
In the words (` , · ·), ( .` ,. ` -,), ( .` ,. ` - ) and ( ¸` ,. ` - ), the
(,) and (¸) were not supposed to be changed to (...)
because they came before a ( ·._ ·` .·), but yet this rule
has been applied.

Answer
The (¸) in these words is a separate word and it is the
(¸··) of the ( ¸.··), while the ( ·.·) is not ( ._), therefore
the (,) or (¸) changes to (.) and then falls off due to
(¸¯ _-¸).

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Step by Step Examples
` ,` , · · (` , · ·) ` , · · ` , · ·

` , ` -, .` , ( .` , · ,) .` , ` -, .` , ` -,

.` ,` , ` - ( .` , · ) .` , ` - .` , ` -

¸` , , ` - ( ¸` , · ) ¸`, ` - ¸` , ` -

[5] The ( ¸ ·,.-· ) or ( ·,.-·,) must not be before ( ¸
·` ..·), for example, the word (¯ ¸ ,.. ·). The (¸) or
( ·,.-·,) must also not be before ( .,¯ .), for example,
the word
(` ¸ , ` - ¸).

[6] The word must not have the meaning of a colour or
defect, for example,
( _ , ·) (to be one-eyed),
( , .) (to have a crooked neck).

[7] The word must not be on the scale of ( · · . . ), ( . · · _ ) or
( · · ·), for example
( . _ , ·) – ( · · . ) – example of (,). [meaning – rotation]
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( . , ) – ( · · . ) example of (¸). [meaning – flowing]
( ¸ _ ,. .) – ( . · · _ ) example of (,). [meaning – name of a
spring of water]
( .. , - ¸ ) – ( .. · · _ ) example of (¸). [meaning – to walk
arrogantly – from ,- ·-]
and ( ·. ¯ , -) – ( ·. · ·) example of (,). [meaning – weaver –
plural of ` : -]

[8] The word must not be from (¸..··¸ ...,) having the
meaning of ( ¸· ..,). For example, the word _ ,. ` - ¸ (in
the meaning of _ ,.. - ) and _ ,.. ` · ¸ (in the meaning of
, · _ ). Both words mean to take in turns.

(7.2) If after such an ( ..) (which has been changed from
a , or ¸), there is a (¸¯) letter, the (.) falls off.

Examples

[1] In the word ( ` ,` ,. · ·), the first (,) changes to ( ..). It
becomes (` , · ·). Here ( ..) has come before a ( , ¸¯. ).
The (.) falls off and it becomes (` , · ·).
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[2] In the word ( ¸` , ,. .` , ), the first (¸) changes to an ( ..).
Due to the ( ..) coming before a ( ¸¯.), it is deleted. It
becomes ( ¸` , .` , ).

(7.3) If such an (...) has come before a (..., .) of
( _..· ¸.··), even if the (.) is ( ·,.-·), the ( ..) is
deleted.

Examples
1. The word ( ` . ,. · ·) changes to ( ` .. · ·). Now we have an
( ..) before ( .., .) of ( _..· ¸.··). Therefore it is
deleted. It becomes (` . · ·).

2. The word ( , · · ) changes to ( · ·). There is a ( . ..,
·,.-·) after the ( ..). Therefore the ( ..) is deleted. It
becomes · · .

(7.4) In the ( ··,. ) of (,,·' ¸.'), from ( ..,· _.~
..·) until the end, if the word is ( ¸,, ,.-), whether
the ( ·.´ ¸·) has a ( ·..) or ( ·.-·), after deleting the
(.), the (·´ .·) is given a (·.).

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Example in which (·¯ _) has a (·-·)

( ¸ ,. ·) changes to ( ¸ . ·). The ( ..) is now deleted because
it is followed by a ( ¸¯.). It becomes ( ¸. ·). The (·) is
now given a (·...) because it is (¸,, ,..-). It
becomes ( · ¸ ). The word ( · ¸ ) is from the (.,) of (,.).

Example in which (·¯ _) has a (·.)

` , ~ ¸ ¸ ~ ¸ ~ ¸ ~

The word ( ¸ ~) is from the (.,) of (·` ,¯).

(7.5) In the ( ··,.. ,,.·' ¸..'), from ( ..,· _.~
..·) till the end, after deleting the ( ..), if it is ( ,.-
¸.,) or there is a ( ·,.¯) on the ( ·.¯ _) in ( ,.-
¸,,), the (·´ .·) is given a (·,¯).

Example in which (·¯ _) has a (·,¯)

In the word ( ¸` · ,. ,), the ( ·,.-· ¸) is preceded by a ( ·.-·).
Therefore the (¸) changes to (...). It becomes ( ¸` ·.. ,).
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The ( ..) is deleted. It becomes ( ¸.` · ,). Now the (.) is
given a (·,¯). It becomes ( ¸` · ,).

Step by Step Example of (¸,, ,-) with (·,¯)
¸ · , - ¸ · - ¸ - ¸ -

The word ( ¸ -) is from the (.,) of (_-).


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Rule 8

(8.1) If the letter before (,) or (¸) is ( ¸¯.), the ( ·.¯,-)
of the (,) or (¸) is transferred to the preceding letter.

Example

[1] In the word ( ¸` ,. ,), the ( ·.¯,-) of the (,) which is a
( ·..) in this case, is given to the (·). It becomes ( ¸` ,. ,).
(This is an example of ,-' ¸,, ).


[2] In the word ( ` _. ,` ,), the ( ·,.¯) of the (¸) is given to the
(.). It becomes ( ` _.` , ,). (This is an example of ,.-'
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¸,).

(8.2) If the ( ·.¯,-) is a ( ·.-·), the (,) or (¸) is changed
into an (.).

Examples

[1] In the word ( . `, ¸ , ), the ( ·.-·) of the (,) is given to the
(·). It becomes ( ¸` ,. `,). Now due to the ( ·.-·), the (,) is
changed into an (.) becoming ( ¸ `,).

`, ¸ , ¸` , `, ¸ `,

[2] In the word ( ` _. ,` `,), the ( ·.-·) of the (¸) is given to the
(.) becoming ( ` _.` , `,). Now due to the ( ·.-·) of the (.)
the (¸) changes into an (.), thus becoming (` _ `,).
` _ ,` `, ` _` , `, ` _ `,

Remember

The conditions applicable to Rule 7 apply to Rule 8 as
well.

(8.3) If such a (,) or (¸) is followed by a ( ¸¯.), in the
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case of (·.) and (·,¯), the (,) or (¸) will be deleted.

Example of (¸,, ,-')

In the word ( ¸` ,. , ` , ) because of ( ¸¯. _.-¸) the (,)
is deleted. It becomes ( ¸ , ` , ).

Example of ,-' _,

In the word ( ` ,. , .` , ` _ ), the (¸) is followed by a ( ¸¯.),
therefore the (¸) is deleted. It becomes (` _ , ` , ).

(8.4) If a (,) or (¸) is followed by a ( ¸¯.) and preceded
by a ( ·.-·), the ( ..) (which was originally , or ¸) is
deleted.

Examples

( ` , ¸ , `, ) changes to ( ¸. `, ` ,. ). After the ( ..) is deleted,
it becomes ( ¸ `, ` , ).
( ` , ` _ ,.` `, ) changes to ( ` _. `, ` ,. ). After the ( ..) is deleted,
it becomes (` _ `, ` , ).
Important

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This rule (Rule 8) does not apply to the words ( . · , ` ¸. ·)
because condition number one has not been fulfilled.
In the words ( ¸ ,. =,) and ( _. ,` -,), the rule is not applied
because of condition number 2 - (., ¸·).

The words ( ¸ , ·), ( ¸ ,` - ) and ( ` ,` ,.. ,` ) remain unchanged
because of the fourth condition - (·_ ·· ¸·).

However, the (,) of the ( ¸,.·· ,.) is an exception to
condition number 4. Despite there being a ( ·._ ·.·), the
(·¯,-) of the (,) or (¸) will still be given to the previous letter.

Example of (¸,, ,-)
In the word ( ¸` ,` , ·) which is the ( ¸,.·· ,) of ( ¸.·), the
( ·..) of the (,) is still transferred to the (·). It becomes
( ¸` ,` ,. ·). Due to ( ¸¯. _.-¸), the first (,) is deleted.
It becomes ( ¸` , · ).

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Example of (_, ,-')

In the word (` _` ,` ,` ·) which is the ( ¸,.·· ,) of ( _ .,), the
(·..¯,-) of the (¸) is transferred to the (.). It becomes
( ` _` ,.` ,` ·). Due to ( ¸¯. _.-¸), the (,) is deleted and it
becomes ( ` _.` ,` ·). Since the corresponding ( ·.¯,-) of (¸)
is a (·,¯), the (.) is given a (·,¯). It becomes (` _` , ·).

Exception

In the words ` _ ,..` ·, (to be one-eyed), ` ,..` ., (to have a
crooked neck), ` · ,..` ' (black), ` ¸ ,..` , ' (white) and ·` · ,..` ` ·
(black), due to condition number 6 (i.e. having the
meaning of a colour or defect), no change occurs.

The aforementioned rule (Rule 8) does not apply to ( ,..¸
¸,...), that is those words on the scale of ( ¸ ,.. · '); or
(.-· ¸··'), like ( ` ·. , · ' · and ·. , ¸ ,. · '); and words that
are (_·,,, ¸-·), like ( .,` , and _ ,` , -).

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Rule 9

(9.1) If there is a (,) in the ( ·.¯ _) of ( ¸,.,- ¸..'),
the preceding letter is made ( ¸¯.) and the ( ·.¯,-) of the
(,) is transferred to the preceding letter. Then the (,)
changes to (¸).

Example 1

¸ , · ¸` , · ¸` , ·.

Example 2

· , ` ' ·` , ` ' ` , ` '

(9.2) If there is a (¸) in ( ¸,.,- ¸..') in the place of the
(·..¯ _), the preceding letter is made (¸¯..) and the
(·..¯,-) of the (¸) is transferred to the preceding letter.
No other changes are made.

Example 1

In the word ( _.. ,` ,) the (.) is made (¸¯..). It becomes
( _ ,` ,). Now the (·¯,-) of the (¸) is transferred to the
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(.), thus becoming ( _` , ,).
_ ,` , _ ,` , _` , ,

Example 2

In the word ( .` - ' . , ,` ) the (.) is made ( ¸¯.). It becomes
( ..` - ' . , ,` ). The (·..¯,-) of the (¸) is transferred to the
(.). It becomes ( ` - ' . ,` , ).

, ,` ` - ' , ,` ` - ' ` - ' . ,` ,

(9.3) It is also permissable to retain the (·..¯,-) of the
preceding letter and to make the (,) or the (¸) ( ¸¯.). In
this case the (¸) changes to (,).

Examples

¸ , · ¸` , ·
_ ,` , _` ,` , _` ,` ,
, ,` ` - ' ,` ,` ` - ' _` ,` ` - '
· , ` ' ·` , ` '

(9.4) It is also permissible to pronounce these words with
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( ·.-¸). ( ·.-¸) means to pronounce a ( ·.¯,-) in such a way
that it has the effect of another (·..¯,-). For example in
the word ( ¸..` , ·), the (·,..¯) of the (·) is pronounced in
such a way that it has the fragrance of a (·.).

Similar is the case with the (.) of ( _.` , ,). The ( ·,.¯) of
the (.) will have the effect of a ( ·..). The condition for
this rule is that changes must have taken place in the
( ,,.··) form of the verb. Therefore, the word ( _ ,.` ` · ')
will remain unchanged because the (,,..··) form of this
word, namely ( _ , ` · ¸) was unaffected by any change.

(9.5) In (¸,, ,-'), if the (·¯ _) is (_,·) in
(,,·' ¸.'), after the (¸) is deleted in the
( ¸.' - ¸,, ), the (·´ .·) is given a (·.) from the
(··,.) of ( ..· .,· _~) until the end (i.e. _.~ , ·.,·
,´· .,· , ,¯·).

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Step by Step Example

` . , · ` . , · ` . ` , · ` . ` , ·
` . ·

(9.6) In ( _., ,-'), whatever the ( ·.¯,-) may be, or that
(¸,, ,..-') where the (·..¯ _) is (_,..´·) in the
( ,,.·' ¸.'), after deleting the (¸), the ( ·.´ ..·) is
given a (·,¯) from the (··,.) of ( ..· ..,· _~) until
the end, that is, (,´· .,· , ,¯· _~ , ·,·).

Example of ( ,-' _, )
` .` · ,` , ` .` · ,` , ` .` ·` , , ` .` · ,
Example of such a (¸,, ,-') wherein the (·´ ¸·)
is (_,´·)
¸ · ,` - ¸ · ,` - ` , - ¸ · ¸ -

Note that the forms of ( ,,.··) and ( ¸,.,-) are now the
same. However the ( ¸..') - original form of each one will
be different:
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Original Form Changed
Form
(,,·' ¸.')
(¸,,- ¸.')
` . , ·
` . , ·
` . ·
` . ·
(,,·' ¸.')
(¸,,- ¸.')
` .` · , ,
` .` · ,` ,
` .` · ,
` .` · ,
(,,·' ¸.')
(¸,,- ¸.')
` . · , -
` . · ,` -
` . -
` . -

Note:
In the ( ¸,.,-) of ( ¸·.' ..,), the transferring of the
( ·.¯,-) is not according to this rule i.e. rule number 9, but
is due to rule number 8 (the rule of ¸` ,. ,). Therefore the
rule of ( ` ,.. · ¸ ) and (·..-¸) will not apply. For example
( , ,` -` ` ') becomes ( ,` , -` ` ').

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Rule 10
(10.1) If the (·..´ ·.) of the following word form’s
( ··,..) is (,) or (¸), it becomes ( ¸¯.) if it is preceded
by a (·.) or a (·,¯):
1. ¸ · ,
2. ¸ ·
3. ¸ · · '
4. ¸ ·

Examples

(` ,` ·` ,) becomes (` ,` ·` ,) – example of (¸,, ¸·)
(` ¸ ·` ,,) becomes (` _ ·` ,,) – example of (¸, ¸·)

If the (,) or (¸) of the ( .´ ·. · ) is preceded by a ( ·.-·),
it becomes (.) in accordance with the rule of ( ¸ ·).

Examples

(` ¸ ` -,) becomes (_ ` -,) – example of (¸, ¸·)
(` , .` ,,) becomes (_ .` ,,) – example of (¸,, ¸·)

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(10.2) If a word has a (,) preceded by a (·...) and
followed by another (,), that (,) falls off.

Example of (,)
In the word .` ,` ,` ·` ., ( ..· ,¯.· _.~), before the (,)
there is a (·...) and after the (,) there is another (,).
Therefore, the first (,) is made ( ¸¯.) and the second one
falls off due to ( ¸¯ _-¸). It becomes ( .` ,` ·` ,).

If a (¸) is preceded by a ( ·,.¯) and followed by another
(¸), the first (¸) becomes (¸¯..) and the other (¸) is
deleted because of (¸¯ _-¸).

Example of (¸)

In the word ¸` , , ·` , ( ,..- ..,· -,) there is a ( ·,.¯)
before the (¸) and it is followed by a second (¸).
Therefore the first (¸) becomes (¸¯..) and the second
(¸) falls off. It becomes ( ¸` , ·` , ).

(10.3) If a (,) is preceded by a (·...) and followed by a
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(¸), the preceding letter is made ( ¸¯.) and the ( ·.¯,-)
of the (,) is transferred to the preceding letter. Then the
(,) changes into a (¸) and falls off due to ( _..-¸
¸¯).

Example

In the word ( ¸`, ,` ·` . ) the (,) is preceded by a ( ·..) and
followed by a (¸), therefore the preceding letter (_) is
made ( ¸¯.) and the ( ·.¯,-) of the (,) which is a ( ·,.¯)
is transferred to the preceding letter, the (_). It therefore
becomes ( ¸`,` , ·` . ). Due to the preceding ( ·,.¯), the (,)
changes into a (¸). Now due to ( ¸¯. _.-¸) the (¸)
is deleted. It becomes ( ¸` , ·` ).

(10.4) If a (¸) is preceded by a ( ·,.¯) and followed by a
(,), the preceding letter is made ( ¸¯.) and the ( ·.¯,-) of
the (¸) is given to the preceding letter. Then the (¸)
changes into a (,) and falls off due to (¸¯ _-¸).

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Example

In the word ( .` ,.` , ·` ,,), the (¸) is preceded by a ( ·,.¯) and
followed by a (,). Therefore, the preceding letter (·) is
made (¸¯) and the ( ·.¯,-) of the (¸) which is a ( ·..),
is transferred to the preceding letter (·). It becomes
( .` ,` ·` ,, .` , ). Due to the preceding ( ·..), the (¸) changes to
(,). It becomes ( .` ·` ,, ` , .` , ). Now due to ( ¸¯. _.-¸),
the (,) is deleted. It becomes ( .` ,` ·` ,,).

Further Examples
` ,` , (` , · · – ,,·' ¸.') becomes ` , .
` ,` , ·` _ (` , · · – ¸,,- ¸.') becomes ` ,` ·` _ .

Step by Step

` ,` , ` ,` , ` ,` , ` , ` ,
` ,

` ,` , ·` _ ` _ ` · ` ,` , ` ·` _ ` ,` , ` ,` ,` ·` _
` ,` ·` _
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Exercise 43

(a) Identify the rules or changes of ( ¸.··) in the following
words:

, 1 , ` .` ·` ·
, 2 , . ,,
, 3 , · · .
, 4 , . ,` , ·
, 5 , ·` ,` ·
, 6 , . ,` ¸
, 7 , ` ` , ·` ,
, 8 , ` ,` . _
, 9 , ¸` ·` _
, 10 , ` ¸`, ,


Rule 11
If a (,) appears in the place of the (·..´ ·.) after a
(·,¯), the (,) changes into a (¸).
Example
In the word ( ,. ·` ·) the (,) appears in the place of the ( ·.
·..´) after a (·,..¯). Therefore the (,) changes into a
(¸). It becomes ( ¸ ·` ·).

The same change occurs in ( , ·` ·), ( . , · ·) and ( · , · ·).

, ·` · ¸ ·` ·
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, ·` · , ·` ·
, · · . . , · ·
· · , · · , · ·

Rule 12

If a (¸) is in the place of the (·´ ·.), preceded by a
(·.), the (¸) changes into a (,).

Example
In the word ¸` , , which is ( ..· ,¯.· -,) of ( ..,
·` ,. ¯) from the masdar ( · ,. , ), meaning intellect, the (¸) is
in the place of the ( ·.´ ·.), preceded by a ( ·..). The
(¸) changes into a (,). It becomes ( ,` , ).

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Rule 13

(13.1) If a (,) comes in the place of the ( ·.¯ _) preceded
by a (·,..¯) in the (_...·), it changes into a (¸), on
condition that (¸,· – a change) occurred in the (¸··).

Examples

1. The word · , · (which is the _..· of ·. ·) was originally
· , ·.
2. The word · ,.. . (which is the _...· of ·.. .) was
originally · , ..

However, the word ( · , ·) which is the (_.·) of ( · , ·) of
(·..·· ...,) remains unchanged, because no (¸..,·)
occurred in the (¸··). The (¸··) is ( · , ·).

(13.2) The same (¸..,·) occurs if a (,) comes in place of
the ( ·.¯ _) of a word that is ( _.~), on condition that (,)
is (¸¯) in the ( ··,.. .-,) or ( ¸.,·) took place in the
(,) of the (··,. -,).

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Examples
1. The word ` ¸ ,. - (the _.~ of the word ` ¸` ,. -) changes
to ` ¸. , -. This is an example of a ( _.~) in which the (,) is
(¸¯).
2. The word ` · ,. - (the _.~ of the word ` .` , -) changes to
` ·. , -. This is an example of a ( _.~) in which the (,) is
changed in the original (from ` · ,` , - to ` ` , - ).

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Rule 14
(14.1) If a (,) or (¸) which are are not changed from any
other letter, come together in one word, which is not
( _·.,,, ¸.-·) (on the scale of _ ,.` - ·) and the first of the
two, namely the (,) or (¸) is ( ¸¯.), then the (,) changes
into a (¸). Then ( ·.··¸) is made and the preceding ( ·..)
is changed into (·,¯).

Examples

1. In the word ` · ,` ,. , (,) and (¸) come together, and the
first of the two i.e. the (¸) is (¸¯..). Therefore the (,)
changes into a (¸), thereby becoming (` ,` ,.. ). After
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(···¸) is made, it becomes (` ` , ).

2. In the word (` ¸` ,..` ·` , ·), (,) and (¸) come together, and
the first of the two i.e. the (,) is ( ¸¯.). Therefore the (,)
changes into a (¸), thereby becoming (` ¸..` ,` ·` , ·). After
( ·.··¸) is made, it becomes ( ¯ ¸.` ·` , ·). The ( ·..) of the (·)
is changed to a (·,¯), thereby becoming (¯ ¸ ·` , ·).

3. In the word ( ` ¸` ,.` .` ·), (which is the _..· of _. . ·
` _. .` ,), the (,) and (¸) come together, and the first of the
two i.e. the (,) is ( ¸¯.). Therefore the (,) changes into a
(¸) becoming ` ¸` ,..` .` ·. After (·..··¸) is made, it becomes
(¯ ¸..` .` ·). The (·...) of the (·) is changed to (·,..¯)
thereby becoming ( ¯ ¸. .` ·). It is also permissible to read the
(·) with (·,..¯) corresponding with the (·..¯,-) of the
(¸), that is (¯ ¸ . ·).

(14.2) The ( ,..- ,·') of ( . ¸ , ' ` ¸ , '., .´, , ' . – to take
refuge) is ( , ' ¸). The (.) changes to a (¸). It becomes ,.`, ¸, .
Because this (¸) has changed from a ( ·,.·), rule 14.1 will
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not apply.

Another example where this rule will not apply is the word
( . ,` , .). No change occurs because it is (_·,,, ¸-·).

If the (,) and (¸) are in different words, no change will
occur.

Example
(1) = , ` ¸ ¸ – the (,) will not change into a (¸).

(2) _. · ,.`, _ , ` ¸. _ - the (¸) of the word ( ` ¸. _) and
the (,) of the word ( ,..`, _ ,) are in different words and will
therefore remain unchanged.


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Rule 15

If a word is on the scale of ( ¸` ,.` · ·) and it has two (,)’s at
the end of the word, then both the (,)’s are changed into
(¸) and ( ·.··¸) is made. The ( ·..) of the preceding letter
(·..´ ¸..·) is changed into (·,..¯) and it is also
permissible to give the (·´ .·) a (·,¯).

Example
The word ( ` ,` ,. ` ·) - ( _.~ of ` ,. ·) is on the scale of ( ¸` ,.` · ·).
Therefore, according to the above rule, both the (,)’s are
changed into (¸). It becomes ( ` ¸.` , ` ·). Then ( ·.··¸) is made
thereby becoming ( ¯ ¸. ` ·). After changing the ( ·..) of the
preceding letter into ( ·,.¯), it becomes ¯ ¸. ` ·. It is also
permissible to read it as ¯ ¸ ·.

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Rule 16
(16.1) If there is a (,) in the (·..´ ·.) of an (,..)
preceded by a (·...), the (·...) will be changed into a
(·,..¯) and the (,) into a (¸). The (¸) is then made
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(¸¯). Due to (¸¯ _-¸), the (¸) is deleted.

Example
In the word ( ` ,. ` · ') - ( _.~ of ` ,. ·), the (,) is on the ( ·.
·.´) of an ( ,.) preceded by a ( ·..). Therefore the
( ·..) will be changed into a ( ·,.¯) becoming ( ' ` · ` ,. ).
Then the (,) changes into a (¸), thereby becoming ( ' ` · ` ¸. ),
which can also be written as (` ¸` ,.. ` · '). After (¸) is made
( ¸¯.), due to ( ¸¯. _.-¸), the (¸) is deleted. It
becomes (` ¸ ` · ') which can also be written as (¸ ¸` · ').

Step by Step Example

` , ` · ' ' ` · ` , , ` ¸` , ` · ' , ' ` · ` ¸ ` ¸ ` · '
¸ ¸` · '

(16.2) The law of (16.1) will also occur on a _..·, which
is from ( ., ¸` · ) and is (¸,, ¸·).

Example
The word (` ,... · ) undergoes the following changes,
eventually becoming ( ¸ · ).
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` , · ` ¸ · ` ¸` , · ` ¸` , · ` ¸ ·
¸ ·

(16.3) The law of 16.1 will also occur on a ( _..·), which
is from (¸· .,) and is (¸,, ¸·).
Example
The word ( ... · ` , ) undergoes the following changes,
eventually becoming (¸ ¸ · ).
` , · ` ¸ · ` ¸` , · ` ¸` , · ` ¸ ·
¸ ¸ ·

(16.4) If a (¸) comes in the ( ·.´ ·.) of an ,. and is
preceded by a letter which has a (·...), the (·...) is
changed into a (·,¯).

Example
The word (` ¸` ~ ') - (_~ of ` ¸.` ~) changes to ( ` ¸. ~ ') , which
can also be written as ( ` ¸` ,. ~ '). The (¸) is made ( ¸¯.) so
it becomes ( ` ¸` ,. ~ '). Due to ( ¸¯. _.-¸), the (¸) is
deleted. It becomes (` ¸ .. ~ '), which can also be written as
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(¸ . ~ ').

Step by Step Example

` ¸` ~ ' ` ¸ ~ ' ` ¸` , ~ ' ` ¸` , ~ '
` ¸ ~ ' ¸ . ~ '

n n n n n


Rule 17
(17.1) If a (,) or (¸) comes in the place of the ( ·.¯ _) of
a word which is ( ¸.·· ,.), the (,) or (¸) changes into a
(.), on condition that change took places in the (¸··).

Examples
1. The word ( ¸ ,. ·) changes to ( ¸. ·). (Changes took place
in its ¸·· from ¸ , · to ¸ ·).
2. The word ( ` _,. ,) changes to ( ` _ . ,). (Changes took place
in its ¸·· from _ , , to _ ,).

(17.2) Sometimes the ( ·.· ,.-) is deleted as in the case
of ( ` _. ·) which was originally ( ` , . ·). This word is used in
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the Qur’ân: (¸ _ · ¸ ` ,` - ¸ ·)

Exception
In the word (` ¸ ,` ,) the (,) will not change into a (·,·) because no
change took place in the ¸·· (` ¸ ,` ,, ¸ , _).

n n n n n

Rule 18
If a ( , _ ) or ( ¸ _ ) or (_ .) appears after the ( ..) of
( ¸ · ·), it changes into a (·,·).

Examples
1. The word ( ` _ ,. - ·) changes to ( ` , . - ·) - ( _.~ of the
word · ` _` ,` - ). This is an example of (,).
2. The word ( ` , ,. ) changes to ( ` . ,. ) - ( _.~ of the
word · `, , ). This is an example of (¸).
3. The word ( ¸ _) changes to ( ¸ . _) - ( _.~ of the word
· _). This is an example of (_ .).

Exception
The ( _.~) of the word ( · ` ,. .` ·) is ( ` . . . ·). Although the
(¸) is original, it changed into ( ·,.·). This is an exception
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to the rule.

n n n n n

Rule 19
If a (,) or (¸) comes at the end of a word after ( ._ ..),
they change into a ( ·,.·). This rule applies to all kinds of
words, namely _.·, ·,·, _~, ¸· and ·-.

Examples of _.·
i. ` , ·` · . ·` · (example of ,) – ( ... ·` · means
supplication).
ii. ` ¸ ,` _ . ,` _ (example of ¸) - ( . ,` _ means
pleasing appearance).

Examples of _~
i. · · ` , . · · (_~ of ¸ _ ·)
ii. ` , ` ' . ` ' (_~ of ` ,.` ¸, which was originally
` ,` ).
i. ` ¸ ,` - ' . ,` - ' (_~ of ¯ ¸ -).

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Examples of - , ·
i. ¯ ` , ¯ . (example of ,)
ii. ` ¸ · _ . · _ (example of ¸)

n n n n n

Rule 20

(20.1) If a (,) comes in the fourth position or later in a
word and it is not preceded by a ( ·..) or a ( ¸¯. ,), it
changes into a (¸).

Examples
1. The word ( . , ·` .`,) was originally ( . , ·` .`,). The (,) is
in the fourth position of the (¸..··), thus it changes into a
(¸).
2. The word ( ` ..` , ` · ') was originally ( ` .` ,. ` · '). The (,) is in
the 4th position of the (¸··), thus it changes into a (¸).
3. The word ( ` .` , ` · .` ¸) was originally ( ` .` , ` · .` ¸). The (,)
is in the sixth position of the ( ¸.··), thus it changes into a
(¸).

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(20.2) The plural of ( . ·` . ·) is ( ¯ ¸ · . ·), which originally
was ( ` ,` , · . ·). In this word, the (,) is in the sixth position.
It changes into a (¸) and (·..··¸) is made. It becomes
( ' ¸ · . ·). The rule of ( ` ` ,. ) (Rule number 14, example 2)
is not applicable here because the (¸) has changed from
an ( ..). The ( ·,.·) of this word is ( . ·` . ·). In Rule 14,
the condition was that the (,) or (¸) must not be changed
from another letter.
n n n n n

Rule 21
(21.1) The ( ..) that comes after a ( ·..) changes into a
(,).
Examples
1. The word ( . _` ,..` .) was originally ( . _..` .) - (the
[¸,,- _.·] of ` . _. .`, . _. .). The ( ..) is preceded
by a (·.), thus it changes into a (,).
2. The word ` . ,`, ,..` . - (_·... ,..) of (` . _.. .) was
originally ( ` . ,`,.` .). The ( ..) is preceded by a ( ·..),
thus it changes into a (,).

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(21.2) The ( ..) that comes after a ( ·,.¯) changes into a
(¸).
Example
The word ` ...`, _ - · (plural of ` . ,..` - ·) was originally
` . _.. - ·. The (...) is preceded by a (·,..¯), thus it
changes into a (¸). It becomes (` .`, _ - ·) .

n n n n n

Rule 22
If there is an (_ ..) before the ( ..) of ( . .· . ·, ) or
(, .,· _~), it changes into a (¸).

Example

i. The ( · ·, ) of ( _. ` ` -) is ( .. , ` ` -). The end of the word
(_ ` ` -) has an ( ..) which does not accept a ( ·.¯,-).
Therefore, the (.) is changed into (¸).
ii. The (_~) of (_ ` ` -) is (` . , ` ` -). Here also the the (.)
of (_ ` ` -) is changed into (¸).

n n n n n
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Rule 23
If (¸) appears as the (·..¯ _) of either a plural on the
scale of ( ¸.` · ·) or it appears in the feminine adjective on the
scale of (_ ` · ·), the preceding letter is given a (·,¯).
Examples
1. The word (` ¸` ,.. ,) (plural of ... .` , , and ` ¸ ,..` , ') was
originally ` ¸` ,..` ,. The (¸) appears as the (·..¯ _) of
( ¸..` · ·), thus the preceding letter is made (_,..´·). It
becomes (` ¸` , ,).
2. The word (_.. ´` , - – meaning ‘to walk arrogantly’) was
originally ( _. ´` ,` -). The (¸) appears as the ( .¯ · _) of the
feminine (_... ` · ·), thus the preceding letter is made
(_,´·). It becomes (_ ´` , -).

Note:
This rule is like an exception to Rule 3 where the (¸)
changes to (,). Instead of changing the (¸) to (,), the (¸)
is maintained and the (·...) which is the preceding
(·¯,-), is changed to (·,¯).

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The ( ¸,.. ,.) falls in the category of ( .· ,.), that
is, a noun not having any descriptive qualities.
Examples
(¸ ,` ,.. ~) - the (...,·) of (...,~' ). It was originally
(¸ ` , ~) - purer. The (¸) is changed to (,).
(¸.. ` , ¯) – the (...,·) of (` ¸ ,.. ¯ '). It was originally
(¸ ` , ¯) - (more intelligent). The (¸) is changed to (,).

Step by Step Examples

` , ~ _ ,` , ~ _
` , ¯ _ ` , ¯ _

n n n n n

Rule 24
If a ( _..·) comes on the scale of ( · ·. ` , ` · ) and the ( ·.¯
_) is a (,), the (,) will change into a (¸).


Example
The word ( · ` ,` ` , ¯) was originally ( · ` ,` ` , ¯), the ( ·.¯ _) is a (,),
thus it changes into a (¸) thereby becoming ( · ` ,` ` , ¯).
n n n n n
Rule 25
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The rule for words on the scale of ( ¸ · · ') or ( ¸. · ·), is that if
they end in (¸), and are (·,´), [that is, they are neither ( ,··
·.,) nor (.·)], then in ( ,.-, _.·, ·-), the (¸) is
deleted. The (·¯ _) is now read with tanwīn.
In (.. ·-), the word will remain (_,·).
Example of (·,´), that is, they are neither ( ·.., ,··) nor
(.·): ( _ , - ` ¸ ) changes to (¸ _ , -).

¸-·¸ -|·- .=·|· -|·- ¸-·¸ _·¸|· -|·-
¸ _ , - , ` .` _ , · , _ , - ` .`, ' _ ¸ _ , - · ·

If they are (··,··), the (¸) becomes (¸¯) in
( ,.-, _·, ·-) and in ( ... ·.-), the (¸) will be
(_,·).
Examples: (` ¸ _ , -) changes to (` ¸ _ , -) or ( ¸ _ , -).

¸-·¸ -|·- .=·|· -|·- ¸-·¸ _·¸|· -|·-
, ` .` _ , · ` ¸ _ , - ¸ _ , - ` .`, ' _ ` ¸ _ , - · ·
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_,,-
.,.·
All words having (·,-· ¸) preceded by a (·,¯) follow this
rule. Such words are called (¸,· ,¸).
Examples:
·,´
,` · ¸ · · ¸ ´ ¸ ¸ · . ¸ , . ¯ , · ` ·

··,··
` ¸ · · ,` · ` _ . · ¸ ´ ' . ¯ . ¸ , ¸ ·






Step by Step

·,´
` ¸ · _ ` ¸` , · _ ` ¸ · _ ¸ · _

_,·,·
.,.· _,,-
_,·,·
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··,··
` ¸ ·` , ` _ ·` ,

n n n n n

Rule 26
(26.1) If a (,) comes in place of the (·´ ·.)of ( _. ` · ·) in a
word which is either (·- ,¸) or ( ¸,.. ,¸), it changes
into a (¸).

Examples
i. The word ( ,` ` ·) was originally ( ,` ` ·). A (,) comes in place
of the (·´ ·.) of (_ ` · ·). Thus it changes into a (¸). It
becomes ( ,` ` ·). This is the (¸,. ,¸) from (' ,` ` · ` ,` ` , ·)
– to be near, [,. .,].
ii. The word ( . , ` ·) was originally ( ,. ` ·). A (,) comes in
place of the (·´ ·.) of ( _. ` · ·). Thus it changes into a
(¸). It becomes ( , ` ·). This is the (¸,. ,¸) from ( ·
' , ` · ` , ` ·,)- to be high, [,. .,].

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Exception
If this word is a ( ·..), it remains unchanged e.g. . · ¸ ,` , (a
female warrior).

(26.2) If a (¸) comes in place of the ( ·.´ ·.) of a word on
the scale of ( · _ ` · ), it changes into a (,).

Example
The word (¸ , ) was originally ( , ). A (¸) comes in place of
the (·´ ·.) of this word. Thus it changes into a (,).


Exercise 44

(a) Apply the rules of (¸··) to the following words:

, 1 , ¸ ,`
, 2 , ¯ ¸ .` , ·
, 3 , ¸ _
, 4 , ` , _
, 5 , ` ¸ ·
, 6 , .
, 7 , . , ` `,
, 8 , ` _ `, ,`
, 9 , ` - ·` ,
, 10 , . , ` ` -

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The Paradigms of (¸··)

· = - |· ¸ = - , |· . = ¸ = =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ,··-
` ·` ,.` ·` , · ,.` , · .` · , ` . ·` ,`, ·` , , ` · , ,` , · ` · , ` ·, · ,
` , · ` ·.` · ` ` ,. = ` · . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` · ` ·` · ` ,` · ' . . ·` , · ` . ·
` ·. ·` , · . . ·` , · · . ·` , · ` . · , · . ·` , · ` ·` , · ` ·` · · ¯ , ` · , ·
.` ,` . ·` , ' . . ·` , ' ` . ·` , ' ` ·.` · ¸` , . ` ¸ · · ' , ` ` , · , · . · ·`, ·
., ` ·` , ¸ ` ·` , ` ·` · .` ,` , ` · , ', ` ., ` ·` , , ` ·` ,

Analysis of the changes

(1) The verbs of ( ¸,, ¸.··) are used in all the ( .,.,')
except (,. .,).
(2) The (,) of ( ,,.·' __..') has been deleted due to
rule no.1 – the rule of (` ·,).
(3) The (,) of the (_...·) has been deleted due to rule
no.2 – the rule of ( · ·).
(4) In ( ¸,.,- ¸..'), the (,) can be changed to ( ·,.·)
according to rule no. 5 – the rule of (` ·` ,..` - '). Accordingly,
( . ·` ,) can be pronounced as ( . · '). The same applies to the
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feminine of the ( ¸,... ,..) – (¸ ..` ·` ,) can be
pronounced as (¸ ` · ').
(5) The broken plural - ( ,.´· _.~) of the ( ¸.· ,.
..,·) which is ( ` . · , ') was originally ( ` . · , ,). The first
(,) is changed to a ( ·,.·) according to rule no. 6 - the rule
of ( ¸ . , ').
(6) The (,) of the ( ·.. ,.) has changed to (¸) according
to rule no. 3 – the rule of (` · ·` , ·).
(7) However, the (,) is unchanged in the dimunitive ( ,.
_·..) of the ( ·.. ,.) – ( ` .` , ·`, ,` ·) and in the ( _.~
,.´·) – ( ` .` , · , ·), because the reason for the change is not
found, namely the (` ,) and a preceding (·,¯).

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¸ . , « |· . = ¸ = =·, ¸- _··, ,··-
` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` _` ,` ` , · ,` , · , ` , · ` , ` ,`, , `, , ` , , ,` , · , ` , · ` , ` ,, , ,
` , ` , . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` , `, ¸

Analysis of the changes

(1) In this (...,), the only change that has occurred is in
the ( ¸,.,- __..') where the (¸) has changed to a (,)
according to rule no. 3 – the rule of (` , ` ,` ·).

¸ - , |· . _ « = =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ,··-
, ,` , · ` - , ¸ -` ,, ¸ - , ` ,` · ' ¸` ,` -` , · ,` , · ` - , ¸ -` ,`, ¸ -` , , ¸ -
¸ -` , . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ¸ -`, ¸ ` ·` ·

Analysis of the changes

(1) In the imperative ( ,..- ,.·') - ( ..,) , the (,) has
changed to a (¸) according to rule no. 3 – the rule of
( ` , · ` · · ). The same rule applies to the ( ·.. ,) – ( , ¸. -` , ·
¸ -` , · , · -` , ·).
(2) In the word ( ¸. - , '), the (,) has changed to a ( ·,.·)
according to rule no. 6 – the rule of ( ¸ . , ').
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(3) It is permissible to change the (,) to a ( ·,.·) in ( ¸. -` ,)
– the ( ¸,.,- ¸..' ..· ,¯· -,) and in ( ¸. -` ,) –
the broken plural of the (.,· ¸,. ,).
There is no other change in this (.,).

- -.|· ¸ _ = , |· . _ « = =·, ¸- ¸-¹ ¸¸·¸ ,··-
, ` _ , ,` , · · · , ·` , ` _ , _ , ,` , · · · , ·` , ` _ ` ,`, _ ` ,
` _ . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` _ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` _` ,` ` , ·

- , , |· . _ · · =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ,··-
` ,` · ' ` .` ,` ·` , · ,` , · · · ` . ·` ,`, . ·`, , ` . · , ,` , · · · ` . ,, . · ,
` ¸` ,` , ` . · ` ·` · ` . , . ` ·` ·

Analysis of the changes

(1) In both the above-mentioned (.,..,'), the (,) of the
(__...·) has been deleted due to rule no.1 – the rule of
( ` . ·,). The changes in the other words are similar to ( . · ,
` ·,).

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. - =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ,··- - « '· ¸ ¿ - , |· . .
,` , · · · , · , ` ¸ ·` ,`, ¸ ·` , , ` ¸ · , ,` , · · · , · , ` ¸ , ¸ · ,
` ¸ . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` ¸ · ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` ·` ,` ·` , ·

Analysis of the changes

(1) The changes in this ( ..,) are similar to those of ( . · ,
` ·,).

