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S-72.

260 Laboratory works in Radio Communications

Lab #1

GSM Transceiver Measurements

Version 1.53

Previous versions
Date 14.3.2000 9.9.2000 2.9.2001 18.9.2001 2.11.2001 Version 1.4 1.5 1.51 1.52 1.53 Changes First English version Text revised, exercises changed slightly. Some problems clarified. Some preliminary problems polished. Laboratory exercises clarified.

Student laboratory is in the room SE306. Check the links in the course home page. You might (or might not) find some extra information. Grading: Accepted/not accepted. This material in this document does not cover GSM basics. It is assumed that students have acquired prerequisites from previous courses, or books etc.

Some prerequisite courses for this laboratory work (not all required!): S-72.610 S-72.232 S-26.105 S-72.244 Mobile Communication Systems and Services Radio Communication Systems Radiojärjestelmän osat (in Finnish) Modulation and Coding Methods

Literature: Mouly M., Pautet M., “The GSM System for Mobile Communications”, published by the authors, 1992 Redl, Siegmund M., Weber, Matthias K., Oliphant, Malcolm W., “An introduction to GSM” Artech House, 1995 Mansikkaviita, J., Talvo, M.,”Johdatus solukkopuhelintekniikkaan” (in Finnish), Opetushallitus, Helsinki 1998 Carg, V.J., Wilkes, J.E., Principles and applications of GSM, Prentice-Hall Inc., Upper Saddle River 1999

Also check out the course home page for latest information. Measurements can be made in all GSM frequency bands (900MHz.e. Notice. Spectrum analyser is used in measuring the power spectrum. 1800MHz. A Rohde&Schwarz CTS-55 GSM tester used in the laboratory work is able to measure: • • • • • Transmitted power of the MS Receiver sensitivity with different error measures (BER.Lab #1: GSM Transceiver Measurements 1 Introduction In this laboratory work properties of GSM Mobile Stations (MS) are investigated. i. More information can be found from literature. SW testing is an entirely different ballpark. 2 Receiver Measurements Testing of a GSM transceiver. 2. [Redl95]. FER) Frequency and phase error of the modulator Power ramp Transmitter timing errors The tester performs measurements by emulating the radio interface of the GSM system. RBER. may be divided in two parts: receiver measurements and transmitter measurements. A maintenance program by Nokia Mobile Phones is also used in some laboratory exercises to control Nokia 2110 MS transmitter. See section 2. the MS sees the tester as an ordinary base station (BTS). RF measurements are discussed in courses offered by Radio Laboratory (S-26). The most important receiver measurements are the testing of sensitivity in various radio propagation conditions. There are many error performance measures defined in the GSM specifications [GSM0505]. The goal is to give an idea of the matters that are dealt with in the laboratory work. Transmitter tests include measurements on modulation errors. The following sections contain a brief overview of GSM mobile phone testing. that a large part of the receiver/transmitter is actually implemented in programmable DSPs. Modulation errors are visualised with a vector signal analyser. and testing of interference sensitivity of the receiver. as well as course material used in the department of electrical and communications engineering. The goal is to learn the basics of a GSM transceiver and to investigate its error performance by measurements. . transmitter power accuracy and power ramp1. or any other digital mobile phone. e. In this laboratory exercise mainly the error measures related to speech traffic channels are investigated.1. 1900MHz). 1 Only physical layer parts are measured in this laboratory work. however.1 Sensitivity of a GSM receiver Receiver sensitivity means error performance as a function of received power.g. In preliminary exercises basic concepts of GSM engineering are reviewed. This section discusses receiver measurements. All preliminary exercises should be solved before coming to the lab shift.3.

in GSM1800 band. can be changed. . Naturally there are many exceptions. For handheld GSM900 and GSM1800 MS the reference sensitivity level is – 104dBm 2.1.1 The Principle of BER Sensitivity Measurement The phone is connected to the GSM tester via external RF connector used for car mounting the MS. Thus. The principle of BER measurement. the phone demodulates and detects the pseudo-random bits sent in the downlink by the GSM tester. half speed FACCH without Frequency Hopping (FH) the sensitivity is the average received power level in which FER has dropped to 7. the virtual radio path attenuation. BERÅRXQUAL The definitions of different error ratios go hand in hand with channel coding and burst formatting which is different for each logical channel. Lpath. A special SIM card must be used so that the loop back of the received bits (Figure 1) can be activated. It should be noticed that with the used measurement method the uplink direction can be assumed errorfree. 50 km/h). This power level should be below the reference sensitivity of the transceiver type. For example. The required sensitivity level for different types of GSM transceivers has been defined in [GSM0505]. speech frames are encoded differently from signalling frames. and then transmits the bits in the uplink direction back to the measuring equipment. For example.1.2 Requirements for Sensitivity Specifications [GSM0505] define required sensitivity levels in different radio propagation conditions (see appendix). Lpath Channel Coding + modulating 2. 2.1.e. In testing state the MS loops back all received information i. RBERxx. The transmission power of the GSM tester can be controlled. since the measurement cable attenuation is typically only about 0. TU50 propagation environment (Typical Urban. Car mounted MS have reference sensitivity of –104dBm.2%. 2 See appendix for exceptions.2. By decreasing downlink TX power and simultaneously reading the applicable error measures error sensitivity performance of the MS can be determined.5 dB. Comparing (Calculating BER) uplink Detection of PR bits Pseudo Random bits downlink R&S CTS-55 MS Figure 1. The measuring equipment demodulates the signal and calculates the bit error ratio by comparing the received bits with the transmitted ones.3 Error measures: FER. see also appendix.

