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Nobel Prizes The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually to people (and, in the case of the Peace Prize,

sometimes to organisations) who have completed outstanding research, invented ground-breaking techniques or equipment, or made an outstanding contribution to society in physics, chemistry, literature, peace, medicine or physiology and economics. They are widely regarded as the supreme commendation in their respective subject areas. Those honoured are known as Nobel Laureates. The Prizes were instituted by the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel through his will. They were first awarded in 1901, five years after Nobels death. The prize in economics, instituted by the Bank of Sweden, has been awarded since 1969. As of September 2007, a total of 799 Nobel Prizes have been awarded, 777 to individuals (33 of these to women), 20 to organizations and 2 were awarded in different categories. Prize Categories

Prize Category Physiology and Medicine Physics Chemistry Literature Peace Economics

2009 winners Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak Charles K. Kao, Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath Herta Mller Barack Obama Elinor Ostrom and Oliver E. Williamson

For information on Nobel Prize winners of previous years, click on the following link: Man Booker Prize

The Man Booker Prize for Fiction, also known as the Booker Prize, is one of the worlds most prestigious literary prizes, awarded each year for the best original full-length novel written by a citizen of the Commonwealth or the Republic of Ireland in the English language. The Booker prize was started by Booker McConnel, a multinational conglomerate company in 1969. This award is administered by Book Trust in the United Kingdom. For the year 2007, the prize has been awarded to Ireland novelist Anne Enright for The Gathering. Source: Author Country Title


1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

P. H. Newby Bernice Rubens V. S. Naipaul John Berger J. G. Farrell Nadine Gordimer Stanley Middleton Ruth Prawer Jhabvala David Storey Paul Scott Iris Murdoch

United Kingdom United Kingdom Trinidad and Tobago/United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom South Africa United Kingdom United Kingdom/Germany United Kingdom United Kingdom Ireland/United Kingdom

Something to Answer For The Elected Member In a Free State G. The Siege of Krishnapur The Conservationist Holiday Heat and Dust Saville Staying On The Sea, the Sea Offshore Rites of Passage Midnight's Children Schindler's Ark Life & Times of Michael K Hotel du Lac The Bone People The Old Devils Moon Tiger Oscar and Lucinda The Remains of the Day

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

Penelope Fitzgerald United Kingdom William Golding Salman Rushdie Thomas Keneally J. M. Coetzee Anita Brookner Keri Hulme Kingsley Amis Penelope Lively Peter Carey Kazuo Ishiguro United Kingdom India Australia South Africa United Kingdom New Zealand United Kingdom United Kingdom Australia United Kingdom/Japan

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

A. S. Byatt Ben Okri Michael Ondaatje Barry Unsworth Roddy Doyle James Kelman Pat Barker Graham Swift Arundhati Roy Ian McEwan J. M. Coetzee Margaret Atwood Peter Carey Yann Martel DBC Pierre Alan Hollinghurst John Banville Kiran Desai Anne Enright Aravind Adiga Hilary Mantel

United Kingdom Nigeria Sri Lanka/Canada United Kingdom Ireland United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom India United Kingdom South Africa Canada Australia Canada Australia/Mexico United Kingdom Ireland India Ireland India United Kingdom

Possession: A Romance The Famished Road The English Patient Sacred Hunger Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha How Late It Was, How Late The Ghost Road Last Orders The God of Small Things Amsterdam Disgrace The Blind Assassin True History of the Kelly Gang Life of Pi Vernon God Little The Line of Beauty The Sea The Inheritance of Loss The Gathering The White Tiger Wolf Hall

Ramon Magsaysay Award

Ramon Magsaysay Award or the Magsaysay Award is the Asian equivalent of the Nobel Prize. The Ramon Magsaysay Award was established in April 1957 by the trustees of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF) based in New York City. With the concurrence of the Philippine government, the prize was created to commemorate Ramon Magsaysay, the late President of the Philippines, and to perpetuate his example of integrity in government, courageous service to the people, and pragmatic idealism within a democratic society. Every year the Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation gives away prizes to Asian individuals and organizations for achieving excellence in their respective fields. The awards are given in six categories: Government Service Public Service Community Leadership Journalism, Literature and Creative Communication arts Peace and International Understanding Emergent Leadership

The Ramon Magsaysay Award Winners for 2009 1. Krisana Kraisintu Thailand 2. Deep Joshi India 3. Yu Xiaogang China 4. Antonio Oposa Jr. Philippines 5. Ma Jun China 6. Ka Hsaw Wa Burma For more information on current winners, visit the following link For more information on the Ramon Magsaysay awards, visit the following link

Oscar Awards Oscar Awards, also called the Academy Awards, are bestowed annually to professionals in the film industry, including directors, actors, and writers for their excellent contribution. The award is presented every year by the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). The formal ceremony at which the awards are presented is one of the most prominent award ceremonies in the world. It is also the oldest award ceremony in the media. The first Academy Awards ceremony was held in May, 1929, at the Hotel Roosevelt in Hollywood to honour outstanding film achievements of 1927 and 1928.

Members of the Academy represent 15 general areas actors, animators and short film makers, art directors and costume designers, cinematographers, composers and songwriters, documentary filmmakers, directors, executives, film editors, makeup artists and hairstylists, producers, public relations specialists, sound technicians, visual effects experts and writers. Visit the following link for a comprehensive list of nominees and winners of the 81st Academy Awards, 2008.

Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize is awarded for achievements in newspaper journalism, literature and musical composition. Prizes are awarded yearly in twenty-one categories. It was established by Hungarian-American publisher Joseph Pulitzer and is administered by Columbia University in New York City. The major categories are: * Journalism * Letters and drama * Others
The category definitions under Journalism are:

Public Service Breaking News Reporting Investigative Reporting Explanatory Reporting Local Reporting National Reporting. International Reporting Commentary Criticism Editorial Writing Editorial Cartooning Breaking News Photography Feature Photography

The categories under Letters and Drama are:

Fiction Drama History Biography or Autobiography

Poetry General Non-Fiction

There is one prize given for Music and a number of Special Citations and Awards. For a complete list of Pulitzer Prize winners for the year 2009, click on the following link:

Jesse Owens Established in 1981, The Jesse Owens Award is USA Track & Field's highest accolade, presented annually to the outstanding U.S. male and female track and field performers. The permanent commemorative award is maintained at USATF National Headquarters, and a replica is provided to each of the winners. The permanent commemorative Jesse Owens Award is maintained at USATF National Headquarters, and a replica is provided to each of the winners. Visit the following link for the list of awardees:

Bharat Ratna The title Bharat Ratna translates literally to the Gem of India. It is the highest civilian award in India given for exceptional contribution to the field of Art, Literature, Science and Public Service. The award was instituted by Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first president of India in 1954. The award initially carried a gold medal 35mm in diameter having Sun on one side and state National Emblem on the other. The design of the medal was altered a year later in 1955. The first Bharat Ratna was awarded to Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan in 1954. Pandit Bhimsen Joshi was awarded the Bharat Ratna in 2008 for his contribution to the field of Indian Classical Music.