.· «`· , |· . ,·-··, =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ,··-
` ` ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` ` ` · ,` , · · ` ¸ ` ` `, ' ' , ` ` ` · ,` , · · ` ¸ ` ` , ` ¸
` ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` ,

. ,·-··, =·, ¸- _··, ,··- _· .`· , |·
` ,` · ' ` , ` ` · ,` , · _ ` ¸ ` , ` `, , ' ' , ` , ` ` · ,` , · _ ` ¸ ` , ` , , ` ¸
` , ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` , ` ¸ ` ·` ·

Analysis of the changes

(1) According to rule no. 4 – the rule of ( . ` ¸), the (,) and
(¸) have changed into (.) and have been assimilated into
the (.).
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.· « , , |· . ,·-·, =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ,··-
` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` ·` ,` · ,` , · · `, ¸ ` ·` ,`, ·` , ' , ` ·` ,` · ,` , · · `, ¸ ` ·` ,`, ·` , '
· ` ¸` ,` , ` ·` , ' ` ·` ,` . ` ·`

.· « , · = , |· . ,·-«·=, =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ,··-
· ` , ` ¸ ` ·` , ` `, ·` ,` ` ' , ` ·` , ` ` · ,` , · · ` , ` ¸ ` ·` , ` , ·` , ` ¸
` ·` , ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` ·` , ` ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` ·` , ` ` · ,` , ·

Analysis of the changes

(1) In both the paradigms, the (,) has changed into (¸)
according to rule no. 3 – the rule of (` · ·` , ·).
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Exercise 45

(a) Conjugate the following verbs:

, 1 , _ . ,
, 2 , , ,
, 3 , , ` ¸
, 4 , `, '
, 5 , ` , ` ¸
, 6 , , ,
, 7 , . , -
, 9 , · ` ¸
, 10 , ` - ,

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The Paradigms of (,-')
, , « |· . ¸ = · =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ =,-|
¸ · ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¸` , · ,` , · .` , · ¸ `, ¸` , · , ¸ · ,` , · .` , · ¸` , , ¸·
` ·` · ` ` , = ¸ . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ¸ , · ` ·` · · ¯ , ¸ , · . · ¸ ·
¸ · · ' , ¸`, , · . , · ¸ , · ¸, · . , · · , · ¸ , · . , ·
¸ ` , · ` ·` · .` ,` , ¸ , · ' , .` , ,· ' . , · ' ¸ , · ' ` ·` · ¸` , . ` . , ` , ·
` . , ` , · , ¸ , ·

There is no change in the words ( ¸ ,.. ·) and ( ·.. , ·)
because they were originally ( ¸ ,.. ·). No change occurred
in ( ¸ ,.. ·) because of the exception in rule no. 8, namely
that the (,) should not be followed by an (.).
Hereunder follow the paradigms of the (¸....') and
(__...·). All other verbs which are (¸,, ¸..··) from this
(.,) follow the same pattern.
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_- _«·|· =,·|·
,,,= . ¸|
¸| _- _«·|· =,·|·
=¸¸-- .
g_·='·
,,,=·
g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
=· ,,,
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
¸ `, ` ¸ ¸` , , ` ¸ ¸ `, ¸` , ,
¸` , ·
¸ ·
`, ` ¸ ` , , ` ¸ . `, . ` , ,
` , ·
·
` , `, ` ¸ ` , ` , , ` ¸ .` , `, .` , ` , ,
` , ` , ·
` , ·
¸ ` ` ¸ ¸` , ` ¸ ` ¸ ¸` ,
` . ` , ·
` . ·
.` ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ . .` . ` , .
` , ·
·
¸ `, ` ¸ ¸ , ` ¸ ¸ `, ¸ ,
¸ ·
¸ ·
¸ ` ` ¸ ¸` , ` ¸ ¸ ` ¸` ,
. ·
. ·
.` ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ . .` . ` , .
` ·
` ·
` , ` ` ¸ ` , ` , ` ¸ .` , ` .` , ` ,
` ,` ·
` ,` ·
` ¸ .` ` ¸ ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ ¸` , .` ¸` , ` , .
. ·
. ·
.` ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ . .` . ` , .
` ·
` ·
¸ ` ` ¸ ¸ ` ¸ ¸ ` ¸
` ¸` ·
` ¸` ·
¸ · ` ¸ ¸` , · ` ¸ ¸ · ¸` , ·
` . ·
` . ·
¸ .` ` ¸ ¸` , . ` ¸ ¸ .` ¸` , .
·
·

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,,,=· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
g_·='· =¸¸-'·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
. , _- _«·|·
,,,=
. , _- _«·|·
=¸¸--
` ¸ ` , ` ¸ ` , , ¸ `, ` , ¸ , ` ,
. ` , . ` , , `, ` , ` , , ` ,
` ¸ ` , ` ¸ ` , , ` , `, ` , ` , ` , , ` ,
` ¸ ` ` ¸ ` , ¸ ` ` , ¸ ` ,
. .` . ` , . .` ` , ` , . ` ,
. ` , . , ¸ `, ` , ¸ , ` ,
` ¸ ` ` ¸ ` , ¸ ` ` , ¸ ` ,
. .` . ` , . .` ` , ` , . ` ,
` ¸ ` ` ¸ ` , ` , ` ` , ` , ` , ` ,
` ¸ .` ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ .` ` , ` ¸ ` , . ` ,
. .` . ` , . .` ` , ` , . ` ,
. ` . ¸ ` ` , ` , ¸
` ¸ · ` ¸ ` , · ¸ · ` , ¸ · ` ,
` ¸ .` ` ¸ ` , . ¸ .` ` , ¸ . ` ,

·,- ., _· ,,·' __.' · . ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ ` , , . ` ¸ ` , ,
. ` ¸ ` , · ' . ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ ` , . `¸ ` , ¸ ` ,
·,- ., _· ¸,,- __.' · ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ `,
` ¸ ` . ` ¸ · ' . ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ ` .
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_- ,,,=· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
_- =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
,,,=· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
` , ` ¸ ` ¸ ` , , ¸ ` , ¸ ,
. ` , . ` , , ` , ` , ,
` ¸ ` , ` ¸ ` , , ` , ` , ` , ` , ,
` ¸ ` ` ¸ ` , ¸ ` ¸
. .` . ` , . .` ` , .
` , . . , ¸ ` , ¸ ,
` ¸ ` ` ¸ ` , · ¸ ` ¸ ·
. .` . ` , · ` ` , ·
` ¸ ` ` ¸ ` , · ` , ` ` , ` , ·
` ¸ .` ` ¸ ` , · ` _ ` ` ¸ ` , ·
. .` . ` , · ` ` , ·
. ` . · ¸ ` ¸ ·
` ¸ · ` ¸ ` , · ¸ · ¸ ·
` ¸ .` ` ¸ ` , . ¸ ` ¸

·,- ., _· ,,·' ,·. · ` ¸ ` , · . ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ ` , , . ` ¸ ` , ,
. ` ¸ ` , · . ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ ` , · ' . ` ¸ ` , ·
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ,·. · . ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ ` , . ` ¸ ` ,
` ¸ ` . ` ¸ · ' . ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ `
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_- ,,,=· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
_- =¸¸-'· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
· _,·|· ,,,= =¸¸-'· _,·|·
. ` ¸ `, . ` ¸ ` , , . ¸ `, . ¸ ,
. . `, . . ` , , . `, . ` , ,
. ` ¸ `, . ` ¸ ` , , . ` , `, . ` , ` , ,
. ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ ` , . ¸ ` . ¸
. . .` . . ` , . . .` . ` , .
. . `, . . , . ¸ `, . ¸ ,
. ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ ` , . ¸ ` . ¸
. . .` . . ` , . . .` . ` , .
. ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ ` , . ` , ` . ` , ` ,
. ` ¸ .` . ` ¸ ` , . . ` ¸ .` . ` ¸ ` , .
. . .` . . ` , . . .` . ` , .
. . ` . . . ¸ ` . ¸
. ` ¸ · . ` ¸ ` , · . ¸ · . ¸ ·
. ` ¸ .` . ` ¸ ` , . . ¸ .` . ¸ .

·,- ., _· ,,·' ¸, · . . . ` ¸ ` , , . . ` ¸ ` , , . ` ¸ ` ,
. . ` ¸ ` , . . ` ¸ ` , .. ` ¸ ` , . . . ` ¸ ` , · ' ` ¸ ` ,
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ¸, · . . . ` ¸ `, . . ` ¸ `, . . ` ¸ `
. . ` ¸ ` . . ` ¸ ` . . ` ¸ ` . . ` ¸ · ' ` ¸ `
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-|v· ,=· =¸=|· ,=· ,=·
,,-«'·
¸-·«|· ,=·
¸ , · ¸ · ¸` , · ¸ ·
, · . . · · . ` , . ·
¸ , · · , ¸ .` , ` , · .` , ·
· , · · ` , · · ·
. , · . ` , · . ·
¸ , · ` . ` , · ` . ·
¸ , ·
. , ·
¸`, , ·

Analysis
(1) Rule no. 7.1 applies to the words from ( ¸ ·) till ( ·).
(2) Rule no. 7.4 applies to the words from ( ¸. ·) till ( . ·) in
the (,,·' __.').
(3) Rule no. 9 applies to the words from ( ¸` , ·) till ( ` , ·).
(4) Rule no. 9.5 applies to the words from ( ¸. ·) till ( . ·) in
the (¸,,- __.').
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(5) In the paradigm of ( ¸` ,. ,), rule no. 8.1 applies to all the
words, while rule no. 8.2 applies to all the words of
( ¸ , `,).
(6) The imperative (,..·') is made from ( ¸` ,.. ). After
deleting the (__...' ·..···), the last letter is rendered
(¸¯). The (,) is deleted due to ( ¸¯. _.-¸) – two
sâkins coming together.
(7) Where the (¸¯.. _..-¸) no more remains, the
deleted letter returns as in the paradigms of ( ·.,· .,.),
e.g. (` ¸ ` , ·).
(8) Rule no. 17 applies to the paradigm of ( ¸.· ,.),
e.g. ( ¸ ·).
(9) Rule no. 8 applies to the paradigm of (¸,..·' ,..),
e.g. ( ¸` , ·).
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Exercise 46

(a) List the detailed paradigms (_..´ ,...) of the
following verbs:

, 1 , · _ ` ·` ,` ,,
, 2 , ` _` ,` -, _ -
, 3 , ` ·` , , · ·
, 4 , ¸` ,` -, ¸ -
, 5 , ` ·` ,` ,, · _

(b) Name the word-forms (_ , .) of the following verbs:

, 1 , ¸` -`
, 2 , .` , ·` , =,
, 3 , ` ¸ _` ,` - ` ,
, 4 , .` _` , ·
, 5 , ` ,` ·` ,


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The Paradigm of ( ,-' ¸, )

_ , , |· . = ¸ = =·, ¸- _··, =,-|
` _ , ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` _` , · ,` , · ·` , , ` _ `, _` , , , ` _ , ,` , · ·` , , ` _` , , _ ,
` _ ,` · ` ·` · · ¯ , ` _, · . ·` , · ` _` , · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` _ . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` ,
· ,` · ¸ · · ' , ` _` ,, · . · ,` · ` _ ,` · ` _, · . · ,` · · · ,` · ` _, · .
. , ·` ,` , , ¸ ·` ,` , ` ·` · .` ,` , ` _,, ' , .` ,` · ,` , ' . · ,` , ' ` _ ,` , ' ` ·` · ¸`, . `
` . , ·` ,` , , ` _ ,` , ,

Analysis

The ( ,.·' , ¸ ) and ( ,.= ,.) have become similar
after changes were made. However, the original form of
each word is different. The original form of the ( ,..
¸,.·') was ( ` _` ,.` ,` ·) while the original form of the ( ,.
,=) was (` _ ,` ·).
Hereunder follow the paradigms of this (.,).
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_- _«·|· =,·|·
,,,= . ¸|
_- _«·|· =,·|·
=¸¸-- . ¸|
g_·='·
,,,=·
g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
,,,=·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
`, ` ¸ _ , ` ¸ _` , `, ` _ , ` _` , _` , , _ ,
`, ` ¸ · , ` ¸ ·` , `, · . , ·` , . ·` , , · ,
`, ` ¸ ` · ` , , ` ¸ ` ·` , ` , `, ` · .` , , ` ·` , .` , ` ·` , , ` , ` ,` · ,
` ¸ _ ` ` ¸ _` , ` _ ` ` _` , ·` , , ` . ` . · ,
` ¸ · ` ` ¸ ·` , · ` . ·` , . ·` , , · ,
`, ` ¸ ` · ¸ , ` ¸ ¸` · `, ` · ¸ , ¸` · ` · , ¸ ¸` · ,
` ¸ _ ` ` ¸ _` , ` _ ` ` _` , ` · , . ` · , .
` ¸ · ` ` ¸ ·` , · ` . ·` , . ` · , ` ` · , `
` ¸ ` · ` ` , ` ¸ ` ·` , ` , ` · ` .` , ` ·` , .` , ` · , ` ,` ` · , ` ,`
` ¸ · ` ` ¸ ` ¸ ·` , ` ¸ · ` ¸` , ·` , ¸` , ` · , . ` · , .
` ¸ · ` ` ¸ ·` , · ` . ·` , . ` · , ` ` · , `
` ` ¸ ` · ¸ ` ¸ ¸` · ` ` · ¸ ¸` · ` · , ` ¸` ` · , ` ¸`
` ¸ _ , ` ¸ _` , , ' ` _ , ` _` , , ' ` · , ` . ` · , ` .
` ¸ ` _ ` ¸ _` , ` ` _ ` _` , ` · , ` · ,

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,,,=· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
. , _- _«·|·
,,,=
. , _- _«·|·
=¸¸--
` , ` ¸ · , ` ¸ ·` , ` , ` _ `, , ` , ` _
` , · . , ·` , . ` , `, · , ` , ·` ,
` , ` · ` ¸ , ` ·` , ` ¸ `, ` , ` ,` · , ` , ` ·` , ` ,
` ¸ · ` ` ¸ ·` , ` , ` _ ` ` , ` _
` · . ·` , . ` , · ` ` , ·` ,
` , ` · . , . ` · ` , ` · `, ¸ , ` , ¸` ·
` ` ¸ · ` ¸ ·` , ` , ` _ ` ` , ` _
` · . ·` , . ` , · ` ` , ·` ,
` ¸` · ` ` ·` , ` ¸ ` , ` ,` · ` ` , ` ·` , ` ,
` ¸ · ` ·` , ` ¸ ` , · ` ` ¸ ` , ·` , ` ¸
` · . ·` , . ` , · ` ` , ·` ,
` ` · . . ` · ` ` , ` · ¸ ` , ¸` ·
` ¸ · , ` ¸ ·` , , ' ` , ` _ , ` , ` _ , '
` ` ¸ · ` ¸ ·` , ` ` , ` _ ` , ` _

·,- ., _· ,,·' __.' · , . ` ¸ ·` , , ` ¸` ·` , . ` ¸ ·` , . ` ¸ ·` , .
` ¸ ·` , . ` ¸ ·` , , ' . ` ¸ ·` , . ` ¸` ·` ,
·,- ., _· ¸,,- __.' · ` , . ` ¸ · ` , . ` ¸ · ` . ` ¸ · ` . ` ¸` ·
` ¸ · ` . ` ¸ · , ' . ` ¸ · ` . ` ¸` · `
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_- ,,,=· ¸-v·
|· -·,«·|· .,·
_- =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
,,,=· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
` ¸ · ` , , ` ¸ ·` , ` _ ` , , ` _
· ` , . , . ·` , · ` , , ·` ,
` , ` ¸` · , ` ·` , ` ¸ ` , ` ,` · , ` ·` , ` ,
` ¸ · ` ` ¸ ·` , ` ` _ ` _
· ` . . ·` , · ` ·` ,
` · ` , . , . ` · ` · ` , ¸ , ¸` ·
` ¸ · ` ` ¸·` , , ` _ ` ` _ ,
· ` . ·` , , . · ` ·` , ,
` ¸` · ` ` ¸` ·` , , ` ,` · ` ` ·` , , ` ,
` ` ¸ · ` ¸ ·` , , · ` ` ¸ ·` , , ` ¸
· ` . ·` , , . · ` ·` , ,
` ` · . . ` · , ` ` · ¸ ¸` · ,
` ¸ · , ` ¸ ·` , , ' ` _ , ` _ , '
` ` ¸ · ` ¸ ·` , ` ` _ ` _

·,- ., _· ,,·' ,·. · , . ` ¸ ·` , , . ` ¸ ·` , , . ` ¸` ·` , , . ` ¸ ·` , , . ` ¸ ·` , . ` ¸` ·` ,
' . ` ¸ ·` , , ` ¸ ·` ,
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ,·. · ` ¸ · ` . ` ¸ · , ' . ` ¸ · ` . ` ¸` · ` . ` ¸ · ` . ` ¸ · ` . ` ¸` · ` , . ` ¸ · ` ,
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_,·|· _- ,,,=·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
_- =¸¸-'· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
,,,=· _,·|· =¸¸-'· _,·|·
. ` ¸ · `, . , ` ¸ ·` , . ` _ `, . , ` _
. · `, . . , ·` , . . · `, . , ·` ,
. `, ` ¸` · . , ` ·` , ` ¸ . `, ` ,` · . , ` , ` · ` ,
. ` ¸ · ` . ` ¸ ·` , . ` _ ` . ` _
. · ` . . ·` , . . · ` . ·` ,
. ` · `, . . , . ` · . ` · `, ¸ . , ¸` ·
. ` ¸ · ` . ` ¸ ·` , . ` _ ` . ` _
. · ` . . ·` , . . · ` . ·` ,
. ` ¸` · ` . ` ·` , ` ¸ . ` ,` · ` . ` ·` , ` ,
. ` ¸ · ` . ·` , ` ¸ . · ` ` ¸ . ·` , ` ¸
. · ` . . ·` , . . · ` . ·` ,
. ` ` · . . ` · . . ` ` · ¸ . ¸` ·
. ` ¸ · , . ` ¸ ·` , , ' . ` _ , . ` _ , '
. ` ` ¸ · . ` ¸ ·` , . ` ` _ . ` _

·,- ., _· ,,·' ¸, · . , ` ¸ ·` , . . , ` ¸` ·` , . . ` ¸ ·` , . . ` ¸ ·` ,
.. ` ¸` ·` , . . ` ¸ ·` , . . ' ` ¸ ·` , , . . ` ¸ ·` ,
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ¸, · . ` ¸ · `, . . ` ¸` · `, . . ` ¸ · ` . . ` ¸ · `
. . ` ¸` · ` . . ` ¸ · ` . . ' ` ¸ · , . . ` ¸ · `
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-|v· ,=· =¸=|· ,=· ,=·
,,-«'·
-·«|· ,=· ¸
` _ ,` · · ` _` , · ` _` , ` _ ,
. · ,` · · ·` , . · ·` , . · , .
· ` _, · ` _, · ` ·` , .` , ` · , .` ,
· · ,` · · ·` , · · , ·
. · ,` · · ·` , . · , .
· ` _, · ·` , ` . · , ` .
` _ ,` ·
. · ,` ·
· ` _` ,,

Analysis
(1) Rule no. 7.1 applies to all the words from ( _.. ,) till
( ` · ,).
(2) Rule no. 9 applies to all the words of (¸,,- ¸.').
(3) In the (,,·' __.'), rule no. 8 has been applied.
(4) Rule no. 17 applies to the (¸· ,).

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= , ¬ | · . _ « = =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ =,-|
` ` ,` - · ,` , · ·` , - ` -`, .` , - , ` . - ,` , · ·` , - ` -, -
` - · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` . - . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` . - ` ·` · ` ,` · '
¸ ,·| · . _ « = =·, ¸- _··, =,-|
¸ ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¸` , · ,` , · ·` , ¸ `, ¸` , , ¸ ,` , · ·` , ¸ ,
¸ · ` ·` · ` ` , = ¸ . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` ,

To distinguish between the ( ,.·') of ( _,.,·) in which the
( ·,.·) is deleted and the ( ,.·') of ( ,.-' ), one will notice
that in (,-'), besides the (,¯· -,) and ( ..,· _.~),
the (·´ ¸·) remains in all the words. Examples:
( ` ¸ ·. - ` , · - · - ` ¸ ·` , , ` ,` ·` , , ·` ,, ` ¸ ` , · ` , , · ` , ·). The ( ¸.·
·.´) returns in the words attached to ( ·., .,.) and
(·,- .,) as well. Examples: (` ¸ · - ` ¸ ·` , , ` ¸ ` , ·)
However, in ( ¸.· _,.,·), the ( ·.´ ¸.·) is deleted
from all the words. Examples:
(` ¸ . ` ¸ ` , . . _ _ . ` ¸ _ _ ` ,` _ _ _ _ )

Hereunder follow the detailed paradigms of ( -).
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=¸¸-'· ¸-v·
.,·|· _-
-·,«·|·
¸-v·
=¸¸-'·
g_·='·
,,,=·
g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
,,,=·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
` ¸· - , ` . - , ` -`, ` -, .` , - -
. · - , · - , · -`, . · -, . ` , - · -
· - , ` ¸ · - , ` , · -`, .` , · -, .` , ` , - ` , · - ` ,
` ¸ · - ` . - ` -` ` - ` , - ` . · - ` .
· - . · - · -` . · - . ` , - · -
, . - , ¸ - `, - ¸ , ¸ - - ¸ - ¸
- ` ¸ · ` . - ` -` ` - - . - .
· - . · - · -` . · - . - ` - `
` ¸ · - ` , · - · -` .` , · - .` , - ` ,` - ` ,`
` ¸ · - · - ` ¸ · -` ¸` , · - ¸` , - . - .
· - . · - · -` . · - . - ` - `
. - ¸ - ` - ¸ ¸ - - ` ¸` - ` ¸`
` ¸ · - ' ` . - ' ` - ' ` - ' - ` . - ` .
` ¸ · - ` . - ` -` ` - - -

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.· , · | , | · . ,·-··, =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ =,-|
· · ¸ ` ,` · ' ` · ` · ,` , · · , · ¸ ` · `, ` , · ' , ` · ` · ,` , · · , · ¸ ` · ,
` · ` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` · ¸ ` ·` ·

Analysis
(1) The forms of the ( ¸.· ,) and ( ¸,.·' ,.) have
become the same, namely (` ·.. ` ·). However, the original
form of each word is different. The (¸..· ,..) was
(` · , ` ·) while the ( ¸,.·' ,.) was ( ` · ,. ` ·). Note that the
( ,.= ,) is also the same as the ( ¸,.·' ,.) as in all
other (.,,') of ( _· ·,- ¸· ).
(2) The verbs of the perfect tense (¸...') in the form of
(.· ,¯· ·,·) and ( ..· ,¯.· _.~) are the same as
the ( ,..- ,¯.· ·,·) and ( ,..- ,¯.· _.~) of the
imperative ( ,.·'), that is ( ·. · ¸) and ( ` ,` ·. · ¸). However, the
originals of the ( ¸..') were ( · ,. · ¸) and ( ` ,` · ,. · ¸) while
the originals of the ( ,.·') were ( · ,. · ¸) and ( ` ,` · ,. · ¸). The
( ,.·') is constructed from the ( __..·) which is ( . · ,. ).
Therefore the (,) is (_,´·).

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. ,·-··, =·, ¸- _··, =,-| _· , · - , | ·
` _ ` -` · ,` , · _ , ` - ¸ ` _ ` -`, ,` , ` -' , ` _ ` -` · ,` , · _ , ` - ¸ ` _ ` -, _ ` - ¸
` _ ` -` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` , ` - . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` , ` - ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · '

This (.,) is similar to ( · · ¸) – ( , ,-' ¸, ).

- -· «· = , | · . ,·-«·=, =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ =,-|
,` , · · · ` ¸ ` · ` `, ,` , ` ` ' , ` ,` , ` ` · ,` , · · · ` ¸ ` ,` , ` , · ` ¸
` ·` · ` ` , = ` , ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` , ` ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` · ` ` · ` · ` ` ·

Analysis

(1) The word ( · .` ¸) was originally ( · , .` ¸). Rule no. 8
is applied and it changes to ( · ` ¸).
(2) Rule no.8 and rule no. 3 have been applied to ( ` ,` , .` ,)
which was originally (` · , ` ,).
(3) The word ( ¸ · , .` ) has been changed due to rule no. 8
to ( · · ` ¸).
(4) The change in (` ,` , ` ` ·) is similar to that of (` ,` , ` ,).
(5) The ( ·.´ ¸.·) is deleted from the ( ,.·'), ( ¸.·) and
(·,,- __.·), e.g. ( , ` , . ` , ` . . ` , ` ¸ ` , ` ).
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(6) When (·, .,) or ( ·.,- .,) is attached to the ( ,.·')
or (¸·), the deleted letter returns, e.g.
( ` . . ` ¸ ` , ` ¸ ` , ` ¸ ).

· _· ¬ · = , | · . ,·-«·=, =·, ¸- _··, =,-|
` ` · ,` , · · _ - ` ¸ ` ,` , - ` , _ - ` ¸ · _ - ` ¸ ` _ - ` `, ,` , -` ` ' , ` ,` , -
` ·` · ` ` , = ` , - ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` , - ` ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` _ - ` ` · ,` , ·
` _ - ` ` ·

This (.,) is similar to ( · ` ¸).

- -· | , | · . ,·-·, =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ =,-|
`, · · ' ` , · ' ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ` · ` · ,` , · · · · ¸ ` · `, ,` , · ' , ` ,` , ` · ,` , · · · · ¸ ` ,` ,
` · ` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` , ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` ,

The changes of this (.,) are similar to those of ( · ` ¸).
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Exercise 47

(a) List the detailed paradigms (_..´ ,...) of the
following verbs:

, 1 , ` ¸`, , . ·
, 2 , _`, ,, _ _
, 3 , ` .`, ,, . _
, 4 , ` ¸` , -, ¸ -
, 5 , ` ¸` , , ¸ ·

(b) Name the word-forms (_ , .) of the following verbs:

, 1 , ` ,` ,` ,
, 2 , ¸` ., , ` ¸
, 3 , ` , ` ,` .` ,
, 4 , ` ¸ ` , -
, 5 , ` ¸ `, _


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The Paradigms of (¸·) and (.,)

· , -= |· ¸ ·· -=| · . ¸ = · =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ¸|··
` _` · ' ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¯ ,` ·` · ,` , · . ·` · ¸ ·` `, ¸ ·` · , ¸ _ · ,` , · . ·` · ` ,` ·` , · ·
· ` ¸` ,` , ` ·` · · ¯ , ¸ _ · . , ·` · ¸ ·` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` _` . ` ·`
' ¸ · · ., ·` · . ·` · ¸ _ · . , ·` · · ·` · ¸ _ · . , ·` · ¸ ·` ·
` ,` , .` , ·` · ' , ¸ _ · ' . , ·` · ' ¸ ·` ·' ` ·` · ¸` , . ` ¸ · · ' , _ ,` ·` · ` ·` · .
` . , ,` ·` · , ¸ ·` · . , ,` ·` ·

Analysis of the changes

(1) The verbs of ( ¸., ¸·.) and ( ¸., ,.-') do not
come on the (.,) of (,.).
(2) The (,) in the ( ,.= ,) – ( ¸ ·` . ·) and in the ( ,.
·..) – ( ¸ ·` . ·) is deleted due to rule no. 7. If these words
are used with ( ¸ ') or as a ( ..·), the ( ..) is retained,
e.g. (` , ¯ ·` · , ` , ¯ ·` · , ¸ ·` , ¸ ·` ).
(3) The (,) in the word ( . ·` . ·) has changed to ( ·,.·) as in
the (_.·).
(4) In the plural of the ( .= ,. , ) – ( ¸ _ . ·) and the
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plural of the ( ¸,.. ,.) – (¸ _ · '), rule no. 25 has been
applied.
(5) In the word ( ' ¸ · . ·) which is the plural of the ( ,.
·.), the (,) has changed to a (¸) due to rule no. 20.
(6) Rule no. 26 has been applied to ( ,` ·` · _ ).
(7) In the words ( ... , ,` ·` ·) and (` ... , ,` ·` ·), the (...) has
changed to a (¸) due to rule no. 22. This applies to all the
words which are ( ..,· ·,·) of the ( ¸,.. ,.) and the
( ,. .,· _~) of the ( ¸,.. ,.), whether the words
are (_,-.), (¸·) or ( ¸··).

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¸| _- _«·|· =,·|·
,,,= .
¸| _- _«·|· =,·|·
=¸¸-- .
g_·='·
,,,=·
g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
,,,=·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
` ¸ ¸ ·` `, , ` ¸ ,` ·` ¸ ·` `, , ` ,` ·` ¸ ·` · · ·
` ¸ , ·` `, , ` ¸ ,` ·` , ·` `, . , ,` ·` . , ·` · , · ·
` ¸ ·` `, ` , , ` ¸ ` ,` ·` ·` `, .` , , ` ·` .` , ` ·` · ` , · · ` ,
` ¸ ¸ ·` ` ` ¸ ,` ·` ¸ ·` ` ` ,` ·` , ·` · ` . · · ` .
` ¸ , ·` ` ` ¸ ,` ·` . , ·` ` ,` ·` . , ·` · · ·
` ¸ ¸` , ·` `, , ` ¸ ` ·` .` , ¸` , ·` `, , ` ` · .` , ` , ·` · ¸ .` , · ·
` ¸ ¸ ·` ` ` ¸ ,` ·` ¸ ·` ` ` ,` ·` .` , ·` · .` , · ·
` ¸ , ·` ` ` ¸ ,` ·` . , ·` ` ,` ·` . ` , ·` · ` ` , · · `
` ¸ ·` ` ` , ` ¸ ` ·` ` , ·` ` .` , ` ·` .` , ` , ·` · ` ,` ` , · · ` ,`
` ¸ ·` ` ` ¸ ` ¸ ·` ` ¸ ·` ` ¸` , ·` ¸` , ` , ·` · . ` , · · .
` ¸ , ·` ` ` ¸ ,` ·` . , ·` ` ,` ·` . ` , ·` · ` ` , · · `
` ¸ ·` ` ¸` , ` ¸ ` ·` .` , ·` ` ¸` , ` ·` .` , ` , ·` · ` ¸` ` , · · ` ¸`
` ¸ ' ¸ ·` · ` ¸ ,` ·` · ' ' ¸ ·` · ` ,` ·` · ' ` , ·` · ` . ` , · · ` .
` ¸ ` ¸ ·` ` ¸ ,` ·` ` ¸ ·` ` ,` ·` ` , ·` · ` , · ·

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,,,=· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
. , _- _«·|·
,,,=·
. , _- _«·|·
=¸¸-'·
` ¸ , ·` ` , , ,` ·` . ` , _` `, , ` , ` _`
` , , ·` . , ,` ·` . ` , , ·` `, , ` , ,` ·`
·` ` , ` , . , ` ·` ` ¸ ` , ·` `, ` , , ` , ` ,` ·`
` ¸ , ·` ` ,` ·` . ` , _` ` ` , ` _`
, ·` ` . ,` ·` . ` , , ·` ` ` , ,` ·`
` , ` , ·` . , ` ·` ` , . ` , ¸` , ·` `, , ` , ` ·` .` ,
` ¸ , ·` ` ,` ·` . ` , _` ` ` , ` _`
, ·` ` . ,` ·` . ` , , ·` ` ` , ,` ·`
` , ·` ` . ` ·` ` ¸ ` , ·` ` ` , ` , ` ·` ` ,
, ·` ` ` ¸ ·` ` ¸ ` , ·` ` ` ¸ ` , ` · ` ¸
, ·` ` . ,` ·` . ` , , ·` ` ` , ,` ·`
` , ·` ` . ` ·` . ` , ` , ·` ` ¸` , ` , ` ·` .` ,
, ·` · ' ` ¸ ,` ·` · ' . ` , ' _` · ` , ` _` · '
, ·` ` ` ¸ ,` ·` . ` , ` _` ` , ` _`

,,·' __.' ·,- ., _· · . . ,` ·` . . ,` ·` . ` ¸` ·` , . . ,`·` ,
. ,` ·` . . ,` ·` · ' . ` ¸ ·` . ` ¸` ·`
·,- ., _· ¸,,- __.' · . ` ¸ , ·` ` . ` ¸ , ·` ` . .` , ·` ` , . ` ¸, ·` ` ,
` ¸ , ·` ` . .` , ·` ` ` ¸ , ·` ` . ` ¸ , ·` · ' .
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_- ,,,=· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
_- =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
,,,=· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
` ¸ , ·` ` , , ,` ·` . _` ` , , ` _`
, ·` ` , . , ,` ·` . , ·` ` , , ,` ·`
·` ` , ` , . , ` ·` ` ¸ ` ` , · ` , , ` ,` ·`
` ¸ , ·` ` ,` ·` . _` ` ` _`
, ·` ` . ,` ·` . , ·` ` ,` ·`
` , ` , ·` . , ` ·` ` , . ¸` , ·` ` , , ` ·` .` ,
` ¸ , ·` ` ' ,` ·` · . _` ` ' ` _` ·
, ·` ` . ' ,` ·` · . , ·` ` ' ,` ·` ·
` , ·` ` . ' ` ·` · ` ¸ ·` ` ` , ' ` ·` · ` ,
, ·` ` ` ¸ ' ·` · ` ¸ ·` ` ` ¸ ' ·` · ` ¸
, ·` ` . ' ,` ·` · . , ·` ` ' ,` ·` ·
` , ·` ` . ' ` ·` · ` , . ·` ` ¸` , ' ` ·` · .` ,
, ·` · ' ` ¸ ,` ·` · ' . _` · ' ` _` · '
, ·` ` ` ¸ ,` ·` . _` ` ` _`

·,- ., _· ,,·' ,·. · . . ,` ·` · ' . . ,` ·` . ` ¸` ·` , . . ,` ·` ,
. ,` ·` . . ,` ·` · ' . ` ¸ ·` · ' . ` ¸` ·` · '
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ,·. · ` ¸ , ·` ` , . ` ¸ , ·` ` . ` ¸ , ·` ` . .` , ·` ` , .
` ¸ , ·` ` . ` ¸ , ·` · ' . ` ¸ , ·` ` . .` , ·` `
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_- ,,,=· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
_- =¸¸-'· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
,,,=· _,·|· =¸¸-'· _,·|·
. ` ¸ , ·` `, . , ,` ·` . . _` `, . , ` _`
. , ·` `, . . , ,` ·` . . , ·` `, . , ,` ·`
. ·` `, ` , . . , ` ·` ` ¸ . ·` `, ` , . , ` ,` ·`
. ` ¸ , ·` ` . ,` ·` . . _` ` . ` _`
. , ·` ` . . ,` ·` . . , ·` ` . ,` ·`
. `, ` , ·` . . , ` ·` ` , . . ¸` , ·` `, . , ` ·` .` ,
. ` ¸ , ·` ` . ,` ·` . . _` ` . ` _`
. , ·` ` . . ,` ·` . . , ·` ` . ,` ·`
. ` , ·` ` . . ` ·` ` ¸ . ·` ` ` , . ` ·` ` ,
. , ·` ` ` ¸ . ·` ` ¸ . ·` ` ` ¸ . ·` ` ¸
. , ·` ` . . ,` ·` . . , ·` ` . ,` ·`
. ` , ·` ` . . ` ·` . ` , . ·` ` ¸` , . ` ·` .` ,
. , ·` · ' ` ¸ . ,` ·` · ' . . ' _` · . ` _` · '
. , ·` ` ` ¸ . ,` ·` . . ` _` . ` _`

·,- ., _· ,,·' ¸, · . . . . ,` ·` , . . ` ¸` ·` , . . . ,` ·`
. . . ,` ·` . . ` ¸` ·` . . ` ¸ ·` . . . ,` ·` · ' . ,` ·`
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ¸, · . . . ` ¸ , ·` `, . . .` , ·` `, . ` ¸ , ·` ` .
. . ` ¸ , ·` ` . . .` , ·` ` . . ` ¸ , ·` ` . . ` ¸ , ·` · ' ` ¸ , ·` `
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-|v· ,=· =¸=|· ,=· ,=·
,,-«'·
¸-·«|· ,=·
¸ ·` · · ¸ ·` · ¯ ,` ·` ¸ _ ·
. , ·` · · , ·` . · ` ,` ·` . . , · ·
· ¸ _ · ¸ _ · ' ,` ·` .` , ` · · .` ,
` · · · · ` ,` ·` · · , · ·
. ·` · · ` ,` ·` . . , · ·
· ¸ _ · ` ,` ·` ` . ` . , · ·
. ·` ·
. . ·` ·
· ' ¸ ·

Analysis
(1) Rule no. 7 has been applied to ( · ·).
(2) If an ( ..) is changed from a (,), it is written in the
form of an ( ..), e.g. ( . · ·). If the ( ..) is changed from a
(¸),it is written in the form of an (¸), e.g. ( · _ ¸ ).
(3) If an ( ..) is deleted due to ( ¸¯. _.-¸) or
(¸,,..), if ( ¸ ) is attached or the word is (...·), the
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( ..) will be written in the form of a (¸) in all three cases
– ( ,.-, ..., _·, ·-), e.g. If the word ( ¸ ·` . ·) has
( ¸ ) attached to it or it is (...·), the (...) will be
written in the form of a (¸) e.g. ( ·` . · , ¸ ·` . .· ` , ´, ),
( , ¸·` .. ` ...`, ' _ ·` .. · ` , ´, ) and ( , ¸·` .. , ` .` _ ,.. ·
·` .. · ` , ´, ). According to the grammarian, Sībawayh, in
( ... ·.-), the ( .. ·_,..· ) will be written in the
form of an (.), e.g. (` , ¯ ·` · ` .`, ' _).
(4) In the dual form ( ,.. · ·), the (,) remains unchanged
because it appears before the (.) of (·,·).
(5) From ( .` ,.. · ·) till the end, all the words are in their
original form.
(6) In the ( ¸,.,- ¸..'), rule no. 11 has been applied to
all the words whereby the (,) changes to (¸). In the word
( ` ·` · ` , ), the (¸) is deleted.
(7) In words like ( ` ,` ·` .,), the (,) has become ( ¸¯.) due
to rule no. 10.1. In ( .` ,` ·` .,), ( .` ,` ·` . ) and ( ¸` , ·` . ), the (,)
is deleted due to rule no. 10.2 and 10.3. Besides the ( _.~
..,·) and all the forms of ( ·.,·), all the remaining words
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are unchanged.
(8) The plural masculine word-forms are the same for the
masculine and feminine, namely ( .` ,` ·` ,) and ( .` ,` ·` ).
(9) In the ( ¸,.,- __..'), the (,) has changed to (¸) due
to rule no. 20, e.g. (¸ ·` `,).
(10) The (,.- .,· -,) and ( ,..- ..,· _~) have
the same word-forms, namely ( ¸` , ·` ...` ). However, the
original form of the (,....- ....,· ...-,) was
( ¸`, , ·` ` ) while the original form of the ( ,..- ..,· _.~)
was ( .` , ·` ` ).
(11) In words like ( . ·` .`, ` ¸ _ ), due to the ( ..) at the end,
the effect of the (` ¸ ) is not visible.
(12) If at the time of (¸¯.. _..-¸), the first sâkin
letter is a ( ·.·), it is deleted. If it is not a ( ·.·), the (,) is
rendered a ( ·..) and the (¸) a ( ·,.¯), e.g. ( .` , ·` .` , ) and
(` ¸ , ·` ` ).
(13) Rule no. 11 has been applied to all the words of
( ¸.· ,.). Rule no. 10 applies to (¸ _ ·). The rules of
(¸,' ,¸) mentioned previously apply to it.
(14) Only (···¸) has been applied to the ( , ¸,·' ).
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Exercise 48

(a) List the detailed paradigms (_..´ ,...) of the
following verbs:

, 1 , ` ,` ` ,
, 2 , ` ,` ,` , ,` ,
, 3 , ` , ` ·, ·
, 4 , ` , ` , · ,
, 5 , ` , ` -, · -

(b) Name the word-forms (_ , .) of the following verbs:

, 1 , _·
, 2 , ¸ ` · ` ' ` ¸
, 3 , ¸ -` ` ,
, 4 , ` ¸ , `
, 5 , ¸` · '
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_ -¸| · . = ¸ = =·, ¸- _··, ¸|··
_· _ ` · _ ` ¸ ·` ,, _·` ,`, ¸ ·` _ , ¸ · _ ,` , · , ·` _ ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¯ ¸ ·` , · ,` , · ,` · _
. ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , = ·` , _ ·` , · ` ·` · ` ` , ` , · ` ·` · · ¯ , ¸ · , · . , ·` , · _ ·
· · ' , ' ¸ · , · ., ·` , · . ·` , · , ¸ · ,· . ·` , · · ·` , · ¸ · , · . , ·` , · ¸
_·` _ ' ` ·` · ¸` , . ` ` ,` ·` _ ' , ¸ · _ ' . , ·` _ ' ` ·` _ ` ·` · .` ,` , . . , ,` ·` _ _,
_ ·` _ ` . , ,` ·` _ ,

Hereunder follow the detailed paradigms of this verb.
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_- _«·|· =,·|·
,,,= . ¸|
_- _«·|· =,·|·
=¸¸-- . ¸|
g_·='·
,,,=·
g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
,,,=·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
` ¸ ·` ,`, _ ` ¸ ¸ ·` ,, _·` ,`, ` ¸ ·` ,, ·` _ ¸ _· _
` ¸ , ·` ,`, ` ¸ , ·` ,, , ·` ,`, . , ·` ,, . , ·` _ , · _
` ¸ ` , ·` ,`, ` ¸ ` , ·` ,`, ` , ·` ,`, . ` ,` ·` ,, . ` ·` _ ` , · _ ` ,
` ¸ ·` ,` _ ` ¸ ¸ ·` , ·` ,` _ ` ¸ ·` , , ·` _ ` . · _ ` .
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ·` , . , ·` ,` ` , , · . , ·` _ · _
` ¸ ¸` , ·` ,`, , ` ¸ ` , ·` , ¸ ¸` , ·` ,`, , ` , ·` , ¸ ` , ·` _ ¸ ¸` , · _
` ¸ ·` ,` _ ` ¸ ¸ ·` , ·` ,` _ ` ¸ ·` , .` , ·` _ .` , · _
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ·` , . , ·` ,` , ·` , . ` , ·` _ ` ` , · _ `
` ¸ ` , ·` ,` ` ¸ ` ,` ·` , ·` ,` .` , ` ,` ·` , . ` , ·` _ ` ,` ` , · _ ` ,`
` ¸ ` ¸ ·` ,` ` ¸ ` ¸ ·` , ·` ,` ¸` , ¸` , ·` , ` , ·` _ . ` , · _ .
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ·` , . , ·` ,` , ·` , . ` , ·` _ ` ` , · _ `
` ¸ ¸` , ·` ,` ` ¸ ¸` , ·` , ·` ,` ¸` , ` , ¸` , · ` , ·` _ ` ¸` ` , · _ ` ¸`
` ¸ ·` _ ' _ ` ¸ ¸ ·` _ ' ·` _ ' _ ` ¸ ·` _ ' ` , ·` _ ` . ` , · _ ` .
` ¸ ·` ,` _ ` ¸ ¸ ·` , ·` ,` _ ` ¸ ·` , ` , ·` _ ` , · _

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,,,=· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
. , _- _«·|·
,,,=·
_«·|· . , _-
=¸¸-'·
` ¸ , ·` ,` , ` ¸ , ·` , , ` , ·` ,`, ` , ·` ,,
. , ·` ,` , . , ·` , , ` , , ·` ,`, ` , , ·` ,,
.` , ·` ,` , ` ¸` ·` , , ` , ` , ·` ,`, ` , ` ,` ·` ,,
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ·` , ` , ·` ,` ` , ·` ,
. , ·` ,` . , ·` , ` , , ·` ,` ` , , ·` ,
. ` , ·` ,` , . ` , ·` , , ` , ¸` , ·` ,`, , ` , ` , ·` , ¸
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ ·` , ` , ·` ,` ` , ·` ,
. , ·` ,` . , ·` , ` , , ·` ,` ` , , ·` ,
.` , ·` ,` ` ¸` ·` , ` , ` ·` , ` , ` , ` ,` ·` ,
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ ·` , ` , ·` ,` ` ¸ ` , ` ¸ ·` ,
. , ·` ,` . , ·` , ` , , ·` ,` ` , , ·` ,
. ` , ·` ,` . ` , ·` , ` , ·` ,` ¸` , ` , ¸` , ·` ,
` ¸ , ·` _ ' ` ¸ , ·` _ ' ` , ' ·` _ ` , ·` _ '
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ·` , ` , ·` ,` ` , ·` ,

·,- ., _· ,,·' __.' · . ` ¸ , ·` , . ` ¸ , ·` , . ` ¸` ·` , , . ` ¸ ,·` , ,
` ¸ , ·` , . ` ¸ , ·` _ ' . ` ¸ ·` , . ` ¸` ·` ,
·,- ., _· ¸,,- __.' · . ` ¸ , ·` ,` , . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . .` , ·` ,` ,
` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` _ ' . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . .` , ·` ,`
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_- ,,,=· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
_- =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
,,,=· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
` ¸ , ·` ,` , ` ¸ , ·` , , ·` ,` , ·` , ,
. , ·` ,` , . , ·` , , , ·` ,` , , ·` , ,
.` , ·` ,` , ` ¸` ·` , , ` , ·` ,` , ` ,` ·` , ,
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ·` , ·` ,` ·` ,
. , ·` ,` . , ·` , , ·` ,` , ·` ,
. ` , ·` ,` , . ` , ·` , , ¸` , ·` ,` , , ` , ·` , ¸
` ` ¸ , ·` , ` ¸ , ·` _ ¸ ·` ,` ·` _ ¸
. , ·` ,` . , ·` _ ¸ , ·` ,` , ·` _ ¸
.` , ·` ,` ` ¸` ·` _ ¸ ·` ,` ` , ` ,` ·` _ ¸
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ ·` _ ¸ ·` ,` ` ¸ ` ¸ ·` _ ¸
. , ·` ,` . , ·` _ ¸ , ·` ,` , ·` _ ¸
. ` , ·` ,` ` , ·` _ ¸ . ·` ,` ¸` , ¸` , ·` _ ¸
` ¸ , ·` _ ' ` ¸ , ·` _ ' ·` _ ' ·` _ '
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ·` , ·` ,` ·` ,

·,- ., _· ,,·' ,·. · . ` ¸` ·` _ ¸ . ` ¸ , ·` _ ¸ . ` ¸ , ·` , . ` ¸` ·` , , . ` ¸ , ·` , ,
. ` ¸ , ·` _ ' . ` ¸ ·` _ ¸ ` ¸ , ·` ,
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ,·. · . ` ¸` ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸` ·`,` , . ` ¸ , ·` ,` ,
` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` _ ' . ` ¸ , ·` ,`
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_- ,,,=· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
_- =¸¸-'· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
,,,=· _,·|· =¸¸-'· _,·|·
. `, ` ¸ , ·` , . ` ¸ , ·` ,, . ·` ,`, . ·` ,,
. . , ·` ,`, . . , ·` ,, . , ·` ,`, . , ·` ,,
. .` , ·` ,`, . ` ¸` ·` ,, . ` , ·` ,`, . ` ,` ·` ,,
. ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` , . ·` ,` . ·` ,
. . , ·` ,` . . , ·` , . , ·` ,` . , ·` ,
. . ` , ·` ,`, . . ` , ·` ,, . ¸` , ·` ,`, . , ` , ·` , ¸
. ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ ·` , . ·` ,` . ·` ,
. . , ·` ,` . . , ·` , . , ·` ,` . , ·` ,
. .` , ·` ,` . ` ¸` ·` , . ·` ,` ` , . ` ,` ·` ,
. ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ ·` , . ·` ,` ` ¸ . ` ¸ ·` ,
. . , ·` ,` . . , ·` , . , ·` ,` . , ·` ,
. . ` , ·` ,` . . ` , ·` , . ·` ,` ¸` , . ¸` , ·` ,
. ` ¸ , ·` _ ' . ` ¸ , ·` _ ' . ' ·` _ . ` _ ' ·
. ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` , . ·` ,` . ·` ,

·,- ., _· ,,·' ¸, · . . . ` ¸ , ·` ,, . . ` ¸` ·` ,, . . ` ¸ , ·` , ` ¸ , ·` ,
. . . . ` ¸` ·` , . . ` ¸ ·` , . . ` ¸ , ·` _ ' ` ¸ , ·` ,
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ¸, · . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . . .` , ·` ,`, . . ` ¸ , ·` ,`,
` ¸ , ·` ,` . . ` ¸ , ·` _ ' . . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . . .`, ·` ,` . .
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-|v· ,=· =¸=|· ,=· ,=·
,,-«'·
¸-·«|· ,=·
_ ·` , · · ·` , _ · ¯ ¸ ·` , ¸ · _
. , ·` , · · , ·` , . · ` , ·` , . , · _ .
· ¸ · , · ¸ · , · ' , ·` , .` , ` · _ .` ,
· ·` , · · ` , ·` , · · , · _
. ·` , · · ` , ·` , . . , · _
· ¸ · , · ` , ·` , ` . ` . , · _
. ·` , ·
. . ·` , ·
· ' ¸ · ,

Analysis

(1) The (,= ,) – ( · . ·` , _ ) is ( ¸.· _,.·) if the verb
is (¸·).
(2) When the word ( · .. ·` , _ ) is used with ( ¸ ) or as a
(.·), the (.) reverts, e.g. ( ·` , _ ) , ( · ,·` , ` , ´ ).
(3) Rule no. 25 applies to ( · ¸ · , ) and ( ' ¸ · _ ).
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(4) Rule no. 7 has been applied to ( ..·` _ ' _ ) whereby the
(¸) has changed to an (.).
(5) In the broken plural ( . ·` _ _ ), the (¸) was changed to an
(...) and was thereafter deleted due to ( _..-¸
¸¯).
(6) In the words ( .· _ _ ) and ( ` ,. · _), the (¸) was changed to
an (.) due to rule no. 7.
(7) In the words ( _ ` .. · ) and ( . · _), the ( ..) was deleted
due to (¸¯ _-¸).
(8) Rule no. 10 has been applied to (` ,` ·` _).
(9) Rule no. 10 has also been applied to ( ` ¸. ·` ,,), ( ` ¸. ·` , ),
(` ¸ ·` _ '), ( ` ¸. ·` , ), ( ` ,.` ·` ,, . ), ( ` ,.` ·` , . ), ( ¸` , ·` ,. ). After changes
were made in the singular feminine second person -
( ¸` , ·` , ) – it became like the plural feminine second person.
(10) Rule no. 7 has been applied to the passive tense verbs
like ( ·` ,`, _ ) etc.
(11) In the word (¸ · _), the (¸) was made sâkin and then
deleted due to (¸¯ _-¸).
(12) In the word ( .` ,..` · _), the harakah of the (¸) was
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transferred to the preceding letter, the (¸) was changed to
(,) and then deleted.
(13) Rule no. 14 has been applied to all the words of
( , ¸,·' ), e.g. (¯ ¸ ·` , ·).