6% to 11. Quality Band Range of actual BER Probability that the correct RXQUAL band is reported by MS shall exceed Full rate ChannelHalf rate ChannelDTX Mode 90% 90% Less than 0.1.4 Accuracy of Received Power Level (RXLEV) Measurement A GSM receiver constantly measures the power of the received signal. Table 1. i.8% to 5. It is estimated separately for class Ib and class II bits. a thousand frames have been passed to the speech decoder. Thus. is the ratio of erroneously received bits to all received bits. is defined as the amount of swept speech frames (260 bits each) divided by the amount of transmitted speech frames.64% RXQUAL_2 85% 90% 1. $Ãiv‡† pyh††ÃDh "!Ãiv‡† pyh††ÃDi &'Ãiv‡† pyh††ÃDD Figure 2.9% to 2. RXLEV gets values between 0-63 so that 0 corresponds to level under –110dBm and 63 to level over –48dBm with one dB steps in between. • • According to some research the most important error measure in speech applications is FER even though RXQUAL value is used as a handover criterion [Haa97]. Example: After frame erasures. BER is used for defining the RXQUAL value according to Table 1. NOTE3: For the DTX mode RXQUAL_SUB is based on 12 TDMA frames.0% RXQUAL_6 95% 95% Greater than 15. .7% RXQUAL_4 95% 95% 3. along with interleaving.30% RXQUAL_1 70% 85% 0.Convolution coding. The BSC can use the reported downlink RXLEV for power control and handover decisions. the estimated RBERII is 5000/78000≈6. FER. RXQUAL does not take into account channel coding.4% RXQUAL_5 95% 95% 7.1% RXQUAL_0 60% 75% 0. NOTE2: For the half rate channel RXQUAL_FULL is based on 52 TDMA frames. even if RXQUAL is bad the speech quality may still be satisfactory due to channel coding and the fact that speech is not very sensitive to errors in bits other than class Ia. after equaliser. 65% 35% 45% 45% 60% 70% 80% 85% 2. Full rate speech channel. Definition of RXQUAL and its reliability [GSM0508].26% to 0. RBER. Bit Error Rate.e. It is important to notice that BER is evaluated before channel decoding. is the ratio of erroneous bits to all bits after frame erasure. Error ratios used in conjunction with GSM speech channels: • Frame Erasure Rate.0 % to 1. TCH/FS.0% RXQUAL_7 NOTE1: For the full rate channel RXQUAL_FULL is based on 104 TDMA frames. Residual Bit Error Rate. The 50 first bits of speech frame (Figure 2) are considered especially important for the speech quality and no errors are allowed in these bits.4%. The three parity bits following the 50 class Ia bits are used for error detection. is used extensively in GSM. The speech frame is swept if even one of its most important 50 bits is observed not to be correct.3% RXQUAL_3 85% 90% 1. BER.51% to 0. A GSM speech frame before channel coding. with a total of 5000 bit errors in class II bits. and reports the measurement results to the base station as an RXLEV value.

Ideal reference signal is generated at the measurement equipment. 3.e. . GMSK-modulator [Tur96] The constantly changing angle φ(t) is converted into sine.The accuracy of the received power measurement can be accomplished by tuning the downlink transmission power to a suitable value. dt (1) The GMSK modulator is not ideal and phase error is produced in the process. Narrowing in frequency domain corresponds to widening in time domain. This is worth considering when interpreting any results related to RXLEV measurement of an MS.1 Phase and frequency error Phase and frequency errors measure the accuracy of the modulator. One way is to implement GMSKmodulator is shown in Figure 2. Gaussian MSK. Accurate measurement of absolute RF power is complicated especially for burst signals.and cosine-components whose resultant draws a circle with constant amplitude on the IQ plane. 3 Transmitter Measurements 3. The required absolute accuracy for RXLEV measurement at received power levels -110dBm…-70dBm is ±4 dBm [GSM0508]. The error can easily be in the order of decibel. Gaussian refers to the filter used to reduce bandwidth of the MSK power spectrum. usually a vector signal analyzer (VSA). Frequency and phase are connected to one another by the formula dv = df . After DA conversion the signal is fed to the mixer. See also [Ttd00] for an excellent review on modulation error measurements. so the result is a compromise to avoid excessive ISI. However. the measuring of relative power (the change in power) can be performed more accurately. Figure 3 . and reading the measurement reports sent by the mobile station from the display of the GSM tester.2 The Power Spectrum of Modulated Signal Means of modulation in GSM is GMSK i. The modulator is usually implemented with DSP [Man98]. This error is defined as difference of the measured signal and ideal reference signal [Redl95].

According to the results of simulating the methods are quite equal when it comes to error performance in Rice. “Radio transmission and reception”. version 6. April 1998 [GSM0508] . Measuring of the timing error is important because the burst sent to the base station by a MS must fit the time mask so that it won’t collide with bursts sent by other MS using the same transceiver (TRX).05.edu/~turletti/gmsk/ GSM 05. “GMSK in a Nutshell”.08. Timing error of the burst can also be measured. This means that two bits are transferred each symbol period.0 (phase 2+). The disadvantage of this method is susceptibility to the effects of non-linearities in the transmitter that partly consumes the benefits from higher spectrum efficiency. April 1998 GSM 05. The BSC directs the transmission power of the MS and the BTS.It may be said that GMSK is a purely European choice since elsewhere in the world – primarily in the US and Japan – another method. has been chosen. version 6. The power ramp of the MS transmitter can be measured with the GSM tester. 3. Appendices 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) About Reference Sensitivity Requirements.and Rayleigh-channels when also considering the non-linearity of power amplifier [Sor94]. 3.4 Accuracy of the MS Transmission Power In the GSM system all mobile stations are capable of transmission power control.mit. Thierry. The accuracy of the MS transmission power may be measured by sending a power command to the MS under test and observing the actual transmitted power using the CTS-55. excerpt from [GSM0505] Reference Sensitivity and Interference Sensitivity Performance Requirements [GSM0505] Time Mask for a Normal Burst [GSM0505] Frequency Mask of the Modulation Spectrum [GSM0505] Accuracy Requirements of MS Transmission Power [GSM0505] References [Tur96] [GSM0505] Turletti.sds. ETSI.3 Power mask The bursts sent by the phone have to stay within certain limits that have been defined in specifications GSM 05.1. “Radio Subsystem link control”.1. the π/4 DQPSK-modulation.05 (Appendix 3). The advantage of this modulation method is larger spectrum efficiency compared to GMSK. http://www. Power transmission accuracy requirements are defined in appendix 5.lcs. since π/4 DQPSK is a four-level modulation method.1 (phase 2+). ETSI.