Complete list of awardees

S.No 1. Name Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Birth / Awarded death 1888 1954 1975 Notes Second President, First Vice President, Indian state or country of origin Tamil Nadu

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

C. Rajagopalachari C. V. Raman Bhagwan Das Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya Jawaharlal Nehru Govind Ballabh Pant Dhondo Keshav Karve Bidhan Chandra Roy

1878 1954 1972 1888 1954 1970 1869 1955 1958 1861 1955 1962 1889 1955 1964 1887 1957 1961 1858 1958 1962 1882 1961 1962

Philosopher. Last Governor-General, Freedom Fighter. Nobel-prize winning Physicist Literature, Freedom Fighter Civil Engineer, Dam Architect, Diwan of Princely state of Mysore First Prime Minister, Freedom Fighter, Author. Freedom Fighter, Home Minister Educationist, Social Reformer, Awarded in his birth centenary year. Physician, Politician, Former Chief Minister of West Bengal Freedom Fighter, Educationist First President, Freedom Fighter, Jurist Former President, Scholar.

Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh Karnataka Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (now Uttarakhand) Maharashtra


9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

West Bengal Uttar Pradesh Bihar Andhra Pradesh

Purushottam Das 1882 1961 Tandon 1962 1884 Rajendra Prasad 1962 1963 1897 Zakir Hussain 1963 1969 Pandurang 1880 1963 Vaman Kane 1972 Lal Bahadur 1904 1966 Shastri 1966 1917 Indira Gandhi 1971 1984 1894 V. V. Giri 1975 1980 K. Kamaraj Mother Teresa Vinoba Bhave 1903 1976 1975 1910 1980 1997 1895 1983 1982

Indologist and Sanskrit Maharashtra scholar Posthumous, Second Prime Uttar Pradesh Minister, Freedom Fighter Former Prime Minister Former President, Trade Unionist. Posthumous, Freedom Fighter, Chief MinisterTamil Nadu. Nobel Laureate (Peace, 1979). Posthumous, Social Reformer, Freedom Uttar Pradesh Orissa Tamil Nadu West Bengal Maharashtra

20. 21.

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan M. G. Ramachandran

1890 1987 1988 1917 1988 1987 1891 1990 1956


B. R. Ambedkar

23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37.

Nelson Mandela b. 1918 1990 Rajiv Gandhi 1944 1991 1991

Sardar 1875 1991 Vallabhbhai Patel 1950 Morarji Deai Abul Kalam Azad J. R. D. Tata Satyajit Ray A. P. J. Abdul Kalam Gulzarilal Nanda Aruna Asaf Ali M. S. Subbulakshmi Chidambaram Subramaniam Jayaprakash Narayan Ravi Shankar Amartya Sen 1896 1991 1995 1888 1992 1958 1904 1992 1993 1922 1992 1992 b. 1931 1997 1898 1997 1998 1908 1997 1996 1916 1998 2004 1910 1998 2000 1902 1998 1979 b. 1920 1999 b. 1933 1999

Fighter. First non-citizen, Freedom Fighter. Posthumous, Chief Minister-Tamil Nadu, Actor. Posthumous, ArchitectIndian Constitution,Social Reformer, Economist and Scholar Second non-citizen and first non-Indian, Leader of Anti-Apartheid movement. Posthumous, Former Prime Minister Posthumous, Freedom Fighter, First Home Minister of India. Former Prime Minister, Freedom Fighter. Posthumous, Freedom Fighter, First Education Minister of India Industrialist and philanthropist Film director

Pakistan Tamil Nadu


South Africa New Delhi Gujarat Gujarat West Bengal Maharashtra West Bengal

Former President, scientist. Tamil Nadu Freedom Fighter, former Prime Minister. Posthumous, Freedom Fighter. Carnatic music vocalist. Freedom Fighter, Minister of Agriculture (Father of Green revolution). Posthumous, Freedom Fighter, Social Reformer. Sitar player Nobel-prize winning Punjab West Bengal Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Bihar United States West Bengal

38. 39. 40. 41.

Gopinath 1890 1999 Bordoloi 1950 Lata Mangeshkar b. 1929 2001 1916 Bismillah Khan 2001 2006 Bhimsen Joshi b. 1922 2008

Economist Posthumous, Freedom fighter, Chief Minister Singer Classical musician, shehnai maestro Hindustani Classical vocalist

Assam Maharashtra Bihar Karnataka

(Source : Jnanpith Award The Jnanpith Award instituted in 1961 is the highest literary honour conferred in India. It is presented by the Bharatiya Jnanpith Trust, which is largely owned by the Sahu Jain family of The Times group. The award includes a cheque for Rs. 5,00,000, a citation plaque and a bronze replica of Vagdevi (Devi Saraswati, the goddess of learning). Any Indian citizen who writes in any of the official languages of India is eligible for the honour. Before 1982, the awards were given for a single work by a writer. From 1982, the award has been given for a lifetime contribution to Indian literature. The first recipient of the award was Malayalam writer G. Sankara Kurup in 1965. For 2006, the award was presented to the eminent Sanskrit scholar Satya Vrat Shastri.
Year Name Works Odakkuzhal (Flute) Ganadevta Sri Ramayana Darshanam Nishitha Chidambara Gul-e-Naghma Ramayana Kalpavrikshamu (A resourceful tree:Ramayana) Smriti Satta Bhavishyat Language Malayalam Bengali Kannada Gujarati Hindi Urdu Telugu Bengali

1965 G Sankara Kurup 1966 Tarashankar Bandopadhyaya 1967 Kuppali Venkatappagowda Puttappa (Kuvempu)

1967 Umashankar Joshi 1968 Sumitranandan Pant 1969 Firaq Gorakhpuri 1970 Viswanatha Satyanarayana 1971 Bishnu Dey

1972 Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'


Hindi Kannada Oriya Marathi Tamil Bengali Kannada

1973 Dattatreya Ramachandra Bendre Nakutanti (Naku Thanthi) (Four Strings) 1973 Gopinath Mohanty 1974 Vishnu Sakharam Khandekar 1975 P.V.Akilan 1976 Asha Purna Devi 1977 K.Shivaram Karanth Sachchidananda Hirananda Vatsyayan 'Ajneya' Paraja Yayati Chitttrappavai Pratham Pratisruti Mookajjiya Kanasugalu (Mookajjis dreams) Kitni Navon Men Kitni Bar (How many times in many boats?) Mrityunjay (Immortal) Oru Desattinte Katha (Story of a land) Kagaj te Canvas Yama Chikkaveera Rajendra (Life and struggle of Kodava King Chikkaveera Rajendra)


Hindi Assamese Malayalam Punjabi Hindi Kannada

1979 Birendra Kumar Bhattacharya 1980 S. K. Pottekkatt 1981 Amrita Pritam 1982 Mahadevi Varma 1983 Maasti Venkatesh Ayengar


Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai |[Kayar Malayalam {Coir}|] Maanavi Ni Bhavaai ( ) Gujarati Oriya Natsamrat Vishwambhara Akhire Shab Ke Humsafar Bharatha Sindhu Rashmi Marathi Telugu Urdu Kannada

