Romanticism in Spain Author(s): F. Courtney Tarr Reviewed work(s): Source: PMLA, Vol. 55, No. 1 (Mar., 1940), pp.

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Courtney Tarr 35 cosmopolitan and general European character. England. are filled with the spirit of romanticism. their history. KENNETH MCKENZIE Princeton University 5 ROMANTICISM IN SPAIN the romantic era1Spain enjoyed for perhaps the first time DURING in her history a genuine European vogue. Both kept aloof from political agitation. his "noia" is as significant in modern literature as the "sorrows" of Werther and the "ennui" of Rene. yet their writings were transformed into battlecries and Italy responded with the will to fight. while Leopardi romanticized the purity of the Greek attitude toward life and renewed the classic expression of the conflict of modern thought. 1 In this brief . which had been called the land of the dead. have been restrictedto those indications. Both these writers.F. In 1902 the popular dramatist Rovetta produced a play dealing with the revolt against the Austrians in northern Italy in 1854. became more universal than their immediate Italian predecessors. while the creative writers of these countries found in the land and its particular. Manzoni's masterpiece is one of the great novels of world literature. a new and rich store of themes and settings. strictlynecessary. with astonishment Europe saw this nation. as they imperfectly knew it-chiefly the Don Quixote. These may be foundin the Note standardmanualsand in the referenceworkslisted in the Bibliographical appended have been limited to the footnotesand other references to this paper. underlying factors.ratherthan on the details of literaryhistoryas such. classical in their perfection of form. Tieck. and the Schlegels. and reduced to a clear expression of reality the nebulous spirit of German romanticism. The sublime poems of Leopardi. and the title of this play is appropriately Romanticismo. The critic Carducci observes that Manzoni was attracted more by the art of Goethe and Schiller than by that of men like Novalis. rise to throw off the shackles of foreign domination and affirm its independence. by representing two different psychological states that were common to all Europe. and France-especially Germanydiscovered in Spanish literature. made as if to order in response to the demand of the moment for the picturesque and forcesand on surveystressis laidon trendsandcharacteristics.As a consequence. The theorizers of romanticism in Germany. and the theatre of Calder6n-ammunition for their critical and anticlassical campaign.Bibliographical not given or not easily locatedin the worksof Farinelli(1927)and Peers (1939). legends and letters.the ballads.

to say nothing of the more sober and sounder vision of a few critics and travelers. predominate over the lyric. Quijote y Sancho). The romantic exaltation of Don Quixote as the rebellious dreamer. but rarely in the form of Weltschmerzor mal du siMcle. extrovert. but not subjective. The original Spanish Don Juan is completely extrovert. they recreated a conventional. and especially. that "romantic" Spain best typified perhaps in the Carmen of Merimee and of Bizet. But having little interest in Spain for herself nor (Merimee excepted) any real knowledge of her language. The "tragic sense of life" is ever present. because of their very vitality. over sentiment and feeling. the chivalresque and the medieval. is a one-sided distortion. especially the dramatic. England. started in Germany and England and carried to its zenith by Unamuno as late as 1905 (in his Vida de D. (And. not with complete justification. and all forms of purely human authority. then. not introvert. with greater accuracy. or culture. the preponderance of the popular and the spontaneously creative over the aristocratic and the critical. those peculiar traits of Spanish culture and the Spanish temper which have increasingly come to be regarded (even among Spanish critics) as essentially romantic. the intense individualism and resistance to rules. or rather expression. brings out for the first time. even the romantic caricature of Spain. It is not without significance. The Spanish spirit and Spanish letters are individualistic. until quite recently. as essentially unclassic: the co-existence and clash of extremes. desires and imaginations. and has served to obscure. for creative artists are hardly to be censured for not being exact historians or archeologists.36 Romanticism in Spain the passionate. may I add.) The epic and the dramatic. literary Spain according to their own needs. It is not around the latter. the great creations of the Spanish spirit. the essential genius of his creator. sixty to seventy years later. the romantics in Germany. that in their recreations of Spain. to any considerable extent. in some outstanding authors of the "generation of 1898. and France should emphasize and . but around action. or perhaps." the one really romantic generation in Spanish literature. schools. one fundamental aspect of romanticism. history. Nevertheless. both artistic and vital-in the interplay of these two forces lies the key to the creative genius of Spain-lack. as is the rebellious Cid of the ballads. the persistence of medieval and national themes and attitudes.) Furthermore. as Unamuno reminds us. a conception which has persisted in the popular mind down to the present and against which Spaniards and Hispanophiles-then and now-have reacted more or less violently and in vain. in a few minor writers in the romantic period itself. even mental action-the ingenio so characteristic of the race-that Spanish letters revolve. and form. (Save in the best of Larra and Espronceda.