. “Performance Comparison of GMSK.[Haa97] Haataja Jussi. D. Opetushallitus.and π/4 –DQPSK Modulations in a Mobile Radio Environment”.. Siegmund M. Weber.ja tietoliikennetekniikan osasto.. Talvo.järjestelmän yhteyden laatuun”. diplomityö. “Johdatus solukkopuhelintekniikkaan”. “Taajuushyppelyn vaikutus DCS1800/1900. Helsinki 1998 "Testing and Troubleshooting Digital RF Communications Transmitter Designs". Oliphant. TKK 1997 Redl. Visintin. literature number 5968-3578E. Springer-Verlag 1994 Mansikkaviita.. Malcolm W.. sähkö. Agilent Technologies application note 1313. M. J. Artech House. M... Matthias K. Lecture notes in computer science. 1995 Sorbara. “An Introduction to GSM”. [Redl95] [Sor94] [Man98] [Ttd00] .

Appendix 1: About Reference Sensitivity Requirements. excerpt from [GSM0505] … 6. . bit error. according to the type of channel and the propagation condition. called the reference sensitivity level. the -102 dBm level shall apply for the reference sensitivity performance as specified in table 1 for the normal conditions defined in Annex D and -100 dBm level shall be used to determine all other MS performances. The actual sensitivity level is defined as the input level for which this performance is met.2 Reference sensitivity level The reference sensitivity performance in terms of frame erasure. The reference sensitivity level shall be: for DCS 1 800 class 1 or class 2 MS for DCS 1 800 class 3 MS for GSM 900 small MS for other GSM 900 MS and normal BTS for GSM 900 micro BTS M1 for GSM 900 micro BTS M2 for GSM 900 micro BTS M3 for DCS 1 800 micro BTS M1 for DCS 1 800 micro BTS M2 for DCS 1 800 micro BTS M3 : : : : : : : : : : -100 / -102 dBm * -102 dBm -102 dBm -104 dBm -97 dBm -92 dBm -87 dBm -102 dBm -97 dBm -92 dBm The above specifications for BTS shall be met when the two adjacent timeslots to the wanted are detecting valid GSM signals at 50 dB above the power on the wanted timeslot. For MS the above specifications shall be met with the two adjacent timeslots 20 dB above the own timeslot and the static channel. * For all DCS 1800 class 1 and class 2 MS to be type approved after 1st December 1999. The actual sensitivity level shall be less than a specified limit. or residual bit error rates (whichever appropriate) is specified in table 1.

4 % 8% 8% 13 % 12 % 16 % 15 % 2% 2% 0.5 % 0.5 % 0.3/α % 8% 4% 0.8 TCH/F4.9 % 3.24 % 6.4/α % 2% < 0.10 % 7% 4.02 % 3.1α % 0.7 % 3.5 % 1% 10-5 (BER) (BER) (BER) (BER) 10-5 0.5/α % 9% 7% 0.5 % 0.3/α % 8% 3% 0.36 % 6.1 % < 0.11 % 8% 4.28 % 6.01 % 3.1 % 0.3/α % 8% 4% 0. SID=1 or SID=2) Type of channel FACCH/H FACCH/F SDCCH RACH SCH TCH/F14.1 % 0.Appendix 2: Reference Sensitivity and Interference Sensitivity Performance Requirements [GSM0505] Table 1: Reference sensitivity performance GSM 900 Type of Channel FACCH/H FACCH/F SDCCH RACH SCH (FER) (FER) (FER) (FER) (FER) Propagation conditions TU50 RA250 (ideal FH) (no FH) 6.1 % 0.21 % 6.0 % 0.4 % 0.9 % 5.8 TCH/F4.3 % 12 % 13 % 16 % 5% 0.24 % 9% TCH/EFS (continued) .56 % 7.1 % 0.8 TCH/F2.9 % 8.4 TCH/FS (FER) (FER) (FER) (FER) (FER) (BER) (BER) (BER) (BER) (BER) (FER) class Ib (RBER) class II (RBER) (FER) (RBER Ib) (RBER II) static 0.4 % 7.8 % 3.32 % 9. BFI=0) (UFR) class Ib (RBER.2 % 3.6 & H4.025 % 0.6 % 0.1 % 10-4 10-5 10-4 2α % 0.6 % 0.21 % static 0.7 % 10-4 10-5 10-4 7α % 0.5 % 0.9 % 5.4 TCH/F9.1 % 2.12 % 8% 0.10 % 7% HT100 (no FH) 10.1 % 0.8 % 0.1 % 10-4 10-5 10-4 2α % 0.4 % 10-4 10-5 10-4 3α % 0. SID=2 and (BFI or UFI)=0) (ESIDR) (RBER.9 % 5.2 % 0.2/α % 7% 3% 0.4 % 13 % 13 % 25 % 6.003 % TCH/F14.1 % 0.2/α % 7% 3% 0.0 % 6.4 % 10-4 10-5 10-4 3α % 0.1α % 0.20 % 9% 4.7 % 10-4 10-5 10-4 7α % 0.12 % 8% HT100 (no FH) 10.(BFI or UFI)=0) (EVSIDR) (RBER.01 % 3.1 % 0.06 % 0.0 % 13 % 13 % 16 % 2.0 % 0.9 % 9% 13 % 19 % 2.7 % 3.8 % 5.1 % 0.4 TCH/H2.21 % 7% 4.1 % 0.001 % 0.4 % 9% 8% 13 % 12 % 19 % 15 % 2% 2% 0.001 % 0.2 % 5.048 % 0.5 % 10-4 2 10-4 10-4 6α % 0.2 % 0.5/α % 9% 7% 0.001 % 0.4 % 10-4 10-5 10-4 3α % 0.6 % 7.42 % (FER) class Ib (RBER) class II (RBER) TCH/EFS (FER) (RBER Ib) (RBER II) TCH/HS (FER) class Ib (RBER.6 & H4.01 % 3.1 % 0.4 TCH/H2.0 % 0.8 % 0.4 TCH/F9.1 % < 0.0 % 0.4/α % 2% < 0. BFI=0) class II (RBER.5 % 1% 10-5 10-5 0.4/α % 8% 8% 0.1 % 2.4 TCH/FS (BER) TU50 (no FH) 6.36 % 6.24 % 6.72 % 0.01 % 0.3 % 0.8 TCH/F2.0 % 0.0 % Propagation conditions TU50 RA130 (ideal FH) (no FH) 7.3 % DCS 1 800 TU50 (no FH) 7.