.· , =`¸|· ¸ _ =`¸| · . _ « = =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ¸|··
_.` ,, ¸ . _ _ _.` ,`, ¸ .` _ , ¸ ¸ _ ,` , · ¸ . ` ,` · ' ¯ ¸ .` , · ,` , · ¸ . _
.` , · ` ·` · ` ` , = ¸` , . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ¸` _ ¸ ` ·` · _ ¸ ¸ , · . , .` , ·
, .` , · ` ·` · · ¯ _ . .` , · ¸ ¸ , · . .` , · · .` , · ¸ ¸ , · . , .` , ·
· ' , ' ¸ . , · ., .` , · _.` _ ' ` ·` · ¸` , . ` ¸ · , .` , .` _ ' . , .` _ '
_ ' _,` .` _ ` ·` · .` ,` , ¸ ¸ .` _ . , ,` .` _ _ ` . , ,` .` _ ,

Analysis

(1) The same changes as ( ·` .`, ¸. ·` · _ ) have occurred in the
active tense of this verb. The other words are affected in
the same way as (,` ·` , · · ).
(2) As an exception to the rule, the rule of ( ¯ ¸. ·) has been
applied to the word (¯ ¸ .` , ·).

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|·· - , = ¬ | · . _ « = =·, ¸- _··, ¸
_` -, ¸ - ,` , · · ,` - _` -`, ¸ ` - , ¸ ¸ - ¯ ¸ ` - · ,` , · · ,` -
` - · ` ·` · ` ` , = ¸` - . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ¸` - ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' _ . , ` - ·
` - · ` ·` · · ¯ , ¸ ¸ - · _ · . , ` - · ¸ ¸ - · . ` - · · ` - · ¸ ¸ -
· ' , ' ¸ - · ., ` - · . ` - · , _` - ' ` ·` · ¸` , . ` ¸ · . , ` - '
- ' , .` , ` - ' _,` ` - ` ·` · .` ,` , ¸ ¸ ` - . , ,` ` - _ ` . , ,` ` - ,

The verbs of this category are very similar to those of
( _· _ ` ¸ ·` ,, ).
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Exercise 49

(a) List the detailed paradigms (_..´ ,...) of the
following verbs:

, 1 , _´ , ` ¸ ´` ,
, 2 , ¸_ · ` ¸ _` ,
, 3 , _` , ¸ ,
, 4 , _ ` ¸ ` ,
, 5 , _· , ` ¸ ·` ,

(b) Name the word-forms (_ , .) of the following verbs:

, 1 , _
, 2 , ¸ ` ` ¸
, 3 , ` ¸ ´ ` ,
, 4 , . ` , ·`
, 5 , ` ,` ` · ¸

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- ,· | , | · . = ¸ = =·, ¸- 3¸¸«- .,«|
_· , , · , ` ¸ , _·` ,`, ¸ ·` , , ¸ · , ,` , · · · ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¯ ¸ ·` , · ,` , · ·, · ,
` , . ` ·` · ` ¸` , _ ·` , · ` ·` · ` ` , = ¸ ¸ · , · . , ·` , · _ ` , · ` ·` · · ¯ ,
· · ' , ' ¸ · , · ., ` , · . ` , · , ¸ · ,· . ` , · · ` , · ¸ · , · . , ` , · ¸
_·` , ' ` ·` · ¸` , . ` , ' , .` , ·` , ' . , ·` , ' ¸ · _, ·` , ` ·` · .` ,` , . , , ·` ,
·` , _ ` . , , ·` , ,

In this category of verbs, the rules of (¸..··) have been
applied to the ( ·.´ ..·) while the rules of ( ¸·.) have
been applied to the (·..´ ¸..·). Most of the paradigms
are similar to those of ( · _ _ ` ¸ ·` ,, ).


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¸| _- _«·|· =,·|·
,,,=· .
_- _«·|· =,·|·
=¸¸-'· . ¸|
g_·='·
,,,=·
g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
,,,=·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
` ¸ ` ,`, _· ` ¸ ¸ , _·` ,`, ` ¸ , ¸ ·` , _· ,
` ¸ , ·` ,`, ` ¸ , , , ·` ,`, . , , . , ·` , , · ,
` ¸ ` , ·` ,`, ` ¸ ` , , ` , ·` ,`, . ` , , . ·` , ` , · , ` ,
` ¸ _·` ,` ` ¸ ¸ ·` ,` _ ` ¸ , ·` , ` . · , ` .
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , . , ·` ,` , . , ·` , · ,
` ¸ ¸` , ·` ,`, , ` ¸ ` , ¸ ¸` , ·` ,`, , ` , ¸ ·` , ` , ¸ ¸` , · ,
` ¸ ` ,` _· ` ¸ ¸ ` ,` _· ` ¸ .` , ·` , .` , · ,
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , . , ·` ,` , . ` , ·` , ` ` , · , `
` ¸ ` , ·` ,` ` ¸ ` , ·` ,` .` , ` , . ` , ·` , ` ,` ` , · , ` ,`
` ¸ ` ¸ ·` ,` ` ¸ ` ¸ ·` ,` ¸` , ¸` , ` , ·` , . ` , · , .
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , . , ·` ,` , . ` , ·` , ` ` , · , `
` ¸ ¸` , ·` ,` ` ¸ ¸` , ·` ,` ¸` , ¸` , ` , ·` , ` ¸` ` , · , ` ¸`
` ¸ ` , ' _· ` ¸ ¸ · ' ` , ' _· ` ¸ · ' ` , ·` , ` . ` , · , ` .
` ¸ ` ,` _· ` ¸ ¸ ` ,` _· ` ¸ ` , ·` , ` , · ,

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,,,=· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
. , _- _«·|·
,,,=·
. , _- _«·|·
=¸¸-'·
` ¸ , ·` ,` , ` ¸ , , ` , ·` ,`, ` , ¸,
. , ·` ,` , . , , ` , , ·` ,`, ` , , ,
.` , ·` ,` , ` ¸ , ` , ` , ·` ,`, ` , ` , ,
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ` , ·` ,` ` , ¸
. , ·` ,` . , ` , , ·` ,` ` , ,
. ` , ·` ,` , . ` , , ` , ¸` , ·` ,`, , ` , ` , ¸
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ` , ·` ,` ` , ¸
. , ·` ,` . , ` , , ·` ,` ` , ,
.` , ·` ,` ` ¸ ` , ·` ,` ` , ` , ` ,
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ ` , ·` ,` ` ¸ ` , ` ¸
. , ·` ,` . , ` , , ·` ,` ` , ,
. ` , ·` ,` . ` , ` , ·` ,` ¸` , ` , ¸` ,
` ¸ , ·` , ' ` ¸ , · ' ` , ·` , ' ` , · '
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ` , ·` ,` ` , ¸

·,- ., _· ,,·' __.' · . ` ¸ . ` ¸ , . ` ¸ , . ` ¸ , . ` ¸ , ,
. ` ¸ ` ¸ , . ` ¸ , · '
·,- ., _· ¸,,- __.' · . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ ·` ,` , . ` ¸ ,·` ,` ,
` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` , ' . ` ¸ ·` ,` . ` ¸ ·` ,`
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_- ,,,=· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
_- =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
,,,=· ¸-v· · ¸-v· =¸¸-'
` ¸ , ·` ,` , ` ¸ , , ·` ,` , ¸ ,
. , ·` ,` , . , , , ·` ,` , , ,
.` , ·` ,` , ` ¸ , ` , ·` ,` , ` , ,
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ·` ,` ¸
. , ·` ,` . , , ·` ,` ,
` , ·` ,` , . . ` , , ¸` , ·` ,` , , ` , ¸
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , · ·` ,` ·
. , ·` ,` . , · , ·` ,` , ·
.` , ·` ,` ` ¸ · ·` ,` ` , ` , ·
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ · ·` ,` ` ¸ ` ¸ ·
. , ·` ,` . , · , ·` ,` , ·
` , ·` ,` . . ` , · ·` ,` ¸` , ¸` , ·
` ¸ , ·` , ' ` ¸ , · ' ·` , ' · '
` ¸ , ·` ,` ` ¸ , ·` ,` ¸

·,- ., _· ,,·' ,·. · . ` ¸ · . ` ¸ · . ` ¸ , · . ` ¸ , . ` ¸ , . `¸ , ,
` ¸ , . ` ¸ , · '
¸,,- ,·. ·,- ., _· · .` , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . .` ,·` ,` , . ` ¸ , ·` ,` ,
` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , ·` , ' . ` ¸ , ·` ,` .
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_- ,,,=· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
_- =¸¸-'· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|·
,,,=· _,·|· =¸¸-'· _,·|·
. ` ¸ , ·` ,`, . , , ` ¸ . ·` ,`, . ¸,
. . , ·` ,`, . . , , . , ·` ,`, . , ,
. .` , ·` ,`, . ` ¸ , . ` , ·` ,`, . ` , ,
. ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , . ·` ,` . ¸
. . , ·` ,` . . , . , ·` ,` . ,
. `, . ` , ·` , . . ` , , . ¸` , ·` ,`, . , ` , ¸
. ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , . ·` ,` . ¸
. . , ·` ,` . . , . , ·` ,` . ,
. .` , ·` ,` . ` ¸ . ·` ,` ` , . ` ,
. ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ . ·` ,` ` ¸ . ¸
. . , ·` ,` . . , . , ·` ,` . ,
. . ` , ·` ,` . . ` , . ·` ,` ¸` , . ¸` ,
. ` ¸ , ·` , ' . ` ¸ , · ' . ·` , ' . · '
. ` ¸ , ·` ,` . ` ¸ , . ·` ,` . ¸

¸, ·,- ., _· ,,·' · . . . ` ¸ , , . . ` ¸ , . . ` ¸ , . . ` ¸ ,
. . ` ¸ . . ` ¸ . . ` ¸ , · ' ` ¸ ,
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ¸, · ` ¸ , ·` ,` . . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . . .` , ·` ,`, . . ` ¸ , ·` ,`, .
. .` , ·` ,` . . ` ¸ , ·` ,` . . ` ¸ , ·` , ' . . ` ¸ , ·` ,` .
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-|v· ,=· =¸=|· ,=· ,=·
,,-«'·
¸-·«|· ,=·
` , · _ · ·` , _ · ¯ ¸ ·` , ¸ · ,
. , ` , · · , ·` , . · ` , ·` , . . , · ,
· ¸ · , · ¸ · , · ' , ·` , .` , · , .` ,
· ` , · · ` , ·` , · · , · ,
` , · . · ` , ·` , . . , · ,
· ¸ · , · ` , ·` , ` . ` . , · ,
. ` , ·
. . ` , ·
· ' ¸ · ,

Analysis

(1) The (,) of (` ¸.. ,) and all the other verbs has been
deleted due to the rule of (` ·,).
(2) The rule of (` ¸.. ·` ,,) has been applied to the (¸) of
(` ¸ ,).
(3) The imperative ( ·) was constructed from (` ¸.. ). After
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deleting the (__...' ·..···), the last letter which is a
(·· ,-) was deleted. It became ( ·).

- , v , | · . . . - =·, ¸- 3¸¸«- .,«|
` ¸ , ¸ , , . , _` ,`, ¸ ` , , ¸ ¸ , ,` , · · ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¯ ¸ ` , · ,` , · ·, . ,
` , · ` ·` · ` ` , = ¸ . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , _ ` , · ` ·` · · ¯ , ¸ ¸ , · . , ` , · _
· . ` , · , ¸ ¸ , · . ` , · · ` , · ¸ ¸ , · . , ` , · · ' , ' ¸ , · ., ` , ¸` , . ` ¸ ·
_` , ' ` ·` · , ' , .` , ` , ' . , ` , ' _, ` , ` ·` · .` ,` , ¸ ¸ ` , . , , ` , _
` . , , ` , ,

The paradigms of this category is similar to ( _· , ` ¸ , ).

_=| · . = ¸ = =·, ¸- .¸¸«- .,«|
¸, ~ ' , ~ ` ¸ , =, ¸, =`, ¸ , ~ , ¸ , ~ ,` , · ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¯ ¸ , = · ,` , · ' , ~
, = · ` ·` · ` ` , = , = . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , , ~ ¸ ¸ ` ·` · · ¯ , ¸ , = · ., , = ·
, = · ¸ ¸ , = · . , = · · , = · ¸ , = · ., , = · ., , = · . , = · ,
` ·` · ¸` , . ` ¸ · · ' , ' ¸ , = · ¸, ~ ' ~ ' , .` , , ~ ' ., , ~ ' .` ,` , ¸ ,
_,` , ~ ` ·` · , ~ . ,,` , ~ ¸ ` . ,,` , ~ ,

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·· , · - , | · . ,·-··, =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ¸|··
_ ` - ¸ ,` , · . ` - ¸ ` ¸ ` -, . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , . ` - ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¸. .` -` ·
` -` · ` ·` · ` ` , = . ` - _

·· , · - , | · . ,·-··, =·, ¸- _··, ¸|··
_ ` - ¸ ` -`, ¸ ` ` - ' , ¸ . .` -` · ,` , · . ` - ¸ `¸ ` -, _ ,` , · . ` - ¸
` -` · _ ` ,` · ' ` -` · ` ·` · ` ` , = . ` - . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , . ` - ¸ ` ·` · _

·· · - , | · . ,·-·, =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ¸|··
_ ` · ' ` · ¸ ` ¸ ` ·`, · ` ·`, ¸ ` · ' , ¸ ¸` ·` · ,` , · . _ ` · ¸ · ` ·` · ,` , · . _ ` ·` · ` ,` · '
` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ¸` · ' ` ·` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ¸` · _

- , « .·| · . ¸,-«· =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ¸|··
_` · · , ` ` ¸` `, _` `, ¸` ` , ´ , ` · ,` , ' ` · ,` , · · , ` _
' ` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` , ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` , ` ·` · ` ,` · ' _

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··, ¸|·· - , « ··| · . ¸,-«· =·, ¸- _
_ `, ¸ , ´ ¸ ` · ,` , · · , ` ¸ `, _ ` · ,` , · · , _ ` ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · '
` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` ¸ ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , _

- , , «·| · . ¸,-«· =·, ¸- .¸¸«- .,«|
¸` , · `, ` , `, ¸` , · , ´ , ` · ,` , · ·, , ` ¸` , ¸ ' , ` · ,` , · ·, , ¸ ` ·` · ` ,` · '
' , ` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ` , ` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ` , · ¸

· v· - « | · . -·-·«- =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ¸|··
· _ ` , · , ¸ ¸ ·` · ,` , · · . ·` · ` ¸ ·`, ·`, ¸ _ ·` · ,` , · · . ·` · _ ` ,` · '
·` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ¸ ·` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ¸ · ` ·` · _

· ·-· ¸ « | · . -·-·«- =·, ¸- _··, ¸|··
· _ _ · ,`, ¸ ·` ,` _ , ¸ · ,` · ,` , · · · ,` · ` ¸ · ,`, _ · ,` · ,` , · · · ,` · _ ` ,` · '
· ,` · ` ·` · ` ` , = · ,` . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , · _ ` ·` · _

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_· -·| · . ¸-«· =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ¸|··
· _ · `, ¸ ` ·` , ¸ · ` · ,` , · , · ` ¸ · , _ · ` · ,` , · , · _ ` ·` · ` ,` · '
` , ¸ · · ` · ` ·` · ` ` , = ¸ · . ` ·` · ` ¸` , _

The (,) of the verbal noun ( _..·) changed to (¸) due to
rule no. 16. In (,..-, _..·, ·..-) it is deleted due to
(¸¯ _-).


_ | ·-·| · . ¸ -·«· =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ¸|··
· _ · , _ ¸ · . ` ·` · ` ¸` ,` , ¸ · ` ·` · ` ,` · ' ¸ ¸ · ` · ,` , · , ·
· ` · ` ·` · ` ` , = _
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Exercise 50

(a) List the detailed paradigms (_..´ ,...) of the
following verbs:
, 1 , _· , ` ¸ ,
, 2 , ` -, ¸ , - _,
, 3 , _, ¸ ,
, 4 , ` ¸ ,, ¸ _ ,
, 5 , _.` , ' ` ¸ .` ,`,

(b) Name the word-forms (_ , .) of the following verbs:

, 1 , ` ¸` · ,`
, 2 , ¸ _ ,` ` ¸
, 3 , ` , ` ,
, 4 , ` ¸, ,
, 5 , ` ¸ , ,` ¸


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Combination of (_,,·) and (¸··)

=·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ =,-|¸ ·«|· _,«,- ¸=·
¸,, ¸ ·· ,·. ¸` ,` , · ,,· .` , ' ¸¯`, ¸`, ¸ ¸ ¯ ,,· .` , ' ¸` ,` ,, ¸¯
¸` , . ··

The paradigms of this verb are similar to those of ( ¸` , , ¸ ·).
The rules of (_,,·) have to be applied to the (·,·) while the
rules of (¸··) apply to the (,). Wherever there is a conflict of
the two, the rules of (¸··) will be given preference. For
example, ( ¸` ,` ,,) was originally ( ¸` , ',). It required the rule of
(` ¸ ' _) to change the (·,·) to (.), whereas the rules of (¸··)
required the transferring of the harakah to the preceding letter.
Preference was awarded to the latter.

Similarly, ( ¸` ,` , ') was originally ( ¸` , . '). The rule of ( ¸ ·¯)
required changing the (·,·) to (.). However, the rule of
(¸··) of transferring the harakah was preferred. It became
( ¸` ,` , '). Thereafter, the second hamzah was changed to (,) due to
the rule of (` · · , '). It became ( ¸` ,` , ').

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=¸= =·, ¸- _··, =,-|¸ ·«|· _,«,-
` ¯ ,,· `, ' ` ` , ·, ·¯ , ` ·¯`, `, ¸ · ,·. ` ` , · · ,,· `, ' ¸ · ·· ¸,, ` ·
` · .

This (.,) is similar to (` _` , , _ ,). The above-mentioned rule has
to be considered here as well. Consequently, in the word (` ` , ·,),
the rule of (` _` , ,) is given preference to the rule of (` ¸ _). The rule
of ( ' ·` ) applies to (` ` , ').

¸=· =·, ¸- ¸¸·¸ ¸|··¸ ·«|· _,«,-
'`, ¸ ' , ¸ ¸¯ ,,· , ' ` , ', . ' _ ¸,, ¸` , ' ·· ,·. ¯ , ' · ,,· , '
¸ ' . ··

The rules of (_,,·) apply to the hamzah while the rules of
(¸·) apply to the (,).

=¸= =·, ¸- _··, ¸|··¸ ·«|· _,«,-
_ ' ' , ¸ .¯ ,,· ,` ¸ ` ¸ ', _ '`, ¸ .`, ¸ ·· ,·. ¯ ¸ ' · ,,· ,` ¸
. ' . ·· ¸,,

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This paradigm is similar to ( _· _ ` ¸ ·` ,, ).

_·· =·, ¸- _··, ¸|··¸ ·«|· _,«,-
_, ', _, ' . , ¸ '`, ¸ , ' , ¸ .¯ ,,· _, .`, ¸ ·· ,·. ¯ ¸ , ' · ,,· . , ¸
. ' . ·· ¸,,

=¸= =·, ¸- .¸¸«- .,«|¸ ·«|· _,«,-
¸, ' ` ¸ , ', ¸, '`, ¸ , ' , ¸ ,¯ ,,· ', ' ,`, ¸ ·· ,·. ¯ ¸ , ' · ,,· ', '
, ' . ·· ¸,,

¸- ,··-¸ _-|· _,«,- =¸= =·,
` · ¸ ·· ,·. ` ·` ,` ,` , · ,,· · ' , ` · '` ,`, ` , , ` , ,,· · ' , ` ·, · ' ,
` · . ·· ¸,,

_·· =·, ¸- _··, ¸|··¸ _-|· _,«,-
¸,, ¸ ' _ ` _ ¸,`, ¸ ` _ , ¸ . _ ,,· ·,` , _ ·· ,·. ¯ ¸ ` , · ,,· ·,` ,` _
. ·· ¸,, '` , · ·· ,= , ¸ '` , · ·· ·., ¸ . , · ., '` , · ¸
, · ., '` , · .¯` , · ·¯` , · ¸.` _ ' ·· ¸,. ¸··', ' ¸ , ¸ . _ ' ., .` _ '
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` ,` _ ·· .,', .` , '` _ ' ¸ '` _ . ,,` ,` _ ¸ ` . ,,` ,` _ ,

As mentioned previously, the rule of ( ¸ ·` ,) is compulsory in the
verbs of this (.,). Hereunder follow the detailed paradigms of
this verb. Since it is a very common verb and many rules have
been applied to it, it should be thoroughly learnt.
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_«·|· =,·|·
. ¸| _-
,,,=·
_«·|· =,·|·
. ¸| _-
¸-'· =¸
g_·='·
,,,=·
g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
,,,=·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
` ¸ `, ¸, ` ¸ , ¸, ¸,`, ,, ¸ ¸ ` _ ' _ ¸
` ¸ , ,`, ` ¸ , ,, , ,`, . , ,, . , ` _ , ' _
` ¸ ` , ,`, ` ¸ ` , ,, ` , ,`, . ` , ,, . ` ,` _ ` , ' _ ` ,
` ¸ ` ¸, ` ¸ ¸, ` ¸, ¸, , ` _ ` . ' _ ` .
` ¸ , ,` ` ¸ , , ., ,` , , . , ` _ ' _
` ¸ ¸`, ,`, , ` ¸ `, , ¸ ¸`, ,`, , `, , ¸ ` , ` _ ¸ ¸`, ' _
` ¸ ` ¸, ` ¸ ¸, ` ¸, ¸, .` , ` _ .`, ' _
` ¸ , ,` ` ¸ , , ,` ., , , . ` , ` _ ` `, ' _ `
` ¸ ,` ` , ` ¸ ` , , ,` .` , ` , , . ` , ` _ ` ,` `, ' _ ` ,`
` ¸ ,` ` ¸ ` ¸ ` ¸ , ,` ¸`, ¸`, , ` , ` _ . `, ' _ .
` ¸ , ,` ` ¸ , , ., ,` , , . ` , ` _ ` `, ' _ `
` ¸ ` , ¸`, ` ¸ ¸`, , ,` ¸`, ¸`, , ` , ` _ ` ¸` `, ' _ ` ¸`
` ¸ _ ' ¸ ` ¸ _ ' ¸ _ ' ¸ ¸_ ' ` , ` _ ` . `, ' _ ` .
` ¸ ,` ¸ ` ¸ , ¸ ,` ¸ , ¸ ` , ` _ `, ' _

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,,,=· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
_«·|· . , _-
,,,=·
. , _- _«·|·
=¸¸-'·
` ¸, ,` , ` ¸, , , ` , ,`, ` , ,,
., ,` , ., , , ` , , ,`, ` , , ,,
.` , ,` , .` , , , ` , ` , ,`, ` , ` , ,,
` ¸, ,` ` ¸, , ` , ,` ` , ,
., ,` ., , ` , , ,` ` , , ,
. `, ,` , . `, , , ` , ¸`, ,`, , ` , `, , ¸
` ¸, ,` ` ¸, , ` , ,` ` , ,
., ,` ., , ` , , ,` ` , , ,
.` , ,` .` , , ` , ,` ` , ` , ` , ,
` ¸, ,` ` ¸, , ` , ,` ` ¸ ` , ` ¸ ,
., ,` ., , ` , , ,` ` , , ,
. `, ,` . `, , ` , ,` ¸`, ` , ¸`, ,
` ¸, _ ' ` ¸, _ ' ` , ' _ ` , _ '
` ¸, ,` ` ¸, , ` , ,` ` , ,
- ., _· ,,·' __.' ·, · .` , , . ` ¸, , . ` ¸, , . .` , , , . ` ¸, , ,
` ¸, , . ` ¸, _ ' . ` ¸, , .
·,- ., _· ¸,,- __.' · . .` , ,` . ` ¸, ,` . ` ¸, ,` . .` , ,` , . ` ¸, ,` ,
` ¸, ,` . ` ¸, _ ' . ` ¸, ,`
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· ¸-v· ,,,=
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
,,,=· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
` ¸, ,` , ` ¸, , , ,` , , ,
., ,` , ., , , , ,` , , , ,
.` , ,` , .` , , , ` , ,` , , , ` ,
` ¸, ,` ` ¸, , ,` ,
` ., , ., , , ,` , ,
. `, ,` , . `, , , ¸`, ,` , , `, , ¸
` ¸, ,` ` ¸, _ ,` _
., ,` ., _ , ,` , _
.` , ,` .` , _ ,` ` , ` , _
` ¸, ,` ` ¸, _ ,` ` ¸ ` ¸ _
., ,` ., _ , ,` , _
. `, ,` . `, _ ,` ¸`, ¸`, _
` ¸, _ ' ` ¸, _ ' ' _ _ '
` ¸, ,` ` ¸, , ,` ,
·,- ., _· ,,·' ,·. · ` ¸, _ . .` , _ . ` ¸, _ . ` ¸, , . .` , , , . ` ¸, , ,
. ` ¸, _ ' . ` ¸, ,
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ,·. · . .` , ,` . ` ¸, ,` . ` ¸, ,` . .` , ,` , . ` ¸, ,` ,
` ¸, ,` . ` ¸, _ ' . ` ¸, ,`
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,,,=· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
,,,=· _,·|· =¸¸-'· _,·|·
. ` ¸, ,`, . ` ¸, ,, . ,`, . ,,
. ., ,`, . ., ,, . , ,`, . , ,,
. .` , ,`, . .` , ,, . ` , ,`, . ` , ,,
. ` ¸, ,` . ` ¸, , . ,` . ,
. ., ,` . ., , . , ,` . , ,
. . `, ,`, . . `, ,, . ¸`, ,`, . , `, , ¸
. ` ¸, ,` . ` ¸, , . ,` . ,
. ., ,` . ., , . , ,` . , ,
. .` , ,` . .` , , . ,` ` , . ` , ,
. ` ¸, ,` . ` ¸, , . ,` ` ¸ . ` ¸ ,
. , ,` . . ., , . , ,` . , ,
. . `, ,` . . `, , . ,` ¸`, . ¸`, ,
. ` ¸, _ ' . ` ¸, _ ' . _ ' . _ '
. ` ¸, ,` . ` ¸, , . ,` . ,
·,- ., _· ,,·' ¸, · . . . ` ¸, ,, ,, . . .` , . . ` ¸, , . ` ¸, ,
. . . .` , , . . ` ¸, , . . ` ¸, _ ' ` ¸, ,
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ¸, · . . ` ¸, ,` . . ` ¸, ,` . . .` , ,`, . . ` ¸, ,`, .
` ¸, ,` . . ` ¸, _ ' . . ` ¸, ,` . . .` , ,`
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|v· ,=· - =¸=|· ,=· ,,-«'· ,=· ¸-·«|· ,=·
'` , · ¸ · '` , ¸ · ¯ ¸ ` , ¸ . _
. , ` , · · , '` , . · ` , ` , . . , _
· ¸ . , · ¸ . , · ' , ` , .` , ` , _ .` ,
·¯` , · · ` , ` , · · , _
. ¯` , · · ` , ` , . . , _
· ¸ . , · ` , ` , ` . _ ` . ,
.¯` , ·
. '¯` , ·
· ' ¸ ,

Analysis
(1) The verb ( , ¸, ) was originally (` ¸ '` ,,). The rule of ( ¸ ·` ,) is
first applied after which the (¸) is changed to (.) due to rule
no. 7. This change applies to all the word-forms except the dual
form in which only the rule of ( ¸ ·` ,) applies. In the plural
masculine forms and the singular second person feminine, the
(.) is deleted due to (¸¯ _-).
(2) In words like ( , ` ¸ ¸, ), no visible change has taken place
because the (.) does not accept any harakah.
(3) The (.) is deleted from words like ( ,, ` , ) because of the
(` , ).
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(4) In words like (` ¸, , , ), the (¸) reverts in place of the (.)
because the latter cannot accept a harakah. The (·, .,)
requires a (·-·) before it.
(5) In ( .` , , , ), due to (¸¯ _-) between the (,) and the
(.), and the (,) is not a (··). Therefore a (·.) is rendered to it
to indicate the deletion of the (,).
(6) The imperative ( _) is constructed from ( ¸, ). After deleting
the (__.' ····), the (.) is deleted from the end. It becomes
( _).
(7) The imperative (` ¸, _) was originally ( _). The (·· ,-)
which was deleted due to a (.·,) now reverts. However, the
(.) was not capable of upholding a harakah. Hence, the (¸)
which changed into (.) reverts so that it can carry the (·-·)
which the (·, .,) requires before it. It becomes (` ¸, _). In ( .` , _)
and (` ¸, _), the (,) and (¸) are rendered a dammah and kasrah
respectively because they are not (··). A harakah is not
permissible on a (··). The dammah indicates the deletion of the
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(,) from the original while the kasrah indicates the deletion of a
(¸).

=¸= =·, ¸- _··, =,-|¸ ;:|· _,«,-
_` , - · ,,· ·` , - · . -`, _` , - , ¸ . - ,,· ·` , - · _` , -, . - ·· ,·.
_` , - · ·· ,= _ - . ·· ¸,, _ -

(1) The remainder of the paradigm is similar to (_` , , _ , ).
(2) The verb ( . , . ) which is (¸, ,-', ·· _,,·) can
be from (_- .,) or (_· .,). A letter from the (·,- ,,-)
is present in the (·´ ·.). The (·,¯) of the (¸.' ¸·) is
not visible. In the verbs before ( ¸ · ), the (¸) was changed to
(.). The original of the (.) could therefore be either ( ¸
·_,´·) or (·-,· ¸). The question arises as to why the verbs
from ( ¸ · ) till ( · ) have been rendered a kasrah. The answer to
this is that if this verb is from (_- .,), the kasrah of the ( .·
·´) indicates the kasrah of the ( ¸· ·´ ). If this verb is
from (_· .,), the kasrah of the (·´ .·) indicates the
deleted (¸) as in ( ¸` · ,).
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(3) In the imperative ( _ -) and the words affected by (·,-) like
( _ -, ` , ), the hamzah can be changed to (¸). In ( ' ) and ( ` ,
' ,), the hamzah can be read as an (.). The (·· ,-) will
however remain and not be deleted because the hamzah is a root
letter. In (·· _,,·) the (·´ ·.) is not deleted.
(4) The hamzah of ( _` , - ·) and ( · ·` , ·) cannot be changed to (¸)
and then (···¸) be applied because the (¸) is an original letter.
Therefore the rule of (··,=-) cannot be applied here as this is not
a (·_ ··).
(5) The (¸) of ( _, - ·) and similar words is not changed to a
hamzah because it is a root letter. The rule of (` , - ·) only applies
to a (·_ ,) or ( ¸ ·_ ).

Exercise 51
(a) List the detailed paradigms (_..´ ,...) of the
following verbs:
, 1 , ' _, ', _,
, 2 , ¸ ' , ` ¸ ,,
, 3 , ' =, _ ~ ,
, 4 , '` _ ' ¸ ` ¸ ` ,`,
, 5 , ¸· ', ¸ · '

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The Rules of (.·.·)

Rule 1
If there are two letters of the same type ( ¸.-·) or they
are similar (._..·) and the first is (¸¯..), it will be
assimilated into the second letter. That is, (·..··¸) will be
applied.
This rule applies whether the letters are in the same word
or in two separate words.

Examples of (···¸) in the same word
i. ` ·` · ¯ · (Example of [¸-·] letters, that is “·”)
ii. ` ·` ¯ (Example of [¸-·] letters, that is “·”)
iii. ` , .` · ` ,' · (Example of [¸,_....·]
letters, that is “·” and “.”)

In the case of ( ¸,_.·), the first letter is changed into the second
letter before (···¸) is applied. In the above example, (·) is changed
to (.) first, and then the two (.)’s are assimilated. However, the (·)
is still written, although not pronounced.

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Examples of (···¸) in two words

, ` . · · ¸ ` , ` . · · ¸
` ,` ¯ , ` , . · ` ,` ¯ ` , ` , . ·

Exception

In two words, if the first word is a (·` ·)
1
, the letters will not be
assimilated, that is, (···¸) will not be applied.

Example
¸ ·` ,, ` _ ·

However, if the ( ·` .·) is in the same word, ( ·.··¸) will be
applied.

Example
` ¸`, , · ¯ ¸ , ·

n n n n n

1
A ( · .·) is either a (,) preceded by a ( ·` ..), a (¸) preceded by a ( ·,.¯) or
a (.) preceded by a (·-·)
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¸· · ¸` ,'
·,-·
1
st
letter
·,-·
2
nd

letter
¸` ,' ¸· ·
·,-·
Rule 2
If two letters of the same type are ( ·,.-·), and the letter
preceding the first (¸` ,' ¸· ·) is also ( ·,.-·), the first letter
will be made (¸¯) and then the two letters will be assimilated,
that is, (···¸) will be applied.

Example
· . · ` . · · ` ·







_ , · _` , · ` , ·


However, if a noun (,¸) has a (·¯,-) on the ( ·.´ ¸·), the
letters will not be assimilated. In this case, (···¸) will not apply.

·,-·
1
st
letter

·,-·
2
nd

letter
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Example
` _ ,
` _` ,`
n n n n n

Rule 3
If the letter preceding the first ( ¸` ,' ¸.· ·) is ( ¸¯.) and not a
(·` ·), the (·¯,-) of the first letter will be given to its preceding letter
and then (···¸) will be applied.

Example

` ·` ` , , ` ·` ` ' ` ,


` _ , , ` _` , , ' , , (.,. .,)
` ¸ .` ·, ` ¸` . ·, ' ¸ ·, (_- .,)

Exception
This rule does not apply to the words of (¸-·).
(¸` ,' ¸· ·) preceding letter

¸` ,' ¸· ·
(¸ ,') first letter

(¸) second letter
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Example
. - (No change is made.)

n n n n n

Rule 4

If the preceding letter is a (·` ..·), without transferring the
( ·.¯,-), the first letter will be made ( ¸¯.) and both will
be assimilated, that is, (···¸) will be applied.

Examples

_. - - (,,·· _.· ¸··) of (··· .,)
_ - - ` - - _ ` _ -
· ·` ,` · (¸,,- _.· ¸··) of (··· .,)

· ·` ,` · ·` ·` ,` · ` ·` ,` ·

n n n n n
·` · 1st

2nd

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Rule 5

If after applying (·..··¸), there is a (...·,-pause) due to
( ,.·'), or there is a ( ·,.-), the following are permissible in
the second letter:

i. ·-· – because it is the lightest letter ( ' .¯,- .- ).
ii. ·,¯ – whenever any (¸¯) letter is rendered a harakah, it is
rendered a kasrah. The rule is ( ,` ´ , ·` ,` - ·` ,` - ·¸ ` ¸¯).
iii. · ' : ···¸ – (no ···¸ takes place).

Example
The (··,. ,·') of (' , , ` , ·) is:
` , · . ` , · . ` _ , · ¸
If the preceding letter ( ¸` ,' ¸.· ·) is ( ·,..·), then ( ·..)
is also permissible.

Example

` ` , ` , . ` ` , ` , . ' ` , ` , . , ` , ` ·` `


When the final letter has (.,´), either because of a suffix, or
because it is in the jussive case (·,- ·-) or it is the imperative
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(,·.), the two letters must be written separately, e.g. ( ` · ·) and
(` ·` ` · ').
When the final letter is (·,-·) – it is vowelled – the two are
coalesced.
18
This does not apply to the ( .· _ ) – verbal noun,
where the (.) interposes between the two final letters, e.g.
(` · ` · ¸).

Exercise 52

(1) Which rule has been applied to the word (` ¸.. ~) and
how?
(2) Explain the rule applied in the word ( .` , ´` ` ¸ ).
(3) Analyse the rule applied in the word (' .` ,).
(4) Apply rule no. 4 to the word ( · · _).
(5) What are the different ways of reading the imperative
singular form of the following words?

, 1 , ` ¸ ~
, 2 , ` ¸ ·
, 3 , `


18
joined and made into one.
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¸=· =·, ¸- .-·=-
`, ` ` · , ¯ · · ,,· ' · ' ` , ` · ' ` · ` ` · ` ` · ·· ,·. ` ·` ,` ` · ,,· ' · '
¯ · ·· ,= ` ·` ` . ' ` . ` ` . `` . ·· ¸,, ` ·` ` · '
` · ` · ' · · . ` · ·` · ' · · .` · ¯ · ·· ·., ' · · .` ·
. · ` · ' · · ' , .` ,' · ' .` · ' ' · ' ·· ¸,. ¸··', ` `, · ·
¸` ` · ·· .,', ` .,` ` · , ` · ` · .,` ` ·

Analysis
(1) Rule no. 2 has been applied to (` ·).
(2) In the words (` ` ·), (' ` ,) and (' `,), rule no. 3 has been
applied.
(3) Rule no. 4 has been applied to (¯ · ·), (' · ·) and (' · · ').
(4) In the imperative and prohibition (¸,, ,·.), rule no. 5 has
been applied.