1985 Pannalal Patel 1986 Sachidananda Rout Roy 1987 Vishnu Vaman Shirwadkar (Kusumagraj)

1988 Dr.C. Narayana Reddy 1989 Qurratulain Hyder 1990 V. K. Gokak (Vinayaka Krishna

Gokak) 1991 Subhas Mukhopadhyay 1992 Naresh Mehta 1993 Sitakant Mahapatra 1994 U.R. Ananthamurthy M. T. Vasudevan Nair 1995 |Randamoozham [second chance}| 1996 Mahasweta Devi 1997 Ali Sardar Jafri 1998 Girish Karnad 1999 Nirmal Verma 1999 Gurdial Singh 2000 Indira Goswami 2001 Rajendra Keshavlal Shah 2002 D. Jayakanthan 2003 Vinda Karandikar 2004 Rahman Rahi 2005 Kunwar Narayan 2006 Ravindra Kelekar 2006 Satya Vrat Shastri Ashtadarshana (poetry) "for his contributions to modern Indian drama"[5] Bengali Hindi Oriya Kannada


Bengali Urdu Kannada Hindi Punjabi Assamese Gujarati Tamil Marathi

Subhuk Soda, Kalami Rahi and Siyah Rode Kashmiri [6] Jaren Manz Hindi[3] Konkani[3] Sanskrit[4][7]

Dada Saheb Phalke Award

Dada Saheb Phalke Award The Dada Saheb Phalke Award is the highest honour presented by the Indian government to an artist who, over the years, has made a significant contribution to the field of cinema. The award was instituted in 1969, the birth centenary year of Dada Saheb Phalke, the father of Indian cinema. The first winner of the award was actress Devika Rani. Tapan Sinha was the recipient of the award for 2006.
National Awards 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st 32nd 33rd 34th 35th Year 1969 Devika Rani 1970 B. N. Sircar 1971 Prithviraj Kapoor 1972 Pankaj Mullick 1973 Ruby Myers (Sulochana) 1974 Bomireddi Narasimha Reddy 1975 Dhirendranath Ganguly 1976 Kanan Devi 1977 Nitin Bose 1978 Rai Chand Boral 1979 Sohrab Modi 1980 Paidi Jairaj 1981 Naushad Ali 1982 L. V. Prasad 1983 Durga Khote 1984 Satyajit Ray 1985 V. Shantaram 1986 Bommireddy Nagi Reddy 1987 Raj Kapoor Winner actress producer actor (posthumous) composer (music director) actress Director actor, director actress cinematographer, director, writer, composer, director actor, director, producer actor, director composer (music director) actor, director, producer actress director actor, director, producer producer actor, director Occupation

36th 37th 38th 39th 40th 41st 42nd 43rd 44th 45th 46th 47th 48th 49th 50th 51st 52nd 53rd 54th 55th

1988 Ashok Kumar 1989 Lata Mangeshkar 1990 Akkineni Nageswara Rao 1991 Bhalji Pendharkar 1992 Bhupen Hazarika 1993 Majrooh Sultanpuri 1994 Dilip Kumar 1995 Rajkumar 1996 Sivaji Ganesan 1997 Pradeep 1998 B.R. Chopra 1999 Hrishikesh Mukherjee 2000 Asha Bhosle 2001 Yash Chopra 2002 Dev Anand 2003 Mrinal Sen 2004 Adoor Gopalakrishnan 2005 Shyam Benegal 2006 Tapan Sinha 2007 Manna Dey

actor singer actor director, producer, writer composer (music director) lyricist actor actor actor lyricist director, producer director singer director, producer actor, director, producer director director director director singer

Padma Bhushan This awards recognizes distinguished service of a higher order to the nation in any field. This is a civilian award given by the President of India.On the basis of the recommendations of the Awards Committee, and after approval of the Home Minister, Prime Minister and President, the Padma Awards are announced. he fields include services by the government servants and it can be given posthumously, as well.

List of Awardees - 2009

Name G. Sivarama Krishna Murthy R. C. Mehta Shamshad Begum V. P. Dhananjayan Shanta Dhananjayan Dr. Vaidyanathan Ganapathi Sthapati S.K. Misra Shekhar Gupta Alappat Sreedhara Menon C.K. Prahalad D. Jayakanthan Isher Judge Ahluwalia Kunwar Narayan Minoru Hara Ramachandra Guha Brijendra Kumar Rao Vaidya Devendra Triguna Khalid Hameed Arts Arts Arts Arts Arts Art Field State Andhra Pradesh

Country India India India India India India India India India India India India Japan India India India India India India India India India India India India India India India

Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Haryana Delhi Kerala Tamil Nadu Delhi Delhi Karnataka Delhi Delhi Delhi Meghalaya Delhi Tamil Nadu Delhi Delhi Uttar Pradesh Kerala Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Punjab Maharashtra

Civil Service Journalism Literature & Education Literature & Education Literature & Education Literature & Education Literature & Education Literature & Education Literature & Education Medicine Medicine Medicine National Security Satish Nambiar Affairs Inderjit Kaur Barthakur Public Affairs Kirit Shantilal Parikh Public Affairs Bhakta B. Rath Science & Engineering Conjeevaram Srirangachari Seshadri Science & Engineering Gurdip Singh Randhawa Science & Engineering Sam Pitroda Science & Engineering Sarvagya Singh Katiyar Science & Engineering Thomas Kailath Science & Engineering Naganath Nayakawadi Social Work Sarojini Varadappan Social Work Abhinav Bindra Sports Anil Manibhai Naik Trade & Industry

Padma Vibhushan This civilian honour is given by the President of India and is Indias second highest civilian honour. he award is presented by the Government of India to recognize excellence of Indian citizens in any field and also to recognize notable services to the nation, including services rendered by government servants. The Padma Vibhushan Award was established by Presidential decree on 2nd January, 1954 and since then, a total of 235 people have been given the award so far. The award can be given posthumously, as well. For complete list of awardees visit: Padma Shri Awards The Padma Shri Awards are the fourth highest civilian awards conferred by the Government of India to recognize distinguished contribution of Indian citizens in various fields like Arts, Literature, Education, Industry, Science, Sports, Social Science and Public life.