It also reveals how little the latter. And. later even than to Italy. Hostile and naive. and from 1820 y of dissertation(North Carolina) Dr.F.3 In this juvenile outburst Larra upbraids the French for having abandoned.and Dr."Noteson Spanish Playsat the Beginning the RomanticPeriod. Review. An adequateintroductory J. and degenerate French fad. 27-51. For this is precisely what occurs. either in precept or in practice. 574-837. P. K..Professor to 1833in the unpublished is N. Romanic xxI (1930). and extols the Spaniard Moratin and his followers for continuing to uphold. it is nevertheless representative of the critical attitude prevailing at the time in Spain. not to say ignorant.of North Carolina. Rogers "The Drama of Pre-RomanticSpain." Review. Cotarelo number his journalElduende by DuendeSaMorfin his Postfigaro (Madrid. ephemeral. of Northwestern. xxvi (1928). It reveals the strong patriotic pride in the achievement of the Spanish neoclassicists and the equally strong anti-French feeling inherited from the eighteenth century and intensified by the War of Independence as vital forces in the critical opposition to romanticism. Cotareloy de MorfIsidoroMdiquez el teatro su tiempo(Madrid.31-46. Larra ridicules romanticism as a silly. a feeling for nature." xvII (1926). along with sentimental and spectacle plays (also in translation) had formed.2 one of the translated melodramas which. 315-324. compilingthe repertoryfrom 1833 to 1850.1916).1902). Adams. (See the author's"Larra's y of tfricodeldia" in M. then not quite nineteen years of age. A. K. . In February of 1828 Mariano Jose de Larra. despite the fulminations of the critics. those external rules of literary and dramatic art and propriety for the violation of which the Frenchman Boileau had condemned the great Spanish dramatists of the seventeenth century. B. B. taking Ducange's play as a horrible example. 3 The repertoryof the Madridstage from 1793 to 1819 will be found in E. I. an increasingly large part of the repertory of the Madrid stage ever since the turn of the century. of theatreat the time of the introduction romanticism may be gainedfromthe following: Romanic of N. Courtney Tarr 37 exaggerate the external rather than the internal. and a passion for liberty) discernible in the poets of the eighteenth century had been stifled by the declamatory ode on contemporary social and patriotic themes introduced by Quintana and 2 In the second del of satirico dia. as this article is in its conception of romanticism. republished E. was understood or even known in Spain as late as 1828. although in different tones and modes.-The Spanishtranslator Ducangewasnone other than the supposed"archclassicist"Gallego. The faint breath of a native pre-romanticism (melancholy. in the writers of the Romantic period in Spain itself. published as his first article of dramatic criticism a scathing denunciation of Ducange's Trente ans ou la vie d'un joueur. Shields. P.pp. Leslie. idea of the from 1850 to 1870. Literary romanticism comes late to Spain. and P. Adams. 128-142.