26 % 0.Appendix 2: Reference Sensitivity and Interference Sensitivity Performance Requirements [GSM0505] Table 1 (concluded): Reference sensitivity performance DCS 1 800 TCH/HS (FER) 0. or other means) or where the stealing flags are wrongly interpreted. NOTE 3: 1 ≤ α ≤ 1.6. SID=2 and (BFI or UFI)=0: Residual bit error rate of those bits in class I which do not belong to the SID codeword (defined as the ratio of the number of errors detected over the frames that are defined as "valid SID frames" to the number of transmitted bits in these frames.0 % 3.01 % 0.048 % 5.025 % 4.2 % 4. parity bits.1 % class Ib (RBER.01 % 0. SID=1 or SID=2) 0.9 % 6.2 % 4. The value of α can be different for each channel condition but must remain the same for FER and class Ib RBER measurements for the same channel condition. For TU50 (ideal FH). RBER.9 % (RBER.72 % 6. BFI=0) 0. SID=2 and (BFI or UFI)=0) 0.7 % 5. SID=1 or SID=2: Residual bit error rate of those bits in class I which do not belong to the SID codeword (defined as the ratio of the number of errors detected over the frames that are defined as "valid SID frames" or as "invalid SID frames" to the number of transmitted bits in these frames.1 % 5. BFI=0: Residual bit error rate (defined as the ratio of the number of errors detected over the frames defined as "good" to the number of transmitted bits in the "good" frames).8 % 7. This case may only be tested if such a decorrelation is ensured in the test. (BFI or UFI)=0) 0.0 % 6.38 % 0. NOTE 5: Ideal FH case assumes perfect decorrelation between bursts. NOTE 4: FER for CCHs takes into account frames which are signalled as being erroneous (by the FIRE code.45 % NOTE 1: The specification for SDCCH applies also for BCCH.01 % 3.33 % 0.33 % 0. PCH. .21 % 0.0 % 9. under the condition that a valid SID frame was sent). (BFI or UFI)=0: Residual bit error rate (defined as the ratio of the number of errors detected over the frames defined as "reliable" to the number of transmitted bits in the "reliable" frames).38 % 0.02 % (ESIDR) 0. BFI=0) 0.9 % (RBER. under the condition that a valid SID frame was sent).63 % class II (RBER.9 % 6.0 % 7.2 % 3. AGCH. sufficient decorrelation may be achieved with 4 frequencies spaced over 5 MHz.0 % class Ib (RBER.26 % 0. SACCH.0 % 3.001 % 0. RBER.06 % 7. should be better. RBER.8 % (UFR) 0.7 % 5. NOTE 2: Definitions: FER: Frame erasure rate (frames marked with BFI=1) UFR: Unreliable frame rate (frames marked with (BFI or UFI)=1) EVSIDR: Erased Valid SID frame rate (frames marked with (SID=0) or (SID=1) or ((BFI or UFI)=1) if a valid SID frame was transmitted) ESIDR: Erased SID frame rate (frames marked with SID=0 if a valid SID frame was transmitted) BER: Bit error rate RBER.003 % 0.28 % 0.21 % 0.001 % 0.01 % 0.35 % (EVSIDR) 0. The actual performance of SACCH.001 % 0.0 % 8.

1 % 0.2 % 10-4 10-5 10-4 3α % 0.27 % 0.4 % 9.1 % 3% 0.0 % 5.4 % 3.25/α % 8.5 % 3.4 TCH/F9.8 % 0.Appendix 2: Reference Sensitivity and Interference Sensitivity Performance Requirements [GSM0505] Table 2: Reference interference performance GSM 900 Type of channel FACCH/H FACCH/F SDCCH RACH SCH TCH/F14.0 % 7.3 % 0.20 % 0.(BFI or UFI)=0) (EVSIDR) (RBER.2 % 6.1 % 6.4 TCH/H2.13 % 8% TCH/EFS .10 % 8% 10-4 10-5 10-4 3α % 0.7 % 0.01 % 0.29 % 7.2/α % 8% 8% 8% 3% 9% 3% 0.3 % 0.1 % 0.0 % 5.5 % 8% 13 % 18 % 3% 0.20 % 0.26 % 0.8 % 20.13 % 8% 4.8 TCH/F4.4 % 3.26 % DCS 1 800 Propagation conditions TU1.4 TCH/FS (FER) (FER) (FER) (FER) (FER) (BER) (BER) (BER) (BER) (BER) (FER) class Ib (RBER) class II (RBER) (FER) (RBER Ib) (RBER II) TU1.2/α % 8% 4% 0.5 % 3% 0.20 % 3% 19.5 (no FH) 22 % 22 % 22 % 15 % 17 % 10 % 8% 3% 3% 4% 21α % 2/α % 4% 23 % 0.7 % 3.1 % 3% 0.7 % 6. SID=2 and (BFI or UFI)=0) (ESIDR) (RBER.7 % 3. SID=1 or SID=2) Type of channel FACCH/H FACCH/F SDCCH RACH SCH TCH/F14.01 % 3.4 TCH/H2.8 TCH/F4.8 TCH/F2.10 % 0.4 % 9% 13 % 9% 15 % 16 % 16 % 17 % 17 % 17 % 3% 4.6 % 3.5 TU50 TU50 (ideal FH) (no FH) ideal FH) 6.2/α % 8% 4% 0.1 % 0.17 % 6.01 % 0.3 % 0.6 & H4.7 % 3.1 % 0. BFI=0) class II (RBER.2/α % 8% 3% 0.52 % 2.10 % 8% 7% 8% 5.02 % 17.7 % 0.9 % 6.27 % 0.4/α % 0.9 % 3. BFI=0) (UFR) class Ib (RBER.1 % 6.29 % 21.4 TCH/FS (FER) (FER) (FER) (FER) (FER) (BER) (BER) (BER) (BER) (BER) Propagation conditions TU3 TU50 TU50 (ideal FH) (no FH) (ideal FH) 6.1 % 7.10 % 8% (continued) 10-4 10-5 10-4 3α % 0.4 TCH/F9.21 % 7.8 % 0.20 % (FER) class Ib (RBER) class II (RBER) TCH/EFS (FER) (RBER Ib) (RBER II) TCH/HS (FER) class Ib (RBER.0 % 0.1 % 7.25/α % 8.10 % 8% RA130 (no FH) 5.0 % 5.6 % 0.21 % 0.2 % 10-4 10-5 10-4 3α % 0.9 % 0.6 & H4.8 TCH/F2.7 % 6.2/α % 0.4 % 0.5 % 8% 13 % 18 % 3% 0.20 % 3% 3α % 6α % 3α % 0.4 % 9% 9% 9% 15 % 16 % 16 % 17 % 19 % 19 % 3% 4% 3.5 % RA250 (no FH) 5.21 % 7.29 % 0.1 % 7.0 % 0.7 % 6.6 % 0.3 % 10-4 10-5 10-4 3α % 0.6 % 3.3 % 10-4 10-5 10-4 10-4 -4 10 2 10-4 10-4 10-5 10-4 TU3 (no FH) 22 % 22 % 22 % 15 % 17 % 10 % 8% 3% 3% 4% 21α % 2/α % 4% 23 % 0.01 % 3.