List of Awardees - 2009

Year Name 2009 2009 Balbir Singh Kullar 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 Shashi Deshpande Field Sports Literature & Education State Punjab Karnataka Punjab Karnataka New Delhi Andhra Pradesh Country India India India India India India India India India

Bhai Nirmal Singh Ji Khalsa (Hazoori Raagi, Sri Darbar Sahib, Arts Sri Amritsar) Pankaj Advani Sports Technology Shri Surinder Mehta Solutions Dr.Brahmanandam Kanneganti J. A. K. Tareen Ravindra Nath Shrivastav Jayanta Mahapatra Arts

Literature and Puducherry Education Literature and Bihar Education Literature & Orissa Education

2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 Arts

Bannanje Govindacharya Mahendra Singh Dhoni Mathoor Krishnamurty Akshay Kumar Aishwarya Rai Bachchan Bavaguthu Raghuram Shetty Kumar Sanu Udit Narayan Hashmat Ullah Khan Vivek Rajiv Hari Om Bhatia Ameen Sayani

Literature & Education Sports Literature & Education Arts Arts Trade & Industry Arts Arts Arts

Karnataka Jharkhand Karnataka

India India India

Punjab India Maharashtra India Karnataka West Bengal Maharashtra Jammu & Kashmir Tamil Nadu Maharashtra Maharashtra UAE India India India

Arts Arts Arts Literature & Dr. John Ralston Marr Education Thilakan Arts Kalamandalam Gopi Arts Mattannoor Sankarankutty Marar Arts Helen Richardson Arts Iravatham Mahadevan Arts Kiran Seth Arts Ameena Ahmed Ahuja Arts Literature and Prof Ngawang Samten Education Prof. Syed Iqbal Hasnain Geography Science & Pramod Tandon Engineering Literature & Dr. Panchapakesa Jayaraman Education

India India India United Kingdom Kerala India Kerala India Kerala India Maharashtra India Tamil Nadu India Delhi India Delhi India Tibet India Meghalaya New York India United States of America

1. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Sculptor, architect, painter He was a Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet. Michelangelo was born near Arezzo, in Caprese, Tuscany, Italy in 1475. His father, Lodovico, was the resident magistrate in Caprese. However, Michelangelo was raised in Florence, Italy and later

lived with a sculptor and his wife in the town of Settignano, Italy where his father owned a marble quarry and a small farm. Against his father's wishes, Michelangelo chose to be the apprentice of Domenico Ghirlandaio for three years starting in 1488. Impressed, Domenico recommended him to the ruler of Florence, Lorenzo de' Medici. From 1490 to 1492, Michelangelo attended Lorenzo's school and was influenced by many prominent people who modified and expanded his ideas on art After the death of Lorenzo in 1492, Piero di Lorenzo de' Medici (new head of the Medici family), refused to support Michelangelo's artwork. So Michelangelo decided to leave Florence and stay in Bologna, Italy. Four years later, Michelangelo returned to Florence where he produced arguably his most famous work, the marble Michelangelo's David. Michelangelo was summoned back to Rome in 1503 by the newly appointed Pope Julius II and was commissioned to build the Pope's tomb. However, under the patronage of Julius II, Michelangelo had to constantly stop work on the tomb in order to accomplish numerous other tasks. The most famous of those were the monumental paintings on the ceiling of the Vatican's Sistine Chapel, which took four years (1508 - 1512) to complete. Due to those interruptions, Michelangelo worked on the tomb for 40 years without ever finishing it. Pope Paul III commissioned the fresco of The Last Judgment on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel, and Michelangelo worked on it from 1534 to 1541. Then in 1546, Michelangelo was appointed architect of St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican, and designed its dome. On February 18 1564, Michelangelo died in Rome at the age of 89. 2. Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart Composer of Classical Music Known widely for the Titan Watches signature tune, which is Mozarts symphony number 25, he was a prolific and highly influential composer of Classical music. His enormous output of more than six hundred compositions includes works that are widely acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music. Mozart is among the most enduringly popular of European composers, and many of his works are part of the standard concert repertoire. Mozart was born to Leopold and Anna Maria Pertl Mozart, in the front room of nine Getreidegasse in Salzburg, the capital of the sovereign Archbishopric of Salzburg, in what is now Austria, then part of the Holy Roman Empire. Mozart's father Leopold (17191787) was one of Europe's leading musical teachers. His influential textbook Versuch einer grndlichen Violinschule was published in 1756, the year of Mozart's birth (English, as "A Treatise on the Fundamental Principles of Violin Playing. He was deputy Kapellmeister to the court orchestra of the Archbishop of Salzburg, and a prolific and successful composer of instrumental music. Leopold gave up composing when his son's outstanding musical talents became evident. They first came to

light when Wolfgang was about three years old, and Leopold, proud of Wolfgang's achievements, gave him intensive musical training, including instruction in clavier, violin, and organ. Leopold was Wolfgang's only teacher in his earliest years. A note by Leopold records that little Wolfgang had learned several of the pieces at the age of four. Mozart's first compositions, a small Andante (K. 1a) and Allegro (K. 1b), were written in 1761, when he was five years old. During his formative years, Mozart made several European journeys, beginning with an exhibition in 1762 at the Court of the Elector of Bavaria in Munich, then in the same year at the Imperial Court in Vienna and Prague. A long concert tour spanning three and a half years followed, taking him with his father to the courts of Munich, Mannheim, Paris, London (where Wolfgang Amadeus played with the famous Italian cellist Giovanni Battista Cirri), The Hague, again to Paris, and back home via Zrich, Donaueschingen, and Munich. During this trip Mozart met a great number of musicians and acquainted himself with the works of other great composers. On September 23, 1777, accompanied by his mother, Mozart began a tour of Europe that included Munich, Mannheim, and Paris. In Mannheim he became acquainted with members of the Mannheim orchestra, the best in Europe at the time. He fell in love with Aloysia Weber, who later broke up the relationship with him. He was to marry her sister Constanze some four years later in Vienna. During his unsuccessful visit to Paris, his mother died (1778). The year 1782 was an auspicious one for Mozart's career: his opera Die Entfhrung aus dem Serail ("The Abduction from the Seraglio") was a great success and he began a series of concerts at which he premiered his own piano concertos as director of the ensemble and soloist. Mozart's final illness and death are difficult topics for scholars, obscured by romantic legends and replete with conflicting theories. Mozart died around 1 a.m. on December 5, 1791 in Vienna. Some days earlier, with the onset of his illness, he had largely ceased work on his final composition, the Requiem.

Athletes 1. DHYAN CHAND Hockey Player Dhyan Chand made great contribution in enhancing prestige of Indian Hockey in the eyes of the world. He was born on 29th August 1906, in Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh). He joined army at the age of sixteen. He started playing hockey in army and was included in the Indian Hockey team for the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics.