when comparedwith its Frenchpredecessor betweenFrenchand Spanish roman"Pr6face Cromwell. It was Alcall Galianowho wrotethe unsignedprologue-advocatingin the name of the nationaltradition a compromise between neoclassicdoctrineand standardsand romanticforms and themes-to his friend the (later) Duque de Rivas' El MoroExp6sito(Paris. if not destroyed. was largely stilled. and bloody repression-which had racked the country since 1808 had arrested.he belaborsthe neoclassic preceptsand practice in the theatreas contraryto the Spanishnationalgenius (reflectedin the comedia the of GoldenAgeof Lopede Vegaand Calder6n) as. later became"converts" the modified in Spain: the resuscitationof traditionallynational themes and forms. The debate over the neoclassic esthetic in its relation to Spanish literature." eloquentof the differences de is Galianoand Mora). Mme de Stael. Pitollet.. La qutrelle de caldronienne Johan Nikolas Bohl von Faber. that notable revival of learning and letters which had taken place in the last decades of the eighteenth century. Both Alcali Galianoand Mora. it should be formof romanticism that was to triumph to noted.4 inspired by Herder.Althoughby no means immediatelyaccepted or causing even a mild furoreamong critics. are symbolicof the courseand character romanticism Spain. anarchy. Intellectual intercourse with the rest of Europe was largely cut off."6 Although translations of English.38 Romanticismin Spain furthered by the War of Independence. and the Schlegels. so the literarycareersof these two figures(AlcalU those of their more importantcontemporaries Martinezde la Rosa and the Duque de in of Rivas. as well as ticism. 1909). civil strife. He deploresthe lack of knowledgein Spainof romantic authorsanddoctrine. German. Duran'sposition is romanticism the one soonto becomepopular. especiallyhis findingthe originsof European of (in the drama. and French pre4 The details of B6hl's polemicswith the young neoclassicists AntonioAlcalUGaliano and Jose Joaquinde Mor may be foundin C. the Schlegels. the criticand scholar Augustfn collectionof the Spanishballadsand issuedhis famousDiscurso. Almost single-handed the great Hispanist Bohl von Faber. As later during the romantic period (which coincides roughly with the first Carlist war (1833-39) and subsequent strife until the "pacification" of 1843-45) politics was the primary preoccupation with intellectuals and writers. The year 1828is a significant date in the historyof the attitude-both proand contra-in Spain towardsromanticism: but it recordsnot only one of the high-watermarksof the prestigeof neoclassicism.followingB6hl. The political upheavals-foreign invasion. severalmonths DurIn publishedthe firstvolumeof his monumental later. (Paris.whichforhimmeansessentialbyEuropean contemporary and simply-freedom to followthe nationalgeniusand traditions. also the beginningof its ultimate decline. 1834). strove to focus attention on the ancient folk poetry and to exalt the drama of the seventeenth century as superior to the revered "rules. causeof the contemand the porarydecadenceof the Spanishstage. which.of course)in the comedia the GoldenAge. which since 1737 had raged intermittently for nearly a century. Just as AlcalI Galiano'stimid and middle-of-the-road proand (to someextent) counterpart the logue. Grimm. 6 In 1828.It was Morawhocontributedwith a volume of Leyendas espanolas(1840) to the final triumphof the leyenda and balladform (see below).and Herder.the sameyear as Larra's but reviewof Ducange'smelodrama. the firstdefinitelyromantic poemof the longnarrativetype in Spanish. (As well as an anticipationof the later "eclectic" ..