(BFI or UFI)=0) 0.1 % 5.17 % (EVSIDR) 21.29 % 0. AGCH.6 % 3. under the condition that a valid SID frame was sent).6 % class Ib (RBER. These performance requirements are given for information purposes and need not be tested. BFI=0: Residual bit error rate (defined as the ratio of the number of errors detected over the frames defined as "good" to the number of transmitted bits in the "good" frames).20 % 0. RBER.6 % 3. The TU3 (ideal FH) and TU1.02 % 0.29 % 0.26 % 0. parity bits.21 % class II (RBER.29 % 0.20 % NOTE 1: The specification for SDCCH applies also for BCCH. SID=2 and (BFI or UFI)=0) 0. NOTE 5: Ideal FH case assumes perfect decorrelation between bursts.0 % 5.7 % class Ib (RBER.9 % 7.1 % 6.21 % 0.0 % (UFR) 20.5 (no FH) cases should be better. For TU50 (ideal FH). SID=1 or SID=2) 0.1 % 3. sufficient decorrelation may be achieved with 4 frequencies spaced over 5 MHz.Appendix 2: Reference Sensitivity and Interference Sensitivity Performance Requirements [GSM0505] Table 2 (concluded): Reference interference performance DCS 1 800 TCH/HS (FER) 19.6. The actual performance of SACCH.1 % 7.01 % 0.21 % 0. This case may only be tested if such a decorrelation is ensured in the test.01 % 0.1 % 5.3 % (RBER.27 % 0. under the condition that a valid SID frame was sent).1 % 7.27 % 0.26 % 0. The value of α can be different for each channel condition but must remain the same for FER and class Ib RBER measurements for the same channel condition.7 % 6.2 % 7.0 % 6.5 (ideal FH).6 % 3. (BFI or UFI)=0: Residual bit error rate (defined as the ratio of the number of errors detected over the frames defined as "reliable" to the number of transmitted bits in the "reliable" frames). sufficient decorrelation cannot easily be achieved. BFI=0) 2.2 % 7.52 % 0. NOTE 4: FER for CCHs takes into account frames which are signalled as being erroneous (by the FIRE code.8 % 7. particularly for the C/I TU3 (no FH) and TU 1. SID=2 and (BFI or UFI)=0: Residual bit error rate of those bits in class I which do not belong to the SID codeword (defined as the ratio of the number of errors detected over the frames that are defined as "valid SID frames" to the number of transmitted bits in these frames.0 % 5.5 % 0. . RBER. or other means) or where the stealing flags are wrongly interpreted.4 % (RBER.01 % (ESIDR) 17. PCH. RBER. NOTE 2: Definitions: FER: Frame erasure rate (frames marked with BFI=1) UFR: Unreliable frame rate (frames marked with (BFI or UFI)=1) EVSIDR: Erased Valid SID frame rate (frames marked with (SID=0) or (SID=1) or ((BFI or UFI)=1) if a valid SID frame was transmitted) ESIDR: Erased SID frame rate (frames marked with SID=0 if a valid SID frame was transmitted) BER: Bit error rate RBER. BFI=0) 0. SID=1 or SID=2: Residual bit error rate of those bits in class I which do not belong to the SID codeword (defined as the ratio of the number of errors detected over the frames that are defined as "valid SID frames" or as "invalid SID frames" to the number of transmitted bits in these frames.01 % 0. SACCH. NOTE 3: 1 ≤ α ≤ 1.0 % 4.0 % 7.2 % 6.

called the reference interference ratio. It was calculated for the case of an equipment with an antenna connector. the interference and the wanted signals shall have the same frequency hopping sequence. or adjacent channel. for BTS and all types of MS: 9 dB for cochannel interference : C/Ic = for adjacent (200 kHz) interference for adjacent (400 kHz) interference for adjacent (600 kHz) interference : : : C/Ia1 C/Ia2 C/Ia3 = = = -9 dB -41 dB -49 dB For packet switched channels. continuous. C/Ia) in terms of frame erasure. These specifications apply for a wanted signal input level of 20 dB above the reference sensitivity level. independent on the two channels.50 dB C/Ic . GSM-modulated interfering signal. and for a random. operating at output power levels of +33 dBm and below. The actual interference ratio shall be less than a specified limit. C/Ic. The reference interference ratio shall be. the minimum interference ratio for which the reference performance for cochannel interference (C/Ic) shall be met is specified in table 2a. bit error or residual bit error rates (whichever appropriate) is specified in table 2. In case of frequency hopping. The reference performance is the same as defined in subclause 6.18 dB for adjacent (200 kHz) interference : C/Ia1 = for adjacent (400 kHz) interference for adjacent (600 kHz) interference : : C/Ia2 C/Ia3 = = C/Ic . The actual interference ratio is defined as the interference ratio for which this performance is met.2. In any case the wanted and interfering signals shall be subject to the same propagation profiles (see annex C).Appendix 2: Reference Sensitivity and Interference Sensitivity Performance Requirements [GSM0505] The reference interference performance (for cochannel. The corresponding interference ratio for adjacent channel interference shall be: C/Ic . Rejection of signals at 600 kHz is specified in subclause 5.58 dB NOTE: The C/Ia3 figure is given for information purposes and will not require testing.1. according to the type of channel and the propagation condition. according to the type of channel and the propagation condition. .