By his superior play, Dhyan Chand was held in high esteem with in the country as well as abroad. Dhyan Chand helped his country in winning gold medals in hokey in 3 successive Olympics games; Amsterdam Olympics (1928), Los Angles Olympics (1932) and Berlin Olympics (1936). He was the captain of the gold medal winner Indian Hockey team in the historic 1936 Berlin Olympics. Dhyan Chand scored 101 goals at the Olympic games and 300 goals in other international matches and his record is unbroken. Dhyan Chand had a wonderful command in wielding the hockey stick, which earned him the title " Hockey Wizard". India won one gold medal in Hockey at Amsterdam Olympics and out of a total of 28 goals scored by Indian hockey Dhyan Chand scored 11 alone. He died on December 3,1979. 2. SACHIN TENDULKAR Master Blaster of India The pride of Indian cricket Sachin Tendulkar was the first batsman to score 10,000 runs in one-day cricket, in a five-day match series against Australia on the 31st of March 2001. He has scored a world record, 28 hundreds and 50 half-centuries in his 10,000 runs. A perennial crowd-favorite, he is the only Indian cricketer to receive the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, India's highest sporting honour for his performance in 1997-1998, Padma Shri, India's fourth highest civilian award, 1999, Rajiv Gandhi National Awards Sports in 2005 and Padma Vibhushan, India's second highest civilian award, 2008. Sachin Ramesh Tendulkar was born on April 24, 1973, in Mumbai. Young Sachin wanted to be a fast bowler. He even undertook trials at the MRF pace foundation, Chennai, but his short stature proved to be a hindrance for bowling. Meeting Mr. R. Achrekar, his Cricket Coach and changing his school to Shardashram Vidya Mandir in Dadar marked a turning point in Sachin's cricket career. Sachin at the age of 16, made his International debut in ODIs India v Pakistan at Gujranwala and Tests debut India v Pakistan at Karachi around 1989/90. He then went to England as a part of the national team, and has not looked back ever since. He knows every shot in the book and makes his own improvisations. His shots have tremendous power and he times the ball perfectly, making him one of the best batsmen in the world. He is also an effective bowler and also one of the best fielders. This all rounder has been the captain of the Indian cricket team twice. On the personal front, Sachin is god fearing and he is married to a doctor Anjali and they have a two children- Sara and Arjun. In 1998, he won the Coopers and Lybrand Award for 'Player of the year' and was in the number one position in the Wisden Cricket ratings. In January 2008, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown suggested that Sachin should be conferred with an honorary knighthood for his contribution to international cricket. He was mentioned in the TIME magazine as the "The greatest living exponent of his craft." 3. Vijender Singh Beniyal Kumar Number 1 Middle Weight Category Boxer in AIBA Ranking

Vijender was born on October 29, 1985 in a Hindu Jat family in Kalwas village, 5 km from Bhiwani, Haryana. His father, Mahipal Singh, is a bus driver. Vijender was inspired to take to Boxing by younger brother Manoj, a boxer himself. Vijenders early days were spent in his village where he did his schooling, before getting a bachelors degree when he moved to Bhiwani. He practiced Boxing at the Bhiwani Sports Authority of India where coach Jagdish Singh recognised his talent and encouraged him to take to professional boxing. Vijender went on to compete at the sub-junior nationals where he won a silver medal for two years in succession. Having won medals in different competitions at the national level, Vijender was picked to train and compete at several international level competitions. Including, the 2004 Athens Summer Olympics, the 2006 Commonwealth Games and the 2006 Asian Games in Doha, where he won the bronze medal in a lost semifinal bout against Kazakhstan's Bakhtiyar Artayev. After qualifying for the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics, Vijender competed with European wrestlers in Germany. At the Beijing Olympics, Vijender defeated Carlos Gngora of Ecuador 9-4 in the quarterfinals, which guaranteed him a bronze medalthe first ever-Olympic medal for an Indian boxer. After his win, Vijender was felicitated with a number of awards, including the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna awardIndia's highest sporting honour. In 2009 he participated at the World Amateur Boxing Championships where he won bronze. The International Boxing Association (AIBA) announced Vijender as the top-ranked boxer in its annual middleweight (75 kg) category list with 2800 points. He is credited for bringing back the sport of boxing into limelight in India.

Literature 1. Kalidasa Writer, Poet, Dramatist Kalidasa, one of the chief figures in classic Sanskrit literature was also a dramatist and poet. He was one of the Navaratna (9 gems or the most accomplished men of their times) at the court of Chandragupta Vikramaditya. Kalidasa's works include plays, Epics and lyrics. His play 'Abhinjnana Sakunthalam' (Recognition of Sakunthala) is the most well known of all his works and it has been translated into various languages of the world. In all, 7 works of Kalidasa are available today. They are: 'Malavikagnimitra', 'Vikramorvasiyam' and 'Abhijnana Sakunthalam' (plays); 'Raghu Vansa' and 'Kumara Sambhavam' (Epics); 'Meghdoot' and 'Ritu Samhara' (lyrics). As far as literacy merits are concerned, Meghdoot (cloud messenger) is the most excellent work.

2. Arundhati Roy Writer & Social Activist

Susanna Arundhati Roy the first Indian woman to have won Britain's prestigious Booker Prize, was born on 24th November 1961 in Bengal and grew up in Aymanam village, Kottayam, Kerala. She was born to parents Mary Roy a well-known social activist who won a landmark Supreme Court verdict that granted Christian women in Kerala the right to their parent's property and father a Bengali Hindu tea planter. Arundhati's parents separated when she was small and she did her formal education in Corpus Christi school run by her mother in Kottayam District, Kerala. When she was just 16, she left her home and settled in Delhi. There she did her degree in Architecture at the Delhi School of Architecture. During this period she met Gerard Da Cunha a fellow architecture student and married him but their marriage lasted only four years. After a brief stint in the field of architecture, she found that it was not for her. She left for Goa, making a life out at the beach, got tired of it after a few months, came back to Delhi. She took a job at the National Institute of Urban Affairs, met Pradeep Krishen, a film director now her husband who offered her a small role in 'Massey Saab'. She went to Italy on a scholarship for eight months to study the restoration of monuments. She realized she was a writer during those months in Italy. After she returned from Italy she worked with Pradeep Krishen and they planned an episode television for Doordarshan called the 'Banyan Tree, which didn't materialize and was shelved by the producers after shooting 2-3 episodes. She wrote and starred in 'In Which Annie Gives it Those Ones', a film on college life in India, based on her experiences in the University of Delhi, and wrote the screenplay for Pradip Krishen's film 'Electric Moon' (1992). She quickly became known for her work as screenwriter. Then she wrote a series of essays called 'The Great Indian Rape Trick' which attracted media attention, in defense of former dacoit Phoolan Devi, who she felt had been exploited by Shekhar Kapur's film 'Bandit Queen'. Then came her debut novel 'The God of Small Things' which shot her into prominence in 1997, by winning the prestigious British Booker prize in London and becoming an international best seller. The book, which took almost five years to complete, gives an insight to the social and political life in a village in South India through the eyes of seven year old twins and how it effects/disrupts their small lives. The book won 20,000 as prize and sold nearly 400,000 copies globally by October that year. In the years following her success, she has turned to activism, writing 'The Cost of Living' a book comprising two essays 'The Greater Common Good (1999) and 'The End of Imagination (1998); the former against Indian Governments massive dam projects which displaced millions of poor people and the latter; its testing of Nuclear weapons. She has been an active participant in public demonstrations against the construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam on the Narmada river in Western India and has donated a substantial amount around 1.5million rupees, equivalent to her Booker Prize money, for the cause. She was even arrested along with other protestors for campaigning for the cause. 'Power Politics' her latest book published, takes on Enron the power corporation

based in Houston trying to take over Maharashtra's energy sector. She has also spoken on and published several articles such as 'Promotion of equal rights' supporting equal rights for lower caste in India and 'War on Terrorism' (2001) against the Iraq war. Roy was awarded the Sydney Peace Prize in May 2004 for her work in social campaigns and her advocacy of non-violence. In January 2006 she was awarded the Sahitya Akademi award for her collection of essays on contemporary issues, The Algebra of Infinite Justice, but she declined to accept it. With her latest publications, Arundhati is carving a niche for herself as a political journalist. This unusual woman who has been on several lists of 'the 50 most beautiful women in the world' is not intimated by her success and fame but is an inspiration to all those who seek to speak up against the powers in support of the poor and the oppressed. She now lives in Delhi with her husband Pradip Krishen, who has two daughters Pia and Mithva from his previous marriage.
3. Herta Muller The 2009 Nobel Prize in Literature Winner