Peers. ChavesD.Lxvm (1926). Rousseau. 8 For a discussionof El Europeo and its articles on romanticism. (1846-80). Zellarsin Revista FilologiaEspanola. published in the short-lived El Europeo (1823-24) of Barcelona.muchmoreextensiveand significant politicaland socialquestions than in literature. 164-165.The 1-160.later (1830)took the initiativein deliberately del adaptingthe novel of Sir WalterScott to Spanishsoil and themesin his Caballero cisne o los bandos Castilla."Rivista delle e xxix (1918). moderate and conciliatory. the novels of Walter Scott. Mario Casella. 6 For initial bibliography influences and translations Farinelliand Peers (Bibliosee of in 1833 (Austin graphical Note). and Miss Roche (to say nothing of the thrillers of Mrs. in Gallego'sanonymoustranslationof Ducange." Goethe..1909) is of little value. and Lamartine) are seen and heard in the last years of the eighteenth and early decades of the nineteenth century. CarlosAribau.9 And from 1825 on. followedby romanesco the Bohl(in Morapolemic-see note 4) andromdntico usedexclusively El Europeo-see note 8). they had no great popularity (save possibly Atala) and certainly little immediate influence. Radcliffe).continued Professor xvimi(1931). (Sevilla.227-310.. Chateaubriand. See also W.F.L6pezSoler. vols.The vogueand influence Scott have been studiedby E..B. (see Cejador Bibliography) in M. 149-162.Anotherof the editors. A. "The Term 'Romanticism' Spain.1938)providesthe most completestudy to date of the difficultproblemof Rousin in seau'sinfluence Spain.the forcewhichresolvesand explainsthe contradicin tions and the courseof romanticism ."RevueHispanique in IxxxI (1933). 2epartie.andlaterarticlesby Peers(seeBibliographiBibliotechedegliArchivi.81-120. Spell'srecent Rousseau the SpanishWorldbefore [Texas].7and the first serious critical discussions.6 Only sporadic references to romanticism as such are found prior to 1818. like those of the Italian Conciliatore. 7 The earliest(1814)formof the termis romancesco.Alonso Cort6sand Peers (see Bibliography) with additionalmaterialin and Jost deLarra. The best discussionwill be found in Blanco Garcfa.) And it shouldbe noted that to bothLarra's opposition and Duran'sadvocacyof whateachconceivesto be romanticism have theirrootsin literarypatriotism. A.. de . the Vicomte d'Arlincourt. (1922). are those of the Italian Monteggia and the Catalin Lopez Soler.. Mme Cottin.played a leadingr61le in de the Catalan"Renaixensa"-not the least and one of the most lastingfruitsof romanticism in Spain-as well as being the moving spirit in the unique and monumentalcollection knownas the Biblioteca autores de 71 espanoles. Courtney Tarr 39 romantics (Young. by which they were indeed influenced. and had devoured the romantic novels of Chateaubriand and the pseudo-historical and sentimental fiction of Mme de Genlis. LV by panique. Mariano of pp. Peersand P. see "Agli Albori del Romanticismoe del ModernoRinascimentoCatalano. cal Note). in HisChurchman their "Surveyof the Influenceof Sir WalterScott in Spain"in Revue Peersalone.1899). 9 The romantic pre-romantic novelof Spainis oneof the manytopicsneedingfurther and Historiade la novela Espafa desdeel en investigationand synthesis. C. and Cooper.Spain. 411-418. H. J. attitude. romanticismo (Madrid.Hisp. in (first See E. "Ossian. R.8 Yet the public had applauded for decades the type of play denounced by the youthful Larra and his contemporaries and predecessors.-One of the editors.A. Gonzalez-Blanco's . (Rev.