whichever is the higher. -1 dBc for power level controls levels 18 and 19.2. FB.5.Appendix 3: Time Mask for a Normal Burst [GSM0505] dB +4 +1 -1 -6 (**) . -30dBc or -20dBm. -2 dBc for power level 17.1). -1dBc for power control levels 13.30 (***) (147 bits) (*) 10 µs 8 µs 10 µs 7056/13 (542. whichever is the higher. -4 dBc for power control level 16.5. whichever is the higher. -2dBc for power level 12. no requirement below -30 dBc (see 4. -4dBc for power control level 11.14 and 15 -30 dBc or -17 dBm. . -48 dBc or -48 dBm. dB and SB) (*) (**) For GSM 900 MS For DCS 1 800 MS For GSM 900 BTS and DCS 1 800 BTS For GSM 900 MS : : : : For DCS 1 800 MS (***) For GSM 900 MS For DCS 1 800 MS : see 4.8) µs 10 µs 8 µs 10 µs t Time mask for normal duration bursts (NB.

1: GSM 900 MS spectrum due to modulation .Appendix 4: Frequency Mask of the Modulation Spectrum [GSM0505] Relative power (dB) 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 measurement bandwidth 30 kHz measurement bandwidth 100k Hz -60 -70 -80 0 200 400 600 1200 1800 3000 6000 Frequency from the carrier (kHz) Figure A.

Appendix 5: Accuracy Requirements of MS Transmission Power [GSM0505]. GSM 900 Power Nominal Output control power (dBm) level Tolerance (dB) for conditions normal 0-2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19-31 39 37 35 33 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 DCS 1 800 Power control level Nominal Output power (dBm) Tolerance (dB) for conditions Normal 29 30 31 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15-28 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 ±2 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±5 ±5 extreme ±2.5 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±5 ±5 ±5 ±5 ±5 ±6 ±6 ±2 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±3 ±5 ±5 ±5 ±5 extreme ±2.5 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±4 ±6 ±6 ±6 ±6 .

A GSM mobile station is receiving bits on the full rate speech channel. Calculate the exact time duration (i. Necessary knowledge in order to understand L5.Helsinki University of Technology Communications Laboratory S-72. A total of 100 bit errors are detected after the equalizer during 24 bursts. Recall that each burst contains 114 encoded data bits. class Ia has 1 error bit and class Ib has 6 error bits. exactly 120ms. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) normal burst a bit a frame (not the same as a burst!) signalling multiframe (51 frames) guard period superframe hyperframe P2 About: Different error measures of the GSM system.260 Lab 1 PRELIMINARY EXERCISES P1 About: Physical channel structure. fraction) of the following structural units. Notice that by remembering the length of the traffic multiframe. which is a very basic thing. The frame erasure is performed next. After channel decoding. before frame erasure 1 6 12 Errors after frame erasure 4 11 P3 About: Training sequence has a small but essential role in the GSM system… a) b) c) d) What is the purpose of a training sequence? Why is it useful to place in the middle of the burst? What is the drawback of including a training sequence within a burst? Why is it necessary to have 8 different training sequences? -1- . the length of all other structural units may be derived easily. How many information (=speech) bits were sent during the 24 bursts? "Information bits" means the bits before channel coding. Show your calculations on paper. Use the length of the traffic multiframe (26 frames) as the starting point. Fundamentally related to error measures in P2. b) What is RXQUAL? c) What is RBERII? d) What is RBERIb? e) What is FER? a) Bit class Ia Ib II Errors after channel decoding.e.

How large is the –10dB RF bandwidth? -2- . Root raised cosine with α=0. 2W0 − W ≤ f ≤ W    4  W − W0    f ≥W 0. f ≤ 2W0 − W    π  f + W − 2W0   H ( f ) = cos     . c) Derive π/4 –DQPSK power spectrum S(f) after root raised cosine filtering and transmission. since the autocorrelation function of the random impulse train is a delta function.35 (D-AMPS) is used. 2 . b) GMSK is a modulation method with constant envelope but π/4 –DQPSK is not. Root raised cosine (normalized) transfer function H(f) is 1. Compare these two methods from this point of view (what are the advantages and disadvantages?). ω -sin c t Q(t) H(f) + 1 I(t) H(f) -1 T S(f) h(t) cosωc t d) 271 kbit/s is transferred with π/4 –DQPSK modulation. Notice that the power spectrum at the input of the baseband filter H ( f ) is white.260 Lab 1 P4 About: Comparison of π/4 –DQPSK modulation to GMSK. It is necessary to do this exercise before L8 can be completed. These are the two dominant modulation methods in contemporary mobile communication systems. and ( Rs is the symbol rate) W = (1 + α )W0 = (1 + α ) Rs . a) Draw the constellation diagram of π/4 –DQPSK.Helsinki University of Technology Communications Laboratory S-72.