Herta Mller was born on August 17, 1953 in the German-speaking town Nitzkydorf in Banat, Romania. Her parents were members of the German-speaking minority in Romania. Her father had served in the Waffen SS during World War II. Many German Romanians were deported to the Soviet Union in 1945, including Mller's mother who spent five years in a work camp in present-day Ukraine. Many years later, in Atemschaukel (2009), Mller was to depict the exile of the German Romanians in the Soviet Union. From 1973 to 1976, Mller studied German and Romanian literature at the university in Timioara (Temeswar). During this period, she was associated with Aktionsgruppe Banat, a circle of young German-speaking authors who, in opposition to Ceauescus dictatorship, sought freedom of speech. After completing her studies, she worked as a translator at a machine factory from 1977 to 1979. She was dismissed when she refused to be an informant for the secret police. After her dismissal, Securitate harassed her. Mller made her debut with the collection of short stories Niederungen (1982), which was censored in Romania. Two years later, she published the uncensored version in Germany and, in the same year, Drckender Tango in Romania. In these two works, Mller depicts life in a small, German-speaking village and the corruption, intolerance and repression to be found there. The Romanian national press was very critical of these works while, outside of Romania, the German press received them very positively. Because Mller had publicly criticized the dictatorship in Romania, she was prohibited from publishing in her own country. In 1987, Mller emigrated together with her husband author Richard Wagner. The novels Der Fuchs war damals schon der Jger (1992), Herztier (1994; The Land of Green Plums, 1996) and Heute wr ich mir lieber nicht begegnet (1997; The Appointment, 2001) give, with chiselled details, a portrait of daily life in a stagnated dictatorship. Mller has given guest lectures at universities, colleges and other venues in

Paderborn, Warwick, Hamburg, Swansea, Gainsville (Florida), Kassel, Gttingen, Tbingen and Zrich among other places. She lives in Berlin. Since 1995 she is a member of Deutsche fr Sprache und Dichtung, in Darmstadt.

Political and Military Leaders

1. Manmohan Singh Prime Minister of India

Manmohan Singh, best known as ' father of Indian Reforms', has emerged as the Congress party's frontrunner, the 14th Prime Minister of India and also the first Sikh to reach the country's top legislative position. Hailed to be the cleanest man in Indian politics, he was Former Finance Minister and author of the post-1991 economic reforms. He was born to Mr. Gurmukh Singh and Mrs. Amrit Kaur on September 26, 1932 in a small village Gah (West Punjab), now in Pakistan. A brilliant student, Manmohan Singh secured top marks in almost all the major examinations he wrote. After his Masters in Economics from Amritsar's Hindu College under Punjab University he won scholarships to Cambridge and Oxford, earning a doctorate with a thesis on the critical role of exports and free trade in India's economy. Manmohan Singh won the prestigious Adam Smith prize in 1956 from Cambridge University. The following year, he returned to India as a university lecturer and for the next nine years remained at Punjab University before being posted for international duty with UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development). He then joined the Delhi School of Economics as a professor. Two years later, his academic career was cut short and he joined the government to serve in various capacities. Singh held several positions throughout the 1980s and early 1990s. He served as Economic advisor to the finance ministry in the late 70s, Deputy Chairman of Planning Commission and Chairman of University Grants Commission in 1980s and early 1990's and as the Governor of the Reserve Bank of India from 1982 to 1985 etc. An academician, he was discovered by former Prime Minister Shri. P.V Narasimha Rao. Rao offered him the finance ministry in 1991 under the Congress Government, and the chance to rescue a sickly economy threatened by an acute balance of payments crisis. During his stint as the finance minister (1991-1996), the suave, soft-spoken Sikh guided India out of financial trouble and put the country on course to becoming an economic power by opening up the economy to foreign investment and slashing trade barriers. Singh was always an unlikely politician, who was routed in a parliamentary election in 1999. In fact, he has never won an election and sits in the upper house. Politically, Manmohan Singh is the classic example of the stateless politician.

After the Indian National Congress won the 2009 general elections, Singh was reappointed as the Prime Minister of India on May 22, 2009, making him the first Indian Prime Minister since Jawaharlal Nehru to return to power after completing a full fiveyear term before this over 40 years ago. He is married to Gursharan Kaur they have three daughters. 2. Barack Obama The 2009 Nobel Peace Prize Winner and 44th President of the USA Barack Hussein Obama was born in Hawaii, USA in 1961. His mother was Caucasian and American, and his father was from Kenya. At the age of 2, they divorced and his father returned to Kenya to continue working in the field of economics. He was a very intelligent man who had been schooled in Harvard. Anyways, Barack ended up moving to Indonesia and lived with his mom and new step dad while eventually coming back to Hawaii to finish high school in the states. Years later, he ended up graduating from Columbia University with a Political Science major specializing in international relations. After graduating from there, he continued his education at the prestigious Harvard Law School, graduating magna cum laude (basically at the head of his class, or with "honors"). This is where he becomes the first African American president of Harvard's Law Review group. When he finished school, he ended up working as a very amazing community organizer and civil rights lawyer in and around Chicago. He taught at the University of Chicago's Law School, and during 1996 through 2004, he served in the Illinois State Senate representing Chicago's South Side. In 2004, he got elected to the United States Senate over the conservative republican black candidate Alan Keyes with over 70 percent of the votes. Barack Obama was the only serving black Senator, and only the fifth in the entire United States History. His great commitment to civil rights, idealistic thoughts, and charmingly good looks helped make his Senate Campaign. After his keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention in 2004, he became known as one of the most inspirational and freshest new leaders of the Democratic Party. Obama also published a book called "Dreams from my father" in 1995 and more recently "the Audacity of Hope". Both became best sellers fairly soon after being released. Barack is married to Michelle Obama and also has two daughters named Malia Ann and Sasha. Barack Currently lives in the Chicago area and is becoming one of the major candidates of the 2008 presidential elections. 3. ADOLF HITLER Leader of the Third Reich Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 in Braunau, Austria, a small town across the Inn River from Germany. Soon after Hitler's birth, his father, Alois Hitler, moved the family to Linz, Austria. Hitler attended school in Linz and at first was a good student, but in high school he was a very poor student. Hitler's academic abilities angered his father because