Hereunder follows the detailed paradigms of this verb.
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_«·|· =,·|·
. ¸| _-
,,,=·
_«·|· =,·|·
. ¸| _-
=¸¸-'·
g_·='·
,,,=·
g_·='·
=¸¸-'·
_=·'·
,,,=·
_=·'·
=¸¸-'·
` ¸ ` `, ` ¸ ` ` , ' `, ' ` , ` ` · ` ·
` ¸ ` `, ` ¸ ` ` , ` `, . ` ` , . ` ` · ` ·
` ¸ ` ,' `, ` ¸ ` ,' ` , ` ,' `, . ` ,' ` , . ' ` · ` , ' · ` ,
` ¸ ` ` ` ¸ ` ` ' ` ' ` ` ` · ` . ` · ` .
` ¸ ` ` ` ¸ ` ` ` ` . ` ` . ` ` · ` ·
` ¸ .` · ` `, ` ¸ .` ·` ` , .` · ` `, .` ·` ` , .` · ` · .` · ·
` ¸ ` ` ` ¸ ` ` ' ` ' ` .` · ` · .` · ·
` ¸ ` ` ` ¸ ` ` ` ` . ` ` . ` · ` · ` ` · · `
` ¸ ` ,' ` ` ¸ ` ,' ` .` ,' ` .` ,' ` ` · ` · ` ,` ` · · ` ,`
` ¸ ` ¸` ` ` ¸ ` ¸` ` ¸`,` ` ¸`,` ` ` · ` · . ` · · .
` ¸ ` ` ` ¸ ` ` ` ` . ` ` . ` · ` · ` ` · · `
` ¸ .` · ` ` ` ¸ .` ·` ` .` · ` ` .` ·` ` ` · ` · ` ¸` ` · · ` ¸`
` ¸ ` · ' ` ¸ ` ` · ' ' · ' ' ` · ' ` · ` · ` . ` · · ` .
` ¸ ` ` ` ¸ ` ` ' ` ' ` ` · ` · ` · ·

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,,,=· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· g_·='·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
. , _- _«·|·
,,,=·
. , _- _«·|·
=¸¸-'·
.` ` , .` ` , ` , ` `, ` , ` ` ,
.` ` , .` ` , ` , ` `, ` , ` ` ,
.' ` , , .' ` ` , ` ,' `, ` , ` ,' ` ,
.` ` .` ` ` , ` ` ` , ` `
.` ` .` ` ` , ` ` ` , ` `
. ` · ` ` , . ` ·` ` , ` , .` · ` `, ` , .` ·` ` ,
.` ` .` ` ` , ` ` ` , ` `
.` ` .` ` ` , ` ` ` , ` `
.' ` .' ` ` , ` ,' ` ` , ` ,' `
.` ` .` ` ` , ` ¸` ` ` , ` ¸` `
.` ` .` ` ` , ` ` ` , ` `
. ` · ` ` . ` ·` ` ` , .` · ` ` ` , .` ·` `
. · ' .` ` · ' ` , ` · ' ` , ` ` · '
.` ` .` ` ` , ` ` ` , ` `
·,- ., _· ,,·' __.' · . .` ` . .` ` . .' ` , . .` ` ,
' ` .` ` . .` ` · ' . .` ` . .
·,- ., _· ¸,,- __.' · . .` ` . .` ` . .' ` , . .` ` ,
.` ` . .` · ' . .` ` . .' `
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,,,=· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· ¸-v·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
,,,=· ¸-v· =¸¸-'· ¸-v·
.` ` , .` ` , ` ` , ` ` ,
.` ` , .` ` , ` ` , ` ` ,
.' ` , .' ` , ` ,' ` , ` ,' ` ,
.` ` .` ` ` ` ` `
.` ` .` ` ` ` ` `
. ` · ` ` , . ` ·` ` , .` · ` ` , .` ·` ` ,
.` ` .` ` · ` ` ` ` ·
.` ` .` ` · ` ` ` ` ·
.' ` .' ` · ` ,' ` ` ,' ` ·
.` ` .` ` · ` ¸` ` ` ¸` ` ·
` ` . .` ` · ` ` ` ` ·
. ` · ` ` . ` ·` ` · ' .` · ` ` .` ·` ` · '
. · ' .` ` · ' ` · ' ` ` · '
.` ` .` ` ` ` ` `
·,- ., _· ,,·' ,·. · ` ` . .' ` , . .` ` , . .' ` · . .` ` · . .
.` ` . .` ` · ' . .` ` ·
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ,·. · .' ` . .` ` . .` ` . .' ` , . .` ` ,
.` ` . .` · ' . .` ` .
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,,,=· _,·|·
-·,«·|· .,·|· _-
=¸¸-'· _,·|·
|· _- -·,«·|· .,·
,,,=· _,·|· =¸¸-'· _,·|·
. .` `, . .` ` , . ` `, . ` ` ,
. .` `, . .` ` , . ` `, . ` ` ,
. .' `, . .' ` , . ` ,' `, . ` ,' ` ,
. .` ` . .` ` . ` ` . ` `
. .` ` . .` ` . ` ` . ` `
. . ` · ` `, . . ` ·` ` , . .` · ` `, . .` ·` ` ,
. .` ` . .` ` . ` ` . ` `
. .` ` . .` ` . ` ` . ` `
. .' ` . .' ` . ` ,' ` . ` ,' `
. .` ` . .` ` . ` ¸` ` . ` ¸` `
. .` ` . .` ` . ` ` . ` `
. . ` · ` ` . . ` ·` ` . .` · ` ` . .` ·` `
. . · ' . .` ` · ' . ` · ' . ` ` · '
. .` ` . .` ` . ` ` . ` `
·,- ., _· ,,·' ¸, · . . . .` ` , . . .' ` , . . .` ` .` `
. . . . .' ` . . .` ` . . .` ` · ' .` `
·,- ., _· ¸,,- ¸, · .` ` . . .` ` . . .' `, . . .` `, .
.` ` . . .` · ' . . .` ` . . .' ` . .
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-|v· ,=· =¸=|· ,=· ,,-«'· ,=· ¸-·«|· ,=·
¯ · ¯ · ` ·` ,` ` · ¯ · ·
.` · ` · . ·` ,` ` · . .` · ·
' · · ' · · ` ·` ,` ` · .` , ' · · .` ,
·` · · ·` ,` ` · ·` · ·
. ` · ·` ,` ` · . . ` · ·
' · · ·` ,` ` · ` . ` .` · ·
` · ` ·
. · ` ·
` `, · ·

Analysis
(1) From ( .` · ·) till the end, no (···¸) of the first (·) applies
because the second radical is (¸¯).
(2) However, from (` .` · ·) onwards, (···¸) applies because the
(·) and (.) are (_,-' .,,·) – close in source of
pronunciation.
(3) Rule no. 5 has been applied to (` ` , ` , ) etc.
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Exercise 53

(1) Conjugate the following verbs in detail:

, 1 , ' .` , ` .
, 2 , ' ¸ =, ` ¸ ~
, 3 , ' .` ,, ` . ·
, 4 , ' . , ` .
, 5 , ' . ´, ` . ¯


(2) What is the word-form (··,.) of the following words:

, 1 , .` , ,
, 2 , ` , .` ·` ` .
, 3 , ` ¸` , ` ¸
, 4 , ` ¸' ` ,
, 5 , ` _` ·

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=¸= =·, ¸- .-·=-
` , . ` , . ·· ¸,, ` _ , · ¸ ` , · ` , · ·· ,·. ¯ _ · ,,· _ , · ' , , ` , ·
¯ , · ·· ,= ` _ , .

_r =·, ¸- .-·=-
, ` ¸ · ¯ ¸ · ,,· ' · ' ¸ ·· ,·. ` ¸,` ` · ,,· ' · ' ¸ `, ` ¸` · ,
,= ` ¸ ` . ` ¸ . ` ¸ . ·· ¸,, `¸ ` · ¸ ` ¸ · ` ¸ ·
¯ ¸ · ··

,·-··, =·, ¸- .-·=-
,,· _ , =` . ¸ ' , =` .`, ` , =` . ' , ¯ , =` .` · ,,· _ , =` . ¸ ' , =` ., ` , =` . ¸
. ¯ , =` .` · . ` , =` . . ·· ¸,, ` _ , =` . ¸ ` , =` . ¸ ` , =` . ¸ ·· ,·
¯ , =` .` · ·· ,= ` _ , =` . . ` , =` .

In this (.,), the ( ¸.· ,), ( ¸,.·' ,.) and ( ,.
,..=) have become similar in form but the original of
the ( ¸.· ,.) was ( ¸.· _,.´·) while the ( ,.
¸,·') and (,= ,) was ( _,· ¸· ).

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,·-«·, =·, ¸- .-·=-
¸,, ` · ` ¸ ` ` ¸ ` ` ¸ ·· ,·. ¯ `` · ,,· · ` ¸ ' ` , ` ` ¸
¯ ` ` · ·· ,= ` · ` . ` ` . ` ` . ··

, ¸- .-·=- ,·-«·=, =·
` _ , ` ¸ ` , ` ¸ ` , ` ¸ ·· ,·. ¯ , ` ` · ,,· _ , ` ¸ ' , ` , ` , ` ¸
¯ , ` ` · ·· ,= ` _ , ` . ` , ` . ` , ` . ·· ¸,,


,·-·, =·, ¸- .-·=-
, ¯ ` · ,,· · ` · ¸ ' `, ` · ' ` · ' ·· ,·. ¯ ` · ,,· · ` · ¸ ' `, ` ·'
¯ ` · ·· ,= ` · ` ` . ` ` . ` ` . ·· ¸,, ` · ` · ' ` · '

¸,-«· =·, ¸- .-·=-
` ·` -` · ,,· `, ` - ` ·` -`, ·` ` - , ` ·` -`· ,,· `, ` - ` ·` -`, ·` -
,·. ` ·` -` · ·· ,= ` ·` -` . ·· ¸,, ` ·` - ··

¸-«· =·, ¸- .-·=-
,,· - ` . - `, . ` -` , ` . - ` · ,,· - ` . - , . -
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·· ,= ` . - . ·· ¸,, ` . - ·· ,·. ` . - ` ·
` . - ` ·

The rules of (·..··¸) have not been applied in these two
paradigms.

-·-·«- =·, ¸- .-·=-
¯ _ -` · ,,· ·` - -` · ' _ -`, ` _` ,` - , ¯ _ -` · ,,· ·` - -` · ' _ -`, ` _ -
. ` _ -` . ` _ -` . ·· ¸,, ` _ - - ` _ - ` _ - ·· ,·.
· ,= ` _ - -` ¯ _ -` · ·

Wherever ( ·.··¸) has been applied in this ( ..,), it is due
to rule no. 4.

=·, ¸- .-·=- ¸-·«·
¯ · . ` · ,,· ·` · . ' · . `, ` ·` ,` .` , ¯ ·. ` · ,,· ·` · . ' · . , ` · .
. ·· ¸,, ` · · . ` · . ` · . ·· ,·. . ` · . . ` · .
¯ · . ` · ·· ,= ` · · .

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A Combination of (.·.·), (_,,·) and (¸··)

¸=· =·, ¸- .-·=-¸ ·«|· _,«,-
' · ' ` · ' ` · ' ·· ,·. ` ·` ,` · ' · ,,· · · · ¸ '· '`, ` · ' , ¯ ·¯ ,,· · · · ¸ ' ·` ,, ` · '
,, ` ,` ·` , ' ¯ · ' · ·· ,= ` ,` · ' . ' · ' . ` · ' . ` · ' . ·· ¸

Analysis
(1) The rules of (_,..,·) apply to the hamzah while the
rules of ( .·..·) apply to the doubled letters ( ¸.-·).
At the time of conflict, the rules of ( .·..·) will be given
preference.
(2) In the word (' ·` ,..,), the rule of (` ¸ ' _) was not applied.
Rather the rule of (' ` ,) was given preference.
(3) After applying (·..··¸) to the word (' ·` , '), the rule of
(` · · , ') was applied whereby the hamzah changed to (,). It
becomes (' ·` , ').

_r =·, ¸- .-·=-¸ ,··-
` · `, ¸ ` · , ` · , ·· ,·. ` ·` ,` ·` , · ,,· ' ·` , '· ,`, ` ·` , , ¯ · , ,,· ' ·` , ' · ,, ` · ,
' · , · .` · , · ¯ · , · ·· ,= ` · ·` , . ` ·, . ` · , . ·· ¸,,
.` · , · ¯ · , · ·· ·., ` `, · , · . · ` , · ` · ` , · ' · , · . ` · , · ·` · , · ' · , ·
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` ·` , ·· .,', ' · , ' , .` ,' · , ' .` · , ' ' · , ' ·· ¸,. ¸··', ¸
` .,` ·` , , ` · ·` , .,` ·` ,

Analysis
(1) The rules of (.·...·) apply to the doubled letters
( ¸.-·) while the rules of ( ¸.··) apply to the (,). At the
time of conflict, the rules of (.·...·) will be given
preference.
(2) In the word (¯ · , ·), the rule of ( ¸··) required the (,) to be
changed to (¸) while the rule of (.·.·) requires the
transferring of the harakah of the first (·) to the (,). The latter
has been given preference.


_r =·, ¸- .-·=-¸ ,··-
·· ,·. ¯ , ` ,` · ,,· · `, ¸ ' , ` ,`, ` ,` ` , ' , ¯ , ` ,` · ,,· · `, ¸ ' , ', ` , `, ¸
, ` , `, ¸ ` , `, ¸ ` , `, ¸ ¯ , ` ,` · ·· ,= ` , ' . ` , ' . ` , ' . ·· ¸,

If there is a ( ¸¯. .,.) in one word followed any of the
letters of ( .,.·,,) in another word, ( ·.··¸) will be applied
to the (¸¯ .,).
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Examples
( :` ,` _ ` ¸ ·), (` ` ), ( `, ` ¸ · ` . ·` , ), (` ,` , -` _ ` ` , . _) and
(¸ , ¯ · ` ¸` · - .). (The tanwīn is a nūn sākin in reality).
If the letters are in one word, (·..··¸) will not apply, e.g.
( ,` ` ·), ( . ,` .).

The (¸) of the definite article (¸) becomes assimilated in
the ( ,,- ·,- ), e.g. ( ¸` ` ,).
The (·,- ,,-) are:
( . . ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ _ _ · · . ¸ )
It is not assimilated in the remaining letters of the
alphabet, e.g. ( , ,)
The remaining letters are called (·,,· ,,-).

Exercise 54

(1) Conjugate the following verbs in detail:
, 1 , ' ¸ ·, ` ¸ ·
, 2 , ¸ =, ¸ ~
, 3 , ` ¸ ~ ¸
, 4 , ` , ,` - ¸ ¸
, 5 , _` , ·
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Special Meanings of Each (.,)
.,,. .,.-

The (·,.-) refers to the extra meaning of a verb besides its
literal meaning, e.g. ( _ ,` - ') means to expel. The verb is
transitive. Here (·,.-) refers to the latter meaning, namely that
of being transitive.
The vastness of the Arabic language can be estimated from the
(.,.-) due to the fact that one verb can have so many
different shades of meaning merely by using the verb in different
categories (.,,').

The (-,=·-) of (¸=· =·,)

( · ·` ·) – to mention a verb after (··· .,) to show that one
object overpowers another, e.g. (` ·` ` . - · ¸` -` , ` ¸ . -) – The
man disputed with me and I overcame him in the dispute.

The (-,=·-) of (=¸= =·,)

The (·,.-) of this category is also ( · ·` ·) on condition it is
either (¸··), (¸, ,-') or (¸, ¸·).
Example:
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(` ·' ` · , · ` ` , _ ` ¸ · ,) – I and Rashīd made a mutual promise
and I was predominant in the promise.

The (-,=·-) of (_r =·,)

This (.,) most often has verbs which have the meaning of
illnesses, grief, joy, colours, defects or physical forms, e.g. ( , )
– to become ill.
( . , -) – to be grieved.
( _ , ·) – to become happy.
( ¯ _ ) – to be blackish.
( _ , ·) – to be one-eyed.
( _ ,) – to have broad eyebrows.
This (.,) is mostly intransitive.

The (-,=·-) of (;¸· =·,)

This (.,) is always intransitive. It refers to the natural qualities
of a person that are of a permanent nature or a temporary nature
achieved by experience.
Examples: ( ¸` -) – to be handsome, ( _` ·) – to be ugly,
( · ·) – to have understanding,

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The Derived Categories

The ( ,.- · ) of (¸·· .,)

(1) ( - , = - ·) – to make an intransitive verb transitive and if it is
already transitive, to make it doubly transitive, e.g.
( ¸ , ) – to descend, ( ¸ ,` ') – to send down;
( _ ) – to hear, ( _ ` ') – to make someone hear.

(2) (¸ , , = · ) – to make the doer (¸··) or the object (¸,··)
obtain the root (-'·) of the verbal noun (_.·) from which the
verb is formed, e.g. ( ¸` ·` ` . ¯ ,` ') – I provided the shoe with
shoelaces. The (-'· - root) is (` · , ) meaning shoelaces.
( , ') - to bear fruit. The (-'·) is (` , ) meaning fruit.

(3) ( - · ` ¸ , ¸ ) – to take the object to the place of the noun (-'·),
e.g. (` ·` ` · , ') – I took it to the place of selling, that is the market.
The (-'·) is (_,,).

(4) ( .· = - ¸) – to find something described with the (-'·), e.g.
(` ·` -` , ') – I found him to be stingy; (` ·` ` · , ¯ ') - I found him to be
noble; (` ·' ` ` - ') – I found him to be praiseworthy.
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(5) (= - | « |· . · = ) – to remove the (-'·) from something. This
is of two types:
[1] if the verb is intransitive, the (-'·) will be removed from
the doer e.g. ( ¸` -` , · ') – the man removed oppression from
himself, that is, he was just.
[2] if the verb is transitive, the (-'·) will be removed from the
object e.g. ( ¸` -` , ¸` , · ` .`, · ') –I removed dirt from the eye of
the man.

(6) (= - | « |· ·· = - , ) – the doer gives the object the (-'·), e.g.
( . ´ ` .` =` · ') – I gave the dog a bone.

(7) ( g , · ,) – the doer reaches the (-'·) or enters it, e.g. ( _ ` . '
¸` -` ,) – the man reached in the morning; ( ¸` -` , · ,` · ') – the
man reached Iraq.

(8) ( · _ ¸ ¸ , =) – It has three meanings:
[1] to become the possessor of the (-'·), e.g. ( · , . ') –
the cow became one with milk.
[2] the doer becomes the possessor of something that is described
by the (-'·), that is, it has the quality of the (-'·), e.g. ( . ,` - '
¸` -` ,) – the man became the owner of mangy
19
camels.

19
A skin disease affecting hairy animals that causes an itch.
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[3] the doer becomes the possessor of something in the place or
time of the (-'·), e.g. ( ·` . · ,` - ') – the goat bore offspring
in the autumn season.

(9) (` 3· « ¬ · = ,) – the doer becomes entitled to the (-'·), e.g.
(` ` · ` . - ,` _ ') – Hind was entitled to be married.

(10) ( - · , · , -) – the doer reaches at the time of the (-'·), e.g.
(` _` _` , .` - ') –the crop was ready to be harvested.

(11) ( - - |· , -) – the meaning of the (-'·) is strengthened, either
by making the act more final or making it more intense and wider
in application, e.g. ( ¸` -` , ') – the date palm bore much fruit;
(` _` ' . , ` ') – the morning became very bright.

(12) ( ·· = · , ,) – the verb is initially used from (¸··¸ .,). This
can be of two types: either the verb is not used in its root form
(·,-), e.g. ( ¸ ·` _ ') - to hasten; or the verb is used in the root form
but for another meaning, e.g. ( ¸ ` ') – to fear while the root form
( ¸ ) means to be compassionate.

(13) ( - « ·· , -) – to be synonymous with another verb, e.g.
(¸ -` · ' , ¸` , ¸ - ·) – both mean: the night spread.
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(14) ( - - ¸· = -) – to mention a verb after another verb to indicate
the fact that the object has accepted the effect of the doer, e.g.
( , ` , ' · ` ·` ` ,` ,) – I gave him glad tidings so he became happy.

(15) ( - , . ·) - making a relationship of something to the (-'·),
e.g. ( ` .` , ¯ ' ¸` -` , ) – I made a relationship of disbelief to the
man.

(16) (` ;· ¸ | ,) – to make a transitive verb intransitive, e.g.
( = ` , -) – Sālim praised Allâh. (` , ` - ') – Sālim was
praiseworthy.

The (=·,=·-) of (¸,-«· =·,)

(1) (-,=-·) – Example: ( ¸` -` , ' .` ` · ·) - I made the man sit.

(2) (.·=) – Example: ( · , ¯ ` .` ,` ·) - I removed the peel of
the fruit.

(3) (_,=·) – Example: ( _` ¸` - ·) – He placed spices in the
pot.

(4) (·_¸_=) – Example: ( ` _` , ` , - ) – The tree bloomed.

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(5) (g,·,) – Example: ( , · ¸ · ` . = ¸` ·) – The students
reached the depths of knowledge.
( ,` , -) – He came into the tent.

(6) (--|·,-) – This is of three types:
Intensity in the verb, e.g. ( ` , ` ¸` , - ) – The student roamed a
lot.
Intensity in the doer, e.g. ( ¸ , , . ` , ·) – Many camels died.
Intensity in the object, e.g. ( . ,` , ' . ·) – She locked many
doors.

(7) (-,.·) – Example: ( ¸` -` , ` . ` ·) – I made a relationship of
transgression to the man.

(8) (` ¸· , | ,) – to make something don the (-'·), e.g.
( ¸ , ` . -) – I draped the horse with a horse cloth.
20


(9) ( = , · ¬ ·) – to join the (-'·) to something, e.g. ( ` .` ` · ·
.` ,` ) – I applied gold to the sword.

(10) ( ¸ , , ¬ ·) – to make something into the (-'·) or similar to
the (-'·), e.g. ( ¸` -` , ,` . ) – He converted the man into a

20
A cloth used to cover animals to protect them from the cold.
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Christian; ( . ·` , ` .` ` , -) – I made the sheet like a tent.

(11) (` ¸ = |) – to abbreviate a sentence and express it by means of
a single verb, e.g. ( ¸ ·) – to say ‘Lâ ilâha illallâh’; ( _` ) - to
say ‘Subhānallâh’.

(12) ( - « ·· , -) – to have a similar meaning as (·,-), (¸··¸ .,)
and (¸` · .,).
Examples: (` ·` ` , , ` ·` ` ,` ) – I gave him a date.
( , ` ', ,` ) – The date dried out.
( ¸` , , ¸` , ) – He used the shield.

(13) (··=·,,) – Example: (` ·` ` ¯) – I spoke to him. This meaning
is new in (¸,· .,) because the (·,-) of the verb means to
injure.

The (=·,=·-) of (-·-·«- =·,)

(1) ( - · _· = -) – the relation or application of the act to another
person, e.g. ( . ¯) – to write; ( . ¯) – to write to someone, that
is, to correspond.

(2) ( - « ·· , -) – to have the same meaning as (·,-), (¸··¸ .,),
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(¸· .,) and ( ., ¸,· ).
Examples: ( , , , · ) – He travelled.
(` ·' ` ·` , ' , ` ·' ` · ,) – I distanced him.
( _·· . ` -` , , ) – The two men abused one another.
(` ·` ` · ., _` ,` ` . · .) – I doubled the thing.

(3) (` ¸ , , = ·) – e.g. (·,·· · = :·- ¸' = · · ·) – May Allâh
grant you well-being.

(4) ( ·· = · , ·) – e.g. ( ·` ` · · ¸ ·) – He bore this hardship. The
(·,-) which is ( · ,` ·) means to be hard-hearted.

The (=·,=·-) of (,·-··, =·,)

(1) ( · ¬`· , . ) – This is of four types.
(a) to make the (-'·), e.g. ( , - ` - ¸) – He made a hole.
(b) to hold, take or choose the (-'·), e.g. ( . ` - ¸) – He held
the side.
(c) to make the object into the (-'·), e.g. ( ·` ¸ · ¸) –
He made the sheep into food.
(d) to hold the object in the (-'·), e.g. (` · . ` · ¸) – He held it
in his armpit.

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(2) (` =¸ = ·) – to attempt to achieve an act, e.g. ( . ¯ ¸) – He
attempted to earn wealth.

(3) (` ¸ , , ¬ ·) – to do an act for oneself, e.g. ( ,` , · ¸ ¯ ¸) – He
measured the barley for himself.

(4) ( - - ¸· = -) – Example: (` , · · ` ·` ` ·) – I made him grieve, so
he began grieving.

(5) ( - « ·· , -) – Examples: ( _ ,, _ ` , ¸) – It became bright.
( , -` - ', , - ` - ') – He entered Hijāz.
( ¸ ` _ ¸ ¸` · , , ) – He donned the sheet.
( . - , . ` -` , , . ` -¸) – The two men disputed among
themselves.
( , - ' ` ¸, , - `, ¸) – He sought a rental.

(6) ( ·· = · , ,) – This is of two types.
(a) there is no (·,-), e.g. ( · ` , ¸) – to slaughter a hungry goat.
(b) the (·,-) has a different meaning, e.g. ( , ` ¸) – He
kissed the stone, ( , ) – He was safe.

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The (=·,=·-) of (,·-«·, =·,)

(1) (` ; ¸ ¸ |) – to be intransitive, e.g. ( , ´` ¸) – It broke.

(2) (` _ : -) – to perceive something with the senses, that is, the
acts are related to the external limbs.

(3) ( - - ¸· = -) – Examples: ( , ´` · ` ·` ` , ¯) – I broke it, so it
broke.
( ¸ ·` · . ` . · ') – I locked the door and so it was locked.

(4) ( - « ·· , -) – Example: ( , -` - ' ¸·· , - -` ¸) - He reached Hijâz.
This meaning is seldom used.

(5) ( ·· = · , ,) – Example: ( ¸ =` ¸) – He went away. ( ¸ ~) – to be
cheerful.

The (=·,=·-) of (,:-·, =·,)

(1) (` ; ¸ ¸ |) , ( - - |· , -), ( . , |) - colours and ( - ` . , ) – defects.
Examples: (` , ` - ¸) – It became very red.
( ¸ ,` - ¸) – He became one-eyed.
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The (=·,=·-) of (¸-«· =·,)

(1) ( - - ¸· = -) – Example: ( _ = · ` ·` ` · = ·) – I cut it into pieces and
so it became pieces.

(2) (` . · ´ ·) – to think or to represent oneself to have a certain
quality or status, e.g. ( ,` . ) – He represented himself as having
patience.

(3) (` .· ¬ ·) – to refrain from the (-'·), e.g. ( .` , - ) – He
refrained from sin.

(4) (` ¸ , |) – to don the (-'·), e.g. ( - ,` ) – He wore a ring.

(5) ( ¸« - ·) – Example: ( ¸` · ) – He used the oil.

(6) ( .· ¬`· ,) – This is of four types.
(a) to make the (-'·), e.g. (` .` ` , - ) – I made the tent.
(b) to hold, take or choose the (-'·), e.g. ( .` - ) – He held
the side.
(c) To make the object into the (-'·), e.g. ( , - - ` , ) –
He used the stone as a pillow.
(d) To hold the object in the (-'·), e.g. (¸ ` . ` , ' ) – He
held the child in his armpit.

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(7) (` _ , _ = ·) – to do an act slowly and several times. This is then
of two types.
(a) It is possible to achieve the act once but the doer does it
slowly, e.g. ( _` , - ) – He drank in sips.
(b) It is not generally possible to achieve the act once, e.g.
( .¯` , - ) – He memorized the Qur’ân a little at a
time.

(8) ( ,, ¬ ·) – to become the (-'·) or similar to the (-'·),
e.g. ( ,` . ) – He became a Christian; ( ,` - ) – He became like the
ocean.

(9) ( · _ ¸ ¸ , =) – Example: ( ¸` , ) – He became wealthy.

(10) ( - « ·· , -) – to have the same meaning as the (·` ,-), ( .,
¸··¸) and (¸· .,). Examples: ( ¸ · , ¸` ) – He accepted.
( ,` - ', ` - , ) – He remained awake.
( _ ,` - ` , _` , - ) – He sought a need.

(11) ( ·· = · , ,) – This is of two types. Either there is no (·,-) or
there is a (·,-) but it has a different meaning.
Examples: ( ¸` ) – He stood in the sun.
( , ´ ) – He spoke. ( , ¯) – to injure.
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The (=·,=·-) of (¸ -·«· =·,)

(1) (` = _· = ·) – This is similar to (·¯_·) of (··· .,).
However, the difference between the two is that in (··· .,),
one is mentioned as the doer (¸··) while the other is mentioned
as the object (¸,··) while in (¸· .,), both are mentioned
as doers but in reality each one is the doer as well as the object,
e.g. ( . -` , · , . -`, _ , ) – Rayhân and Farhân abused each
other.

(2) ( ¸ , , ¬ ·) – to simulate a state or status or representing oneself
to have it, e.g. ( ¸ _ ) – He pretended to be sick.

(3) ( - - ¸· = -) – Example: ( · ` ·' ` · , · ) – I distanced him so he
was at a distance.

(4) ( - « ·· , -) – Examples: ( · · _·· ¸ · ) – to be high;
( ¸ `, ' _·· ¸ · , ) – to enter the right side.

(5) ( ·· = · , ,) – Example: ( · _ ) – Allâh is most blessed.
( · , ,) – The camel sat.

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The (=·,=·-) of (,·-«·=, =·,)

(1) (` . · |) – To seek the (-'·), e.g. ( = ` .` , ` · ` ¸) – I sought
forgiveness from Allâh.

(2) ( ` 3· « ¬ · = , ¸| - |· , | ) – to be entitled to the (-'·), e.g. ( _ ·` , ` ¸
` .` , ·) – The clothing was entitled to a patch.

(3) ( - - ¸· = -) – ( - - ¸· = -) – Example: ( · ` · ` ·` ` · ') – I made him
stand, so he stood up.

(4) ( .· = - ¸) – Example: (` ·` ` · , ´ ` ¸) – I found him to be noble.

(5) ( .· , . -) – to regard something as being described by the
(-'·), e.g. (` ·` ` ` - ` ¸) – I thought him to be good.

The difference between ( . ` - ,) and ( . ` -) is that there is
certainty in the former and doubt in the latter.

(6) ( ,, ¬ ·) – to become the (-'·) or to become similar to the
(-'·), e.g. (` ¸` , = , -` - ` ¸) – The mud became a stone.

(7) ( .· ¬`· ,) – Example: ( ` · ¸ ~` , ` ¸) – He made India his
homeland.
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(8) (` ¸ = |) – to abbreviate a phrase, e.g. ( _ -` , ` ¸) – to say ( · ` ¸
·` , ¸ ` ¸ , .` ,` · - _ ).

(9) (,·-··, ¸ ¸-«· ¸ ,·-·· ¸ .¸= - « ·· , -) – Examples: ( ` , ` ¸
` , ·,) – to settle down, ( . - ' , . - ` ¸) – to reply, ( , , ´ ` ¸
,` ´ ) – to be arrogant, (, . ` · ¸, , .` · ` ¸ ) – to resist a temptation.

(10) ( ·· = · , ,) – Example: ( · · , ¸ · , - ' ` ¸) – He leaned over
the pillow.

The (=·,=·-) of (,·-,-·, =·,)

(1) (` ; ¸ ¸ |) – This verb is mostly intransitive. Sometimes it can be
transitive, e.g. (` ·` ` , ` , ` - ¸) – I regarded it as sweet.

(2) ( - - |· , -) – Example: (` ¸` _ ' . ` , ` · ¸) – The land became
full of grass.

(3) ( - - ¸· = -) – Example: (¸ ` , · ` ·` ` , ) – I wrapped it so it was
wrapped.

(4) ( - « ·· , -) – Example: (` ·` ` , ` - ` ¸ , ` ·` ` , ` , ` - ¸) – I thought it to be
sweet.

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The (=·,=·-) of (,:,-·, =·,)

Like (¸···¸ .,), this category also has the following four
meaning patterns:
(` ; ¸ ¸ |) , ( - - |· , -), ( . , |) and (` . , -)
Examples: (` . ,` ¸) – It became very white.
( ¸ ,` - ¸) – He became one-eyed.


The (=·,=·-) of (,·,-·, =·,)

(1) ( - - |· , -) – Example: ( ·` , ` - ¸) – He ran very fast.

This category is (. .·), that is, a word which has no (¸.')
origin nor something similar to the origin.

There are two differences between ( .·¸ . ) and (.,¸). It is a
condition for (..·¸) that it must not be used in (·,- ¸·).
For (.,¸), this is not a condition. Secondly, it is a condition for
(..·¸) to be free of letters of (·-¸) and extra letters brought
for a particular meaning (_· _ ,-).
An example of a letter of (·-¸) is the (¸) of the verb ( ¸ ` )
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which was increased to bring this verb onto the scale of ( _ ,` - ·).
An example of a letter of (_· _ ,-) is the hamzah of
( · , ¯ ') which was added to the verb to render it transitive.


The (=·,=·-) of ( - · · - · =·,)

This category has many meaning patterns some of which are:
(1) (` ¸ = |) – Example: ( ¸ ` ,) – He recited ‘Bismillâh…’.

(2) (` ¸· , | ,) – Example: (` ·` ` · ·` , ,) – I made him don a burqa’.

(3) ( - - ¸· = -) – Example: ( ¸ , = · · ¸` , ¸ , = ·) – The night hid
his sight so it became hidden.
This category is used mostly as (_,-.) and (.·.·) and
sometimes as (_,,·), e.g. ( ¸ , _), ( ¸ ,` ,).

The (=·,=·-) of ( ¸ · - « · =·,)

(1) ( - - ¸· = -) – Example: ( _ ,` - · ` ·` ` - ,` - ·) – I rolled it so it
began rolling.

(2) (=·=·|,) – Example: ( ¸ ,` , ) – He walked conceitedly.

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(3) ( - « ·· , -) – Example: ( , ·` · _·· , ·` · ) – He screamed.

The (=·,=·-) of (,:·-·, =·,)

(1) (` ; ¸ ¸ |) – Example: ( , -` ,` - ¸) – to gather.

(2) ( - - ¸· = -) – Example: ( , -` · · ` ·` ` , -` · ) – I made his blood
flow and so it began flowing.

The (=·,=·-) of (,··-·, =·,)

(1) (` ; ¸ ¸ |) – Example: (` , · · ¸) – to shudder.

(2) ( - - ¸· = -) – Example: ( . ' ~ · ` ·` ` '` ~) – I pacified him so he
was calmed.

(3) (=·=·|,) – Example: (` ,` -` ` , , ¯ ¸) – The star shone.

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Application of the Special Meanings

Quote 1:
( ` ,` · ,` · ¸ ` · ' ` ¸ · ` ` - ¸` , · ) – excerpt from ( ¸,.'
¸)
Translation: “All praises are due to Allâh who raised the status of
all the believers.”
Teacher: What special meaning of (¸··¸ .,) is found in the
verb (¸ ` · ')?
Student: The meaning of (·,·) – to be transitive is found in this
verb because the (·,-) of this verb is ( · ·) which means to be
high. This is intransitive. When it was taken to (¸··¸ .,), it
became transitive, having the meaning of ‘raising’.


Quote 2:
( ¸ · , ,` ¯ .` , ¸, · · , · ,` , ´` _ · ·`, , _ · _ , ) – excerpt from
(¸_,)
Translation: “When he sees the Ka’bah, he should say ‘Allâhu
Akbar’ and ‘Lâ-ilâha illallâh’...”
Teacher: What special meaning of (¸,· .,) is found in the
verb ( ,` ¯) and ( ¸ ·)?
Student: The meaning of (,.·) – to abbreviate - is found in this
verb.

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Quote 3:
( ¸` , ¯ · ·` ¸ · ·` . . .¸ ,) – excerpt from (¸_,)
Translation: “If he wants, he can give charity to six poor
persons...”
Teacher: What special meaning of (¸` · .,) is found in the
verb ( ·` . )?
Student: The meaning of (.,¸) is found in this verb because the
(·,-) is ( · .) which means ‘to speak the truth’.

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Challenging Words

A few difficult verbs of the Holy Qur’ân and other verbs will be
mentioned here because the purpose of learning morphology and
syntax is to understand the meaning of the glorious Qur’ân. An
explanation of these verbs generally refreshes one’s knowledge
of morphology.

The verbs will be written according to their pronunciation and
not according to their Qur’ânic script so that the student can
exercise his mind in trying to figure out the original word. In the
analysis, the correct written form of the word will be provided.




Analysis: This is the imperative (,·') of the verb (¸·,), the
(··,.) being (,.- ,¯· _~). The original word was (
` ¸ ` , ` ), from the (.,) of (¸··¸). It was constructed from the
word ( .` , ` ) which was originally ( .` ,` , ` ). The (·.) of the
(¸) was transferred to the preceding letter after deleting its
harakah. Due to (¸¯ _-), the (¸) which was then
changed to (,) was deleted. Due to the entry of the (), the ( ·,·
¸.,) of (` , ` ¸) was deleted. The final (.) is not (.,·¸ .,)
but (·,·, .,) which enters the end of a verb between the verb
and the (,´· ¸) to protect it from receiving a (·,¯). It was
.` , ` ·
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originally (` ¸ ` , ` ·). The (,´· ¸) was deleted and the (·,¯)
of the (·,·, .,) was sufficed upon. This occurs very often.
Due to a (.·,), the (·,¯) is also not pronounced. It becomes
( .` , ` ·).




Analysis: This is similar to ( .` , ` .. ·). The original word
was ( ` ¸ ` ,.` ·` _ ). It is the imperative of the verb ( .. · _),
the (.,) being (_-). It is written as ( .` ,` ·` _ ·).

Most often confusion arises in verbs where (.·,) or (·,-)
occurs, a (·,·, .,) is added to the end of the word and (.·,)
is made on the (.,) after deleting the (,´· ¸). The student is
perplexed to find a (.,·¸ .,) in spite of (.·,) or (·,-)
whereas the (.,) is (·,·, .,).

Similarly, a verb can sound confusing when the (¸., ·,·) is
deleted from the middle of a sentence, especially when a student
is asked to identify the verb by joining the words and reading
them to him, e.g. in the verse ( `, ', ` ¸ · -` _ ·` · =` ` ¸ ` ,` ) to
.` ,` ·` , ·
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read it as (` ¸ · -` ,` ), in (` ,` ` ` · ` ¸` ,', ',), to read the verb as
(` ,` ` ` ·` ), in (` ,` · -` _ ¸` , ·), to read the verb as (` ,` · -` , ) and in ( ` . _
.` ,` · -` _), to read the verb as ( -` , , .` ,` · ).

When ( ·) or ( .) enter the perfect tense of those verbs having
(¸., ·,·), the alifs of the ( ·) and ( .) are also not pronounced
just as the (¸., ·,·) is not pronounced. The verbs therefore
sound confusing when read as ( . ` - ·), ( · , = ` ), ( , - ` ) and
( · _` ,` ` ·). This confusion is intensified in (¸· .,) because
the entry of (.) creates the word (` ¸ ) while the entry of (·)
creates the word (` ¸ ·). The same rule applies to the word
( ¸` , ` , ` - ·). Besides being the (,¯· _~) of (¸,·' ,) from
( ¸` , ` -), it can also be (.· .,· _~), the tense being ( ¸
¸· ¸,,- ¸.') from (¸·,··¸ .,).
Similarly, the word ( ¸` ,` ,` ,` . ·) is from (¸·,··¸ .,).




Analysis: It was originally ( · ` ,` ' _` · ), the word-form being ( _~
,.- ,¯·), the tense (.·' ,,·' ¸.'). It is ( _,,·
` ,` ' _` ·
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··) from (¸· ·¸ .,). It was (` ,` ' _` · ). Due to the entry of the
(), the (¸., ·,·) is deleted.


Analysis: This verb is (.· ,¯· _~), the tense being ( ' ¸.
.·' ,,·') from (¸· .,). The (¸) of emphasis entered
the verb, thereby deleting the (¸., ·,·).




Analysis: Due to the entry of ( ·,.¸ ·,.·), the ( ·,.·
¸...,) was deleted. The original word was ( .` , ` · ..` ¸)
from (¸·¸ .,).




Analysis: This was originally ( .` ,` , · = ). It is ( ,¯.· _.~
,..-), the tense being ( ,,.·· __..·). One (.) was
deleted according to the rule of (¸· .,).

` ,' . `
.` , ` · ` '
.` ,` , · =
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Analysis: This is from the verb (` ¸ '.. ), ( ...,· ..-,
..·), the tense being ( ,,.·· ,.·' ). It is ( . _,.,·
¸, ¸·,). Due to the (,), the (¸) became (¸¯).

After (,), it is compulsory ( . ,,-,) to make the ( ,.·. ·.)
sâkin. The compulsion is due to excessive usage. After
(), it is permissible to do so ( _,-).





Analysis: This verb is from (¸·· .,). It is ( ,¯· -,
.·), the tense being (.·· ,,·· __.·). It was originally
(` ¸ ` ,). Due to the jussive mood (·,- ·-), the (¸) at the end is
deleted. A pronoun (_.) was then attached to the verb which
created the scale of ( ¸ · ·) – ( · ). Therefore the (·) became
(¸¯) as the Arabs tend to make the scale of ( ¸ · ·) into ( ¸` · ·) as
in (` . ¯). It is pronounced (` .` ¯).
. ' ,
· ` , ,
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Analysis: This is the imperative ( _` _ ') of (¸·· .,), the word-
form being ( · -, ,.- ,¯ ). The pronoun was added to the
end of the verb making it ( · -` _ '). In the Qur’ân, after this word,
the words (` · - ' ,) appear. Therefore the form of ( ¸ · ·) – ( , , -)
was formed, similar to ( ¸ , ¸). The Arabs make the middle letter of
such scales also (¸¯). Consequently, the (·) became (¸¯).
It becomes (` · -` _ ').




Analysis: This verb is similar to (` , · _), the word-form being
(.· ,¯· _~) of the verb (¸ . ·). The tense is ( ¸.'
,,·'). It was succeeded by a (.=· ,- ,,). The rule of
assimilation (···) was applied. Therefore it became
(` ,` ¯` , ` , . ·).



Analysis: The verb is (' ¸` ) with ( . ') attached to it. The word-
` · -` _ '
` , . ·
` ¸` ` '
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form is (,´· _~) while the tense is (,,·· __.·). Because
of ( . ') it is in the accusative case (.. ·-). It is from ( .,
,.) like (' ` ). Assimilation of both the nûns has taken place.





Analysis: The verb is (` ¸` ` ), the word-from being ( .,· _~
,.-), the tense being (.·' ,,·' ¸.'). It is from ( .,
,.) like ( · ` ¸` ). The (·,·, .,) and (,´· ¸) have been
attached to the end.