g) Sketch how the signal trajectory behaves in the IQ plane when modulator is fed with bit sequence 11011. the LO signals have different amplitude. see the application note “Digital Modulation in Communication Systems . P6 About: IQ diagram and modulation errors.6 + j 0. a) Suppose that the input signals in the I and Q branches are I (t ) = sin (ω m t ) and Q (t ) = cos (ω m t ) . The most common non-idealities of an IQ modulator are that the LO signals are not completely orthogonal. Explain why. GMSK modulation where the Gaussian filter BT=0. c) What are the disadvantages of Gaussian filtering? d) Calculate the frequency offset of frequency correction burst compared to the carrier frequency f c . the branches have DC offsets A and B . Formulas derived in this problem are needed in L7.3 is used in GSM.e. The f-burst is a stream of 148 zero bits.260 Lab 1 P5 About: 0. What is the phase error? What is amplitude error? Assume that SNR is very high. P7 About: The effect of modulator imperfections to modulated signal. e) What is the bandwidth efficiency in GSM (assume the bandwidth to be equal to channel spacing)? f) Sketch transitions in phase (phase trellis) in a function of time when the modulator is fed the following line of bits: 110110010. 2 2 1 + (1 + ∆A ) cos (θ ) + (1 + ∆A) sin (θ )     2 2 Sketch the spectrum of the IQ modulator output. b) Suppose we know that for the same signal both phase and amplitude error are zero.Helsinki University of Technology Communications Laboratory S-72. assume the modulator to be -3- . Otherwise. a) What is the –3 dB bandwidth of the Gaussian filter in GSM? b) The bandwidth of the Gaussian filter is not the same as the bandwidth of the GMSK modulation. Calculate DC offset. Derive an expression for the IQ modulator output signal and show that the amplitude ratio of the spurious output α to the desired output β equals α = β 1 − (1 + ∆A ) cos (θ ) + (1 + ∆A ) sin (θ )     . b) Calculate the output time signal of IQ modulator when the modulating signals are I (t ) = A + cos (ω m t ) and Q (t ) = B + sin (ω m t ) i. Hint: For information on modulation errors. and that symbol timing and carrier synchronization are perfect. available through the lab home page. This problem should be completed fully in order to understand L6. Data is being received using the standard QPSK modulation.An Introduction”. and the phase error in the LO signal of the Q branch is θ and the difference in the LO signal amplitudes is ∆A . Here B equals the -3dB bandwidth of the filter and T is the symbol duration. ± 135! .3GMSK modulation. where the constellation points lie on a circle in angles of ±45! . h) Draw the ideal constellation diagram and transitions for the GMSK modulation. a) A sample of the received complex baseband signal has value 0. Assume that the circle has unit radius.7 . or that there is DC offset in the modulating I and Q signals. This problem should be completed to understand L6.

c) How many dB lower is the spurious sideband level compared to the wanted sideband when the phase error in LO signals is 5° and the amplitude ratio of the quadrature branch LO signal to the in-phase LO signal is ∆A = 0.5 . Draw the spectrum of the output. c) Sketch the RF connections for measurement of L9. interference generator (base station). d) How many dB lower is the carrier frequency compared to the wanted side band if the DC offset in both modulating signals is A = B = 0. Unless you are familiar with superheterodyne spectrum analyzers. At the minimum clear up the following questions: a) How is the sensitivity of a GSM MS defined? b) How are CCI and ACI defined? You’ll find information in appendices.1 ppm (parts per million).5dB ? Use the formula you derived in part a. Examine the laboratory exercises. d) What information is needed concerning the base station signal in order to calculate CCI and ACI? e) How can you calculate CCI and ACI in the laboratory? P10 About: Spectrum analyzer basics. Indicate the ideal output signal and the spurious output signal caused by DC offset. Important to know in L6-L9.Helsinki University of Technology Communications Laboratory S-72. Use the formula you derived in part b. you should find out the following: a) How does a superheterodyne spectrum analyzer work? b) What does resolution bandwidth mean? How does it relate to sweep time and frequency span? c) What is the dynamic range of a typical spectrum analyzer? -4- . GSM tester and necessary cables and connectors. P8 About: Phase and frequency error.260 Lab 1 ideal. a) What was the frequency error during the burst? b) Specifications allow a frequency error of 0. You’ll have a power splitter/combiner. The phase error of modulator in a GSM1800 MS changed linearly from –1 degrees to +3 degrees during one burst. Is the calculated frequency error acceptable? P9 About: To save time during lab shift.

885. Use the automated BER sensitivity test (Manual → BER → BER Sens. During the sensitivity search observe the accuracy of the RXLEV measurement done by the MS. MS type default. NOTE 2: RF cables and connectors used in the measurements are very susceptible to any rough or careless treatment. 700. please consult the assistant well before the deadline. The key point is that the laboratory report should contain enough information so that whoever reads it should be able to repeat the measurement (and get the same result). L1 Measure Erkki GSM900 with Auto Test mode of the GSM tester. MS type default. If you run into problems.Helsinki University of Technology Communications Laboratory S-72. NOTE 1: Sources of measurement errors should be considered in (almost) all the measurements even if this is not specifically required in the exercise. or use a separate sheet if necessary.).260 Lab 1 LABORATORY EXERCISES You can write the answers on this sheet. a) Avoid unnecessary cable switching! What is the sensitivity of the phone on different channels? Are there differences between frequency channels? b) Comment on the accuracy of the RXLEV measurement? What are the disadvantages of inaccuracy of the RXLEV measurement? -1- . Are the mobiles OK? What kind of errors did you find? Settings: coupler on. More than that. MS transmission power (ctrl level) 30 dBm. In some cases the schematic of the measurement set-up should be presented. Perform the measurements on channels 512. L2 Use Manual Test mode and measure the receiver sensitivity of a GSM1800 MS. they are extremely expensive! Treat them with care and avoid unnecessary cable switching. mode continuous. The deadline for returning these exercises can be seen on the course web page. Print the test reports. Settings: coupler on.

a) What is the power-rise-speed in the beginning of the ramp (dBm/s)? Careful with the units! Show calculations.260 Lab 1 c) What kind of propagation environment does the measurement situation correspond to? Can the sensitivity measurement results be compared with the sensitivity requirements given in the specifications? L3 Power ramp: Use Manual Test mode (Manual → Ramp) and measure if the power ramp fits the power mask defined in the specifications? Settings: channel 516. d) Why should the power ramp not be too gently sloping? Why shouldn’t it be too steep? -2- . GMSK should have constant envelope (≈amplitude). Is the amplitude constant? Comment. MS transmission power 30 dBm. b) What is the timing error of the phone (in bits)? What is the first bit sent on full power at the beginning of the burst? c) Observe the middle section of the burst.Helsinki University of Technology Communications Laboratory S-72.