his father hoped that Hitler would study to become a government worker as he had been. Hitler, however, wanted to become an artist. In 1907, Hitler went to Vienna Austria in an attempt to fulfill his dream of becoming an artist. This attempt ended when he failed the entrance exam to the Academy of Fine Arts. When Hitler's mother died in 1907, he decided to remain in Vienna. He took the entrance exam a year later and failed again. He did not have steady work in Vienna, but, instead, took a variety of odd jobs. He lived in cheap rooming houses or slept on park benches and he often had to get meals from charity kitchens. During his time in Vienna Hitler learned to hate non-Germans. Hitler was a German-speaking Austrian and considered himself German. He ridiculed the Austrian government for recognizing eight languages as official and believed that no government could last if it treated ethnic groups equally. In 1913, Hitler went to Munich, Germany and when World War I began in 1914, he volunteered for service in the German army. Hitler was twice decorated for bravery, but only rose to the rank of corporal. When World War I ended. Hitler was in a hospital recovering from temporary blindness possibly caused by a poison gas attack. The Versailles Treaty that ended the war stripped Germany of much of its territory, forced the country to disarm, and ordered Germany to pay huge reparations. When the army returned to Germany. the country was in despair. The country was bankrupt and millions of people were unemployed. In 1920, Hitler joined the National Socialist German Workers Party known as the Nazis. The Nazis called for all Germans, even those in other countries, to unite into one nation; they called for a strong central government; and they called for the cancellation of the Versailles Treaty. Hitler became leader of the Nazi party and built up membership quickly, mostly because of his powerful speaking ability. Hitler organized an army for the Nazi party called the Storm Troopers ("Brown Shirts") who were called upon to fight groups seeking to disband the Nazi rallies. On November 9, 1923, Hitler led more than 2,000 Storm Troopers on a march to seize the Bavarian government. The attempt failed and Hitler was arrested and sentenced to prison for five years for treason. While in prison, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle). In this book. he stated his beliefs and plans for Germany's future. Hitler only served nine months in prison and when he was released, he began to rebuild the party again. He set up a private battle-ready elite guard known as the "Schutzstaffel" (SS). By 1929, the Nazis had become an important minor political party. In 1930, a worldwide depression hit Germany, yet Germany also had the debt of paying for the damage it had caused in World War I. Hitler protested against paying the debt and said that the Jews and Communists were the cause for Germany's defeat in World War I. He promised to rid Germany of Jews and Communists and to reunite the German speaking part of Europe. In July 1932, the Nazis received about 40% of the vote and became the strongest party in Germany. On January 30,1933, President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Hitler

Chancellor of Germany. Once in this position, Hitler moved quickly toward attaining a dictatorship. When von Hindenburg died in 1934, Hitler already had control of Germany and he gave himself the title "Fuehrer" (leader). Under Hitler's government, called the Third Reich, there was no place for freedom. The government controlled every part of one's life. Hitler used extensive propaganda to brainwash the nation into believing his theory about creating the perfect Aryan or Nordic race. Therefore, it was Hitler's plan to rid the nation and eventually the world of Jews, Gypsies, Negroes, handicapped, and mentally ill persons. This plan was called the "Final Solution." World War II began in 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland to begin his unification of all German-speaking peoples. By this time extermination camps were being established throughout Germany, Poland, and Russia. Before Hitler was stopped in 1945 by the Allied countries, he had caused the extermination over 12 million people. Hitler committed suicide in his bunker on April 30,1945 and seven days later, Germany surrendered. Religious Leaders and Philosophers
1. GAUTAMA BUDDHA Founder of Buddhism

Gautama Buddha was born in 563BC in the Lumbini forests in Nepalese Terai. He was the founder of 'Buddhism'. Buddha's childhood name was Siddhartha and he was a child with a contemplative bent of mind. At the age of 29, Siddhartha left his home and all the royal comforts behind in search of peace and truth. Siddhartha got enlightenment when he was sitting in meditation under a pipal tree in Gaya. Siddhartha now got transformed into 'Buddha' or 'enlightened' and the pipal tree under which he got enlightenment became Bodhi tree or Bodhi Vriksha. Buddha delivered his first sermon in Sarnath (near Varanasi). Buddha taught that the root cause of mankind's suffering was desire. People could get rid of the torment of desires by following the Eightfold path: right belief, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right memory and right meditation. Buddha attained Nirvana in Kushinagar (UP) in 483 B.C. After his death, his teachings spread through Asia. Today, the religion numbers 500 million followers, many others in the East and West practice Buddhist teachings to achieve self-awareness.
2. SOCRATES Founder of Western Philosophy

Socrates was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy. He was born and lived in Athens, where he spent

most of his time in enthusiastic pursuit of wisdom (philosophy). He "followed the argument" in his personal reflection, and in a sustained and rigorous dialogue between friends, followers, and contemporary itinerant teachers of wisdom. Later in his life he became known as the wisest man in all of Greece. Most of what is known about Socrates is derived from information that recurs across various contemporary sources: the dialogues written by Plato, one of Socrates' students; the works of Xenophon, one of his contemporaries; and writings by Aristophanes and Aristotle. Anything Socrates wrote himself has not survived. According to accounts from antiquity, Socrates' father was the sculptor Sophroniscus and his mother Phaenarete, a midwife. Socrates married Xanthippe, who bore him three sons Lamprocles, Sophroniscus and Menexenus who were all quite young at the time of his death. Traditionally, Xanthippe is thought to have been an ill-tempered scold, mainly due to her characterization by Xenophon. Socrates lived during the time of the transition from the height of the Athenian Empire to its decline after its defeat by Sparta and its allies in the Peloponnesian War. At a time when Athens was seeking to stabilize and recover from its humiliating defeat, the Athenian public court was induced by three leading public figures to try Socrates for impiety and for corrupting the youth of Athens. This was a time in culture when the Greeks thought of gods and goddesses as being associated with protecting particular cities. Athens, for instance, is named after its protecting goddess Athena. The defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian War was interpreted as Athena judging the city for not being pious. The last thing Athens needed was more punishment from Athena for one man inciting its citizens to question her or the other gods. In the Apology, Socrates insists that this is a false charge. According to the version of his defense speech presented in Plato's Apology, Socrates' life as the "gadfly" of Athens began when his friend Chaerephon asked the oracle at Delphi if anyone was wiser than Socrates; the Oracle responded negatively. Socrates, interpreting this as a riddle, set out to find men who were wiser than he was. He questioned the men of Athens about their knowledge of good, beauty, and virtue. Finding that they knew nothing and yet believed themselves to know much, Socrates came to the conclusion that he was wise only in so far as he knew that he knew nothing. Socrates' superior intellect made the prominent Athenians he publicly questioned look foolish, turning them against him and leading to accusations of wrongdoing. He was nevertheless found guilty as charged, and sentenced to death by drinking a silver goblet of hemlock. Socrates turned down the pleas of his disciples to attempt an escape from prison, drinking the hemlock and dying in the company of his friends. According to the Phaedo, Socrates had a calm death, enduring his sentence with fortitude.
3. MAHATMA GANDHI Father of the Nation

Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi called the father of the nation was born in Porbunder in Gujarat. He passed the examination for barrister in 1890 and started practicing Law. He went to South Africa to take-up a case. There he was disturbed by the oppression of Indians by the whites. He formulated the path of Satyagraha and protested against the injustice. He returned to India in 1916, and took up the leadership of the National Freedom struggle. Gandhi launched many Movements to force the British to concede India its Independence. The most Well-known being: 'Non-Co-operation Movement' (1920), 'Civil Disobedience Movement' (1930) and 'Quit India Movement' (1942). In 1930, Gandhiji led the famous 'Dandi March' for breaking the Salt Laws. Gandhiji also worked hard for the upliftment of the Harijans, the name given by him to the untouchables. Gandhiji declared untouchability as a sin against God and man. 'My experiments with truth' is the famous autobiography written by Gandhiji. On 30th January 1948 he was shot dead by a religious fanatic Nathu Ram Godse.