not in the novel.1828-1850(New York. on doctrinal as on patriotic grounds-which took the form of a vigorous defense of the national drama and continuous satire of French culture and customs and of its supporters. at least not until the historical novels of Perez Gald6s. father and son) of writers and scholars imbued with the patriotic desire to reform and restore Spanish letters on the basis of the neoclassic precepts. Thus not only did neoclassicism flower late in Spain. And it was under the direct example and even guidance of these men (Jovellanos. there were deeper reasons for this opposition than a pardonable ignorance due to isolation and an understandable scorn for the vulgar taste in fiction and in the theatre. As seen in Larra's review. yet sound and solid. to the failure to observe which they attributed the shortcomings of the national literature.40 Romanticism in Spain too. Moratin the younger. renaissance of culture in eighteenth-century Spain was in its literary aspects almost exclusively the work of two generations (symbolized by the Moratins. and dragged out a feeble existence in the thirties and forties. The belated and limited. particularly the theatre. Lista. But (again the paradox) the pseudo-archaeological novel proved alien to the Spanish temper. And here the opposition to romanticism had first to be overcome. This prestige was political as well as literary. Quintana. again. etc. . The vivid. was at its peak in the first three decades of the nineteenth century.) that the literary generations of the first half of the nineteenth century grew up. precisely because of its antiquarianism. were almost immediately accepted by the critics and men of letters who were still indifferent or hostile to romanticism in general. even more than of its precepts. but the prestige of its exponents. of the seventeenth century and its subsequent decadence. at least in part. The eighteenth-century reformadoreshad met with great opposition-not so much. initiated in 1830 by Lopez Soler and continued almost immediately by other writers-among them Larra and Espronceda-with the deliberate purpose of enriching the national literature by adapting this new and widely acclaimed form to Spanish soil and the Spanish spirit. but in the theatre and in narrative poetry. But during and after the War of Independence the reformasame author'sLa novelahist6rica EspaAa. 1938) adds little or en nothing to our knowledge. whose vogue in the rest of Europe was echoed in Spain. romanticism made its initial appearance in Spain in its newest and least romantic form-the first of the many paradoxes to be encountered in our survey-in the historical novel in the manner of Walter Scott. living recreation of the national past took place. so congenial to historical and legendary themes and settings. As a consequence.

an anthology of Spanishverse in et Frenchmetricaltranslation. . Peers.Martinez de la Rosa'sFrenchplay is cited below. just as after that date it was to further its conditional acceptance and its adaptation to national soil and literary traditions. "The Literary Activities of the SpanishEmigrados English. Benftez. Imprisonment. in Paris. political and literary. by the Spanish emigrados. among them.F. in the novel. identified as it was. and. for May 31. Aben-Humeya. in their eyes. in which some of them were participants. And then only in part. 1894. although to opposite ends. exile. A. or in English. also in Paris. (This.. The most complete contemporary of the remarkable scholarlyand literary productivityof this group was publishedin the last number(17.See also A. by the way.. the arch-enemy of liberal Spain. M. not only in resisting the invader."Revuede litttrature 1 See E.accordingto Hartzenbusch(Apuntespara un catdlogo los peri6dicos lenos." in list M. that they and their disciples should oppose romanticism. The most outstanding figure.Previousto this anotheremigrado. on the whole unsuccessfully. literary and political. with the figure of Chateaubriand. For them romanticism represented reaction. the first Spanish historical drama with ex10Espronceda of fought in the barricades Paris duringthe July Revolution. which had animated both the eighteenth-century neoclassicists and their opponents. whowerebothconnectedwith this madride journal. 1834) of the rare and ephemeralMadriddaily Diario del comercio (later El de Mensajero las Cortes). 315-324. ou la revoltede Maures sous Philippe II. or rather narrative poetry. had published (1826) his Espagnepottique. 17-40. is by no means the only instance of literary composition in French. the very opposite of their own principles of progress and reform. as they imperfectly knew it. 45)-is one of those which the author hopes to be able to are reprintwhen circumstances morefavorable. next in the drama. with few exceptions.This document. First. xix (1924). p. Martinez de la Rosa. Sarraith. No wonder. gnole. and even death was the portion of many of them in the reactions of 1814-20 and 1823-33. Mauryy J. Thus it was that the patriotic impulse. his Conjuraci6n de Venecia. Martin in June of 1830. then. Madrid.'? did their attitude change.)" In the same year Martinez de la Rosa published.L. and finally in lyric. composed-on the heels of his preceptist Poetica (1827) and his pseudoSophoclean Edipo (1828)-a historical drama in French.undoubtedlycompiledby one of the groupperhapseven by AlcalhGalianoor the Duquede Rivas. (1930). after the revolution of 1830 and among the liberal and neoclassicist exiles gathered there. played at the Porte-St. Courtney Tarr 41 dores and their followers.."L'emigration le romantismeespax comparte. In these latter genres the first important essays in romanticism take place outside of Spain. took the lead. worked before 1830 against the introduction of romanticism.R. Not until the political and literary revolution of 1830 in France. but also in the liberal and constitutional movements of 1810-14 and 1820-23.