MS transmission power 30 dBm. -3- . Comment on differences. You can do this by giving power commands to the MS. Settings: coupler on. and 885. Information about the required accuracy of the MS transmission power is given Appendix 5. and observing the actual transmitted power measured by the tester.260 Lab 1 e) Measure the accuracy of the MS transmission power on the lowest (0 dBm) and highest (30 dBm) transmission power of the MS. How does the frequency error change? Does the phase error change linearly during the burst as in P8? Comment on the difference of the measurement and the preliminary exercise. Repeat for channels 512. a) What are the rms errors and peak errors? b) Observe the behavior of the phase error during the burst.Helsinki University of Technology Communications Laboratory S-72. L4 Phase and frequency error: Use Manual Test mode (Manual → PhaseFreq) and measure the phase and frequency error of the GSM1800 MS on channel 700. 700.

use a smaller step. If FER fluctuates a lot you can use the cts_ber2.exe program to read several values to a file and average the results. BER Cont. averaging window 499 frames (10 sec.Helsinki University of Technology Communications Laboratory S-72. → Config). Start from MS receiving power level at –100dBm.).exe to read the BER values from the GSM tester.5 dB. Comment on the accuracy of the results and the estimation method.5 dB). RBERII of the MS as a function of received power at the MS input. You must wait 10 sec after each power drop because of the averaging window. and then drop downlink transmission power gradually. Notice that you will have to use an attenuator between MS and the GSM tester to be able to measure levels lower than –110dBm which is the lowest transmission power of the tester. c) What is the downlink transmission power when the connection is lost? -4- . The attenuation of the measurement cable is about 0. Present all three curves in the same graph (eg. RBERIb. Hints: You may first decrease the tx power in steps of 1 dB. a) Comment on the behavior of the RBERIb. Why does FER suddenly rocket up? b) Explain how you can estimate coding improvement and coding gain from the measured curves? Estimate coding improvement and coding gain for some suitable point in the curve. Settings: coupler on (0. (Manual → BER → BER Cont. MS transmission power 30 dBm.5dB. Excel). like 0. → Config). or less. If the FER value is stable you can read the measurement result from the screen of the GSM tester. measurement mode RBER (BER Cont. RBERII and FER.260 Lab 1 L5 BER curve exercise: Using Manual Test mode. You can use the program cts_ber2. When the error rates begin to rise faster. channel 520. measure and draw FER. You should aim for a smooth FER curve.

Erkki phone. In order to locate the modulator signal in the spectrum analyzer. 1 kHz resolution bandwidth and reference level 10 dBm. You can put the right settings by choosing Testing → Quick Testing (RF). You can tune the modulator parameters using the WinTesla program. without SIM card. tx data type random. What is the DC offset that the output spectrum corresponds to? Show calculations. is used in this experiment. a) How does the DC error show in the constellation diagram (Mode → Vector Analyzer → Meas Result → Meas Signal → Polar [IQ] Constell)? Is there any DC error visible in the constellation diagram? How does the phase error show in the constellation diagram? Is there any phase error visible in the constellation diagram? Is the phase error systematic or random? b) Examine the vector transition diagram (Mode → Vector Analyzer → Meas Result → Meas Signal → Polar [IQ] Vector). and 1 kHz resolution bandwidth. Use delta markers! -5- . Does the signal have constant envelope? What anomalies are there in the vector transition diagram? What is the cause of these anomalies? L7 Modulation errors. Assume that there is no amplitude error.260 Lab 1 L6 Examine the constellation diagram and vector transition diagram in the IQ plane using the vector signal analyzer. Now you should be able to see the signal in the constellation and vector transition diagrams. Calculate phase error from the spectrum. tx power level 15. Settings for WinTesla: active unit tx. use the frequency span 1 MHz centered at the carrier frequency (902 MHz). The reference level can be set to 20 dBm. Measure the output spectrum using 200 kHz frequency span centered at the carrier frequency. You will need formulas you derived in P7. a) Feed the modulator with a continuous line of zero bits.Helsinki University of Technology Communications Laboratory S-72.

a) Does the power spectrum correspond to GMSK modulation value of BT=0.260 Lab 1 b) Check the measured phase error and DC offset with the vector analyzer. -6- . display Symbol Table/Errors (Mode → Vector Analyzer → Meas Result → Symb Table/Errors). What settings did you use? d) Pedagogical demo: Now that you have almost completely eliminated modulation errors. Try to eliminate the modulation errors completely. increase the DC offset of either branch to the maximum. Compare the power spectrum also with the frequency mask given in the specifications (appendix).Helsinki University of Technology Communications Laboratory S-72. Set the resolution bandwidth to 30 kHz.3? Compare with the graphs given in the literature. and at the same time observe what happens to the output spectrum. go back to the spectrum analyzer. and at the same time observe what happens to the output spectrum. After that. Increase phase error to the maximum allowed. You can observe how the phase error and DC offset change while at the same time. Do the results correspond to values of the previous part? c) Tune the IQ modulator with the WinTesla program by choosing Tuning → Tx I/Q. Does this comply with the formulas you derived in P7? L8 Measure the power spectrum of GSM modulation by using the output signal of one of the base stations in the student laboratory.

During the measurement keep the interfering signal power level constant.6%? C/I ratio when synchronization is lost? Comment on how the measured values correspond to the requirements in the specifications. Sketch a schematic of the measurement set-up. -7- . a) CCI. C/I ratio when RBERII goes above 2. power splitter and the GSM tester. and usability of the measurement results in a real situation. Indicate the power levels and attenuations in the schematic. L9 See Appendix 2 Measure CCI and ACI1st by using interfering GSM signal. Use the maximum MS transmission power (30 dBm). c) Comment the reliability of the measurement. and decrease the carrier signal level by using the GSM tester.260 Lab 1 b) Compare the -10 dB bandwidth of the measured GMSK spectrum with the bandwidth you calculated for π/4 -DQPSK in P4. and the C/I ratio when the connection is lost.Helsinki University of Technology Communications Laboratory S-72.6%.6%? C/I ratio when synchronization is lost? Comment on how the measured values correspond to the requirements in the specifications. b) ACI 1st adjacent channel. During both CCI and ACI measurements find the C/I ratio when the RBERII exceeds 2. C/I ratio when RBERII goes above 2. You should examine the interfering signal with the spectrum analyzer before measurement.

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