Analysis: From the verb (¸¯ _), this is the (,.- .,· -,)
word-form with the tense being (.·· ,,·· __.·). It is
(¸, ¸·, ¸· _,,·). It was originally ( ¸`, , ). Due to the
(·, .,), the (.,· .,) was deleted. The (¸), not being a
(··), was rendered a (·,¯).
` ¸ ` ` `
` ¸, , ` · ¸
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Analysis: From the verb ( ¸ ,. ), this is the ( ,¯.· .-,
,.-) word-form while the tense is ( ,,.·' ¸.' ¸
, _..·). A (·,... ·,..·) and (,) have been attached
before the verb, changing it into the jussive mood ( ·..-
·,-).





Analysis: This is the (¸· ,) of the verb (¸ ·), from the
(.,. .,). It was originally ( ¸` , , ·). Changes occurred in the
word just as in ( ¸` , · _).
A second possibility is that it could be the imperative of
(` ¸ `, ¸ ·) from ( ·.·· ..,), the word-form being ( _.~
,.- .,·).
It could also be (,.- .,· -,) of the same (.,). A ( .,
·,·,) and (,´· ¸) are attached to the end of the word. The
(,´· ¸) was deleted and the (·,¯) of the (·,·, .,) was
, ` , '
¸` , ·
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deleted due to (.·,).

The verb is not difficult to distinguish but sometimes when a
word has a similar form in another language, confusion can arise.
This word means carpet in Urdu and Persian and could perhaps
cause confusion.





Analysis: This verb was originally (` ¸ ` ,,) from (¸·· .,),
the word-form being (.· ,¯· -,) and the tense ( __.·
¸· ,,··). The rule of (¸·· .,) has been applied to it.





Analysis: From ( ., ¸·· ), it was originally ( .` ,` . ` -,), the
word-form being (.· ,¯· _~) and the tense ( __.·
,,··). The rule of (¸·· .,) has been applied to it.

` ¸` ,,
` . -, .` ,`
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Analysis: It is (.· ,¯· -,) from (¸·· .,), the tense
being (,,·' ¸.'). It was originally ( , ´ · ¸). The rule of
(¸·· .,) has been applied to it.




Analysis: From (¸·· .,), it is ( ,..- ,¯.· _.~), the
tense being (,,·· __.·). It was originally ( .` ,` , · ` ).




Analysis: This is the verbal noun ( ¸.,· _..·) of ( ..,
¸.··), originally being ( ` ,. - ` ,` ·). It can also be the ( ,.
¸,·') or (,= ,).
, ¯` · ,
.` ,` ·`
` , - ·` ,` ·
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Analysis: From (¸·· .,), this is the (.· ,¯· -,)
word-form, the tense being (.·.' ¸,,- ¸.'). It was
originally (` , =` . ' ` ¸ ·). The ( · ¸., ·, ) was deleted because of
the precedence of the (). The (.,) of the word (` ¸ ·) was
rendered a (·,¯) according to the rule ( ·` ,` - ·` ,` - ·¸ ¸¯
,´,). The (.) of (¸··) was changed to ().





Analysis: This was (` ,` ` _ , =` . ·). From (¸·· .,), this is the
(,.- ,¯· _~) word-form, the tense being ( ¸,,- ¸.'
.·.'). The (¸., ·,·) was deleted because of the
precedence of the (·). The (.) of the (·) is not pronounced
due to (¸¯ _-).
` , =` . ·
` ,` ` _ , =` . ·
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Analysis: It was originally (` ,` · = ` ¸ ·). It is (.· ,¯· _~)
from the (¸· .,), the tense being (,,·' ¸.').The
(.) of (¸·) was deleted.





Analysis: It was originally (` _ = ` ) from (¸· .,). The
(.) of (¸·) was deleted.



Analysis: It was originally (` ¸ · ` ) on the scale of (` ¸ · ) with
(·,- .,). It is (,´· _~) from (_· .,). Sometimes the
(·,- .,) is written in the form of tanwîn.





Analysis: It was originally ( ` ¸. ·` ) like ( ` ¸. ·` , ), from ( ..,
.,..). It is permissible to delete the (¸) from the end of a
` ,` · =` ·
` _ =` ` ,
· `
_`
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word that is (¸·).




Analysis: This was originally (` ,` `, ' _) like (` ,` · ·). When a
pronoun is added to (` ,` ), an extra (,) is first added to the verb
after the (·). This rule applies to (` ,` ), (` ,` ·) and (` , ¯) when
suffixed by a (_.).
Sometimes a (·¯ ¸) is suffixed to a verb that is ( · -, , .
,.-) when a pronoun is attached to it, e.g. the words of a
hadîth, ( ·` ,` ` - , ·` , ' , · ` , ).





Analysis: The verb is ( ` ` · , ) from (¸·· .,). A (·,. ·,·)
is prefixed to the verb and the pronoun (·) is suffixed to it.
Subsequently a second pronoun (` , ¯) is attached to the verb,
thereby requiring a (,) and making the (·,.· ·).
` ,` ·` ,` ` `, ' _ ` ·
·` ,` ´` · , ` '
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Analysis: This is like the verb ( -), the word-form being ( _~
,´·) and the tense (,,·' ¸.'). The question that arises
here is that the (__.·) of this verb is used (¸· ·,.·) in the
Qur’ân. Consequently, the (¸.') supposed to be ( ` ` ·) like
( ·) because the word-form is (,., ,.). The scholars of tafsîr
have answered this objection by stating that this verb is used both
on the scale of (_, _-) and (,., ,.). In the Qur’ân, the
(¸.') is used from ( ., _- ) and the (__.·) from (,.).





Analysis: The verb is (` . - ` ·) from (¸· .,), the word-
form being (.· .,· -,) and the tense ( ¸.'
,,·').The (¸., ·,·) was deleted because of the
precedence of the (). Because the (.) is succeeded by a (.), it
is pronounced as a (·).
` ·
` . - ` ·
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Analysis: This verb was originally ( ¸` ·) from ( ., ¸,· ).
The final doubled letter was changed to a (·· ,-). The
Arabs often do this.






Analysis: It was originally (` ,` = ·) from (_- .,). The word-
form is (,.- ,¯· _~) and the tense is (,,·' ¸.').
Sometimes the Arabs delete one of the doubled letters. In this
case, the first (¸) was deleted. Sometimes it is pronounced
(` ,` = ·) after transferring the harakah of the first (¸) to the ().





Analysis: According to some scholars, this verb was originally
( .` _ , · ¸). According to the previously mentioned rule, the first (_)
was deleted after transferring its harakah. No need remained for
the (¸., ·,·). Therefore it was deleted. The word ( .` , ·)
remains.
,,` ·
` ,` = ·
.` , ·
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Analysis: This is the (,.- .,· -,) of ( ¸ , ¸ ,) from the
( ., .,. ). It is (.·.·). It was originally (` ¸ ` , ¸). The rule
of assimilation applies. Similar to this is the word (` ¸ ·).






Analysis: First Possibility: It is the (__.·) of (.¯) in the
accusative case (.. ·-).

Second Possibility: It is ( ., ,,·· __.· .· ,¯· _~
·,,·) of (.,. .,). It was originally ( .` ,` , ¯` ,,). The rule of
(` ·,) first applies to delete the (,). Then the rules of (` ,` ·` ,) and
(` , ` ,`,) apply to change it to ( .` , ´,).

Third Possibility: It is ( ., ,,·' ¸.' .· .,· _~
·,,·) from (·` ,¯). Its paradigm of the perfect tense ( ¸.'
,,·') is as follows:
` ¸ ,
.` , ´,
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(_ . , ´, , ´, ` . , ´, ` , ´, , ´, , ´,)





Analysis: First Possibility: Besides the common verb (` , ·) from
(,. .,), this is made up of two words (_· ,) and (` , ). The
former is (·,,· ., ,,·' ¸.' .· ,¯· -,) from
(.,.) while the latter is ( ., ,,·' ,·. ,.- ,¯· _~
.,,·) from (_- .,).

Second Possibility: The verb is ( ¸ , · ,). It is ( .· ,¯· _~
·,,· ., ,,·' ¸.') from the (··· .,). It was
originally (` , , · ,). The rule of (¸,,) was applied whereby the
harakah of the (,) was transferred to the (·) and the (,) was
changed to (.). It became (` , · ,).





Analysis: From (¸···¸ .,), this is ( ¸.' .· ,¯· ·,·
,,·'), the verbal noun being (` · , ¯ , ¯ ¸). It was originally
` , · ,
¯ ¯ ¯
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( ¯ , ¯ , ¯ ¸) like ( ` ,` , ¸). The rule of (¸,,) was applied. The
(¸., ·,·) was subsequently deleted due to the subsequent
letter being (·,-·). It became ( ¯ ¯ ¯).





Analysis: This is from the verb (` ¸ , ¸ · ,) from the (.,. .,).
It is (·,,· ., ,.- .,· _~). The paradigm of the
imperative is as follows:
( , · · ¸` , · , · ` ¸ · ` ,` · )





Analysis: This is from the verb (` ,` ,` ., ¸ , .). It is ( ,´· _~
¸, ¸· ,,·· __.·). It was originally (` ¸` ,` . ). The rule
of (,·,) was applied and the (¸) was changed to (,).






Analysis: This is from the verb (` ¸ _` , ¸ _ ·). It is ( ,¯· _~
¸` , ·
` ,` ,` .
·` ,` _ ·
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¸· ,). It was originally ( .` ,`, _ ·). The rule of (,·,) was
applied and the (¸) was changed to (,). One (,) was then
deleted. It became ( .` ,` _ ·). When (··.¸) was applied to the
pronoun ( ·), the (.) was deleted.





Analysis: From the verb (` ¸ ,` ,, ¸ , _), this is the verbal noun in
the singular form. It is (.,,· .,) from the (.,. .,). It
was originally (,` , _). The (,) was changed to (¸) and
assimilated. It became (', _).





Analysis: First Possibility: It is the imperative (,·') of ( ¸ ' ), the
word-form being (,.- ,¯· _~) with a pronoun ( ) attached
to it.

Second Possibility: It is from the verb (` , ` , , ). It is ( _~
¸,, ¸· ,,·' ¸.' ,´·).

', _
` ,
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Analysis: This is the imperative (,·') of (` . .), the word-form
being (,.- .,· -,) of (··· .,). It was originally
(` ¸ , .). The rule of (···¸) was applied.






Analysis: From the (¸ ···¸ .,), this is the (.· ,¯· -,).
It was originally (` . _ ,` . ¸) like ( ¸ ` , · · ).The rule of (¸,,) was
applied. It becomes ( ¸ ` . _ .). The (¸., ·,·) is deleted. It
becomes (` . _ .).





Analysis: This was (` ¸ ` _ ' ` , ), from the (_· .,). It is ( -,
¸, ¸·, ¸· _,,· , _· ¸ ,´·). The rule of (¸·)
was applied. Due to the (··_- ,), the (·· ,-) is deleted
from the end. It becomes ( .` _ ' ` , ). Subsequently, the rule of
` ¸` , .
` . _ .
,
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(¸,,) is applied and the hamzas are deleted. It becomes ( , ).





Analysis: From the (¸···¸), this is ( .· ,¯· -, ¸.'
·,,· ., ,,·'). It was originally ( ¸ ,` ` , ¸) like (¸,,¸).
The rule of (¸,) is first applied whereby the (,) changes to
(.) and then the rule of (··,·) to change the (,) to (¸).





Analysis: From the (··· .,), this is ( ¯· -, ,·' ,.- ,
.·.· ·,- ¸·,_ ,,··). It is like ( ¸ , _).






Analysis: This is the ( ·,- ¸·,_ ,,·· ,·' ,.- ,¯· -,
.,,· .,) from the (··· .,). It was originally (` ¸ ,` , ·` ) like
(` _ ,` - ` ). The rule of (,·,) was first applied, followed by
¸ `, ¸
` · ,` · '
,` , ·
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deleting the (.) when constructing the imperative (,·'). The
(·· ,-) was finally deleted from the end. It becomes ( ,` , ·).





Analysis: From the (_- .,), this is the ( ,·' ,.- ,¯· -,
.,,· ., ,,··), the verb being (¸ , , ¸ , ). It was
originally ( , ¸) like ( ¸` - ¸). The harakah of the (,) is transferred
to the (¸) and the (,) is changed to (.). The (¸., ·,·) is
no more required. It becomes ( .).





Analysis: From the (.,. .,), this is the ( .· .,· _~
,· ,,·' ¸.' ¸, ,-', _, ), the verb being ( ` ¸`, ,, .¯
`, '). It was originally ( ¸` ¸) like ( ¸` · ,). The rule of (···¸) is
applied. It becomes ( . ¸). The paradigm of (,,·' ¸.') is as
follows:
( ` ` ¸ .` ¸ . ¸ ¯ ` . ¯ ` ,` ¯ ¯ .¯ ` ¸ ` .` ¸ ` ¸` ` ¸ ` ` ¸ .` ¸ ` ,` ` ¸ )
.
. ¸
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Analysis: From the (.,. .,), this is the ( __.' ,´· _~
.·.· ,,·'), the verb being ( . ,, . '). It was originally
(` ¸ ' ) like (` . ,` . ). The rule of (···¸) is applied to the (.). It
becomes ( . , ). Then (·,~, . ¸) is inserted before the verb ( . ¸
. , ). The rule of (···¸) is again applied because the two nûns are
adjacent to each other while the final nûn becomes (.,.·). It
becomes ( . ¸ . ¸).





Analysis: It is ( -, ,,· ¸·,_ ,,·' ¸.' .· ,¯·
¸· _,,·) from (¸ · · · ¸ .,). The verb is (` . _ '` . ¸) like
(` , · · ¸). The harakah of the hamzah is transferred to the
preceding letter while the (¸., ·,·) is deleted. It becomes
(` . , .).
. ¸ . ¸
` . , .
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Analysis: This is the ( _,,· ¸,. , ,¯· ·,·) from
(_- .,). It was originally ( . . '). The rule of (¸·¯) is
applied and the end is read as sākin due to (.·,).



Analysis: This word was originally ( ¸` ·). There were three
sîns together which caused the word to become heavy in
pronunciation. Therefore the third (¸) was changed to (¸)
which then changed to (.). The same rule applies to the word
(¸` . ) which was originally ( ¸` . ).





Analysis: This word was originally (` ¸` ,). The third (¸) was
changed to (¸) which then changed to (.) due to the rule of
( ¸ ·). When (··_- ,) entered the verb, the (·· ,-) was
deleted from the end. A (·) was added for (.·,).
. ¯
,,` ·
` ·` , ` ,
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Analysis: It is ( _,,· ,,·' ¸.' .· ,¯· ·,· ¸· )
from (¸ ·` · · ¸ .,). The verb is ( _ ` ·` - ¸) like ( -` ,` - ¸). The
harakah of the hamzah is transferred to the preceding letter while
the (¸., ·,·) is deleted. It becomes ( _ ` -).






Analysis: It is ( - ¸.' .· ,¯· -, ¸· _,,· ¸,,
¸, ¸·,) from (¸ ·` · · ¸ .,). The verb is ( ¸ -` · ¯ ') like
( , -` ` ,` - '). The harakah of the hamzah is transferred to the
preceding letter while the (¸., ·,·) is deleted. Waqf is made
at the end. It becomes (` ¸ -` ¯).





Analysis: It is ( ¸,, ¸· ,,·' ¸.' .· ,¯· -,)
from (··· .,). The verb was ( , ). The rule of (¸ ·` `,) was
_ ` -
` ¸ -` ¯
_
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applied to change it to ( _ ).






Analysis: It is ( ¸, ¸· ,,·' ¸.' .· ,¯· -,
¸·,,, ¸-·) from (··· .,). The verb was ( ¸,` _ ·). The rule
of (¸·) was applied to change it to ( ¸` _ ·).





Analysis: It is ( ¸,, ,-' ,,·· ,·' ,.- .,· -,)
from (,. .,). The paradigm of this verb is ( .` , · ¸` ,` , ¸ ·).
The paradigm of the (,·') is as follows:
( ¸ ` · .` ,` · ` ¸ ` ,` · ` , ` ,` · .` ,` · ¸` ·)





Analysis: Besides the common verb ( . · ` . ,` , ), there is a
second possibility. It could be ( ., ,,·' ¸.' ,´· -,
¸` _ ·
` ¸ ` ,` ·
` .` ,` ,
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· ,, · ) from (·,¯ .,). The paradigm of this verb is ( ` ,` ` ,, ,` ,
, ,` ). The paradigm of the (,,·' ¸.') is as follows:
( ` , ,` , ` . ,` , ` ,` , ,` , ,` , ` , ` , . ` , ` , . ` , ` , ` ` , ` , ` ,` ` , .
` , ` , ` , ` ` , ` , ` ¸` ` , ` , ` . ` , )





Analysis: This is the ( ,,·' ¸.' .· ,¯· -, ,-'
¸,,) from the (¸··¸ .,). It was originally (` ¸`, ,`,). A (·) was
added between the first and second letter against the rule ( ·-
¸,).



,` ,`, ` ¸`,
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Appendix A

Morphology or Etymology?

What is the subject of ( ,.. ,.·) called in English? Is it
Morphology or Etymology? Firstly, let us examine the
definitions of both these terms in the light of contemporary
works.

The following definition of Morphology appears in “The
Oxford Companion to the English Language”.

“In linguistics, the study of the structure of words as
opposed to syntax, the study of the arrangement of words
in the higher units of phrases, clauses, and sentences. The
two major branches are inflectional morphology (the study
of inflections) and lexical morphology (the study of word-
formation).”
21

The following has been mentioned under the term,
‘syntax’:
“The ways in which components of words are combined
into words are studied in morphology, and syntax and
morphology together are generally regarded as the major
constituents of grammar, although in one of its uses,
grammar is strictly synonymous with syntax and excludes
morphology.”
22


We find the following definition in Websters Dictionary:
“2 a: a study and description of word-formation in a
language including inflection, derivation, and
compounding – distinguished from syntax.
B: the system of word-forming elements and processes in

21
The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 670, 1992.
22
Ibid, p. 1016.
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a language.”
23


Encyclopaedia Britannica has the following definition:
“In philology, morphology is that branch of grammar
which examines the forms of words as well as the
principles of word-formation and inflection.”
24


The following definition is found in the World Book:
“Morphology: the study of the formation and structure of
words.”
25


As for Etymology, the following are some of the
definitions one may come across:

“Etymology: Both the study of the history of words and a
statement of the origin and history of a word, including
changes in its form and meaning.”
26


“…that branch of linguistic science which is devoted to
determining the origin of words.”
27


Websters Dictionary provides the following definition:
“The history, often including the pre-history of a linguistic
form (as a word or morpheme) as shown by tracing its
phonetic graphic, and semantic development since its
earliest recorded occurrence in the language where it is
found, by tracing the course of its transmission from one
language to another by analysing it into the component
parts from which it was put together, by identifying its
cognates in other languages or by tracing it and its

23
Websters Third New International Dictionary, vol. 2, p. 1470,.
24
Encyclopaedia Britannica vol. 15 p. 818.
25
World Book vol.18, p. 518, 1992.
26
The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 384, 1992.
27
Colliers Encyclopedia vol. 9 p. 378, 1971; Encyclopaedia
Britannica vol. 8 p. 804.
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cognates back to a common ancestral form in a recorded
or assumed ancestral language.
28


The World Book states:
“Etymology is the study of the origins and development of
words.”
29


In Encyclopaedia Britannica, we find the following
definition:
“…that part of linguistics which is concerned with the
origin or derivation of words.”
30


The Students Encyclopedia states:
“… the study of the origins and history of words.”
31


The Universal Standard Encyclopedia has the following:
“… that branch of philology which deals with the origin
and derivation of words, and with the comparison of
words in different members of the same language
group.”
32


Under the word, ‘morphology’ in Al-Mughni-Al-Akbar, an
English to Arabic dictionary, the meaning is given as ( ,.·
,...) while under the entry ‘etymology’, the meaning
provided is (·¸ ,·).
33


In the An-Nafees English to Arabic Dictionary, under

28
Websters Third New International Dictionary, vol. 1, p. 782.
29
World Book, vol. 18 p. 518.
30
Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. 8 p. 804.
31
Students Encyclopaedia, vol. 6 p. 456, 1970.
32
Universal Standard Encyclopedia, vol. 8 p. 2930, 1956.
33
Al-Mughni Al-Akbar, Hasan S. Karmi, p. 826 & p. 402, 1997.
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morphology, we find the term (,... ,..·) while under
etymology, we find the term (.´ ¸,.' ,·).
34


In the Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic,
under the entry (,... ,..·), we find the following:
“morphology (gram.).”
35


These definitions clearly indicate that Etymology deals
with the history of words whereas Morphology deals with
the subject of word-formation. Hence the most appropriate
term for ( ,.. ,.·) would be Morphology and not
Etymology as has been erroneously used in some books.



34
An-Nafees, Madgi Wahbah, p. 868 & p. 381, 2000.
35
Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic P.513, Third
Edition 1976.
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Bibliography

¸, .· ·,- _' ··¸ .,,. ¸ ·,.' _, .,='
¸,´ .,
¸,_ _,· ·· _,, _,_
¸, ¸,, _=. .··¸ ,,·' ¸, ¸- ¸· _, ¸, -
¸¯_,
·· ¸, = · ¸, ¸- :· ¸, ·,' _¸ :' _.,'
¸_..
,- ¸ .,¯· ··~, ,· ~' _,¯ ,.,
¸,·- ~' ·· ,. ¸· ¸ ,·
·,·· ¸, ¸· ¸, ~' _, _,_. _,·
.,,. ,-·· _- .,=' _ ·,,,· ¸··.
.· ¸· .,, _· ¸- _,¯ ,., ,-
··,. ,· ~' ·,· _
¸· ,·.' - ¸_ ··,. ,· _, ¸ ¸,,
¸_,·· ¸- - .,' ,,,· ,.
.- _ · .,' , ·· ¯ _,·
.,' ,. ,· ~' ··
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¸,,· ¸~, · ·- ,. .¯
¸- ·,, · .,' ,. ·_¸ _, ,. _··


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= ~«·ll ,


«,,÷ll _,.ll ¸l· =l ¸l~,

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
Title From the Treasures Morphology of Arabic

Author First Edition

Moulānā Ebrāhīm Muhammad Safar 1427 A.H. March 2006 Academy for Islamic Research Madrasah In’āmiyyah P.O. Box 39 Camperdown 3720 South Africa +27 031 785 1519 +27 031 785 1091

Published by

Tel Fax email

al_inaam@yahoo.com

Copyright © 2006 Madrasah In’āmiyyah
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Madrasah In’āmiyyah, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.

Typeset on Times New Roman 12 and Traditional Arabic 18 by Academy for Islamic Research, Madrasah In’āmiyyah, Camperdown, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Contents
Introduction Some Useful Terms Arabic Terms The Types of Words Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Positive and Negative Active and Passive The Second Category of Verbs Exercise 1 Types of Nouns The Scales of Verbs Exercise 2 The Categories of Triliteral Verbs Exercise 3 The Perfect Active ( ) Exercise 4 The Perfect Passive ( ) Exercise 5 The Imperfect ( ) Exercise 6 The Imperfect Passive ( ) Exercise 7 The ( ) Exercise 8 The ( ) Exercise 9 The ( ) and ( ) of Emphasis Exercise 10 The Imperative ( ) Exercise 11 10 11 12 14 15 15 15 16 17 18 20 22 23 25 26 28 29 33 35 38 39 40 41 44 45 49 50 55 56 61

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
The Prohibition ( ) Exercise 12 The Derived Nouns ( The Active Participle ( Exercise 13 The Passive Participle ( Exercise 14 The Elative ( ) Exercise 15 The ( ) 61 ) ) ) 65 66 66 68 69 70 71 73 74 ) 76 78 79 ) 81 82 84 85 85 85 ) ) ) ) 86 86 87 88 88 90 91 ) 95 97 97

The Noun of the Instrument ( Exercise 16 The Adverb ( ) Exercise 17 The Intensive Adjective ( Exercise 18 The Categories ( ) of Verbs The ( ) of ( ) ) The First ( The Third ( The Fourth ( The Fifth (

The Second (

The Sixth ( ) Exercise 19 The ( ) of ( ) Construction of the Derived Nouns The Abbreviated Paradigm of each ( ( )

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
Exercise 20 ( ) Exercise 21 ( ) Exercise 22 ( ) Exercise 23 ( ) Exercise 24 ( ) Exercise 25 ( ) Exercise 26 ( ) Exercise 27 ( ) Exercise 28 ( ) Exercise 29 ( ) Exercise 30 ( ) Exercise 31 Four Root-Letter Verbs Exercise 32 The Derived Forms Verbs ( ) Exercise 33 ( ) Exercise 34 99 99 101 101 103 103 105 105 110 110 112 112 114 114 117 117 119 119 121 121 123 123 125 126 129 Root-Letter 130 130 132 132 134

of

Four

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
( ) Exercise 35 Other Derived Forms Exercise 36 The Seven Categories Exercise 37 The Rules of ( ) Rule 1 Rule 2 Rule 3 Rule 4 Rule 5 Rule 6 Rule 7 Rule 8 Rule 9 Rule 10 Exercise 38 The Orthography of the Hamzah The Paradigms of ( ) Exercise 39 Exercise 40 Exercise 41 Discussion of ( ) Discussion of ( Exercise 42 The Rules of ( ) Rule 1 Rule 2 Rule 3 Rule 4 Rule 5 Rule 6 ) 134 136 137 142 143 146 147 147 147 148 148 150 151 152 153 154 156 156 157 158 160 161 163 163 164 165 166 166 167 168 169 170 171

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
Rule 7 Rule 8 Rule 9 Rule 10 Exercise 43 Rule 11 Rule 12 Rule 13 Rule 14 Rule 15 Rule 16 Rule 17 Rule 18 Rule 19 Rule 20 Rule 21 Rule 22 Rule 23 Rule 24 Rule 25 Rule 26 Exercise 44 The Paradigms of ( ) Exercise 45 The Paradigms of ( ) Exercise 46 The Paradigm of ( ) Exercise 47 The Paradigms of ( ) and ( ) Exercise 48 Exercise 49 Exercise 50 Combination of ( ) and ( ) Exercise 51 171 179 184 189 193 193 194 195 196 199 199 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 212 213 214 220 221 228 229 240 241 250 260 271 272 283

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Rules of ( ) Rule 1 Rule 2 Rule 3 Rule 4 Rule 5 Exercise 52 Exercise 53 A Combination of ( Exercise 54 Special Meanings ( The ( The ( The ( ) of ( ) of ( ) of ( ) ) ) 284 284 286 287 288 289 290 297 301 303 304 304 304 305 305 306 306 309 311 312 314 314 315 317 ) ) ) ) ) 318 319 320 320 321 ).com/ .( ) and ( ) ) ) of Each ( The ( ) of ( ) The Derived Categories The ( ) of ( ) The ( The ( The ( The ( The ( The ( The ( The ( The ( The ( The ( The ( ) of ( ) of ( ) of ( ) of ( ) of ( ) of ( ) of ( ) of ( ) of ( ) of ( ) of ( ) of ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Page 8 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.http://www.

al-inaam.com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The ( The ( ) of ( ) of ( ) ) 321 322 322 323 325 352 356 The ( ) of ( ) Application of the Special Meanings Challenging Words Appendix A .http://www.Morphology or Etymology? Bibliography Page 9 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

This is a comprehensive book dealing with all the important aspects of the subject. The rules have been clearly explained with examples and a step by step Page 10 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ . This will enable the student to learn the correct Arabic terms from the initial stages of his learning. Thus I have used the term ( of writing ( ) instead of ( ). It is highly essential for the incumbent student of Arabic to learn this science in order to be proficient in the language. Acquiring an understanding of word patterns is of prime importance in learning the language. The Arabic names of morphologic terms have been adopted instead of the Urdu forms commonly found in the text books of Islamic seminaries. he would develop a very good foundation in this science and it would absolve him of the need to study any further books on the subject.al-inaam. the correct Arabic form of ( has been used while the term ( ( ) is used instead of ) which is incorrect. If a student has to study this book thoroughly.http://www. Similarly.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Introduction Arabic Morphology ( ) is a branch of Arabic Grammar dealing with word-forms and patterns. Included also is a collection of rules of word-changes which affect many Arabic verbs and nouns. instead ) ).

1992. gender. in grammar. number. vol. or table of verb forms in such inflected languages as Latin and French.3 Linguistics and Philology: The study of language. refer to Appendix A at the end of this book.http://www. Āmīn. person. p. 1992.1 Declension: A term used to describe the case system of nouns and other words. class. 747. tense. 256. written). For a detailed discussion on the name of this subject. 3 Websters Third New International Dictionary. writes. 1160. wrote. a set of all the (especially inflected) forms of a word (write. 281. number.com/ . It is hoped that this book will be beneficial for the students of Arabic Grammar and Morphology and simplify the path to understanding the intricacies of the language. writing. Ibid.4 1 2 The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Page 11 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . Paradigm: pronounced (pa-ra-dime). where elements are distinguished from each other by patterns of inflection relating to tense. person. mood. especially when used as a model for all other words of the same type. voice. p. p.2 Inflection: The variation or change of form that words undergo to mark distinctions of case.al-inaam. 2.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology method as to how a word is changed from its original form to its present one. whether it is called Morphology or Etymology. comparison. Some Useful Terms Conjugation: A paradigm. 4 The Oxford Companion to the English Language. p.

e. e. ( A letter having a kasrah.g.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Arabic Terms The following are some of the Arabic terms used frequently in this book.com/ .http://www. ( A letter having a dammah. e.al-inaam. A diacritical point purpose of joining pronunciation that serves the two letters ) ) in denoting the sound denoting the sound denoting the sound A letter having a fathah. e. Term Meaning A diacritical point of ‘a’. A diacritical point of ‘u’. It would be advisable to learn them thoroughly as they are frequently used throughout the book.g. ( ) The three diacritical points. e. ( ) A letter having a sukûn or jazm.g. ( ) Page 12 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .g. fathah dammah and kasrah are each called a harakah A letter having a harakah. A diacritical point of ‘i’.g.

The first verb of the perfect tense ( ) and the imperfect tense ( ). gender and mood of the verb ( ) is the plural of ( ) which refers to a category of verbs belonging to one class.g. also referred to as consonant or radical. the ( ) of ( ) Word-form denoting the number.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The first root letter of a word. e. the ( ( ) ) of The second root letter of a word. the ( ) of ( ) The third root letter of a word.g. e.g. Page 13 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ . are used to indicate the diacritical points of the alphabets of the verbs.al-inaam. e.http://www.

a command – You do.http://www. Indicates the occurrence of .com/ . a verb is of three types: Term Meaning Example Indicates the occurrence of – He an action in the past tense. English.al-inaam. tense in English. ) or ( ) in conveying its Example Page 14 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . It is referred to as the perfect did.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Types of Words Term Meaning word noun verb particle – it is dependent on either an ( meaning With regards to meaning and tense. It is referred to doing or he as the imperfect tense in will do.He is an action in the present or future tense.

He is walking. – He is opening the door.http://www. Page 15 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . Example .al-inaam. ) are also used.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Term Meaning Intransitive – does not require an object Transitive .com/ . Active and Passive Term Meaning active tense – the doer of the action is known passive tense – the doer of the action is not known Example – He is doing. – It is being done.requires an object Positive and Negative Term Meaning positive negative The terms ( ) and ( Example – He is doing. – He is not doing.

This results in the following four categories: Term Meaning 3 root letters only 3 root letters plus extra letters 4 root letters only 4 root letters plus extra letters Example Page 16 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Second Category of Verbs With regard to the root letters ( are of two types: Term Meaning 3 root letters or triliteral 4 root letters or quadriliteral Example ) of a verb.http://www.al-inaam.the ( ) consists of root letters only. any extra letters. without ) has root letters plus extra letters. they Each of these two types is further divided into two categories: (1) ( (2) ( ) – the ( ) .

com/ .al-inaam. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (2) What do the following terms mean: Term Meaning Page 17 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 1 (1) Determine whether the following verbs have 3 rootletters or 4 root-letters.http://www.

(3) The ( ) is a word derived from a verb e.com/ . ( ).g. ( ).g.http://www.g. (5) The ( categories of ( the ( ( ) and the ( ). ) is neither a ( ) e. ( ) – a man ) – a donkey Page 18 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam. (6) The noun ( ) with regard to its letters can either have three root letters (triliteral). It is therefore of six types: [1] ( [2] ( ) e. ( to assist.g.g.( [a] (2) The ( . ): – verbal noun) is a word that indicates the ) – )– occurrence of an action and is free of tense e. ) nor a ( helper is derived from ( (4) The ( ( ) – man. ( ) also fall under the ) and ( ) like ). four root letters (quadriliteral) or five root letters (quinquiliteral). The categories mentioned under the verb like ) etc. ( ) e. also apply to an ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Types of Nouns (1) There are three types of nouns . [b] and [c] .

( ) – scorpion ) .g. ( ) e. ) occur in a ) and none occur ) e.http://www. ( ) e.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology [3] ( [4] ( [5] ( [6] ( spider (7) The scholars of morphology generally deal with the ( ( in a ( ) because most of the changes ( ) while few changes occur in an ( ).g.com/ .g.quince )–a Page 19 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .paper ) . ( ) e.al-inaam.g.

for which reference is made. The simplest form of the verb is the third person masculine singular of the perfect tense ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Scales of Verbs The Arabic verb is constructed from a root which usually consists of three letters called consonants or radicals. and the imperfect ( incompleted actions. In most dictionaries. the perfect or past tense ( ). To indicate patterns or type-forms of verbs. where ) represents the first radical of the verb. This is the scale Page 20 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . there are two main tenses. The imperative ( ) may be considered a modification of the imperfect. all the words derived from a triliteral root are entered under the third person masculine singular form of the verb.com/ . that is.al-inaam. they are constructed of three root letters.http://www. The present and future tenses are thus expressed by the imperfect form ( ). These consonants form a kind of skeleton which constitutes the verb-stem to which prefixes and suffixes may be added. In Arabic. Arabic verbs are mostly triliteral. referring to the present or future tenses. the grammarians use the three letters of the verb ( the ( ). the ( ) represents the second radical of the verb and the ( ) represents the third radical of the verb. denoting actions completed at the time to ).

com/ .http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ) or standard by which the root letters of a verb are ) is on the scale ) and ( ) determined. that which corresponds to the ( ) is ) while the letter corresponding to ). is on the scale of ( The letter that corresponds to the ( called the (ِ called the (ِ the ( ) is called the (ِ Example: the word ( ) of the ( ) is ). ( ) is on the scale of ( ). the word ( of ( ).al-inaam. Accordingly. ) is on the scale of ( ): Page 21 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 2 (1) Determine the scales of the following verbs and what each letter represents. The first one has been done for you. the Page 22 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . (a) ( ) The ( ) is the ( ( ) is the ( (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ).http://www. the ( ) is the ( ).com/ . ).

( e. ) and ( ) e. ( ). ). ( ) ) and ( ) ) (2) The conjugation of the ( to the conjugation of ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Categories of Triliteral Verbs ( ) (1) The first and third letters of a simple triliteral verb in the active tense is always vowelled with a fathah ( The second letter or radical may be vowelled by a ( ( ) or ( ). ) of triliteral verbs ( scales: [a] [b] [c] e. (4) The conjugation of the ( the conjugation of ( ). ( ) and sometimes ( ) of ( ) and sometimes ( ) e. ( e. ( ) is ) ) is similar to Page 23 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .g.g.http://www.com/ .g.g. The active perfect tense ( ) is used on three ). ) forms is similar (3) The imperfect tense ( sometimes ( e.al-inaam.g.g.

) e. (9) Based on the above-mentioned facts. ( ) of ( ) is only ( ).al-inaam. It is based on ( from the Arabs.com/ .g.g.http://www. ) of ( ) and sometimes ( ) is sometimes ( ) e. there are six ) which are as follows: ( ( ( ( ( ( ) )(1) (2) ) (3) ) (4) ) (5) ) (6) ) – as heard (10) There is no rule to specify which verb belongs to which category ( ). One can also ascertain which category a verb belongs to from a dictionary. ) of all three scales is ( ) of all three scales is ( ).g.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (5) The ( ( (6) The ( ( (7) The ( (8) The ( categories ( ) of ( ). ). There are however certain guidelines which are as follows: [a] If the verb belongs to the category of ( Page 24 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ) e.

) is generally from the ) does each of the following verb 5 The ( ) are the following six letters: ). ) is of the form ( ). ) is of the form ) is generally from the ).com/ . ( ). e.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ) the second or third letter will be from the ( )5.http://www. ( ).g. ( Page 25 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam. the imperfect ( category of ( [c] If the perfect ( the imperfect ( category of ( Exercise 3 To which category ( belong: (1) ( (2) ( (3) ( (4) ( (5) ( ) ) ) ) ) ). [b] If the perfect ( ( ). ( ).

Page 26 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . As for the first person. All three diacritical points or vowels ) can be used on the ( ) as is apparent ). The following six forms are for the second person. from the above-mentioned six categories ( (2) The Arab Grammarians usually begin the Perfect ( ) and Imperfect ( third person ( ( ) conjugations with the ). the first three being for the masculine and the second three for the feminine.http://www. ) and finally the first person ( (3) Unlike English. Note that the first three froms are for the masculine while the second three are for the feminine of the third person. the plural form is used for both the dual and plural.com/ .al-inaam. (4) Hereunder follow the paradigms of the perfect tense.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Perfect Active Tense ( ) (1) There are 14 word-forms ( ( ( ) of the perfect tense ). The final two forms are for the first person. Arabic also has a dual form for the second and third persons. followed by the second person ).

al-inaam.com/ .http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (Word-form) Verb Page 27 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 4 Conjugate the following verbs in the perfect tense ( ) in table form : (a) ( (b) ( (c) ( (d) ( (e) ( (f) ( (g) ( (h) ( (i) ( (j) ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Page 28 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.al-inaam.com/ .

al-inaam. Page 29 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www. a first verb. namely the third person singular form.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Perfect Passive ( The ( ) ) is constructed from the ( ) in all triliteral verbs ( ). Examples: passive tense it will always be ( Active – ( ) Passive – ( ) Note that the intransitive verbs can be used in the passive tense if they are used with a particle ( ( ) – It was taken. If we take the ).g. a ( ) is rendered to the second letter while the third letter remains in its original condition. ).com/ . The result is ( ( ). ( ( ) is rendered to the first letter. e. No matter what the ) of the second letter in the active tense is. in the ).

http://www.al-inaam.com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Word-form singular masculine 3rd person dual masculine 3rd person plural masculine 3rd person singular feminine 3rd person dual feminine 3rd person plural feminine 3rd person singular masculine 2nd person dual masculine 2nd person plural masculine 2nd person singular feminine 2nd person dual feminine 2nd person plural feminine 2nd person singular first person dual and plural first person Verb Page 30 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

http://www. To use ( ) with ( condition eg.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Verb Pronoun The words ( ) or ( ) are used for the negative sense.al-inaam.com/ . ( ). ) are Page 31 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . the that the ( ) must be repeated The column on the right indicates how the pronouns ( used with the verbs. is ).

al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Word-form Verb Note the Arabic terms used for the different word-forms in this table.com/ . Page 32 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 5 (a) Translate the following sentences: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (b) What is the ( [1] ( [2] ( [3] ( [4] ( [5] ( ) ) ) ) ) of the following verbs: ) Page 33 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.http://www.com/ .

al-inaam.com/ .http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology [6] ( [7] ( [8] ( [9] ( [10] ( ) ) ) ) ) (c) Are the following verbs ( [1] ( [2] ( [3] ( [4] ( [5] ( ) ) ) ) ) ) or ( )? Page 34 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

( ). In the indicative case ( radical ( ( ).al-inaam. e.g. ( ) and ( ). this ( ( ) and ( ) is changed to ( ). The replaced by a ( changes in the singular and dual forms will be discussed later.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Imperfect ( ) The Imperfect ( letters ( ( ). the ( ) of ( ) has a sukûn. ( ) is ( ) and ( ). ( ). depending on which category ) the verb belongs to.g. ). e. the first radical or letter of the verb has ( ( ).g. it is ).com/ . ) is formed by adding prefixes and/or ). The second letter can have any of the three harakât. e. For the subjunctive case ( ). The suffixes may either be ( ). ( ). ( ) or just suffixes to the perfect tense.g. e. ( After adding the prefix. The prefixes can either be any of the ).http://www. Page 35 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ). while for the jussive case ( ). ( ). ( ). the final vowel of the third ) in the singular form of the verb.

She is doing or she will do. I am doing or will do. We are doing or we will do. You (plural males) are doing or you will do.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Meaning He is doing or he will do. You (1 female) are doing or you will do. You (2 males) are doing or you will do. They (plural males) are doing or they will do.http://www. You (plural females) are doing or you will do.al-inaam. They (2 females) are doing or they will do. Verb Page 36 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . You (2 females) are doing or you will do. They (plural females) are doing or they will do.com/ . They (2 males) are doing or they will do. You (1 male) are doing or you will do.

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 37 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.com/ .al-inaam.

http://www.com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 6 (1) To which category ( verbs belong: (a) ( (b) ( (c) ( (d) ( (e) ( (2) What is the ( ) ) of the following words: ) ) ) ) ) do each of the following (1) (2) (3) ( 4) (5) ( 6) ( 7) (8) Page 38 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.

al-inaam.http://www. No matter what the ) in the active tense is. If we take the ). a first verb. in the ).com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Imperfect Passive Tense ( ) The ( ) is constructed from the ( ) in all triliteral verbs ( ). ( ( ) is rendered to the first letter which is the ( ) – sign of the imperfect tense. namely the third person singular form. A ( rendered to the ( ) while the ( ) is ) remains as it is. Examples: passive tense. The result is ( ( ) of the ( ). it will always be ( Active – ( ) Passive – ( ) Page 39 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

[4] The car will be left on the road. [5] The book will be read today.al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 7 (a) Translate the following into English: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (b) Translate the following sentences into Arabic: [1] The door of the school is being opened. [2] He is being sent to Madînah.com/ . (c) Conjugate the following verbs into the ( ): (5) (4) ( 3) ( 2) ( 1) Page 40 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . [3] The disbelievers will be defeated.http://www.

When they ).com/ . they render ( ) to the following ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) The ( ) of the following seven words is deleted: ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) ( 7) The following two words remain unchanged: Page 41 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The ( ) The ( precede the ( five words: ) are: ( ).http://www.al-inaam. ( ) and ( ). ( ).

com/ . Examples: Hereunder follow the paradigms of ( the particle ( ). ) when used with Page 42 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( 1) ( 2) The word ( ) changes the positive imperfect tense ( ) to negative ( The paradigms of ( ) with emphasis.al-inaam. ) – the active tense and ( ) – the ) and passive tense – when used with the other particles. ( ( ) will be the same as was in the case of ( ).http://www. ( ).