the return of the emigradosto aid the cause of Isabel II. the organ of the small group sworn to advance the cause. The years 1840-41 also saw the appearance of numerous other volumes of the leyenda and ballad type. as initiated by El Trovador (1836) and Los amantes de Teruel (1837). In the meantime. Beranger). and the elevation of Martinez de la Rosa to head the government. although not the dominant one.42 Romanticism in Spain ternal romantic. of Becquer and Rosalia de Castro. a jeunesse doree of young intellectuals and artists. It was initiated by Zorrilla in his Poesias (1837-39) and sealed by the same poet's Cantos del Trovador(1841). or melodramatic. more directly Spanish and Catholic in spirit. perhaps its year of greatest vitality. trimmings. after the death of Ferdinand VII in 1833 had given rise to the Carlist revolt. had little direct influence until followed in 1840 by the author's Romances historicos. and the ill-advised attempt of the same group to convert the death and funeral of Larra into a public glorification of . represents a cross between the French drame romantique and the Spanish comedia of the seventeenth century. This was not played in Madrid until 1834. of Quintana. Espronceda died in 1842 and the field was left to the bard Zorrilla and lesser poets. the outstanding poet was the ex-revolutionary Espronceda. however." exuberance of rhetoric and varied versification-Lope and Calder6n brought "up to date"! In lyric poetry the course of events was slower. had only a year (183536) of precarious existence. respectively. For two decades and more the rhetorical reverberations of the national ballad. published in 1834 in Paris by the former liberal exile and neoclassicist Duque de Rivas. The long narrative poem (El Moro Exp6sito). freedom from the "rules. Garcia Gutierrez and Hartzenbusch. Doctrinaire romanticism gained little or no headway in Spain. Yet by the year 1837 the romantic drama was firmly established. much more definitely modelled on the old ballads (romances). The romantic drama in Spain. of the theatrical repertory. to drown out the timid and tardy but genuinely romantic voices. more superficial and declamatory in expression. and of Victor Hugo-the variegated fountain heads of inspiration for the period-dominate the scene. El Artista. Hugo. after 1837. This turn was the one finally to triumph: one more distinctly historical and legendary in subject-matter. of two young and relatively unknown poets. the exquisitely simple and poignant verses. But only when purged of some of its "excesses" and garbed in native dress. but stressing the elements present in the latter: themes from national history and legend. but much the same. in whose meagre yet magnificent verses (not published in collected form until 1840) is to be found the almost perfect fusion of Spanish forms and themes with those of foreign inspiration (Byron. as a part.

is to strike the dominant note in the romanticism of the forties and beyond: the historical. in the late thirties. Of the English romantics only Byron and. at best. and had in the theatre only a brief moment. Until the eighteen sixties and after. England. like the land itself and the genius and culture of the race. At first opposed by intellectuals and men of letters in the name of patriotism. The dyed-in-the-wool romantic dramas of Hugo and Dumas and their Spanish counterpartsnotably the Don Alvaro o lafuerza del sino (1835) of the Duque de Rivas . of the youthful Zorrilla. Yet the contrary is rather the case. a self-created victim of political persecution and of unrequited love. in its main lines. and France. To judge from the popularity of Spanish themes and settings among the romantics of Germany. a veritable panorama of paradox. Mariano Jos6 de Larra shot himself. and the rhetorical. both dramatic and narrative. romanticism of the French variety was. In February of 1837. especially. the German romantics were at best mere names in the Peninsula. Courtney Tarr 43 suicide met with crushing disapproval. Only in the forties and beyond are Hugo and Lamartine-never Vigny or Musset-definitely incorporated into the stream of Spanish poetry. This genuine Wertherian gesture and the scandal of his funeral mark the turning point in the history of Spanish romanticism: the disappearance of the most profoundly romantic temperament of his times and the theatrical emergence. to judge from the apparently romantic qualties inherent in the great enterprises and creations of the Spanish spirit. The ideas of the Conciliatore were echoed almost immediately and. whose poetry. the history of romanticism in Spain has more direct analogies. with the situation in Italy than even with that in France. and this was by no means decisive. after the revolution of 1830. But only because it had been seen-and after it had been made -to conform to the national temper and tradition. reciting verses at his very grave. in utter despair (despite his unparalleled success as a critic and satirist) at his country's desperate plight and his own (to him) hopeless situation. the legendary. although it is French romanticism alone that exercises any important literary influence. Thus romanticism in Spain presents. accepted (with reservations) and practiced (with modifications) by the very same group and for the same patriotic motives. were unconsciously fulfilled in Spain perhaps more completely than in Italy. comprehended but imperfectly. just nine years after his first review. in the decisive interplay of literary and political factors. Scott had any influence. it would seem that literary romanticism should flourish there as in few countries. of qualified success. Yet even French romanticism made a late entry. although almost immediately forgotten. Indeed. was combated or. literary and political.F.

