• Define leadership • Present the background & classic studies of leadership • Discuss the traditional theories of leadership • Identify modern frameworks for leadership • Relate the style implications from the classic studies & modern theories of leadership • Identify and analyze the skills needed for effective leadership
contemporary leadership seems to a matter of aligning people toward common goals and empowering them to take the actions needed to reach them.” Sherman. non sanctioned leadership
• The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals • “When you boil it down. 1995 • Sanctioned vs.
Managers Vs Leaders
Manager Characteristics • Administers • A copy • Maintains • Focuses on systems and structures • Relies on control • Short range view • Asks how and when • Eye on bottom line • Imitates • Accepts the status quo • Classic good soldiers • Does things right Leader Characteristics • Innovates • An original • Develops • Focuses on people • Inspires trust • Long range perspective • Asks what and why • Eye on horizon • Originates • Challenges the status quo • Own person • Does the right thing
• What characteristics or traits make a person a leader? • Great Man Theory: Individuals are born either with or without the necessary traits for leadership • Trait theories of leadership sought personality. social. conceptual and human skills (Katz 1974)
. physical or intellectual traits that differentiate leaders from non leaders • Trait view has little analytical or predictive value • Technical.
• Ohio state studies: initiating structure (task or goal orientation) vs consideration (recognition of individual needs and relationships) • University of Michigan studies: Employee oriented ( genuine concern for people) vs production oriented genuine concern for task)
5 Organization Man Management Adequate organization performance possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of the people at a satisfactory level 9.1 Authority-Obedience Impoverished Management Efficiency in operations results Exertion of minimum effort to get from arranging conditions of required work done is appropriate work in such a way that human to sustain organization membership elements interfere to a minimal degree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Concern for production
. friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo 7 9. interdependence through a “common stake” in organization purpose leads to relationship of trust and respect
Concern for people
5.9 Country club management Thoughtful attention needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to A comfortable.9 Team management Work accomplishment is from committed people.1 1.The Managerial Grid
or relationship-oriented leadership style ( think of all the coworkers you have ever had and describe one person you least enjoyed working with)
.Fiedler Contingency Model
• Effective groups depend upon a proper match between a leader's style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader • LPC measures task.
Fiedler-Defining the situation
• After the individual's basic leadership style has been assessed through the LPC. it is necessary to match the leader with the situation • Leader member relations -the degree of confidence. and respect subordinates have on their leader • Task structure -the degree to which task assignments are procedurized • Position power -influence derived from one's formal structural position in the organization
Fiedler’s contingency Model
Performance Good Relationship Oriented Task Oriented
poor Category Leader member relations Task structures Position power I
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory
Style of Leader
Low Relationship and Low task
High Task and low relationship
High relationship High Task And And low task High relationship Task behavior (High) Immature
Moderate M3 M2
Maturity of follower( s)
Path Goal Theory
Environmental Contingency Factors • Task Structure • Formal authority system • Work Group
Leader Behavior •Directive •Supportive •Participative •Achievement -oriented
Outcomes •Performance •Satisfaction
Subordinate contingency factors •Locus of control •Experience •Perceived ability
2. A vision.
7. the more likely that followers will attribute extraordinary vision to the leader.
3.Charismatic leaders are perceived as agents of radical change rather than as caretakers of the status quo.Charismatic leaders are perceived as being strongly committed. unconventional.Charismatic Leadership
Key Characteristics of Charismatic leaders
.These leaders are able to make realistic assessments of the environmental constraints and resources needed to bring about change. incur high costs. Behavior that is out of the ordinary.This is an idealized goal that proposes a future better than the status quo. Ability to articulate the vision. This articulation demonstrates an understanding of the followers’ needs and. and counter to norms. and willing to take on high personal risk.
6.Those with charisma engage in behavior that is perceived as being novel.
4. The greater the disparity between idealized goal and the status quo.They have complete confidence in their judgment and ability. Perceived as being a change agent. Strong convictions about vision. Environmental sensitivity. Self Confidence. hence acts as a motivating force. When successful . these behaviors evoke surprise and admiration in followers. and engage in self-sacrifice to achieve their vision.They are able to clarify and state the vision in terms that are understandable to others.
takes corrective action. avoids making decisions
• • • • Charisma : Provides vision and sense of mission. Management by exception (passive): Intervenes only if standards are not met Laissez faire: Abdicates responsibilities. instills pride.
. recognizes accomplishment Management by exception (active): Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards. rationality. gains respect trust. promises rewards for good performance. expresses important purposes in simple ways. Intellectual Stimulations: Promotes intelligence. and careful problem solving. uses symbols to focus efforts. treats each employee individually. Inspiration: Communicates high expectations. coaches. advises. Individualized consideration: Gives personal attention.Transactional vs Transformational leaders
Characteristics of Transactional and transformational leaders
• • • • Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort.
The Activities of Successful & Effective leaders
Type of Activity Description categories Derived from free Observation
Exchange Information Routine Communication Handling paperwork Planning Traditional Management Decision Making Controlling Interacting with outsiders Socializing /Politicking Motivating/Reinforcing Human Resource Management Disciplining/Punishing Managing conflict staffing
Relative Distribution of Manager’s Activities
Networking (19%) Traditional Management (32%)
Human resources (20%)
Routine Communication (29%)
Solving Problems creatively •Using the rational approach •Using the creative approach •Fostering innovation in others
•Determining values and priorities •Identifying cognitive style •Assessing attitude toward change
3.What skills do leaders need?
• Personal Skills
•Coping with stressors •Managing time •Delegating
•Identifying causes •Selecting appropriate strategies •Resolving confrontations
•Diagnosing poor performance •Creating a motivating environment •Rewarding accomplishment
. Gaining power and influences
•Gaining power •Exercise influence •Empowering others
4. Communication supportively 7.•Interpersonal Skills
•Coaching •Counseling •Listening
5. Management conflict
The right stuff Covey
• Empower your inner child-children are genuine.successful leaders say what they think • Don't get even-get mad-good leaders let off steam and get on to the next issue • Keep up on the latest developments. speak their mind-so do successful leaders • Be slightly weird-effective leaders have their own approach to do things • Embrace compensation-everyone likes money.successful leaders know the latest jargon and trnds
. but successful leaders can talk about it • Focus carefully –successful leaders are able to handle more than 23 things at a time because they are able to filter out extraneous information and focus on critical issues • Speak openly.