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 43 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.al-inaam.com/ .

http://www.al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 8 (1) Conjugate the following verbs using ( ): (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (2) Conjugate the following verbs using ( ): (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Page 44 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .

( ).com/ .al-inaam. When they precede the ( to the following five words: ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) The ( ) of the following seven words is deleted: ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) ( 7) The following two words remain unchanged: ( 1) Page 45 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The ( The ( ) are ( ). ( ) ). they render ( ) ). ( ) and ( ).

) whose ( person ( If any of the ( ) precede a ( Page 46 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ . ( passive voice – when used with ( ). ) – the ) and ( ) – the active voice and ( ). ( ).http://www. Examples: The word ( The ( ( ) means ‘not as yet’. it is only used in the third ) word-forms. will be the same as was in the case of ( ). ) enters all the word-forms of the passive tense ).al-inaam. In the active tense ( ) and first person ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( 2) The word ( ) changes the positive imperfect tense ( ) to the negative perfect tense ( The paradigms of ( ). Thus ( ) will mean ‘he did not do as yet’.

al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ) is a ( Examples: ( ) Example of ( ) Example of ( ) Example of () ).http://www. Hereunder follow the paradigms of ( the particle ( ). ) when used with Page 47 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ . the ( ) is deleted.

com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 48 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.http://www.

http://www.al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 9 (1) Conjugate the following verbs using ( ): (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (2) Conjugate the following verbs using ( ): (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Page 49 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .

) is ( ) in the (2) The letter prededing the ( following word-forms: ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) (3) The ( attaching the ( ) is deleted in the following words before ): ( 1) Page 50 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . The ( ( ( ).al-inaam. The ( ) and ( ) is ( ) or ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The ( ( ) and ( ) of Emphasis ) – The Energetic Forms (1) To create emphasis in the meaning of ( ) is prefixed to it and ( it. the ( ) suffixed to ) and is suffixed to all the word-forms ) is ( ) and is not suffixed to the ) word-forms.http://www.com/ .

( ) is retained while the ( ). ) and the ( ) of ( ) before the ( ) and ( ) and the ( ). an ( ) and the ( ) is inserted between ) so that three nûns do not occur in one place.http://www. ( (6)In the ( the ( ) of ( ) word-forms. ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) ( 7) ) itself ) are also ) before the deleted.com/ .g. e. Page 51 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . e. In short. The ( ( ) are retained. This will occur in the following two wordforms: ( 1) ( 2) (7) The ( ) itself is ( ) in these two words.al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology _ (4) The ( becomes ( (5) The ( ) of ( ) of the ( ).g.

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology the ( instances. its ) is ( ) after ( ) and ( ) in the other in those words where there is no ( these are eight word-forms. Page 52 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.com/ . The ( ) before ( ) except in the ) is only used ) and ). (8) The ( ( ) and ( ) is similar to the ( ) word-forms.http://www. Once ( ) and ( ) enter a ( meaning changes to the future tense.

com/ .al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 53 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ◘ ◘ ◘ ◘ ◘ ◘ ◘ ◘ ◘ ◘ ◘ ◘ Page 54 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.com/ .al-inaam.

http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 10 (1) Conjugate the following verbs using ( active and passive tenses: ) in the (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (2) Conjugate the following verbs using ( active and passive tenses: ) in the (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Page 55 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.com/ .

) is ). Examples: (6) The ( ) is deleted while the ( )– the nūn of the feminine plural . ). a ( ). ). Example: the verb ( ). Example: ( ) has a ( ). Examples: ( ( ) becomes ( ) becomes ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Imperative ( The ( from the ( (1) The ( is deleted. ). ) is ) – imperative second person) is constructed ) in the following manner: ) – the sign of the imperfect tense - (3) If the following letter is ( inserted at the beginning and the end is rendered ( (4) If the ( rendered a ( (5) If the ( ) has a ( ). Page 56 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . (2) If the following letter is ( rendered ( ). the ( ).is retained. the ( ) becomes ( ) or ( ) is rendered a ( ( ( ) becomes ( ) becomes ( ).com/ . the final letter is ) changes to ( ).http://www. ).al-inaam.

the imperative ) can also be attached ). Page 57 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .http://www. (9) The ( to the ( ) and ( ) word-forms. ). This ( ) at the ) has the same effect Hereunder follow the paradigms of imperative active) and ( passive). ). ) at the end is deleted.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (7) The ( ( ( ( ) becomes ( ) becomes ( ) becomes ( ). Examples: (8) The imperative of the first and third persons ( ) is formed by adding a ( beginning of ( on the verbs as ( ).al-inaam.the . ( .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 58 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.http://www.com/ .

com/ .http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 59 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.

al-inaam.com/ .http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology X Page 60 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

(2) The ( the forms of ( ).al-inaam. ) and ( ) ) to denote ) in changing the ) can be attached to all Page 61 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . It has the same effect as ( different word-forms.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 11 Conjugate the imperative ( using the ( ) and ( ) of the following verbs in ): the active and passive forms first and then conjugate them (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) The Prohibition ( (1) The particle ( ) is used before ( prohibition.com/ .http://www.

al-inaam.http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 62 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .

http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 63 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .al-inaam.

com/ .http://www.al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 64 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

com/ .http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 12 (1) Conjugate the prohibition ( conjugate them using the ( ) and ( ) of the following ): verbs in the active and passive forms first and then (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (2) What is the ( ) of the following verbs? (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) Page 65 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.

rendering a ( ) to the final letter. e.g.g. Page 66 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . In 3-root letter verbs ( adding an ( ). There are three scales for the masculine form and three for the feminine form of the word. the ( ) after the first letter. e. ( ).g. In the dual forms ( ) are attached to the end. ( ) and ( second letter and ( ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology THE DERIVED NOUNS ( The following six nouns are derived from the verb: ) ( 4) ( 3) (6) (2) ( 5) ( 1) The Active Participle ( The active participle ( ) ) indicates the person or being ) – a person who ) is formed by ) to the ) becomes from whom the action emanates. ( ). a round ( ) is ).al-inaam. ( ) is ). e.g. ( the syllable.http://www. For the feminine form. while for the feminine plural ( ) is attached. e. ( listens. Thus. ( ). For the masculine plural ( inserted. inserted at the end.com/ . ( ).

a ( ) is used while in ) is used. e. ( ) and Page 67 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .g.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology In the indicative case ( ). a ( ) preceded by a ( ). the ( ) is used with an ( ) ). The ( ). ( ) and ( ).g. ).com/ . e.al-inaam. ).http://www. The ( ) of the ( ) is For the masculine plural in ( ( ( ) of ( ) is ( ). it while in the accusative and genative cases ( is used with a ( ) preceded by a ( ( ).

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 13 Conjugate the ( ) of the following verbs: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) Page 68 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .al-inaam.http://www.

e.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Passive Participle ( The passive participle ( action occurs.g. it also has six word-forms. ). The first root letter ( ) while the second one becomes ( ). The additions for the dual and plural forms are the same as the ).com/ .http://www. ( formed by adding a ( second letter and ( ) becomes ( ( ) ) is that entity on which the ) – the thing which is opened. a ( ) after the ) at the end.al-inaam. Like the ( Page 69 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . It is ) at the beginning.

http://www.al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 14 Conjugate the ( ) of the following verbs: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) Page 70 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .

( ). except for ) e. ): Hereunder follows the paradigm of the ( Page 71 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.g.com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Elative ( The ( ) ) is a derived noun that indicates the comparative ) – more virtuous or most or superlative degree e. the scale blind.more famous. The ( ) but ). Tanwīn never enters the end of ( ) generally renders the meaning of the doer ( sometimes it can render the meaning of the object ( ( ) . ( virtuous.al-inaam. e.g. The scale of ( of ( ) is used for ( ) is used for this purpose.g. ( ) – red. In the case of colours and defects. )– colours and defects.

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 72 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.al-inaam.com/ .

al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 15 Conjugate the ( ) of the following verbs: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) Page 73 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .http://www.

al-inaam. but to say ) has six word-forms permanently has the quality of listening even though there may be no object. Therefore one can say ( ( like the ( ) is incorrect. ( ( ) if the quality of ( listening at the moment. The ( ) on ) – quality of an entity. For the dual and plural forms.g.http://www.The ( ) even though it may be ). A person will only be referred to as ) emanates from him whereas the attribute of ( ) applies to a person all the time.com/ . e. ): made to the end as in the ( Hereunder follows the paradigm of the ( Page 74 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . Hence the difference ) indicates a being ) is always intransitive ( constructed from a transitive verb ( between ( ) and ( ) is that ( listening at the moment while ( ) indicates a being which ). ( the other hand describes a temporary quality e.g.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The ( The ( ) ) is a derived noun referring to the permanent ) – beautiful. The ( ). changes are ).

intact but a change occurs in the harakāt. e. It is based on ( a ( ). ( ). Sometimes the root-form remains ). ( ). Scale Example Meaning handsome impure brave Page 75 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The ( ) is used on many scales for which there is no ) – as heard from the Arabs. Sometimes rule. ( ( ).com/ . Some of the more common scales are listed hereunder.g.g. ( ). ( ) or ( ) is inserted after the second alphabet. e. ( ).http://www.al-inaam.

It is formed by adding a ( beginning of the root letters.com/ . It has three scales.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology chaste thick empty free happy companion noble red thirsty The Noun of the Instrument ( The ( ) ) is a derived noun that indicates the instrument ) at the used for the action. Scales Examples Meanings needle fan key Page 76 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.http://www.

6 Adze: kind of axe with arched blade used for shaping wood. Page 77 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ . Different scales are used for this purpose but there is no rule for arriving at a particular scale.axe . Examples: ( ) .knife.al-inaam.http://www. ( ) – adze6.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The paradigm including the dual and plural cases is as follows: Scales Examples Sometimes the underived noun ( ) is used to denote an instrument. ( ) .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 16 (a) Conjugate the ( ) of the following verbs: (5 ) (10) (4 ) (9 ) (3 ) (8 ) (2 ) (7 ) (1 ) (6 ) (b) Identify the derived nouns in the following sentences: . . .al-inaam. .com/ . . ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) Page 78 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www. .

al-inaam. It has two scales. the ( ). it ).com/ . e. the ( ) and ( ).g. It is made by adding a ( ) at the ) and ) or ). time of the action. ) or ( ). If the ( ) is ( ) will be on the scale of The paradigm including the dual and plural forms is as follows: scale example The ( ( ) is often constructed from the underived noun ) on the scale of ( ) to indicate an excess of that object in that place.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Adverb ( The ( is called ( is called ( ) ) is a derived noun that indicates the place or ) and if it indicates the time of the action. Page 79 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . e. If the word indicates the place of the action. it beginning of the root letters. ( ).g. If the ( ).g.http://www. ) and ( ) is ( ) or ( ) will be on the scale of ( ). namely ( ( ( ( ( ( ). e.

derived from ( ) – a place of many ducks .derived from ( predator. e.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ( ( ) – a place of many lions . These may be regarded as exceptions to the rule.http://www. but have been used with a ( ) instead.derived from ( ) – lion. These words are: Word Meaning place of assembly place of falling intersection place of slaughtering east west place where one expects something ) is used on the scale of ( ).al-inaam.com/ .g. Meaning place of prostration place of rising place of staying place of slaughtering place of germinating place of resting the elbow nostril Sometimes the ( Page 80 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . which according to the rule should have a( ) on the ( ). ) – duck. The scholars have written that it is permissible to pronounce these words with a ( Word ) as well. There are certain words. ) – )– a place of many predators .

http://www.antimony. from ( ) . ( ( ) indicates the place where a thing falls during ) – the water which falls during bathing. The scale of ( the action.al-inaam.g. Exercise 17 (a) Conjugate the ( ) of the following verbs: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) Page 81 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . e.com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ) – antimony bottle. ) – the dirt which falls off the broom when sweeping.

The difference ) and ( ) is that in ( ). Hence ( ( ) is in comparison to others while ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Intensive Adjective ( The ( ) ) is a noun that indicates excess in meaning of ) – one who hits a lot.com/ . a differentiation is made between the ) ). the excess in ) or ) is not in comparison to anyone.a very learned woman. Sometimes ) – a very a ( ) is added for excess in meaning.g. Examples: The following scales are the ones most frequently used for Page 82 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam. ( between ( the excess meaning is limited to itself without taking others into consideration whereas in the ( meaning is in comparison to others. the verbal noun e. ( When ( ) . In the ( ).( ). ).g.http://www.( ). or ( ) is in the meaning of ( ) is in the meaning of ( ( ( ). e. there is no difference in gender. masculine and feminine forms. ( learned man.

al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ): Scale Example Meaning very cautious very knowledgeable big eater shedder of blood very great very truthful one who cuts a lot one who awards many prizes chatterbox very strange very decisive one who habitually laughs eternal most holy very agile Page 83 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.com/ .

(7) The king was a shedder of blood.al-inaam. (6) Allāh is very knowledgeable. (3) The principal awards many prizes. (9) His mother is very patient. (B) What is the scale of the following ( ): (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) Page 84 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . (8) The student is very cautious. (4) Abū Bakr is very truthful.http://www. (5) She is a big eater.com/ . (2) This book is very strange. (10) The mujāhid is extremely brave.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 18 (A) Translate the following sentences into Arabic: (1) He is very agile.

al-inaam.com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Categories ( The ( ) of ( ) ) –three root).http://www.g. The abbreviated paradigm7 of this ( 7 The abbreviated paradigm is where the first ( ) of each paradigm of the active and passive tenses is used. ( ) is as follows: ) – plural of ( ) – the ( ) has a ( ) has a ( ) while ) – to help. ) of Verbs You have already learnt that the verbs of ( letter verbs – have six categories ( The First ( ( the ( ): ( ) ) of the ( ). e. Page 85 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

g. This ) and whose ( condition for this ( ) or ( ) is that if the verb is ) must be from the ( does not mean that every verb which is ( 8 ( ) is that word which has no ( ) as its root letter. e. the ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Second ( ( the ( ) – the ( ) has a ( ):( ) ) of the ( ). two letters of the same type or ( Page 86 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ( ) has a ( ) while ) – the ( ) also has a ( ) – to open. The abbreviated paradigm of this ( The Third ( ( the ( ):( ) ) of the ( ). The ( )8.al-inaam. ).com/ . eg ( ) is as follows: ) has a ( ) while ) – to hit.http://www.

al-inaam. ( ) has a ( ) while ) – the ( ) has a ( ) – to listen. Page 87 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . The abbreviated paradigm of this ( remaining ( ) is similar to the above-mentioned examples.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ) or ( ( ) is from the ( ).com/ . will be from ) and the ). The Fourth ( ( the ( ):( ) ) of the ( ).http://www.g. e.

( ) has a ( ) while ) – the ( ) also has a ( ) – to ponder. ) on the scale of ( The Sixth ( ( the ( Besides ( ( ):( ) ) of the ( ). instead of the ) has been verbs of this ( ( used. ( ) are intransitive. the ( ). In this ( ).al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Fifth ( ( the ( ):( ) ) of the ( ). e. ).com/ . no other ( ) has been used in this ) is also ). The ).http://www. ( ) has a ( ) while ) – the ( ) also has a ( ) – to be noble. e.g. Acccording to some scholars.g. the verb ( Page 88 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . e.g.

been used. Page 89 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . e. The verb ( ) of 9 10 A word having a ( ) or ( ) as the ( A word having two ( ). verbs that are ( ) and ( ) on the ( )9 or ( )10 have ) has ( ).com/ .al-inaam.g. ). ( also been used with a ( that is ( ).http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology from this ( ). However. ).

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 19 Conjugate the following verbs as done above: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) Page 90 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .al-inaam.http://www.

com/ . means to help. From this verb the following verbs are derived with differing meanings: Verb Meaning to support to try to help to render mutual assistance to come to someone’s aid to ask for assistance Another example of derived verbs is ( ) which means to kill. This is a common feature of Semitic languages and perhaps it reaches its pinnacle in Arabic. Accordingly.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The ( ) of ( ) The Derived Forms of the Triliteral Verb Arabic is extremely rich and copious in derived forms which extend or modify the meaning of the root form of the verb. When extra letters are added to this root. the following meanings are achieved. Page 91 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . which is the root. Derived forms are made by adding letters before or between the root letters of the simple verb. ( ).al-inaam. giving many exact shades of meaning.http://www.

g.http://www. while others have four or five as in the above examples.com/ . thus bringing the maximum number of letters of a verb to six (root letters plus extra letters). ) are twelve in total.to arrange). battle to fight with one another to risk one’s life Very few verb roots have all the other derived forms. Besides ( will become ( ) in the ( ) except for the Page 92 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam. e. Sometimes the root form is not in use while the derived forms are used. Seven of these ( ) have ( ) at the beginning while ). ( The ( ) of ( . They are ) of ( formed by adding extra letters to the ( ). There is often a good deal of overlapping of meaning between the forms.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Verb Meaning to massacre to combat. every letter with a ( ) five do not have. Upto a maximum of three extra letters can be added to a verb. Some have only one (like – to drive away) or two (like – to sink).

al-inaam. Page 93 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ( ). ( ). e.http://www. The ( ) will When ( ) or ( ) are used in the ( will not be pronounced as will the ( ( ). ( ). ) of the ( ) and ( ). the ( ) ).g. ).com/ .g.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology penultimate letter which will be ( remain as it is. e.

al-inaam.http://www.com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The 12 ( ) of ( Example ) are as follows: Extra Letters no hamza no hamza no hamza no hamza Page 94 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

There is neither ( ) is used on the scale of the ) nor ( ) in ).al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Construction of the Derived Nouns To construct the ( the ( ) of any ( ) besides ( ). ) except that the penultimate letter is ( Examples: The ( ( these ( ) of these ( ). ). ) at the ) if it is not ) is modified by adding a ( beginning and making the penultimate letter ( already ( Examples: ).com/ .http://www. In ordert to express the meaning of the ( Page 95 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . The ( ) is like the ( ).

can also be used.http://www. To express the ( ( ( ).com/ .g.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology the words ( ( ) are added to the ( ) – the means of refraining. Words like ) etc.al-inaam.g. Page 96 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ( ) – more refraining. e. the word ( ) is used before the ) for this purpose. e. ( ). ).

Thus ( ) 11 in the ) is ) is ).al-inaam.com/ . ) becomes ( The remaining word-forms follow the same pattern.http://www. paradigms of this verb are provided 11 A hamzah that is not deleted in pronunciation when prefixed by any letter. The ( ) is a ( ) while the ( ) of the ( ). The detailed hereunder.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Abbreviated Paradigm ( ( ) ) of Each The sign of ( ( always ( deleted from the ( ) and ( ). Page 97 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : .com/ . Page 98 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.http://www.

).g. ( ) e.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 20 Conjugate the following verbs: ( 5) ( 4) (3) (2) ( 1) The sign of ( ( ) and ( ). ( ) e.g. ) e.al-inaam.http://www. The ( ( The ( ( ( ( ( ). ).com/ . Page 99 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ) of this ( ) is the tashdîd of the ( ) without a ( ) in the ) preceding the ( ) is also always ) of this ( ) is also used on the following scales: ). ( ).g. The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder.g. ( ) e.

http://www.com/ .al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : . Page 100 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

) is always ) is also used on the following scales: ) e. ).http://www. ) of ( ).g. Page 101 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.com/ . ( The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. ( ) e.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 21 Conjugate the following verbs: (5) ( 4) (3) (2) ( 1) The sign of ( in the ( ) is the ( ) and ( ) after the ( ) without a ( ) of this ( ) ) preceding it.g. The ( ( The ( ( ( ).

com/ . Page 102 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : .http://www.al-inaam.

al-inaam. ). This ) is always intransitive ( The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. Page 103 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 22 Conjugate the following verbs: (5) (4) (3) (2) ( 1) The sign of ( ( ) is the ( ) before the ( ).http://www.com/ .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : . Page 104 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.com/ .http://www.

http://www. the ( ) is a ( ). (1) The ( ) is changed to ( ) and the rule of ( e. ) is ( ). then ( ) changes to ( ). the following three changes are permissible: ) is applied. then after changing the ) to ( ). ) of - ) is changed to ( ). ( If the ( ( ) of ( ) is ( ). or ( ). Page 105 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ( ) changes to ( ). e. ( ).com/ .g. If the ( assimilation) is compulsory.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 23 Conjugate the following verbs: (5) (4) ( 3) (2) ( 1) The sign of ( Rule 1 If the ( ( ) of ( ) is the ( ) after the ( ).al-inaam.g.

g. the ) is a ( ). ). ( it is compulsory to apply ( If the ( ( ) of ( ) is ( ).al-inaam. (1) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of ( e. ( ). the following two changes are permissible: ). e.g. ( ). ( ) changes to (3) Sometimes the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of If the ( ( ) to ( ). ) of ( ) is ( ). ) is changed to ( ).g. e.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (2) Sometimes the ( ) is changed to ( ) and then the rule of ( ( ( ) is applied to the ( ). the following three changes are permissible: Page 106 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ( ) changes to Rule 2 If the ( ( ) of ( ) of ( ) is ( ). then after changing the ). ( ). or ( ).com/ . ). (2) Sometimes the ( ) is changed to ( ) and then the rule of ( ( ) is applied to the ( ).g.http://www.g. then ) changes to ( ). If the ( ) e. e. then after changing the ) to ( ). ( ).

) or ( (2) Sometimes the ( ) is changed to ( rule of ( ( Rule 3 If the ( change the ( changes to ( ) of ( ) to ( ). ( ) and ( ).com/ . ( ) changes to ( ).g. e.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (1) The ( ) is changed to ( ) and the rule of ( e. the following two possibilities are ).g. (1) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of ( e.g. (3) The ( ) is changed to ( ) and the rule of ( e. ( ). ) and then the ) and ) changes to ( ) changes to ( ).g. ) is ( ) or ( ) is applied. ) is ( ) is applied.g. ( If the ( changing the ( permissible: ) changes to ( ) of ( ). ( ) ) and apply the rule of ( Page 107 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .g. then it is permissible to ). ). e. (2) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of ( e. ). then after ) to ( ).http://www. ) is applied. ( ).al-inaam.

The ( ( ) and ( ) is deleted. ( ). Therefore all three harakats are permissible. ). paradigms of this verb follow Some of the detailed hereunder. ) and ( ) is ) changes to (4.( ). ) and ). ( ).3) It is permissible to have a ( ( ( ) and ( ). ) on the ( ).g. ( ( ) of ( ). the ( ) of the ( ) ) to the same letter as the ( is transferred to the preceding letter and the rule of ( applied. ( ). or ( ). ( ) is ( ).g.com/ . e.al-inaam.will be (4. ). ( ).g.2) The ( ( ) and ( ) . Page 108 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Rule 4 If the ( ( ).4) It is permissible to read a ( ( ( ). ) of the ). ( ).http://www. e. ( ). ( ) changes to ( ) of these verbs . ( ). The words ( ) which have appeared in the Qur’ân are from this ( ) on the ( (4. ( ). ( ). then after changing the ). e.

al-inaam.http://www.com/ . Page 109 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : .

Page 110 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . The ( ).com/ . paradigms of this verb follow 12 The rules of ( ) will be discussed later.al-inaam.http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 24 Conjugate the following verbs: (5) (4) ( 3) (2) ( 1) The sign of ( four letters after the ( ) of this ( ) is the repetition of the ( ) in the ( ) except in ( ) and ).12 ) is always ( Some of the detailed hereunder.

Page 111 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : .com/ .http://www.al-inaam.

al-inaam.com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 25 Conjugate the following verbs: (5) (4) (3) (2) ( 1) The sign of ( precedes the ( ) is the tashdīd of the ( ) in the ( paradigms ). ) and ( ) Some of the detailed hereunder. of this verb follow Page 112 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.

http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : .al-inaam. Page 113 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .

it is permissible to delete one.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 26 Conjugate the following verbs: ( 5) ( 4) (3) (2) ( 1) The sign of ( in the ( ).g.al-inaam. when two ( )’s are adjacent to one another in the ( e. ). Page 114 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ( ( ) ) ( ( ) ).com/ .http://www. Rule 1 In ( ) and ( ) is that the ( ) precedes the ( ) after the ( ) ) and there is an extra ( ).

( ). ( ) or ( ).( ). ( ). The ( have been created due to this rule. ( ) . ( ). Examples: ( ( ) ) ( ( ) ) ( ( ) ) _ Some of the detailed hereunder. ( ) is ( ). ( ). it is ) and apply the ) and ( ) and ( ) require a ) ) into the ( ). ( permissible to change the ( rule of ( ( ). paradigms of this verb follow Page 115 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Rule 2 If the ( ) of ( ) and ( ). In this case.http://www.com/ .al-inaam. the ( ) at the beginning. ( ).

Page 116 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : .http://www.com/ .

) is the extra ( ) and ( ) before the It is permissible to delete the ( ). paradigms of this verb follow Page 117 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ . The verbs ( in the Qur’ân are from this ( Some of the detailed hereunder.al-inaam. ) from the verb ( ) mentioned ) and ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 27 Conjugate the following verbs: (5) (4) ( 3) (2) ( 1) The sign of ( ( ).http://www.

Page 118 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : .http://www.

This ( ) Page 119 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www. paradigms of this verb follow ). This ( ) has changed to a ( ) in the ( is mostly intransitive ( Some of the detailed hereunder.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 28 Conjugate the following verbs: (5) (4) ( 3) ( 2) ( 1) The sign of ( ) is the repetition of the ( ) and the appearance of a ( ) between the two ( )’s.com/ . ) due to the preceding ( ).al-inaam.

al-inaam.com/ .http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : . Page 120 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

al-inaam. ) of ( ). meanings of colours and defects and they are intransitive ( Some of the detailed hereunder. This ( The ( ) is the repetition of the ( ) and the ) before the first ( ) in the ( ).com/ . ) changes to a ( ) in the ( ) is similar to the ( ) and ( ) in this ( The verbs of ( ) mostly have the ).http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 29 Conjugate the following verbs: (3) (2) ( 1) The sign of ( appearance of an extra ( ). paradigms of this verb follow Page 121 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

http://www.com/ .al-inaam. Page 122 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : .

al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 30 Conjugate the following verbs: (4) ( 3) ( 2) ( 1) The sign of ( ) is the ( ) after the ( paradigms ).http://www. of this verb follow Page 123 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ . Some of the detailed hereunder.

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : .http://www.al-inaam. Page 124 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .

http://www.al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 31 (A) Conjugate the following verbs: ( 1) ( 2) (B) What is the ( ) of the following words: ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) ( 7) ( 8) ( 9) (10) Page 125 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .

the ( ) will be ( ). )– (2) verbs formed by the doubling of a biliteral root. e. the ( ( ) will be ( ). whether root letters or extra letters. ( ). ( ) – to translate.g. ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Four-Root letter Verbs The ( ) of ( ) The sign of ( ( ).com/ . e.g. ( ) even in the active tense ). ( Page 126 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .g. ( ).g. e. ( ). Four-root letter verbs are of three types: (1) those of genuine four-radical origin. ( ). The rule for the ( ) has four letters.al-inaam.http://www. If the ( ) has less than or more than four letters. The ( ) is the presence of four root letters in the ) of this ( ) of the ( ) is ( ) is that if the ( ). ( ). e.

( ) – to say Page 127 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ . e. paradigms of this verb follow ) – to say Al-hamdulillāh. (3) composite roots taken from a familiar phrase or combination of roots. ( ) – to stammer.http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology to gargle. Some of the detailed hereunder.g. ( Bismillāh.al-inaam.

http://www.com/ . Page 128 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : .

com/ .al-inaam.http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 32 Conjugate the following verbs: ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) (B) What is the ( ) of the following words: ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) ( 7) ( 8) ( 9) (10) Page 129 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

) is the extra ( ) before the four root Some of the detailed hereunder.com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Derived Forms of Four-Root Letter Verbs The sign of ( letters. paradigms of this verb follow Page 130 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.http://www.

http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : .al-inaam.com/ . Page 131 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 33 Conjugate the following verbs: ( 5) (4) ( 3) (2) ( 1) The sign of ( ) is having four root letters.com/ . of this verb follow Page 132 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . paradigms Some of the detailed hereunder.http://www. the repetition ) in the ( of the second ( ) and the inclusion of ( ) and ( ).al-inaam.

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

: .

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
Exercise 34 Conjugate the following verbs:

( 5)

( 4)

( 3)

(2)

( 1)

The sign of ( ( ) and (

) is the inclusion of ( ) and the extra ( ) after the paradigms ( ).

) in the

Some of the detailed hereunder.

of this verb follow

Page 134 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

: .

Page 135 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
Exercise 35 (A) Conjugate the following verbs:

( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5)
(B) What is the ( ) of the following words:

( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) ( 7) ( 8) ( 9) (10)
Page 136 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
Other Derived Forms The ( ) of ( )

There are two categories of ( (1) ( (2) ( The first category ( (1) ( shawl. ) )

) here:

) has seven (

): ) – to don a

) – the ( ) is repeated, e.g. (

:

(2) ( (

) – there is an extra ( ) after the ( ), e.g. ) – to don a trouser.

:

(3) ( (

) – there is an extra ( ) after the ( ) – to command. This word can be used as (

), e.g. ) as well.

Page 137 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

:

(4) ( (

) – there is an extra ( ) after the ( ), e.g. ) – to trim the extra leaves of a plant.

:

(5) ( (

)– there is an extra ( ) after the ( ) – to make someone don socks.

), e.g.

:

(6) (

)– there is an extra ( ) after the ( ), e.g. (

) – to

make someone don a hat.

:

(7) (

)– there is an extra ( ) after the ( ), e.g. (

) – to

Page 138 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
make someone don a hat.

:

( (

)

was ). (

originally

(

).

(

)

was

originally

) was originally (

). These changes will be

discussed later. The second category - ( (1) ( (2) ( (3) ( The first group ( ) ) ) ) has 8 ( ): ) has three groups:

(1) (

) – the extra letters are (

) before the (

) and the ( )

is repeated, e.g. (

) – to don a shawl.

(2) (

) – the extra letters are (

) before the (

) and the ( )

between the ( ) and the ( ), e.g. (

) – to don a trouser.

(3) (

) – the extra letters are (

) before the (

) and a ( )

Page 139 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/

g. (8) ( ) – the extra letters are a ( ) before the ( ) and a ( ) after the ( ). e. ( The second group. ( ) – to don a hat. ( ) – the extra letters are a ( ) – to be poor. (4) ( after the ( ) – the extra letters are ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology after the ( ). the ( ) after the ( ) and the ( Page 140 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .g. e.g. e. ) should be done like ) is like ( ): ).http://www. ( (1) ( ) has two ( ) – The second ( ). namely. ( ) – to don a trouser. e.g. ( ) – to behave like a devil.g. while the last one. ( ) – to be a satan. The conjugation of these ( ( ).g. (7) ( ( ) – the extra letters are a ( ) before the ( ) and a ) after the ( ). ( ) before the ( ) and a ( ) ) – to don socks. e.al-inaam. ) and a ( ) before the ( ). (6) ( e.com/ . (5) ( ) – the extra letters are ( ) before the ( ) and a ( ) after the ( ).

e.g. : The ( ( ) of this ( ) – ( ).com/ .( ( ( ): ) – The ( ) after the ( ) – to strive. ) – to walk with the chest and : (2) ( ( ) – The ( ) after the ( ).g.http://www. e. ) was originally ). ( neck protruding out. e. ) and one ( ) is extra. the ( ) after the ( ) and the ) are extra. The ( ) was changed to a ( ) has one ( The third group . ( ) – to lie on one’s back. : Page 141 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.g.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ) are extra.

) has been applied and the changes are similar to those of ( Exercise 36 What is the word-form ( ( ) are they from: ) of the following words and which ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) ( 7) ( 8) ( 9) (10) Page 142 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .al-inaam.http://www. ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology In all the word-forms of this ( ).

http://www. Page 143 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ( ) and ( ).com/ . namely: Definitions Term Meaning Example A word whose root letters do not have a ( ). ( )13 ) or two letters of the same type A word having a ( in the ( ) ) A word having a ( in the ( ) A word having a ( in the ( ) ) A word having a ( ) as a root letter – a hamzated verb A word having.al-inaam. as its root letters. two letters of the same type A word having two ) as the root letters ( 13 The ( ) are ( ). they fall into seven categories.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Seven Categories With regards to the letters of verbs.

) eg ). it is called ) refers to any verb that contains a 2) If there is a ( ( ) or ( 3) If there is a ( ( ) or ( 4) If there is a ( ( 5) If the ( ( ).g. it is called ( ). ) in the ( ). ) has a ( ). ) in the ( ). it is called ( ) eg Page 144 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology 1) The term ( ( ). it is called ).g.com/ . ) has a ( ). eg 7) If the ( eg ( ). ) or ( ) has a ( ). it is called ( ) 8) If the ( eg ( ). e. it is called ( ) 9) If the ( ) has a ( ). ( ). eg ( ). ( ). e. it is called ). it is called ( 6) If the ( ( ).al-inaam. ) in the ( ).http://www. ) has a ( ).

http://www. it is called ( ) ) is of two types: ( ) and ( ) is when the two ( ) are ) is when the two ( ).com/ . 11) If the ( eg ( ). ) are adjacent to one another. it is called ( ) eg 10) If the ( ( ). ( 16) ( ). it is called ( ) has a ( ). ( ). ). e. ) has a ( ).g. it is Page 145 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ( 17) If the ( called ( ) and ( ) e. ) has a ( ). it is called ( ) 12) If the ( ) eg ( 13) If the ( eg ( 14) ( ). ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ).g. ) are the same. 15) ( separate.g. ) has a ( ). e.al-inaam.

( ) are the same letters. it is called ( ( ). Exercise 37 Classify the following verbs according to the seven categories: ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) ( 7) ( 8) ( 9) (10) Page 146 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology 18) If the ( ) and the first ( ) and the ( ) and the second ) e.com/ .al-inaam.http://www.g.

al-inaam. (b) after a ( Example ). change the ( (destitute) becomes ( (c) after a ( Example (wolf) becomes ( ).) ) into a ( ). ).http://www. ) letter to the corresponding ( Examples Page 147 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . change the ( ) into an ( ). ). ). ) That is. change the ( nnnnn Rule 2 If a hamzah mutaharrik ( ( ( ) that is ( ) appears before a ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Rules of ( Rule 1: It is permissible to change a ( ( ) to correspond to the previous ( ). it becomes necessary to change the ). that is alone and ).com/ . ) into a ( ). (a) after a ( Example ( )(head) becomes( .

then it is permissible to change the second ( into a ( ).1) If two ( ( )’s are ( ) into a ( ).2) It is permissible to change a ( and is preceded by a ( Example becomes . nnnnn Rule 3 (3. ) and one of them is ) ).com/ .al-inaam. Example Page 148 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ) that is ( ) (3. nnnnn Rule 4 (4. ) that is ( ) ) to a ( ).http://www.1) It is permissible to change a ( and is preceded by a ( Example becomes is the plural of which means a perfume holder.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology becomes becomes becomes .

rule . Therefore it is removed and remains. )'s which are ( ) and none of ).com/ . then it is necessary to change the ) into a ( ). the ( ) (the coming ) is deleted.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology can also be read as If there are two ( them are ( second ( Examples i) ii) will be read as will be read as . Page 149 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . It becomes ( )( of ). Now there are two ( ) .http://www.al-inaam. The ( 4. Now due to ( together of two [ ] letters).1). The second ( ) ) and one of them is ( changes into a ( ) becoming ( rule of . ( ) originally was ( ( ) which comes after ( ( ). ( ) (according to the ) can also be written as (difficult to ( ) ) on the ( ) is pronounce). The ) will change into a ).

Example of ( ) ) into the letter that ) (incorporation of one letter The word ( Example ( ) ) is the ( ) of ( ).al-inaam. .com/ .http://www. it is or if a ( permissible to change the ( precedes it and then ( into another) is made. nnnnn Rule 5 If a ( ) comes after the ( ) or ( ) that are ) comes after the ( ) of ( and ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology We are left with Step by Step ( ( ) ( )( ) ) which can also be read as . Page 150 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

whereby the second ( changes into a ( ) and becomes .14 ).al-inaam. ).http://www. the ( changes to ( Example The word ( The word ( comes after the ( changes into a ( have two ( The rule of ( ) is the plural of ( ) was originally ( ) of ( ). ) after the ( ) changes to ( ) of and before ) and the ( ) ) of ( ) which is ) as the second last letter. Now we ). 18 which you will read under the rules of . The ( ) which ). ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Example of .meaning axe. Now there is a 14 This refers to rule no.com/ . Page 151 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . The word ( the ( ) of ( ) is the ( ) . nnnnn Rule 6 If there occurs a ( a ( ). ) It becomes ( )’s and one of them is ( ) applies.

http://www. nnnnn Rule 7 If a ( not a ( the ( ) is ( ) and it comes after a ( ) nor is it ( ) . ). ) and the ( ) changes to ( NOTE: This law is compulsory ( Step by Step ). ). It ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ) after the ( ) of and it is before a ( ).al-inaam. then the ( ) that is ) of ) is given to the letter preceding it. the ( ) of the ( ) is given to ) is then deleted. The changes to ( word becomes ( ). It becomes Page 152 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . It becomes 2) In the words the ( ) and the ( the ( ) of the ( ) is given to ) is then deleted. This law is permissible ( Examples 1) In the word ( the ( ) and the ( ( ).com/ .

http://www. ) is compulsorily applied to all the ) and ( )( ) is given to the ( ) and the ) is deleted. The ( The ( The ( ) can be read as ( ) can be read as ( ) of the ( ) or ( ) or ( ). ) is given to the ( ) and ).al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ). ) is It 3) In the words transferred to the ( ) and the ( becomes ( ).com/ . ) ) of ( Page 153 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . It becomes ( NOTE: It is permissible to apply this rule to the ( (derived nouns) too. Example In ( ( ) the ( ) of the ( ). nnnnn Rule 8 The rule of ( ( ) (verbs) of ( ). the ( ) of the ( ) is then deleted.

) and ) between its ( ) ) is preceded by a ( ) and ( ) letter.2 ( the ( preceding ( ( ) is to read the ( ) of the ( . ) is to read a letter between its ( ) of the ( ). nnnnn Rule 9 If a ( both ( permissible. 9. ) if ( ) is made. . ) or ( ).al-inaam. then the ) is made on the word ( ) and ( ) the ( ). then ) are both ) corresponding to its ) corresponding to the ) is also known as Examples When ( ( and ( ).1 ( and the ( (hamza’s) 9.http://www. then in both ) will be that of ( ) In the word ( Page 154 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology then the ( The ( ) is removed leaving ( ) can be read as ( ).

Examples [1] In the word ( ( ( ). Therefore the ) of the ( ) and the ) will be read between the ( ). ) is read with a ( ) of the ( ). ) if ( ) will be between ( In the word ( ( ) is made.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ) will be between ( ) and ( ). then the ) and ( ).3) If there is a ( permissible to apply ( not permissible in this case. the ( ) is read with a ( ) of the ( between the ( ) and ( ). ( ). If ( ) and ) is made. the ( [2] If ( ) will be read ). If ( ) and ( ) after ( ) only. ) will be read between the ( [3] If ( ) and ( ). then the ( ( ).al-inaam. the ( ) is ( ). Page 155 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www. it is ) is ) is ) will be between ( made then the ( ) will be between ( (9.com/ . ).

( ) will be read as ( ).com/ . ) or It is also permissible to make ( ( ). ).http://www.1 to the following words: (3) (2) Which rule applies to the word ( (3)Analyse the changes to the word ( (4) Apply the rule of ( (5) What can ( (2) ( 1) ) and how? ). whether ( It is also permissible to bring an ( ( )’s and read it as ( ).al-inaam. then it is permissible to apply the rule of ) (Rule 4). Thus. ) between the two nnnnn Exercise 38 (1) Apply rule no.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Rule 10 If a ( ( ( ) comes before a ( ) as in the word ). ). ) to the word ( ) also be read as? Page 156 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

( consonant ( ( ( ) of the preceding letter. (b) When the initial hamzah is followed by an alif of ). e. ( ).http://www. ( ). ( ) ). the latter is replaced by a ) for ( ).al-inaam. e. the semi-consonant ).g.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Orthography15 of the Hamzah The following rules are general guidelines with regards to how a hamzah is written: (a) Hamzah is invariably written over or under an alif at the beginning of a word. ). ( ). ). ) with a ( ) ) is written with a ( ) and ( 15 the correct spelling Page 157 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .g. ( ) and ( ). ( prolongation (long vowel madd over the initial alif. ( without dots. ) instead of (c) above. ( ) tends to be written over the ) coinciding with its own vowel ( This rule is applied for ( Thus. (c) The hamzah tends to be written over the semi) corresponding to the vowel Examples: (d) Where the previous consonant has a ( hamzah ( Examples: ( ).

( ) from the normal method of constructing the ( was originally ( (2) Similarly. the ( necessary to delete the ( (3) In the verb. ( ). it is more eloquent to delete the Page 158 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www. ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Paradigms of ( ) Analysis of the changes (1) The ( ) of this ( ) is ( ) which is an exception ). both ( ( ) are correct to use. It is ). Therefore. If the verb is used at the beginning of the sentence.com/ .al-inaam. ) of ( ) from both ( ) is ( ) and ( ). it is permissible to delete the ) and hamzas and to retain them.

). The Qur’ânic verse. e. (6) The rule of ( ) applies in the ( (7) The rule of ( ) applies in the ( except for the singular first person ( (8) In the singular first person ( ) and the ( (9) In the plural ( applies.al-inaam. it is stated in a hadîth. the rule of ( ) ). the rule of ) has been applied. ) ). ) of ( ) applies.g. ( ). ). e. ) of this ( ). ( ).g. (4) If the verb is used in the middle of the sentence. then most often the hamzah is retained. (5) In the word-forms of ( besides the singular first person ( ( ( ). the rule of ( Page 159 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www. ) of ( ). (10) In the singular first person of the ( the rule of ( ) applies.com/ . The same rule applies to the ) and ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ).

http://www.al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 39 (a) Conjugate the following verbs: ( 1) ( 2) (b) What is the paradigm of the ( ( )? ) of ) of (c) What is the paradigm of the ( ( )? (d) What is the paradigm of the ( ( )? ) changed from its original? ) of (e) How has the word ( Page 160 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .

al-inaam. ) follow the same Exercise 40 Conjugate the following verbs: ( 1) ( 2) (b) What is the paradigm of the ( ( )? ) of ( )? ) of ( )? ) of (c) What is the paradigm of the ( (d) What is the paradigm of the ( (e) How has the word ( ) changed from its original? Page 161 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ . ) of ( (2) The other ( pattern.http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis of the changes (1) The changes of this ( ) are similar to those of ( )–( ) – where the ) except for the imperative ( rule of ( ) applies.