Significant works of thought and criticism are conspicuously absent.44 Romanticism in Spain -awakened more opposition than applause. it reflects only the husks. Indeed. Romantic lyric poetry gained no great foothold until after the revival of the romanceor ballad. the feeling for nature -are few and limited. as early as 1837 Victor Hugo is accused (by Mesonero Romanos in his satiric sketch El romanticismoy los romdnticos)of having propagated. Characteristic romantic themes and attitudes-for instance.. to Addison and Steele-and romantic only in its preoccupation. an eighteenth-century form in origin-it goes back. the one originaland popularcreationof the eighteenthcentury theatre in Spain). u The "localcolor"of the articulo-and. rarely the spirit. not to say cosmopolitan. like the true romantic he is. were on the whole disappointing. too-is not derivedfromabroad. once it was established in Spain (in modified form. not the pure romanticism he absorbed in Spain as a boy. It is distinctlyrelatedin types. his own and his country's plight. Yet their product. that of the cuadro. Rosalia de Castro). is rathera manifestation continuation the "comicrealism" but and of of so characteristic Spanish letters. the direct descendant of the ballads and of the comedia of the Golden Age. but not in form or theme. of the past. scenes. Espronceda) or are obscure or belated figures (B ecquer. is at best external and Don Alvaroof the Duquede Rivas. . to a largeextent. in the cuadro stage. incarnate in the figure of Zorrilla. Earlier attempts to acclimate a new genre. the historical novel. Divorced from contact with newer literary currents and with the realities of the is likewisethe "localcolor"of the romanticdramas(e. Spanish literature of the romantic period can boast no Byron. picturesque and scenes. The outstanding prose genre is the articulo (later cuadro) de costumbres(humorous and satirical sketches of manners and customs). Its chief vehicle is. if not frankly unsuccessful. of course) and once the European vogue of Spanish themes and letters had been tardily appreciated-and speedily exaggerated-quickly to be regarded and practiced as a peculiarly national heritage. with picturesque and popular scenes and types. Shelley.and languageto the sainete(the shortdramatic and of Madridtypes sketch. is not without distinction. dramatic and narrative verse. is the artfculo romantic. those in which he distills his own satiric despair. identifying. romantic in feeling. small as it is. The genuine romantic personalities either disappear early (Larra. Thus romanticism. manifestation-witness the activities of the emigradosin France and England-came.humorous satirical. naturally enough. but a deliberately false and adulterated version! But this Spanish brand of romanticism.l2 Only in the later articulos of Larra. Of true lyricism there is little. of course. which was in its first Spanish phases largely an international. Wordsworth.g. whereit exists in its most pronounced form).