( Analysis of the changes (1) Conjugate all the verbs of ( the conjugations of ( ) and ( ). ) applies in the ( ) applies in the ( ) applies in the ( ) and ( ). ).http://www. ). ). (2) The rule of ( (3) The rule of ( (4) The rule of ( ( ).com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis of the changes (1) The rule of ( ( ) and ( ) applies in the ( ).al-inaam. ) like Page 162 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ).

al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 41 Conjugate the following verbs: ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) (b) What is the paradigm of the ( ( )? ) of ( )? ) of ( )? ) of (c) What is the paradigm of the ( (d) What is the paradigm of the ( (e) How has the word ( ) changed from its original? Discussion of ( (1) The rule of ( of ( ) of ( ) ) or ( ) applies to all the verbs ).com/ . ) and ( ) of is optional. Note that this rule ) applies to the ( ). ( ) is from Page 163 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www. (2) The rule of ( ( (3) ( ) is from ( ).

http://www. ). ( ) is from (4) In the imperative ( ( ). ). ( ) applies to ( (2) The rule of ( Page 164 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ( ( ) and ( ) becomes ) becomes ( ).com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ( ). e. ( ) ) is from ( ). (1) In most of the word-forms of ( ( ) or ( ) applies. Therefore ( ) becomes ( ).g. the ( becomes ( ). The conjugation of the imperative second person ( ) form is as follows: Discussion of ( ) ). after applying the rule of ) is deleted. the rule of ). e.al-inaam.g. ( ).

the ) and ( ) (3) The rule of ( ( ) applies to all the word-forms of ( ). the hamzah can become ( ) and in the words ( and ( ).com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ). in the words ( ). Accordingly. in the words ( hamzah can become ( ) and ( ).http://www. Exercise 42 Conjugate the following verbs: ( 6) ( 7) ( 8) ( 9) (10) ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) Page 165 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . that is the rule of ) and ( ).al-inaam. the hamzah can become ( ). ).

Example The word Note: Every ( rule. ) Every ( ) that comes between the ( ( ( ) and the ( ) which is ).al-inaam. nnnnn ) on the scale of ( ) follows this becomes . 16 are the following letters The are the following letters: 17 Page 166 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ) and the ( ) which is ( )16 ). on condition that either the ) or the ( ) is from the ( )17.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Rules Of ( Rule 1 (1.com/ .http://www. the ( ) falls off.1) The ( ) which appears between ( which is ( falls off. Example The word becomes .

) on its ( ) of the ( ).http://www. Step by Step Example Note: If the ( in the word ( be given a ( ) has a ( ).com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Rule 2 If a ( ) is on the scale of ( ) and its ( ) is given a ) is a ( ). the ( ). nnnnn Page 167 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . that ( ) is deleted and the ( ( ). for example ) can also Step by Step Example The word ( ) the ( ) of ( ).al-inaam. Note: It is also permissible to read ( ) as ( ). A ( ) is then added at the end of the word.

the ( ) changes into a ( ).al-inaam. Example The word ( Exceptions The word ( ( ). (3. because the ( ) changes to .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Rule 3 (3.1) If a ( ( ) is not ( ) and is preceded by a ).3) If an ( into a ( ).com/ . Page 168 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . it will change ) remains unchanged because the ( ) is ) changes to ( ). it changes into a ( ). ) is preceded by a ( ).http://www. Example The word Exception The word ( is ( ).2) If ( ( ). (3. ) is not ( ) and it is preceded by a ) will remain unchanged.

http://www. Step by Step Example of ( ) Step by Step Example of ( ) Page 169 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . that is.com/ . Example The plural of ( ( ) is preceded by a ( ).4) If an ( into a ( ). it will change ) is ( ). the ( ) or ( ) will change into a ( ) will be made. both the ( assimilated.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Step by Step Example (3.al-inaam. ) because the ( nnnnn Rule 4 If the ( ( ( ) of ( ) is a ( ) or ) and )’s will be ). This changes to ) is preceded by a ( ).

(This is an example of a (5.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology nnnnn Rule 5 (5.1) If at the beginning of a word there is a ( is permissible to change it into a ( Examples ( – plural of ).al-inaam. it example of an ( ( – the [ ). (5. Page 170 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .2) If ( ) appears at the beginning of a word. it is ). (This is an ). is permissible to change it to a ( Example ( – swordbelt) can be read as ( ). ) changes to ) changes to ( ). it ). ). ] of ). permissible to change it into a ( Example ( ) can be read as ( ).com/ .http://www.3) If a ( ) appears in the middle of a word.

) is read as ( ) is read as ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Rarely is a ( Examples ( ( . ) (This is the plural of ). This is the ( ). ). the ( ) Page 171 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.1) If ( ) or ( ) ( or ( ) is changed into an ( ) is preceded by a ).one) can be read as ( ). it is compulsory ( into a ( Example ( ( ( ).http://www. ) of nnnnn Rule 7 (7. – a lazy woman) can be read as ( nnnnn Rule 6 When two ( ) come together at the beginning of ) to change the first ( ) a word. ) changed into a ( ). .com/ .

) in an ( ). Therefore this rule will not apply to the word Page 172 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ) in an ( ). Example of a ( ( ) changes to ( ) at the end of a ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Examples Example of a ( ( ) changes to ( ). ): ): ): Example of a ( ( ) changes to ( ): Example of a ( ( ) changes to ( Example of a ( ( ) changes to ( Conditions for the above rule This rule only applies if the following conditions are met: [1] The ( ) or ( ( ) must not be in the place of the ). ) in the middle of a ( ): ) in the middle of a ( ): Example of a ( ( ) changes to ( ).al-inaam.http://www. ) at the end of a ( ).com/ .

). Therefore this law will not apply to the word ). ). Therefore this law will not apply to the word ( ) . ( ) of is that word which has two ).http://www. . Here ( ) is in [3] The ( ) or ( ) must not come before the ( ( ( ) of ). since there is a ( ) before the Page 173 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . since there is a ( ) before the ( ) of ( ) and in the word ( ( ) of ( ). The law will also not apply in the word ( the place of the ( ).com/ .al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology .( ) is in the place of the [2] The ( ) or ( ) must not be in place of the ( a word which is ( ). It will also not apply to ( because the ( ) is in the place of the ( ). It will also not apply to ( ) of ( ).the ( ) is in the place of the ( ( ) is a ( ) and the ) ) of ( ). Here ( ) is in the place of the ( ).

the ( ) is before an ( ). It will also not apply in the word ( the ( ) after the ( ) is not a ( word ( ( Objection In the words ( ). ) and then falls off due to Page 174 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology [4] The ( ) or ( ) must not come before a ( Therefore this law will not apply to the word ( because the ( ) is before a ( ) which is not a ( ). but yet this rule The ( ) in these words is a separate word and it is the ( ) of the ( ). ( ) and ( ). Also in the ) which is not a ). while the ( ) is not ( ). Answer ).http://www.al-inaam. ) ( ) and ( ) were not supposed to be changed to ( because they came before a ( has been applied. ( ). therefore the ( ) or ( ) changes to ( ( ). ) because ). the ) ).com/ .

) ) ) ). [meaning – rotation] Page 175 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ) must also not be before ( [6] The word must not have the meaning of a colour or defect. ( ( ) (to be one-eyed). ( ) or [7] The word must not be on the scale of ( ( ( ).com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Step by Step Examples ( ( ( ( [5] The ( ) ) or ( ) must not be before ( ). The ( ) or ). ). for example )–( ) – example of ( ).http://www.al-inaam. for example. ) (to have a crooked neck). for example. for example. the word ( ( the word ( ).

2) If after such an ( a or ). [meaning – to walk ] ) example of ( ).http://www. [meaning – weaver – spring of water] arrogantly – from and ( plural of )–( ] [8] The word must not be from ( meaning of ( the meaning of ). Here ( ). the first ( ) changes to ( ) has come before a ( ). the ( ) falls off. [meaning – name of a ) example of ( ). the word ) and ) having the (in (in the meaning of ). For example. Both words mean to take in turns. ).com/ . Examples [1] In the word ( becomes ( The ( ). there is a ( ) (which has been changed from ) letter.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ( ( )–( ) – ( ) – ( ) example of ( ). ) falls off and it becomes ( Page 176 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . (7. It ).al-inaam. [meaning – flowing] ) example of ( ).

the first ( ) changes to an ( ) coming before a ( ).com/ . whether ). Therefore the ( ). if the word is ( the ( ( ). It ) after the ( becomes (7.4) In the ( . the ( ) has a ( ) or ( ). ). ) of ( ). after deleting the ) until the end. Examples 1. Therefore it is deleted. ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology [2] In the word ( Due to the ( becomes ( ). even if the ( ) changes to ( ) of ( ). the ( ) of ) is ). There is a ( ) is deleted. It becomes ( 2.http://www. from ( ). it is deleted. ) is given a ( Page 177 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ) has come before a ( ) is ( ). The word ( ( ) before ( ).3) If such an ( ( deleted.al-inaam. Now we have an ). The word ( ) changes to ( ). It (7.

com/ . The ( ) ) is now deleted because ). ). the ( ) on the ( ). It becomes ( ). It ) of ( ). ).5) In the ( ) is from the ( ) of ( ). ) is given a ( Example in which ( ) has a ( ) In the word ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Example in which ( ( ) changes to ( ) has a ( ).http://www. from ( ). it is followed by a ( now given a ( becomes ( ).al-inaam. Therefore the ( ) changes to ( Page 178 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . the ( ) is preceded by a ( ). The ( ) is ). The word ( Example in which ( The word ( (7. It becomes ( ) because it is ( ) is from the ( ) has a ( ) ). after deleting the ( ) or there is a ( ). if it is ( ) in ( ) till the end.

Example [1] In the word ( ( ).al-inaam. the ( ) of the ( ) or ( ) is transferred to the preceding letter. the ( ) of the ( ) is given to the ). ) in this case. It becomes ( ). (This is an example of [2] In the word ( ( ). It becomes ( ). It becomes ( ).com/ . Now the ( ) is Step by Step Example of ( ) with ( ) The word ( ) is from the ( ) of ( ). is given to the ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The ( given a ( ) is deleted. It becomes ( ). ). the ( ) of the ( ) which is a ). nnnnn Rule 8 (8.1) If the letter before ( ) or ( ) is ( ). (This is an example of Page 179 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.

the ( ) of the ( ) is given to the ). the ( ) or ( ) is changed ). ) is a ( ). the ( ) is ). Now due to the ( ). Now due to the ( ) becoming ( ). (8.com/ . ) ). the ( ) of the ( ) is given to the ) of the ( ).http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ). [2] In the word ( ( ) becoming ( ). thus becoming ( the ( ) changes into an ( Remember The conditions applicable to Rule 7 apply to Rule 8 as well.2) If the ( into an ( Examples [1] In the word ( ( ).al-inaam. in the Page 180 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . (8.3) If such a ( ) or ( ) is followed by a ( ). It becomes ( changed into an ( ).

). the ( ) or ( ) will be deleted. the ( ) is followed by a ( ). ) the ( ) Example of ( In the word ( is deleted. ). It becomes ( Example of In the word ( ). It becomes ( (8. therefore the ( ) is deleted. After the ( ) is deleted.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology case of ( ) and ( ). ) ) because of ( ). the ( ) and preceded or ) is ) (which was originally ). Examples ( ) changes to ( ).4) If a ( ) or ( ) is followed by a ( by a ( deleted. After the ( ) is deleted. ). it becomes ( ( ) changes to ( ). it becomes ( Important Page 181 .

Due to ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology This rule (Rule 8) does not apply to the words ( because condition number one has not been fulfilled.com/ . In the words ( ) and ( ). ) because of condition number 2 . the condition number 4. the ) of the ( ) is still transferred to the ( ). It becomes ( Page 182 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ). the first ( ) is deleted. because of the fourth condition .( However. It becomes ).http://www. the ( ) of the ( ) is an exception to ). Despite there being a ( ( ) of the ( ) or ( ) will still be given to the previous letter. Example of ( In the word ( ( ( ) ) which is the ( ) of ( ). the rule is not applied ).( The words ( ). ( ) and ( ) remain unchanged ).al-inaam.

The aforementioned rule (Rule 8) does not apply to ( ).e. or ). Due to ( It becomes ). the ( ) is given a ( ). (to have a (white) and having the (black). and words that Page 183 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . (black). becomes ( is a ( ). Since the corresponding ). the ( ) is deleted and it ( ) of ( ) ). meaning of a colour or defect). ).al-inaam. like ( and and nnnnn ). It becomes ( Exception In the words crooked neck). like ( ). (to be one-eyed).com/ . the ) of the ( ) is transferred to the ( ). no change occurs. due to condition number 6 (i.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Example of ( ) In the word ( ( ( ) which is the ( ) of ( ).http://www. that is those words on the scale of ( ( are ( ). ).

Example 1 In the word ( ( ).al-inaam.2) If there is a ( ) in ( ( ( ) in the place of the ) and the ). Now the ( ) the ( ) is made ( ).http://www. changes to ( ). It becomes ) of the ( ) is transferred to the Page 184 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .1) If there is a ( ) in the ( the preceding letter is made ( ) of ( ) and the ( ).com/ . Example 1 . the preceding letter is made ( ) of the ( ) is transferred to the preceding letter. Example 2 (9.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Rule 9 (9. No other changes are made. ) of the Then the ( ) ( ) is transferred to the preceding letter.

In (9.4) It is also permissible to pronounce these words with Page 185 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.http://www. The ( ). It becomes ) of the ( ) is transferred to the ). Examples ) of the ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ). Example 2 In the word ( ( ( ).com/ . thus becoming ( ). ) the ( ) is made ( ).3) It is also permissable to retain the ( preceding letter and to make the ( ) or the ( ) ( this case the ( ) changes to ( ). It becomes ( (9.

Therefore.5) In ( ( ( ( ) of ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ). namely ( (9. The condition for ) this rule is that changes must have taken place in the ) form of the verb. the word ( will remain unchanged because the ( word. ). after the ( ) is deleted in the ). Page 186 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ . ) in such a way For example in that it has the effect of another ( the word ( ). the ( ) is given a ( ) from the ) until the end (i. ( ) means to pronounce a ( ). if the ( ) is ( ) in ). the ( ) of the ( ) is pronounced in ). The ( ) of such a way that it has the fragrance of a ( Similar is the case with the ( the ( ( ) of ( ) will have the effect of a ( ). ) form of this ) was unaffected by any change.al-inaam.http://www. ).e.

6) In ( ( ( given a ( ). ( Example of ( ) Example of such a ( is ( ) ) wherein the ( ) Note that the forms of ( same.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Step by Step Example (9. or that ) in the ) is ) until ).al-inaam. However the ( be different: ) and ( ) are now the ) .http://www.com/ . the ( ) from the ( ) of ( the end. whatever the ( ) where the ( ) is ( ) may be. ). after deleting the ( ). that is.original form of each one will Page 187 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

al-inaam.http://www.e. but ). the transferring of the ) is not according to this rule i. Therefore the For example is due to rule number 8 (the rule of rule of ( ( ) and ( ). ) becomes ( Page 188 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . rule number 9.com/ . nnnnn ) will not apply.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Original Form ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) Changed Form Note: In the ( ( ) of ( ).

com/ .http://www. 4.1) If the ( ( by a ( 1. ) in accordance with the rule of ( ) – example of ( ) – example of ( ) ) Page 189 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ) If the ( ) or ( ) of the ( it becomes ( Examples ( ( ) becomes ( ) becomes ( ) is preceded by a ( ).al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Rule 10 (10. it becomes ( ) or a ( ): Examples ( ( ) becomes ( ) becomes ( ) – example of ( ) – example of ( ) ). 2. 3. ) of the following word form’s ) if it is preceded ) is ( ) or ( ).

2) If a word has a ( ) preceded by a ( followed by another ( ).3) If a ( ) is preceded by a ( Page 190 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . the first ( ) becomes ( deleted because of ( ). ) and followed by a ) and the second (10. It becomes ( ) and followed by another ) and the other ( ) is Example of ( ) In the word ( ) there is a ( ) before the ( ) and it is followed by a second ( ). Therefore. before the ( ) ) and after the ( ) there is another ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (10.al-inaam. Therefore the first ( ) becomes ( ( ) falls off. ) and the second one ).com/ .http://www. ). It becomes ( ). ) and Example of ( ) In the word there is a ( ( ). that ( ) falls off. the first ( ) is made ( falls off due to ( If a ( ) is preceded by a ( ( ).

Now due to ( is deleted. the preceding letter is made ( ) and followed by a ) and the ( ) of the ( ) is given to the preceding letter. the preceding letter is made ( ) and the ( ) of the ( ) is transferred to the preceding letter. the ( ).4) If a ( ) is preceded by a ( ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ).http://www.com/ . It becomes ( ). (10. It therefore becomes ( ). Example In the word ( ) the ( ) is preceded by a ( ) and followed by a ( ). Then the ( ) changes into a ( ) and falls off due to ( ). therefore the preceding letter ( ) is made ( ) and the ( ) of the ( ) which is a ( ) is transferred to the preceding letter.al-inaam. Then the ( ) changes into a ( ) and falls off due to ( ). the ( ) ) the ( ) changes into a ( ). Page 191 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . Due to the preceding ( ).

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Example In the word ( ). Now due to ( ). It becomes ( Further Examples ( ( – – ) becomes ) becomes .http://www. It becomes ( ). is transferred to the preceding letter ( ). Due to the preceding ( ). ( ).com/ . the ( ) changes to ). the preceding letter ( ) is made ( ) and the ( ) of the ( ) which is a ( ). Step by Step nnnnn Page 192 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam. the ( ) is preceded by a ( ) and followed by a ( ). Therefore. the ( ) is deleted. . It becomes ( ).

( ) and ( ). ) the ( ) appears in the place of the ( ). ).http://www.al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 43 (a) Identify the rules or changes of ( words: ) in the following ( 6) ( 7) ( 8) ( 9) (10) Rule 11 If a ( ) appears in the place of the ( ( ). Therefore the ( ) changes into a The same change occurs in ( Page 193 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . It becomes ( ). ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ) after a Example In the word ( ) after a ( ( ). the ( ) changes into a ( ).com/ .

The ) from the masdar ( in the place of the ( ( ) changes into a ( ). the ( ) changes into a ( ). ). which is ( ) of ( ). preceded by a Example In the word . ).http://www. the ( ) is ).al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Rule 12 If a ( ) is in the place of the ( ( ). meaning intellect. preceded by a ( ). It becomes ( nnnnn Page 194 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .

The word .http://www. 2.1) If a ( ) comes in the place of the ( by a ( condition that ( Examples 1. because no ( ). The word originally . on condition that ( ) ) took place in the ) of a word that is ( ) in the ( ).al-inaam. The ( ) is ( ). ) occurs if a ( ) comes in place of ). it changes into a ( ). ) or ( ( ) of the ( Page 195 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . on ). ) which is the ( ) of ( ) of ) (which is the of ) was (which is the of ) was originally ) in the ( ) preceded ). – a change) occurred in the ( However.2) The same ( the ( is ( ) remains unchanged. the word ( ( occurred in the ( (13.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Rule 13 (13.com/ .

and the ). thereby becoming ( Page 196 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ . ) is made and the preceding ( . namely the ( ) or ( ) is ( into a ( ).1) If a ( ) or ( ) which are are not changed from any other letter. ( ) and ( ) come together.http://www. This is an example of a ( ) in which the ( ) is 2. nnnnn Rule 14 (14.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Examples 1. Therefore the ( ) ). the ( ) is ( changes into a ( ). This is an example of a ( changed in the original (from to ) in which the ( ) is ). The word to ( ). come together in one word.e. In the word ). (the of the word ) changes to (the of the word ) changes . which is not ( ) (on the scale of ) and the first of the ). Then ( is changed into ( Examples 1. The word . then the ( ) changes ) two.al-inaam. After first of the two i.

2) The ( refuge) is ( – to take . ) of ( (14. (which is the ). It is also permissible to read the ) of the ) corresponding with the ( ).com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ) is made. . After ( ) is made.http://www. The ( ).e. The ( is changed to a ( 3. In the word ( ). The ( ) changes to a ( ). it becomes ) ) of the ( ) is changed to ( thereby becoming ( ( ) with ( ( ). that is ( ). it becomes ( ). it becomes ( ).1 will Page 197 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . the ( ) and ( ) come together. the ( ) is ( changes into a ( ). and the first of the two i. In the word ( ). 2. ).al-inaam.e. Therefore the ( ) changes into a . ( ) and ( ) come together. of the first of the two i. Therefore the ( ) ). and ). It becomes Because this ( ) has changed from a ( ). the ( ) is ( ( ) becoming ( ). thereby becoming ( ( ) is made. After ) of the ( ) ). thereby becoming ( ). rule 14.

nnnnn – the ( ) will not change into a ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology not apply. No change occurs because it is ( ). . no change will occur.com/ . If the ( ) and ( ) are in different words.al-inaam. Another example where this rule will not apply is the word ( ).http://www. Example (1) (2) the ( ) of the word ( therefore remain unchanged.the ( ) of the word ( ) and ) are in different words and will Page 198 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

It is also ).com/ . according to the above rule. Therefore. Page 199 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ) of the preceding letter ) and it is also permissible to give the ( Example The word ( )-( of ) is on the scale of ( ). the ( ) of an ( ) ) will be changed into a The ( ) is then made ) and the ( ) into a ( ).al-inaam. it becomes Rule 16 (16. nnnnn ). Then ( ) is made ) of the . After changing the ( ). The ( ) is changed into ( )a( ). then both the ( )’s are changed into ( ) and ( ( ) is made.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Rule 15 If a word is on the scale of ( ) and it has two ( )’s at the end of the word. both the ( )’s are changed into ( ).http://www.1) If there is a ( ) in the ( preceded by a ( ( ). It becomes ( thereby becoming ( preceding letter into ( permissible to read it as .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ).com/ . due to ( ). After ( ) is made ). ). becomes ( ) which can also be written as ( Step by Step Example ( ) (16. the ( ) is deleted.http://www. thereby becoming ( which can also be written as ( ( ). Example In the word ( ) of an ( ( ) -( of ). the ( ) is deleted. ) preceded by a ( ) will be changed into a ( Then the ( ) changes into a ( ). Therefore the ) becoming ( ).al-inaam. Page 200 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . . Due to ( ).1) will also occur on a is from ( Example The word ( eventually becoming ( ) and is ( ).2) The law of (16. the ( ) is on the ( ). which ) undergoes the following changes. It ). ).

3) The law of 16. It becomes ( ). which ) undergoes the following changes. the ( and is ) is ) changes to ( ).1 will also occur on a ( is from ( Example The word ( eventually becoming ( ) and is ( ).http://www.( of ). ). ) of an ). The ( ) is made ( ) . ). Due to ( ). which can also be written as Page 201 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .4) If a ( ) comes in the ( preceded by a letter which has a ( changed into a ( Example The word ( ).com/ . the ( ) is deleted. (16. which ) so can also be written as ( it becomes ( ).al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (16.

2) Sometimes the ( of ( ) which was originally ( ) is deleted as in the case ).al-inaam. ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ). Step by Step Example nnnnn Rule 17 (17. The word ( in its from to ) changes to ( ). on condition that change took places in the ( Examples 1. the ( ) or ( ) changes into a ). ). ). (Changes took place (17.com/ . The word ( in its from ) changes to ( to ). (Changes took place 2.http://www. This word is used in Page 202 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .1) If a ( ) or ( ) comes in the place of the ( a word which is ( ) of ).

The word ( ). ) changes to ( ). This is an example of ( ). This is an example of ( Exception The ( ) of the word ( ) is ( ). This is an exception ( ) is original.al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology the Qur’ân: ( Exception In the word ( ) the ( ) will not change into a ( ( ). The word ( word ) changes to ( ) . This is an example of ( ). Although the ). )-( of the word 3. The word ( word ).( of the ). it changed into ( Page 203 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ) appears after the ( ) of ).com/ . ) changes to ( )-( of the 2.http://www. ) because no ) change took place in the nnnnn Rule 18 If a ( ( ) or ( ) or ( ). it changes into a ( Examples 1.

supplication). . ii.com/ .al-inaam. which was originally Page 204 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . Examples of i. ). ( ( of of ) . ( of ). pleasing appearance).http://www. (example of ) . ).( means (example of ) – ( means Examples of i. namely . ii. nnnnn Rule 19 If a ( ) or ( ) comes at the end of a word after ( they change into a ( words. ). i.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology to the rule. This rule applies to all kinds of . and .

Examples 1. The word ( ) was originally ( ). ) was originally ( ).http://www. ). thus it changes into a ) was originally ( ). ii. 2. thus it changes into a Page 205 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Examples of i.1) If a ( ) comes in the fourth position or later in a word and it is not preceded by a ( changes into a ( ). The word ( ). The ( ) is in the sixth position of the ( ( ). it in the fourth position of the ( ( ).al-inaam. The ( ) is in the 4th position of the ( 3.com/ . (example of ) (example of nnnnn ) Rule 20 (20. thus it changes into a ( ). The ( ) is ) or a ( ). The word ( ).

. In Rule 14.al-inaam. example 2) It changes into a ( ) and ( ( ).(the ) is preceded ) that comes after a ( ) changes into a 2. The word originally ( thus it changes into a ( ). The word ( [ by a ( ] of ). ) is made. thus it changes into a ( ). the ( ) is in the sixth position. The ( ) of this word is ( ). ) was originally ( ).com/ .1) The ( ( ).( ). Examples 1. nnnnn Rule 21 (21.http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (20. The rule of ( is not applicable here because the ( ) has changed from an ( ).2) The plural of ( was ( ) is ( ). The ( ) . which originally ). The ( ) of ( ) is preceded by a ( ) was ). the condition was that the ( ) or ( ) must not be changed from another letter. In this word. It becomes ) (Rule number 14. Page 206 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

) was originally ). nnnnn Page 207 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ) that comes after a ( ) changes into a Example The word . ( The ( ) of ( ) is ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (21.2) The ( ( ). it changes into a ( ).al-inaam. The end of the word ( ). It becomes ( nnnnn Rule 22 If there is an ( ( Example i. Here also the the ( ) of ( ) is changed into ( ).http://www. ) of ( ) or ) has an ( ) which does not accept a ) is changed into ( ). the ( ii. ) is ( Therefore. thus it changes into a ( ). ) before the ( ). The ( (plural of ) is preceded by a ( ). The ( ) of ( ).com/ .

thus the preceding letter is made ). ).al-inaam. becomes ( 2. is changed to ( ). The ( ) appears as the ( ) of the ). ) which is the preceding Page 208 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www. Instead of changing the ( ) to ( ). The word ( originally ( feminine ( ( Note: – meaning ‘to walk arrogantly’) was ). ) (plural of and ) was ) of ). the ( ) is maintained and the ( ( ). the preceding letter is given a ( ).com/ . It becomes ( This rule is like an exception to Rule 3 where the ( ) changes to ( ). The ( ) appears as the ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Rule 23 If ( ) appears as the ( scale of ( scale of ( Examples 1. It ) of either a plural on the ) or it appears in the feminine adjective on the ). thus the preceding letter is made ( ). The word ( originally ( .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
The ( ) falls in the category of ( ), that

is, a noun not having any descriptive qualities. Examples ( ( ( ( ) the ( ) of ( ). It was originally

) - purer. The ( ) is changed to ( ). ) – the ( ) of ( ). It was originally

) - (more intelligent). The ( ) is changed to ( ).

Step by Step Examples

nnnnn

Rule 24 If a ( ) comes on the scale of ( ) and the (

) is a ( ), the ( ) will change into a ( ).

Example
The word ( ) was originally ( ), the ( ) is a ( ),

thus it changes into a ( ) thereby becoming (
nnnnn

).

Rule 25 Page 209 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

The rule for words on the scale of ( they end in ( ), and are ( ) nor ( deleted. The ( In ( Example of ( ( ): (

) or (

), is that if

), [that is, they are neither ( ), the ( ) is

)], then in ( ) is now read with tanwīn. ), the word will remain ( ), that is, they are neither ( ) changes to ( ). ).

) nor

If they are ( ( ( ).

), the ( ) becomes ( ) and in (

) in ), the ( ) will be

Examples: (

) changes to (

) or (

).

Page 210 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
All words having ( rule. Such words are called ( Examples: ) preceded by a ( ). ) follow this

Step by Step

Page 211 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

nnnnn

Rule 26 (26.1) If a ( ) comes in place of the ( word which is either ( into a ( ). Examples i. The word ( ) was originally ( ) of ( ). A ( ) comes in place ) or ( )of ( ) in a ), it changes

of the ( becomes (

). Thus it changes into a ( ). It ) from ( )

). This is the ( ]. ) was originally ( ) of (

– to be near, [ ii. The word (

). A ( ) comes in

place of the ( ( ). It becomes (

). Thus it changes into a ) from (

). This is the ( ].

)- to be high, [

Page 212 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
Exception If this word is a ( female warrior). (26.2) If a ( ) comes in place of the ( the scale of (
Example

), it remains unchanged e.g.

(a

) of a word on

), it changes into a ( ).

The word ( the (

) was originally (

). A ( ) comes in place of

) of this word. Thus it changes into a ( ).

Exercise 44 (a) Apply the rules of ( ) to the following words:

( 6) ( 7) ( 8) ( 9) (10)

( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5)

Page 213 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
The Paradigms of ( )

Analysis of the changes (1) The verbs of ( except ( ). ) has been deleted due to ). ) has been deleted due to rule ) are used in all the ( )

(2) The ( ) of ( rule no.1 – the rule of ( (3) The ( ) of the ( no.2 – the rule of ( (4) In ( ).

), the ( ) can be changed to (

)

according to rule no. 5 – the rule of ( ( ) can be pronounced as (

). Accordingly,

). The same applies to the

Page 214 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
feminine of the ( pronounced as ( ). ) of the ( ) was originally ( ). The first ) – ( ) can be

(5) The broken plural - ( ) which is ( ( ) is changed to a ( of ( ).

) according to rule no. 6 - the rule

(6) The ( ) of the ( to rule no. 3 – the rule of ( ).

) has changed to ( ) according

(7) However, the ( ) is unchanged in the dimunitive ( ) of the ( )–( )–( ) and in the (

), because the reason for the change is not ).

found, namely the ( ) and a preceding (

Page 215 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/

the ( ) has changed to a ( ). according to rule no.al-inaam.com/ . 3 – the rule of ( Analysis of the changes (1) In the imperative ( ) . the ( ) has changed to a ( ) according to rule no. (2) In the word ( ). 3 – the rule of ( ). 6 – the rule of ( Page 216 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www. The same rule applies to the ( ).( ) . ) )–( according to rule no. the only change that has occurred is in ) where the ( ) has changed to a ( ) ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis of the changes (1) In this ( the ( ).

the ( ) of the ) has been deleted due to rule no. ).1 – the rule of ). ) in ( ) and in ( ) )– Analysis of the changes (1) In both the above-mentioned ( ( ( ). The changes in the other words are similar to ( Page 217 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (3) It is permissible to change the ( ) to a ( – the ( the broken plural of the ( There is no other change in this ( ).al-inaam.com/ . ).http://www.

).com/ .al-inaam.http://www. 4 – the rule of ( ( ) have changed into ( the ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis of the changes (1) The changes in this ( ). the ( ) and ) and have been assimilated into Page 218 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ) are similar to those of ( Analysis of the changes (1) According to rule no.

the ( ) has changed into ( ) according to rule no. 3 – the rule of ( ). Page 219 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis of the changes (1) In both the paradigms.com/ .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 45 (a) Conjugate the following verbs: ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) ( 7) ( 9) (10) Page 220 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.al-inaam.com/ .

No change occurred ) because of the exception in rule no. All other verbs which are ( ) follow the same pattern. ) and ) from this that the ( ) should not be followed by an ( Hereunder follow the paradigms of the ( ( ( ).al-inaam. namely ).com/ . 8.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Paradigms of ( ) There is no change in the words ( because they were originally ( in ( ) and ( ) ).http://www. Page 221 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 222 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.com/ .

com/ .http://www.al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 223 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 224 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.http://www.

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 225 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.http://www.com/ .

4 applies to the words from ( the ( ).al-inaam. ) in ) till ( (3) Rule no. ) till ( ) in ) till ( ). 7.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis (1) Rule no. ) till ( ). 7. Page 226 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .5 applies to the words from ( the ( ).1 applies to the words from ( (2) Rule no. 9 applies to the words from ( (4) Rule no.http://www. 9.com/ .

com/ . After ). 8 applies to the paradigm of ( e. ( ). Page 227 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (5) In the paradigm of ( ( ).2 applies to all the words of (6) The imperative ( deleting the ( ( ). ) is made from ( ). (7) Where the ( deleted letter returns as in the paradigms of ( e. ( ). (9) Rule no.g.g. 8. The ( ) is deleted due to ( sâkins coming together.http://www. the last letter is rendered ) – two ) no more remains. ). ( ). 17 applies to the paradigm of ( e. rule no.1 applies to all the words. while rule no. (8) Rule no.al-inaam. 8. ). ). the ).g.

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 46 (a) List the detailed paradigms ( following verbs: ) of the ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) (b) Name the word-forms ( ) of the following verbs: ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) Page 228 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .al-inaam.http://www.

) while the original form of the ( Hereunder follow the paradigms of this ( Page 229 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ). the original form of each word is different. However.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Paradigm of ( ) Analysis The ( ) and ( ) have become similar after changes were made.http://www.al-inaam. The original form of the ( ) was ( ) was ( ).com/ .

http://www.com/ .al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 230 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 231 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.com/ .al-inaam.

com/ .al-inaam.http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 232 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

http://www.al-inaam.com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 233 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

al-inaam. rule no. ).http://www. 9 applies to all the words of ( (3) In the ( ). ) till (2) Rule no. 8 has been applied. ). 7.1 applies to all the words from ( ( ). 17 applies to the ( Page 234 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . (4) Rule no.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis (1) Rule no.com/ .

Examples: ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology To distinguish between the ( ( ) is deleted and the ( ). that in ( the ( ( ) remains in all the words. Examples: ( Hereunder follow the detailed paradigms of ( Page 235 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . one will notice ) and ( ). Examples: ). The ( ) returns in the words attached to ( ) and ) ) is deleted ) ).al-inaam.com/ .http://www. the ( However. in ( from all the words. besides the ( ) of ( ) of ( ) in which the ). ( ) as well.

com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 236 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.http://www.

The ( ( ( other ( ) while the ( ) was ( ) is also the same as the ( ) of ( ). However.http://www. Note that the ) as in all form of each word is different. the ) and ( ) and ( ) which is ( ) while ). namely ( ) and ( ) have ).com/ . that is ( ) and ( ) in the form of ) are the same as ) of the ).al-inaam. originals of the ( the originals of the ( ( ) were ( ) were ( ) is constructed from the ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis (1) The forms of the ( become the same. The ). the original ) was ). Therefore the ( ) is ( Page 237 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . (2) The verbs of the perfect tense ( ( the ( imperative ( ) and ( ) and ( ). However.

e. ) ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology This ( ) is similar to ( )–( ).8 and rule no. Analysis (1) The word ( ) was originally ( ). ) has been changed due to rule no.g. 8 is applied and it changes to ( (2) Rule no. 3 have been applied to ( which was originally ( (3) The word ( to ( ).com/ . Rule no. ( ). 8 (4) The change in ( (5) The ( ( ) and Page 238 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ).al-inaam. ) is similar to that of ( ) is deleted from the ( ).http://www. ( ). ).

http://www. e. This ( ) is similar to ( ).com/ . The changes of this ( ) are similar to those of ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (6) When ( or ( ( ) or ( ) is attached to the ( ) ). the deleted letter returns. Page 239 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .g. ).al-inaam.

al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 47 (a) List the detailed paradigms ( following verbs: ) of the ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) (b) Name the word-forms ( ) of the following verbs: ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) Page 240 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.com/ .

http://www. (4) In the plural of the ( ) – ( ) and the Page 241 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . are used with ( ) or as a ( e.com/ . )–( ) and in the ( ) and ( ) do not (2) The ( ) in the ( )–( ) is deleted due to rule no. the ( ). ( (3) The ( ) in the word ( the ( ).g. ) has changed to ( ) as in ) is retained. If these words ).al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Paradigms of ( ) and ( ) Analysis of the changes (1) The verbs of ( come on the ( ) of ( ). 7.

whether the words Page 242 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . (6) Rule no.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology plural of the ( applied. ) of the ( ) and the ). the ( ) has changed to a ( ) due to rule no. 22. 25 has been ). rule no.al-inaam. 20. 26 has been applied to ( (7) In the words ( ) and ( ).http://www. This applies to all the words which are ( ( are ( ). ( ) of the ( ) or ( ). ). the ( ) has changed to a ( ) due to rule no.com/ . (5) In the word ( ) which is the plural of the ( ) – ( ).

com/ .http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 243 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.

http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 244 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .al-inaam.

com/ .al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 245 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.

com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 246 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.http://www.

7 has been applied to ( (2) If an ( form of an ( ).g. the ( ).al-inaam. ) is changed from a ( ). it is written in the ). If the ( ) is changed from a ).g. ( (3) If an ( ( ) is deleted due to ( ).com/ . ) or ). if ( ) is attached or the word is ( Page 247 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . e.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis (1) Rule no.it is written in the form of an ( ). ( ).http://www. e.

the ( ) (7) In words like ( to rule no. (4) In the dual form ( because it appears before the ( (5) From ( original form.g. rule no. ). the ( ). ) will be written in the ) will be written in the form of a ( ) in all three cases ). 10. According to the grammarian. ( ) and ( ) due ). the ( ) remains unchanged ) of ( ). (6) In the ( ) till the end. If the word ( ).2 and 10. all the words are in their ). ).com/ . ( ( ) and ( ). in ( form of an ( ). all the remaining words Page 248 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . Sībawayh. ( ). the ( ) has ) will be ). e. In ( is deleted due to rule no. Besides the ( ) and all the forms of ( ).1. the ( ) is deleted. 10. e. In the word ( ). 11 has been applied to all the words whereby the ( ) changes to ( ).3.http://www. the ( ) has become ( ).g.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( –( ( ) attached to it or it is ( written in the form of a ( ) e.g.al-inaam.

the effect of the ( ) is not visible. 10 applies to ( ) mentioned previously apply to it.g. Rule no.http://www. e. (12) If at the time of ( letter is a ( rendered a ( ( ( ( (14) Only ( ). it is deleted. the first sâkin ). e. 11 has been applied to all the words of Page 249 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . The rules of ). ) and ( ) have ).al-inaam. However. ). ). ( ). ). namely ( original form of the ( ( was ( ) while the original form of the ( ). the ( ) has changed to ( ) due the same word-forms. the ) was ) ) and ( ).g. If it is not a ( ) and the ( ) a ( ). the ( ) is ) and (13) Rule no. 20. ( (10) The ( ). ) has been applied to the ( ). namely ( (9) In the ( to rule no. (8) The plural masculine word-forms are the same for the masculine and feminine.com/ . ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology are unchanged. due to the ( (11) In words like ( ) at the end.

al-inaam.com/ .http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 48 (a) List the detailed paradigms ( following verbs: ) of the ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) (b) Name the word-forms ( ) of the following verbs: ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) Page 250 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Hereunder follow the detailed paradigms of this verb.http://www. Page 251 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 252 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .al-inaam.http://www.

http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 253 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.com/ .

al-inaam.com/ .http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 254 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

al-inaam.http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 255 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .

http://www. ) is used with ( ) or as a ). e. ( (3) Rule no.g.com/ . ). the ( ) reverts.( ).al-inaam. 25 applies to ( ) and ( Page 256 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis (1) The ( is ( ). )–( ) is ( ) if the verb (2) When the word ( ( ).

) etc. 10 has been applied to ( (9) Rule no. ( ). ( ). the ( ) was changed to ) due to rule no. ). ). (6) In the words ( an ( ) and ( ). ). ( ). the ( ) was changed to an ( ) whereby the ) and was thereafter deleted due to ).http://www.com/ . 7 has been applied to the passive tense verbs (11) In the word ( deleted due to ( (12) In the word ( Page 257 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ( ). After changes were made in the singular feminine second person ) – it became like the plural feminine second person. 7 has been applied to ( ( ) has changed to an ( (5) In the broken plural ( ( ). 7. ). the ( ) was deleted (7) In the words ( due to ( (8) Rule no.al-inaam. ). 10 has also been applied to ( ( ( like ( ). ) and ( ). ( ). the ( ) was made sâkin and then ). ). the harakah of the ( ) was (10) Rule no.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (4) Rule no.

e. the rule of ( applied to the word ( ).g.al-inaam. ) has been ) have occurred in the active tense of this verb. Page 258 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . (13) Rule no.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology transferred to the preceding letter. ( ). the ( ) was changed to ( ) and then deleted. Analysis (1) The same changes as ( the same way as ( ). The other words are affected in (2) As an exception to the rule.com/ .http://www. 14 has been applied to all the words of ( ).

com/ . Page 259 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The verbs of this category are very similar to those of ( ).

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 49 (a) List the detailed paradigms ( following verbs: ) of the ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) (b) Name the word-forms ( ) of the following verbs: ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) Page 260 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.http://www.com/ .

the rules of ( applied to the ( been applied to the ( are similar to those of ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology In this category of verbs.com/ .http://www.al-inaam. Most of the paradigms Page 261 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ) while the rules of ( ) have been ) have ).

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 262 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.com/ .http://www.

al-inaam.com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 263 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.

http://www.com/ .al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 264 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 265 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.com/ .

After Page 266 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis (1) The ( ) of ( ) and all the other verbs has been ). (3) The imperative ( ) was constructed from ( ).http://www. ) has been applied to the ( ) of deleted due to the rule of ( (2) The rule of ( ( ).

http://www. It became ( ). the last letter which is a ) was deleted. The paradigms of this category is similar to ( ). Page 267 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology deleting the ( ( ).al-inaam.

al-inaam.http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 268 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .

com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 269 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.http://www.

http://www. ) changed to ( ) due to ) it is deleted due to Page 270 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . 16.com/ .al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The ( ) of the verbal noun ( rule no. In ( ( ).

com/ .al-inaam.http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 50 (a) List the detailed paradigms ( following verbs: ) of the ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) (b) Name the word-forms ( ) of the following verbs: ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) Page 271 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

the rule of ( Page 272 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ( ) was originally ( ) to ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Combination of ( ) and ( ) The paradigms of this verb are similar to those of ( The rules of ( rules of ( ) have to be applied to the ( ). whereas the rules of ( ) the two. It became ). Thereafter. the rules of ( example. Preference was awarded to the latter. The rule of ( ) required changing the ( ( ( ). For ).al-inaam. It became ( ). the rule of ) of transferring the harakah was preferred. Similarly. the second hamzah was changed to ( ) due to ). However.com/ . Wherever there is a conflict of ) will be given preference. ) while the ) apply to the ( ).http://www. It required the rule of ). ( ( ) was originally ( ) to ( ) to change the ( required the transferring of the harakah to the preceding letter.

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology This ( ) is similar to ( ). Page 273 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . to be considered here as well.al-inaam.http://www.com/ . in the word ( the rule of ( of ( ) is given preference to the rule of ( ). Consequently. The rule ) applies to ( The rules of ( ( ) apply to the hamzah while the rules of ) apply to the ( ). The above-mentioned rule has ). ).

al-inaam.com/ .http://www. Page 274 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology This paradigm is similar to ( ).

the rule of ( verbs of this ( ) is compulsory in the ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology As mentioned previously.com/ .http://www. Hereunder follow the detailed paradigms of this verb. Since it is a very common verb and many rules have been applied to it. it should be thoroughly learnt. Page 275 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 276 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .al-inaam.http://www.

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 277 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.http://www.com/ .

al-inaam.com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 278 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.

http://www.com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 279 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.

al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis (1) The verb ( ) was originally ( ). the (2) In words like ( because the ( (3) The ( ( ).com/ . The rule of ( ) is first applied after which the ( ) is changed to ( form in which only the rule of ( ( ) is deleted due to ( ) due to rule no. ) does not accept any harakah. ). no visible change has taken place masculine forms and the singular second person feminine. 7. ) is deleted from words like ( ) because of the Page 280 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . In the plural ).http://www. This change applies to all the word-forms except the dual ) applies.

It becomes which was deleted due to a ( ( ) now reverts. The dammah indicates the deletion of the Page 281 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam. The ( ) ). After deleting ) is deleted from the end. the ) was not capable of upholding a harakah. (7) The imperative ( ) was originally ( ).com/ . the ( ). ). However. the ( ) ) reverts so that it can carry the ( ). Hence. Therefore a ( ) is rendered to it ( ). The ( requires a ( (5) In ( ) before it. the ( ) and ( ) are rendered a dammah and kasrah ). It becomes ( ). the ( ) reverts in place of the ( ) ) because the latter cannot accept a harakah. A harakah is not respectively because they are not ( permissible on a ( ).http://www. In ( ) ) which changed into ( which the ( and ( ) requires before it. (6) The imperative ( ) is constructed from ( the ( ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (4) In words like ( ). due to ( ) between the ( ) and the ). and the ( ) is not a ( to indicate the deletion of the ( ).

The question arises as to why the verbs ) have been rendered a kasrah. the kasrah of the ( ). The original of the ( ) or ( from ( ) till ( ). The ( ) of the ( ).al-inaam. the ( ) was changed to ) could therefore be either ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ) from the original while the kasrah indicates the deletion of a ( ).http://www. A letter from the ( ). the kasrah of the ( ). The answer to ). If this verb is ) indicates the this is that if this verb is from ( ) indicates the kasrah of the ( from ( ). In the verbs before ( ( ). deleted ( ) as in ( Page 282 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ) can ) ) is not visible.com/ . (1) The remainder of the paradigm is similar to ( (2) The verb ( be from ( is present in the ( ) or ( ) which is ( ).

http://www. In ( (4) The hamzah of ( and then ( ) the ( ) and ( ) cannot be changed to ( ) ) be applied because the ( ) is an original letter. Exercise 51 (a) List the detailed paradigms ( following verbs: ) of the ( 4) ( 5) ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) Page 283 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (3) In the imperative ( ( ) and the words affected by ( ) like ). The ( ) is not deleted. the hamzah can be read as an ( ). The rule of ( to a ( ) or ( ). In ( ). ) cannot be applied here as this is not Therefore the rule of ( a( ). the hamzah can be changed to ( ). ) and ( ) will however remain and not be deleted because the hamzah is a root letter.com/ . (5) The ( ) of ( ) and similar words is not changed to a ) only applies hamzah because it is a root letter.

it will be ) will be ) assimilated into the second letter. ii. ( ) is changed )’s are assimilated. This rule applies whether the letters are in the same word or in two separate words. letters. applied. that is “ ”) of [ ] In the case of ( letter before ( to ( ). ( ) or they ). Examples of ( i.al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Rules of ( Rule 1 If there are two letters of the same type ( are similar ( ) and the first is ( That is. However. and then the two ( is still written.http://www. the first letter is changed into the second ) is applied. the ( ) ) first. although not pronounced.com/ . that is “ ”) ] letters. that is “ ” and “ ) in the same word (Example of [ (Example of [ (Example ”) ] letters. In the above example. iii. Page 284 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

the letters will not be ) will not be applied. a ( ) preceded by a ( ) or a( Page 285 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . if the ( applied.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Examples of ( ) in two words Exception In two words.com/ . ( ) will be nnnnn 1 A( ) is either a ( ) preceded by a ( ) preceded by a ( ) ). Example ) is in the same word. if the first word is a ( assimilated.al-inaam.http://www. However. ( Example )1. that is.

http://www. Example 2nd letter 1st letter 1st letter 2nd letter However. if a noun ( ) has a ( ) on the ( ) will not apply. the first letter ) and then the two letters will be assimilated. ) will be applied. the letters will not be assimilated. and the letter ). ( Page 286 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Rule 2 If two letters of the same type are ( preceding the first ( will be made ( that is. In this case. ). ( ) is also ( ).al-inaam.

the ( ) is ( ) and not a ) of the first letter will be given to its preceding letter ) will be applied. and then ( Example ( ) preceding letter ( ( ) first letter ) second letter ( ( ) ) Exception This rule does not apply to the words of ( ). Page 287 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.com/ .http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Example nnnnn Rule 3 If the letter preceding the first ( ( ).

without transferring the ) and both will ).com/ .http://www. be assimilated.al-inaam.) nnnnn Rule 4 If the preceding letter is a ( ( ). that is.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Example (No change is made. ( Examples ( 1st 2nd ) of ( ) ( ) of ( ) nnnnn Page 288 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . the first letter will be made ( ) will be applied.

http://www. or there is a ( ). or ) or it is the imperative Page 289 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . the following are permissible in the second letter: i. there is a ( -pause) due to ). The rule is ( iii. Example ) is ( ).com/ . it is ).al-inaam. rendered a kasrah. Example The ( ) of ( ) is: If the preceding letter ( is also permissible. – (no takes place). then ( ) When the final letter has ( because it is in the jussive case ( ). ii. ) letter is rendered a harakah.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Rule 5 If after applying ( ( ). – because it is the lightest letter ( – whenever any ( ). either because of a suffix.

the two letters must be written separately. Page 290 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .18 This does not apply to the ( where the ( ( ).al-inaam.g.http://www. ). e. ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ( ).g. ) and When the final letter is ( coalesced.com/ . ) – it is vowelled – the two are ) – verbal noun. ) interposes between the two final letters. ( ). Exercise 52 (1) Which rule has been applied to the word ( how? (2) Explain the rule applied in the word ( (3) Analyse the rule applied in the word ( (4) Apply rule no. ) and (5) What are the different ways of reading the imperative singular form of the following words? ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) 18 joined and made into one. e. 4 to the word ( ).

( ). Hereunder follows the detailed paradigms of this verb.http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis (1) Rule no. rule no. rule no. (3) Rule no. 3 has been ) and ( ). ). 5 has Page 291 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . 4 has been applied to ( (4) In the imperative and prohibition ( been applied.com/ . ). 2 has been applied to ( (2) In the words ( applied. ( ) and ( ).al-inaam. ).

http://www.com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 292 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.

http://www.al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 293 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .

com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 294 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam.http://www.

al-inaam.http://www.com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology : : Page 295 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

al-inaam. ( ) – close in source of ) etc. pronunciation. from ( ( ) and ( ) are ( ) onwards. no ( ).http://www.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis (1) From ( ) till the end.com/ . 5 has been applied to ( Page 296 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ) applies because the ) of the first ( ) applies because the second radical is ( (2) However. (3) Rule no.

http://www.al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Exercise 53 (1) Conjugate the following verbs in detail: ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) (2) What is the word-form ( ) of the following words: ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) Page 297 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .

) while the ( Page 298 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . the ( ).com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology In this ( ).al-inaam. ( ) and ( ) have become similar in form but the original of the ( ) and ( ) was ( ) was ( ).http://www.

al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 299 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.com/ .

it is due Page 300 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam. ) has been applied in this ( ). 4.http://www. ) have not been applied in these two Wherever ( to rule no.com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The rules of ( paradigms.

http://www. (2) In the word ( Rather the rule of ( (3) After applying ( ( ).com/ . becomes ( Page 301 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ( ) and ( ) Analysis (1) The rules of ( rules of ( ) apply to the hamzah while the ) apply to the doubled letters ( ). the rule of ( ) was given preference.al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology A Combination of ( ). the rule of ) was applied whereby the hamzah changed to ( ). ) to the word ( ) will be given ) was not applied. ). It ). At the time of conflict. the rules of ( preference.

(2) In the word ( ). At the ) will be given ) required the ( ) to be ) requires the ) while the rules of ( time of conflict. the rules of ( preference. ( ) will be applied Page 302 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ .al-inaam. If there is a ( letters of ( to the ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis (1) The rules of ( ( ) apply to the doubled letters ) apply to the ( ). The latter has been given preference.http://www. the rule of ( changed to ( ) while the rule of ( transferring of the harakah of the first ( ) to the ( ). ) in one word followed any of the ) in another word.

( ) are: ) ). ) will not apply. ). e. ( ). ( ( ). It is not assimilated in the remaining letters of the The remaining letters are called ( Exercise 54 (1) Conjugate the following verbs in detail: ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) Page 303 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Examples ( ( ).g.com/ . The ( ) of the definite article ( ) becomes assimilated in the ( The ( ( alphabet.g. ( ). If the letters are in one word. ( ) ).al-inaam. e.g.http://www. e. (The tanwīn is a nūn sākin in reality). ( ) and ).

namely that of being transitive. Here ( ) refers to the latter meaning.g. ( ) or ( ).http://www.g. ( man disputed with me and I overcame him in the dispute.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Special Meanings of Each ( ) The ( ) refers to the extra meaning of a verb besides its ) means to expel. The vastness of the Arabic language can be estimated from the ( ) due to the fact that one verb can have so many ). e.al-inaam. ) on condition it is Page 304 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . e. The ( ) of ( ) The ( either ( Example: ) of this category is also ( ).com/ . different shades of meaning merely by using the verb in different categories ( The ( ) of ( ) ( ) – to mention a verb after ( ) to show that one ) – The object overpowers another. ( transitive. The verb is literal meaning.

colours. grief. ) – to be one-eyed.com/ .al-inaam. ) – to have understanding. This ( The ( ) of ( ) This ( ) is always intransitive. ( – to become ill. The ( ) of ( ) This ( ) most often has verbs which have the meaning of ) illnesses. defects or physical forms. Examples: ( ( ) – to be handsome. ( ( ( ( ( ) – to be grieved. ) is mostly intransitive. ) – to become happy. joy.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ) – I and Rashīd made a mutual promise and I was predominant in the promise.http://www. ) – to be blackish. e. ( ) – to be ugly.g. It refers to the natural qualities of a person that are of a permanent nature or a temporary nature achieved by experience. ) – to have broad eyebrows. Page 305 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The Derived Categories The ( ) of ( ) (1) ( ) – to make an intransitive verb transitive and if it is already transitive. (2) ( ) – to make the doer ( ) or the object ( ) obtain the root ( ) of the verbal noun ( ) from which the verb is formed. ( shoelaces. ( ) – to send down. ( The ( ) – to take the object to the place of the noun ( ).to bear fruit. ) .g.al-inaam. ) is ( ). ( ( ) – to descend. ( ) – to hear. e.g.root) is ( ) is ( ) – I provided the shoe with ) meaning shoelaces. The ( ( . ) . ( ) – I found him to be praiseworthy. e. The ( (3) ( e.http://www. that is the market.g. ) meaning fruit. to make it doubly transitive. ) – I took it to the place of selling. (4) ( ( ) – to find something described with the ( ) – I found him to be stingy. ) – to make someone hear. Page 306 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ . e.g.I found him to be noble. ( ).

g. [2] the doer becomes the possessor of something that is described by the ( ). e. 19 A skin disease affecting hairy animals that causes an itch.g.g. ( ) will be removed from ) – to remove the ( ) from something. This ) – the man removed oppression from ) will be removed from the himself. e.g. that is. ) –I removed dirt from the eye of (7) ( ) – the doer reaches the ( ) or enters it. ( ) – the man became the owner of mangy19 camels. (6) ( ( ) – the doer gives the object the ( ) – I gave the dog a bone. ( man reached Iraq.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (5) ( is of two types: [1] if the verb is intransitive.com/ . [2] if the verb is transitive. e. the ( the doer e. ). the ( object e. that is.http://www. ( [1] to become the possessor of the ( )– the cow became one with milk. ( the man.al-inaam.g. Page 307 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . (8) ( ) – It has three meanings: ). e. ( ) – the ) – the man reached in the morning.g. it has the quality of the ( ). he was just.

e. ( ) – the goat bore offspring in the autumn season.http://www. (13) ( ( ) – to be synonymous with another verb.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology [3] the doer becomes the possessor of something in the place or time of the ( ).al-inaam. ( ( ) means to be compassionate.g.g. ( ) .com/ .g. ) – both mean: the night spread. e. This can be of two types: either the verb is not used in its root form ( ). ). (11) ( ) – the meaning of the ( ) is strengthened.g. e. e. either by making the act more final or making it more intense and wider in application. e.g. (12) ( ) – the verb is initially used from ( ).g. or the verb is used in the root form ) – to fear while the root form but for another meaning.to hasten. (9) ( ( ) – the doer becomes entitled to the ( ) – Hind was entitled to be married. ) – the morning became very bright. ( ( ) – the date palm bore much fruit. e. (10) ( ( ) – the doer reaches at the time of the ( ) –the crop was ready to be harvested.g. Page 308 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ). e.

(2) ( the fruit. (16) ( ( ) . ( ) – I gave him glad tidings so he became happy. ( man. e. (15) ( e.g.making a relationship of something to the ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (14) ( ) – to mention a verb after another verb to indicate the fact that the object has accepted the effect of the doer.com/ . ) – I made a relationship of disbelief to the ) – to make a transitive verb intransitive.I removed the peel of ) – Example: ( ) – He placed spices in the ) – Example: ( ) – The tree bloomed.g.g. ) – Sālim praised Allâh.al-inaam. ( ) – Sālim was praiseworthy.http://www. The ( ) of ( ) (1) ( ) – Example: ( ) . Page 309 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . (4) ( ) – Example: ( ) . e. (3) ( pot.I made the man sit.

g. ( ) – He came into the tent. ( ) – I applied gold to the sword.al-inaam. e.com/ .g. e. (7) ( ) – Example: ( ) – I made a relationship of transgression to the man. ) – I draped the horse with a horse cloth. ( ) or similar to ) – He converted the man into a A cloth used to cover animals to protect them from the cold. e. Page 310 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . Intensity in the doer. e.g. ( doors.20 (9) ( ) – to join the ( ) to something. e. (8) ( ( ) – to make something don the ( ). (10) ( the ( 20 ) – to make something into the ( ).g. (6) ( ) – This is of three types: ) – The student roamed a ) – Many camels died.http://www. ( Intensity in the object.g.g.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (5) ( ) – Example: ( ) – The students reached the depths of knowledge. ) – She locked many Intensity in the verb. e. ( lot.

) – He used the shield. that person. ( say ‘Subhānallâh’.g. The ( ) of ( ) because the ( ) (1) ( ) – the relation or application of the act to another ) – to write. Page 311 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ( is.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Christian. (11) ( ) – to abbreviate a sentence and express it by means of ) – to say ‘Lâ ilâha illallâh’. ). This meaning ) of the verb means to is new in ( injure. (13) ( ) – Example: ( ) – I spoke to him. ( ) . ( ). ( ) – to write to someone. ( ) ) – The date dried out. e. ( ) – I made the sheet like a tent.g.com/ .al-inaam. (2) ( ) – to have the same meaning as ( ). (12) ( and ( Examples: ( ( ( ) – to have a similar meaning as ( ).http://www.to a single verb. ) – I gave him a date. to correspond. e.

g. ) – The two men abused one another. ( ) – He held )– ) – He held it (a) to make the ( (b) to hold. ( ). (4) ( ( ) – e.al-inaam. ). ( ) – May Allâh grant you well-being. e.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ) and ( ). Page 312 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .g. Examples: ( ( ( ( (3) ( ) – e. (d) to hold the object in the ( in his armpit.http://www. ) – I distanced him.g.com/ . e. ) – I doubled the thing. (c) to make the object into the ( He made the sheep into food. e.g. ( ) which is ( ) – He bore this hardship. The ) means to be hard-hearted. ( ).g. e.g. ( ) – He made a hole. ) – He travelled. ). take or choose the ( the side. The ( ) of ( ) (1) ( ) – This is of four types.

( ) – He was safe. (3) ( ) – to do an act for oneself.al-inaam. e. e. ( Page 313 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ). (6) ( ) – This is of two types. ( ) – He sought a rental.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (2) ( ) – to attempt to achieve an act. ( ) – to slaughter a hungry goat.com/ . kissed the stone. ( ) – He attempted to earn wealth. (5) ( ( ( ( themselves. e. ) – He donned the sheet. ) – The two men disputed among ) – It became bright. ) – He (a) there is no ( (b) the ( ) has a different meaning. ) – Examples: ( ) – He entered Hijāz.http://www. (4) ( ) – Example: ( ) – I made him grieve.g.g.g. so he began grieving. ( ) – He measured the barley for himself. e.g.

Page 314 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . the acts are related to the external limbs. (5) ( cheerful. ( ) – I locked the door and so it was locked. ) – He became one-eyed. so it (4) ( ) – Example: ( ) .colours and ( ) – defects. ( ) – to be (1) ( ). This meaning is seldom used.He reached Hijâz.g. Examples: ( ( ) – It became very red.com/ .http://www. ( ) . (2) ( ) – to perceive something with the senses.al-inaam. e.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The ( ) of ( ) (1) ( ) – to be intransitive. ) – Examples: ( ) – I broke it. (3) ( broke. The ( ) of ( ) ) – Example: ( ) – He went away. ( ) – It broke. that is.( ).

Page 315 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .g. (6) ( ) – This is of four types. ( ). ( ) – He wore a ring.g.g.com/ .http://www.al-inaam.g. e. (3) ( ) – to refrain from the ( ). ( patience. (d) To hold the object in the ( held the child in his armpit. ( ) – He refrained from sin. (5) ( ) – Example: ( ) – He used the oil.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The ( ) of ( ) (1) ( ) – Example: ( ) – I cut it into pieces and so it became pieces.g. e. e. e. e. ). take or choose the ( the side. (2) ( ) – to think or to represent oneself to have a certain ) – He represented himself as having quality or status. ( ) – He held )– ) – He (a) to make the ( (b) to hold.g. ( ) – I made the tent.g. e. e. (4) ( ) – to don the ( ). ( ). ). (c) To make the object into the ( He used the stone as a pillow.

e. Examples: ( ) – He remained awake.com/ . ( Page 316 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ) or Examples: ( ( ) – He spoke. ( ( time. ) – He stood in the sun. Either there is no ( ) but it has a different meaning. ) – He sought a need.http://www. ( ) – He became like the (10) ( ) and ( ( ( ) – to have the same meaning as the ( ). ) – to become the ( ) or similar to the ( ). ( ) – He accepted. ) – to injure.g. ) – He became a Christian. (a) It is possible to achieve the act once but the doer does it slowly. e. ) – He memorized the Qur’ân a little at a (b) It is not generally possible to achieve the act once.al-inaam. (8) ( e. (11) ( there is a ( ) – This is of two types. ( ocean.g. ) – He drank in sips. This is then of two types. (9) ( ) – Example: ( ) – He became wealthy.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology (7) ( ) – to do an act slowly and several times.g. ).

e. ( (3) ( ) – Example: ( ) – I distanced him so he was at a distance. However. the difference between the two is that in ( one is mentioned as the doer ( as the object ( e. (5) ( ( ) – Example: ( ) – The camel sat.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The ( ) of ( ) (1) ( ) – This is similar to ( ) of ( ). both are mentioned as doers but in reality each one is the doer as well as the object.http://www. ). ) – Allâh is most blessed. ) – to enter the right side.al-inaam.g. ( other. (2) ( ) while in ( ) while the other is mentioned ). (4) ( ( ) – Examples: ( ) – to be high. Page 317 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ . ) – Rayhân and Farhân abused each ) – to simulate a state or status or representing oneself ) – He pretended to be sick. to have it.g.

(4) ( ) – Example: ( ) – I found him to be noble.g. ( (3) ( )–( ) – Example: ( ) – I made him stand. ( ) or to become similar to the ) – The mud became a stone. so he stood up.g. e. ). (7) ( homeland. ) – Example: ( ) – He made India his Page 318 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .g. ) and ( ) is that there is The difference between ( certainty in the former and doubt in the latter. ( ) – I sought forgiveness from Allâh. (2) ( ) – to be entitled to the ( ) – The clothing was entitled to a patch. e. (5) ( ( ) – to regard something as being described by the ). (6) ( ( ) – to become the ( ).al-inaam.http://www. ( ) – I thought him to be good. e. e.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology The ( ) of ( ) (1) ( ) – To seek the ( ).g.com/ .

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
(8) ( ) – to abbreviate a phrase, e.g. ( ). ) – to say (

(9) ( ) – to settle down, ( ) – to be arrogant, (

) – Examples: ( ) – to reply, ( ) – to resist a temptation.

(10) ( the pillow. The (

) – Example: (

) – He leaned over

) of (

)

(1) (

) – This verb is mostly intransitive. Sometimes it can be ) – I regarded it as sweet. ) – The land became

transitive, e.g. ( (2) (

) – Example: (

full of grass. (3) ( wrapped. (4) ( sweet. ) – Example: ( ) – I thought it to be ) – Example: ( ) – I wrapped it so it was

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
The ( ) of ( )

Like ( meaning patterns: ( ),( ), (

), this category also has the following four

) and (

)

Examples: ( (

) – It became very white.

) – He became one-eyed.

The (

) of (

)

(1) (

) – Example: (

) – He ran very fast.

This category is (

), that is, a word which has no (

)

origin nor something similar to the origin. There are two differences between ( condition for ( For ( ( ) and ( ). It is a ).

) that it must not be used in (

), this is not a condition. Secondly, it is a condition for ) to be free of letters of ( ) and extra letters brought ). ) is the ( ) of the verb ( )

for a particular meaning ( An example of a letter of (

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
which was increased to bring this verb onto the scale of ( An example of a letter of ( ( ).

) is the hamzah of

) which was added to the verb to render it transitive.

The (

) of (

)

This category has many meaning patterns some of which are: (1) ( ) – Example: ( ) – He recited ‘Bismillâh…’.

(2) (

) – Example: (

) – I made him don a burqa’.

(3) (

) – Example: (

) – The night hid

his sight so it became hidden. This category is used mostly as ( sometimes as ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ) and ( ). ) and

The (

) of (

)

(1) (

) – Example: (

) – I rolled it so it

began rolling. (2) ( ) – Example: ( ) – He walked conceitedly.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
(3) ( ) – Example: ( ) – He screamed.

The (

) of (

)

(1) (

) – Example: (

) – to gather.

(2) (

) – Example: (

) – I made his blood

flow and so it began flowing. The ( ) of ( )

(1) (

) – Example: (

) – to shudder.

(2) (

) – Example: (

) – I pacified him so he

was calmed. (3) ( ) – Example: ( ) – The star shone.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
Application of the Special Meanings Quote 1: ( ) Translation: “All praises are due to Allâh who raised the status of all the believers.” Teacher: What special meaning of ( verb ( )? ) – to be transitive is found in this ) which means to be ), it ) is found in the ) – excerpt from (

Student: The meaning of ( verb because the (

) of this verb is (

high. This is intransitive. When it was taken to ( became transitive, having the meaning of ‘raising’.

Quote 2: ( ( ) ) – excerpt from

Translation: “When he sees the Ka’bah, he should say ‘Allâhu Akbar’ and ‘Lâ-ilâha illallâh’...” Teacher: What special meaning of ( verb ( ) and ( )? ) – to abbreviate - is found in this ) is found in the

Student: The meaning of ( verb.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
Quote 3: ( ) – excerpt from ( ) Translation: “If he wants, he can give charity to six poor persons...” Teacher: What special meaning of ( verb ( )? ) is found in this verb because the ) is found in the

Student: The meaning of ( ( ) is (

) which means ‘to speak the truth’.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
Challenging Words A few difficult verbs of the Holy Qur’ân and other verbs will be mentioned here because the purpose of learning morphology and syntax is to understand the meaning of the glorious Qur’ân. An explanation of these verbs generally refreshes one’s knowledge of morphology. The verbs will be written according to their pronunciation and not according to their Qur’ânic script so that the student can exercise his mind in trying to figure out the original word. In the analysis, the correct written form of the word will be provided.

Analysis: This is the imperative ( ( ) being ( ), from the ( word ( ) of (

) of the verb (

), the

). The original word was ( ). It was constructed from the ). The ( ) of the

) which was originally (

( ) was transferred to the preceding letter after deleting its harakah. Due to ( ), the ( ) which was then ), the ( )

changed to ( ) was deleted. Due to the entry of the ( ) of ( but ( and the ( ) was deleted. The final ( ) is not (

) which enters the end of a verb between the verb ) to protect it from receiving a ( ). It was

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It is written as ( ). especially when a student is asked to identify the verb by joining the words and reading them to him. The student is ) or ( ) perplexed to find a ( whereas the ( ) is ( ). The ( ) was deleted and the ( ) ) was sufficed upon.http://www. in the verse ( ) to Page 326 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . a verb can sound confusing when the ( ) is deleted from the middle of a sentence. ) in spite of ( Similarly. It becomes Analysis: This is similar to ( was ( the ( ) being ( ). The original word ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology originally ( of the ( Due to a ( ( ). ) or ( Most often confusion arises in verbs where ( occurs. the ( ) is also not pronounced. ). It is the imperative of the verb ( ). This occurs very often. a ( is made on the ( ) ) ) is added to the end of the word and ( ) after deleting the ( ).g. ). e.com/ . ).al-inaam.

the tense ( ). The same rule applies to the word ) of ( ) from ). Besides being the ( ).com/ . This confusion is intensified in ( the entry of ( ) creates the word ( ) while the entry of ( ) creates the word ( ( ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology read it as ( ( ).al-inaam.http://www. ). to read the verb as ) and in ( ). ( ) and ) because just as the ( sound confusing when read as ( ( ). to read the verb as ( ). it can also be ( ) from ( ). ) is from ( ). the word-form being ( ). the word ( ). the alifs of the ( ) and ( ) are also not pronounced ) is not pronounced. in ( ). in ( ). It is ( Page 327 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . Analysis: It was originally ( ). the tense being ( Similarly. to read the verb as ( When ( ) or ( ) enter the perfect tense of those verbs having ( ). ( ). The verbs therefore ).

thereby deleting the ( ). It was ( ) is deleted. ). the ( ) ) was deleted. the tense being ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ) from ( ( ).al-inaam. One ( ). Due to the entry of the Analysis: This verb is ( ) from ( the verb. The ( ) of emphasis entered ). It is ( ). Analysis: This was originally ( ). The original word was ( from ( ).com/ . the tense being ( deleted according to the rule of ( ). Analysis: Due to the entry of ( ). the ( ). ) was Page 328 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www.

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis: This is from the verb ( ). the tense being ( ( ). It is ( ). ( ).http://www. Therefore the ( ) became ) into ( ) as ) as the Arabs tend to make the scale of ( ). A pronoun ( created the scale of ( ( in ( ) was then attached to the verb which ) – ( ). The compulsion is due to excessive usage. Due to the jussive mood ( ). It is ( ).al-inaam. It was originally ). ) ). the ( ) became ( After ( ). it is compulsory ( ( ). Page 329 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ . it is permissible to do so ( ) to make the ( ). Due to the ( ). the tense being ( ). After Analysis: This verb is from ( ). It is pronounced ( ). the ( ) at the end is deleted. sâkin.

the word- ). after this word. Consequently. The word- Page 330 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www. The tense is ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis: This is the imperative ( form being ( end of the verb making it ( the words ( ) of ( ). ). The Arabs make the middle letter of ). the ( ) became ( Analysis: This verb is similar to ( ( ) of the verb ( ). Therefore the form of ( was formed. similar to ( such scales also ( It becomes ( ).al-inaam. In the Qur’ân. The pronoun was added to the ). ). The rule of ) was applied. )–( ) ) appear. the word-form being ).com/ . ). It was succeeded by a ( assimilation ( ( ). Therefore it became Analysis: The verb is ( ) with ( ) attached to it.

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology form is ( ) while the tense is ( ). Because ). the ( ). Page 331 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ . It was originally ( ) was deleted. not being a ). the word-from being ( ). The ( ). this is the ( ) ). was rendered a ( ). Assimilation of both the nûns has taken place. It is ). The ( ). Analysis: From the verb ( ).al-inaam.http://www. It is from ( of ( ) it is in the accusative case ( ) like ( ). Analysis: The verb is ( ). Due to the word-form with the tense being ( ( ( ( ). the tense being ( ) like ( ). It is from ( ) and ( ) have been attached to the end.

from the ). A ( ) and ( ) have been attached before the verb. It was originally ( ). changing it into the jussive mood ( ).al-inaam. It could also be ( ) and ( ( A second possibility is that it could be the imperative of ). ) of the verb ( ). the word-form being ( ) of the same ( ). The ) of the ( ) was ) was deleted and the ( Page 332 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . this is the ( ) word-form while the tense is ( ).com/ .From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis: From the verb ( ). Changes occurred in the word just as in ( ( ) from ( ). A ( ) are attached to the end of the word. Analysis: This is the ( ( ).http://www.

This word means carpet in Urdu and Persian and could perhaps cause confusion.al-inaam. Analysis: This verb was originally ( the word-form being ( ). ). ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology deleted due to ( ). The rule of ( ) from ( ) and the tense ( ) has been applied to it. Analysis: From ( word-form being ( ).com/ . it was originally ( ) and the tense ( ) has been applied to it.http://www. The verb is not difficult to distinguish but sometimes when a word has a similar form in another language. the Page 333 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . The rule of ( ). confusion can arise.

It can also be the ( Page 334 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . Analysis: From ( tense being ( ). originally being ( ) or ( ). the tense ). It was originally ( ).http://www. ) of ( ). It was originally ( ). the Analysis: This is the verbal noun ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis: It is ( being ( ( ) from ( ).com/ . ). it is ( ).al-inaam. The rule of ) has been applied to it.

the tense being ( originally ( ). The ( ) according to the rule ( ) of ( ) was changed to ( ). the tense being ( ). The ( ) was deleted because of the ) of the ( ) is not pronounced precedence of the ( ). It was word-form. Page 335 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .al-inaam. From ( ).com/ . this is the ( ) ). Analysis: This was ( ( ). The ( ). The ( due to ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis: From ( ). this is the ) word-form.http://www. The ( ) was deleted because of ) of the word ( ) was the precedence of the ( rendered a ( ).

) from ( ). from ( ). It is ( ) ).The ). Sometimes the ) is written in the form of tanwîn.al-inaam. Analysis: It was originally ( ) like ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis: It was originally ( from the ( ( ) of ( ). Analysis: It was originally ( ( ) of ( ) was deleted.com/ . The Analysis: It was originally ( ( ( ). the tense being ( ) was deleted. It is permissible to delete the ( ) from the end of a Page 336 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .http://www. It is ( ) on the scale of ( ) from ( ) with ).

http://www. ( suffixed by a ( Sometimes a ( ). Analysis: This was originally ( ) like ( ). Analysis: The verb is ( ) from ( ). Subsequently a second pronoun ( ) is attached to the verb. ). the words of a hadîth.al-inaam.com/ . ( ). an extra ( ) is first added to the verb after the ( ).g. When a pronoun is added to ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology word that is ( ). e. This rule applies to ( ). A ( ) is prefixed to the verb and the pronoun ( ) is suffixed to it. ) is suffixed to a verb that is ( ) and ( ) when ) when a pronoun is attached to it. thereby requiring a ( ) and making the ( Page 337 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .

http://www.com/ . the word-form being ( ). it is pronounced as a ( ).al-inaam. have answered this objection by stating that this verb is used both on the scale of ( ( ) is used from ( ) and the ( Analysis: The verb is ( form being ( ). The question that arises ) of this verb is used ( ) supposed to be ( ) in the ) like Qur’ân. the ) from ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis: This is like the verb ( ) and the tense ( here is that the ( ). The scholars of tafsîr ).The ( precedence of the ( ) from ( ). the word- ) and the tense ( ) was deleted because of the ). Page 338 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . Consequently. In the Qur’ân. the ( ( ) because the word-form is ( ) and ( ). Because the ( ) is succeeded by a ( ).

The The final doubled letter was changed to a ( Arabs often do this. In this case.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis: This verb was originally ( ) from ( ). Sometimes it is pronounced ( ) after transferring the harakah of the first ( ) to the ( ). Analysis: According to some scholars. According to the previously mentioned rule. Therefore it was deleted. Page 339 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . the first ( ) ). the first ( ) was deleted. ) and the tense is ( Sometimes the Arabs delete one of the doubled letters.al-inaam. ). The word ( ) was deleted after transferring its harakah. No need remained for .com/ ). this verb was originally ( the ( remains. The word).http://www. Analysis: It was originally ( form is ( ) from ( ).

It is ( ) of ( ). Third Possibility: It is ( ) from ( ). ) of ( ) in the ).http://www. Similar to this is the word ( Analysis: First Possibility: It is the ( accusative case ( Second Possibility: It is ( ) of ( ( ( ). Then the rules of ( ) apply to change it to ( ). It was originally ( ) from the ). Its paradigm of the perfect tense ( ) is as follows: Page 340 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .com/ . of assimilation applies.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis: This is the ( ( ). The rule ). It was originally ( ).al-inaam. The rule of ) and ) first applies to delete the ( ).

).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ) Analysis: First Possibility: Besides the common verb ( ( ). the verbal noun being ( Page 341 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . It was originally ).com/ .http://www. this is made up of two words ( ) from ) and ( ). It was ) was applied whereby the harakah of the ( ) was transferred to the ( ) and the ( ) was changed to ( ). The ) from former is ( ( ) while the latter is ( ) from ( ). The rule of ( ). It became ( ). Analysis: From ( ). this is ( ).al-inaam. It is ( Second Possibility: The verb is ( ) from the ( originally ( ).

http://www. It is ( Page 342 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ). It became ( ). The rule of ( ) was applied.al-inaam. It was originally ( of ( ) was applied and the ( ) was changed to ( ). The rule ). It is ( ). The ) was subsequently deleted due to the subsequent ). The paradigm of the Analysis: This is from the verb ( ).com/ . letter being ( Analysis: This is from the verb ( It is ( imperative is as follows: ( ) ) from the ( ). Analysis: This is from the verb ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ( ) like ( ).

assimilated. the ) with a pronoun ( ) attached ).http://www. The ( ) was changed to ( ) and ). It is ( Page 343 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ) of ( ). One ( ) was then deleted. When ( ) was applied to the pronoun ( ). It was originally ( ). It became ( ). It became ( Analysis: First Possibility: It is the imperative ( word-form being ( to it. Analysis: From the verb ( the singular form. It ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ). It is ( was originally ( ). Second Possibility: It is from the verb ( ). this is the verbal noun in ) from the ( ).com/ . The rule of ( ) was applied and the ( ) was changed to ( ).al-inaam. the ( ) was deleted.

). this is the ( ) like ( ). Analysis: From the ( It was originally ( applied. It is ( ). Subsequently. The rule of ( ) of ( ) of ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis: This is the imperative ( being ( ( ). The rule of ( ) was applied. ) was ) is deleted. The ( ). from the ( ). the ( ) is deleted ). Due to the ( from the end. the rule of Page 344 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown .The rule of ( ). It was originally ) was applied. It becomes ( becomes ( ). the word-form ).com/ .al-inaam.http://www. It Analysis: This was ( ). It becomes ( ).

) and then the rule of ( Analysis: From the ( ). this is ( ). The rule of ( ). this is ( ). followed by Page 345 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . Analysis: From the ( ). It was originally ( ) like ) was first applied. The rule of ( ( ) is first applied whereby the ( ) changes to ) to change the ( ) to ( ). It becomes ( ).com/ .http://www. It was originally ( ) like ( ). It is like ( ).al-inaam.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology ( ) is applied and the hamzas are deleted. Analysis: This is the ( ) from the ( ( ).

It becomes ( ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology deleting the ( ( ) when constructing the imperative ( ). The harakah of the ( ) is transferred ). this is the ( ).al-inaam. The paradigm of ( follows: ( Page 346 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . the verb being ( ). The ). The rule of ( ) is ) is as ) applied. the verb being ( ).http://www.com/ . Analysis: From the ( ). this is the ( ). The ( ) is to the ( ) and the ( ) is changed to ( no more required. It becomes ( Analysis: From the ( ). ) was finally deleted from the end. It was originally ( ) like ( ). It was originally ( ) like ( ). It becomes ( ).

The rule of ( adjacent to each other while the final nûn becomes ( becomes ( ). It ).From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis: From the ( ).http://www. The harakah of the hamzah is transferred to the ) is deleted. It was originally ) is applied to the ( ). Then ( becomes ( ) is inserted before the verb ( ) is again applied because the two nûns are ).al-inaam.com/ . Analysis: It is ( ) from ( ( ). Page 347 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . The verb is ( ) like ). this is the ( ). It ). the verb being ( ( ) like ( ). The rule of ( ). It becomes preceding letter while the ( ( ).

There were three sîns together which caused the word to become heavy in pronunciation.From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Analysis: This is the ( ( ). deleted from the end. ) from ) is applied and the end is read as sākin due to ( Analysis: This word was originally ( ). the ( ).al-inaam. A ( ) was added for ( Page 348 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown . ) which was originally ( Analysis: This word was originally ( changed to ( ) which then changed to ( ( ). Therefore the third ( ) was changed to ( ) which then changed to ( ( ). When ( ).http://www.com/ . The rule of ( ). The same rule applies to the word ). It was originally ( ). The third ( ) was ) due to the rule of ) was ) entered the verb.

From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Analysis: It is ( from ( the ( ). The verb is ( ) is deleted. It becomes ( ) like ( ).

) ). The

harakah of the hamzah is transferred to the preceding letter while

Analysis: It is ( ) from ( ( ). The verb is ( ) like

). The harakah of the hamzah is transferred to the ) is deleted. Waqf is made ).

preceding letter while the ( at the end. It becomes (

Analysis: It is ( from ( ). The verb was ( ). The rule of (

) ) was

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
applied to change it to ( ).

Analysis: It is ( ) from ( of ( ). The verb was ( ). ). The rule

) was applied to change it to (

Analysis: It is ( from ( ). The paradigm of this verb is ( ) is as follows: )

) ).

The paradigm of the ( (

Analysis: Besides the common verb ( second possibility. It could be (

), there is a

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
) from ( ). The paradigm of this verb is ( ) is as follows:

). The paradigm of the ( (

)

Analysis: This is the ( ) from the ( ). It was originally ( ). A ( ) was

added between the first and second letter against the rule ( ).

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
Appendix A Morphology or Etymology? What is the subject of ( ) called in English? Is it

Morphology or Etymology? Firstly, let us examine the definitions of both these terms in the light of contemporary works. The following definition of Morphology appears in “The Oxford Companion to the English Language”. “In linguistics, the study of the structure of words as opposed to syntax, the study of the arrangement of words in the higher units of phrases, clauses, and sentences. The two major branches are inflectional morphology (the study of inflections) and lexical morphology (the study of wordformation).” 21 The following has been mentioned under the term, ‘syntax’: “The ways in which components of words are combined into words are studied in morphology, and syntax and morphology together are generally regarded as the major constituents of grammar, although in one of its uses, grammar is strictly synonymous with syntax and excludes morphology.”22 We find the following definition in Websters Dictionary: “2 a: a study and description of word-formation in a language including inflection, derivation, and compounding – distinguished from syntax. B: the system of word-forming elements and processes in
21 22

The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 670, 1992. Ibid, p. 1016.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
a language.” 23 Encyclopaedia Britannica has the following definition: “In philology, morphology is that branch of grammar which examines the forms of words as well as the principles of word-formation and inflection.” 24 The following definition is found in the World Book: “Morphology: the study of the formation and structure of words.” 25 As for Etymology, the following definitions one may come across: are some of the

“Etymology: Both the study of the history of words and a statement of the origin and history of a word, including changes in its form and meaning.” 26 “…that branch of linguistic science which is devoted to determining the origin of words.” 27 Websters Dictionary provides the following definition: “The history, often including the pre-history of a linguistic form (as a word or morpheme) as shown by tracing its phonetic graphic, and semantic development since its earliest recorded occurrence in the language where it is found, by tracing the course of its transmission from one language to another by analysing it into the component parts from which it was put together, by identifying its cognates in other languages or by tracing it and its
23 24

Websters Third New International Dictionary, vol. 2, p. 1470,. Encyclopaedia Britannica vol. 15 p. 818. 25 World Book vol.18, p. 518, 1992. 26 The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 384, 1992. 27 Colliers Encyclopedia vol. 9 p. 378, 1971; Encyclopaedia Britannica vol. 8 p. 804.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
cognates back to a common ancestral form in a recorded or assumed ancestral language.28 The World Book states: “Etymology is the study of the origins and development of words.” 29 In Encyclopaedia Britannica, we find the following definition: “…that part of linguistics which is concerned with the origin or derivation of words.” 30 The Students Encyclopedia states: “… the study of the origins and history of words.”31 The Universal Standard Encyclopedia has the following: “… that branch of philology which deals with the origin and derivation of words, and with the comparison of words in different members of the same language group.”32 Under the word, ‘morphology’ in Al-Mughni-Al-Akbar, an English to Arabic dictionary, the meaning is given as ( ) while under the entry ‘etymology’, the meaning provided is ( ).33

In the An-Nafees English to Arabic Dictionary, under
28 29 30 31 32 33

Websters Third New International Dictionary, vol. 1, p. 782. World Book, vol. 18 p. 518. Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. 8 p. 804. Students Encyclopaedia, vol. 6 p. 456, 1970. Universal Standard Encyclopedia, vol. 8 p. 2930, 1956. Al-Mughni Al-Akbar, Hasan S. Karmi, p. 826 & p. 402, 1997.

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From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
morphology, we find the term ( etymology, we find the term ( ) while under ).34

In the Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, under the entry ( “morphology (gram.).” 35 These definitions clearly indicate that Etymology deals with the history of words whereas Morphology deals with the subject of word-formation. Hence the most appropriate term for ( ) would be Morphology and not Etymology as has been erroneously used in some books. ), we find the following:

An-Nafees, Madgi Wahbah, p. 868 & p. 381, 2000. Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic P.513, Third Edition 1976.
35

34

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