no Leopardi. although in reverse order. the age of Cervantes and Lope and that of Jovellanos and Moratin. especially the most . The romantic period in Spain. In literature. save for a brief moment and then only in a few extreme cases. there came to reign. inspired both by contemporary European currents and fundamental national realities. It lies at the root of their attitude toward life and of letters. is carried to fruition in poetry. And. in Espronceda and B 6cquer.F. two poets of genuine accent and expression. the very compromise. literary productivity is not wholly. begun in the novel by Gald6s and his contemporaries. no Goethe. but with emphasis increasingly on the former. romantic drama and poetry were continued by a younger group brought up in the same ideals and who consequently alternated their romantic compositions with the literary types and practices of the preceding era. Schiller. represents no complete rejection. and the essay as well) are to be found some of the most genuinely romantic personalities and attitudes in Spanish letters. in the romantic mode. Courtney Tarr 45 or Keats. yet it does have. Spanish letters of the romantic period form the first considerable body of literature of respectable stature since the golden days of Lope and Cervantes. a sort of justo medio (juste milieu). and is manifest in that blend of personal and national introspection. in increasingly modified form. then. Introduced by a generation steeped in the liberal and neoclassical traditions. But in Spain as elsewhere. Although some aspects of romanticism (notably literary patriotism and the reaction against the "rules") go far back into the eighteenth century. not formal or rhetorical. of neoclassical principles and personages. that fusion of the intellectual and the passionate. But in the group known as the "generation of '98" (in whom the Silver Age of Spanish literature. Taken as a whole. The two literary traditions. but rather a compromise with them. between national tradition and universal standards advocated since the end of the eighteenth century. Yet by 1840 many of its externals have been assimilated and continue to flourish. Although these latter actually predominate from the quantitative standpoint. which constitutes the peculiarhall-mark of their genius as individuals and as a generation. not even a Hugo or a Vigny. and in Larra a profoundly romantic personality. in the poetry and the theatre of the entire second half of the nineteenth century. as well as a prose artist of the first rank. nor even predominantly. were both respected. it does not enter Spain as a conscious literary force until 1830. Their romanticism is vital and functional. after a short flurry of revolt even less fundamental in literature than in politics. drama. of the creative and the critical. the period still deserves the label "romantic" (or "pseudo-romantic") because the major literary achievements were in that mode. or Heine. as in politics. they.

between nations. with reservations. Rosalia de Castro. F. and also comparisons and contrasts as such between individual writers or even. Espronceda and Becquer. The student of English literature of the period commonly known as romantic is inclined to believe that his problem is far less simple than that of the students of other literatures. Spanish history and culture with respect to those of England and France. I must disregard. and. the external and the superficially historical. save for occasional moments and individuals. The co-existence of the past and the present so peculiar to Spain. the struggle between the weight of the past and the pressure of the present-the tragic dilemma lying at the core of modern Spanish history-is reflected throughout modern Spanish letters and nowhere more clearly than in the nature and course of romanticism in Spain. But first I must say what I understand by romanticism. in one form or other. I confine myself to a suggestion of the complexity of English romanticism. the "time lag" of roughly fifty years or more which. Corollary to this is the patriotic preoccupation which. English romanticism seems to be based on a less formulated revolutionary criticism than the French. from the historical rather than the esthetic angle. as elsewhere. is the distinction between the external and the internal between "romantic" and "romanticist. which seems to share in all the manifold characteristics of romanticism as a general European literary phenomenon and to manifest and combine them in ways of its own. to any extent. Fundamental. from the eighteenth century on. to be . Azorin-deliberately repudiate the literary romanticism of the nineteenth century with its stress on the verbal. it is necessary to choose one method of treatment. Baroja. therefore. a subject full of danger unless one has time to bolster each statement. then. has characterized. to the understanding of romanticism in Spain. excepting only Larra (in whom they saw a forerunner)." Fundamental too. international influences. in one direction or other. permeates the warp and woof of modern Spanish intellectual activity. COURTNEY TARR Princeton University 6 ROMANTIC PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS IN ENGLAND IN any brief consideration of the implications for English romanticism of the five papers just presented. is the chronological differential.46 Permutations and Combinations in England profoundly romantic among them-Unamuno.

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