Scientists Venkatraman Ramakrishnan The 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry Winner

Born in 1952 in Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, Ramakrishnan did his PhD in Physics in 1976 from Ohio University, US. He is a senior scientist and group leader at Structural Studies Division, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, Britain. Ramakrishnan earned his B.Sc. in Physics (1971) from Baroda University in Gujarat and later migrated to the US to continue his studies where he later got settled and attained US citizenship. He earned his Ph.D in Physics from Ohio University in the US and later worked as a graduate student at the University of California from 1976-78. During his stint at the varsity, Ramakrishnan conducted a research with Dr Mauricio Montal, a membrane biochemist and later designed his own 2-year transition from physics to biology. As a postdoctoral fellow at Yale University, he worked on a neutronscattering map of the small ribosomal subunit of E Coli. He has been studying ribosome structure ever since. In the August 26, 2000 issue of Nature, Ramakrishnan and his co-workers published the structure of the small ribosomal subunit of Thermus thermophilus, a heat-stable bacterium related to one found in the Yellowstone hot springs. With this 5.5 Angstrom-resolution structure, Ramakrishnan's group identified key portions of the RNA and, using previously determined structures, positioned seven of the subunit's proteins.

In the September 21, 2000 issue of Nature, Ramakrishnan published two papers. In the first of these, he presented the 3-Angstrom structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit. His second paper revealed the structures of the 30S subunit in complex with three antibiotics that target different regions of the subunit. In this paper, Ramakrishnan discussed the structural basis for the action of each of these drugs. After his postdoctoral fellowship, Ramakrishnan joined the staff of Brookhaven National Laboratory in the US. There, he began his collaboration with Stephen White to clone the genes for several ribosomal proteins and determine their three-dimensional structures. He was also awarded a Guggenheim fellowship during his tenure there, and he used it to make the transition to X-ray crystallography.
Business Leaders

1. Lakshmi Niwas Mittal Born on 15 June 1950, he is an Indian born industrialist based in the United Kingdom. He was born in Sadulpur village, in the Churu district of Rajasthan, India. He is the CEO and founder of and has been the chairman and CEO of ArcelorMittal since the merge. He also serves as a non-executive director of Goldman Sachs, EADS and ICICI Bank and is the chairman of the World Steel Association. The Financial Times named Lakshmi Mittal its 2006 Person of the Year. In May 2007, he was named one of the "100 Most Influential People" by Time magazine. As of 2009, Mittal is the 8th richest person in the world. He is also the richest person in the United Kingdom with personal wealth of US$19.3 billion. He is the richest Indian in the world, with an estimated wealth of $25 billion. He resides in London, has his company registered in the Netherlands, but still holds an Indian passport. Although Mittal Steel was already the world's biggest steel company, his king-sized ambitions were evident when he took over steel giant Arcelor to create a new steel behemoth -- Arcelor-Mittal. L N Mittal left India in the mid-1970s to start his career. He was sent to Indonesia by his father to shut down the family's ailing steel plant and sell the land. Instead, young Mittal saw an opportunity and turned the plant around. To prove that this was no fluke, Mittal acquired a 1.3 million tonne, Iscot Steel plant in Trinidad & Tobago, which was losing $100,000 a day. One year of Mittal-style management and it was making profits, the LN Mittal legend was born. That move helped him get into America. The Mexican government seeing the success that Mittal made of Iscot, asked him to take over their ailing steel plants in 1992. But it was not all that smooth. In 1994 Mittal had differences with his brothers and father, and went on to form his own company. The following year Mittal entered the European market, acquiring the 5 million tonne Kazakh steel plant, Karmet. Meanwhile, Mittal had listed Ispat International on the New York

and Amsterdam Stock Exchanges in 1997. Eight years later Mittal Steel became the world's largest steel maker when he took over the US's largest steel producer -- the International Steel Group. He then consolidated all his steel holdings into Mittal Steel. 2. Warren Buffett Born in August 30, 1930, he s a U.S. investor, businessman, and philanthropist. He is one of the most successful investors in history, the primary shareholder and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway,and in 2008 was ranked by Forbes as the richest person in the world with an estimated net worth of approximately $62 billion. Buffett is often called the "Oracle of Omaha"or the "Sage of Omaha"and is noted for his adherence to the value investing philosophy and for his personal frugality despite his immense wealth. Buffett is also a notable philanthropist, having pledged to give away 85 percent of his fortune to the Gates Foundation. He also serves as a member of the board of trustees at Grinnell College. In 1999, Buffett was named the top money manager of the twentieth century in a survey by the Carson Group, ahead of Peter Lynch and John Templeton. In 2007, he was listed among Time's 100 Most Influential People in the world. 3. Indra Nooyi Indra Krishnamurthy Nooyi born October 28, 1955) is the Chairperson and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of PepsiCo, one of the world's leading food and beverage companies. On August 14, 2006, Nooyi was named the successor to Steven Reinemund as chief executive officer of the company effective from October 1, 2006.On February 5, 2007, she was named Chairperson, effective May 2, 2007. She is a Successor Fellow of the Yale Corporation. She is a Class B director of the Board of Directors of the New York Federal Reserve. She serves as a member of the boards of the International Rescue Committee, Catalyst and the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. She is also a member of the Board of Trustees of Eisenhower Fellowships, and currently serves as Chairperson of the U.S.-India Business Council. Forbes magazine ranked Nooyi third on the 2008 and 2009 list of The World's 100 Most Powerful Women.Fortune magazine has named Nooyi number one on its annual ranking of Most Powerful Women in business for 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009. In 2008, Nooyi was named one of America's Best Leaders by U.S. News & World Report. In 2007, she was chosen as a recipient of the Padma Bhushan award by the Government of India. In 2008, she was elected to the Fellowship of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

In January 2008, Nooyi was elected Chairman of the US-India Business Council (USIBC), a non-profit business advocacy organization representing more than 300 of the world's largest companies doing business in India. Nooyi leads USIBC's Board of Directors, an assembly of more than 60 senior executives representing a cross-section of American industry.

Quotations Famous, Funny, Witty and Inspiring words by Some Famous, Funny, Witty and Inspiring People around the world* "There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle." - Albert Einstein (1879-1955) We keep moving forward, opening new doors, and doing new things, because we're curious and curiosity keeps leading us down new paths. - Walt Disney (1901(1901-12-05)-1966) The value of an idea lies in the using of it. - Thomas A. Edison (1847-1931) The Internet is becoming the town square for the global village of tomorrow. - Bill Gates (b.1955 -) Stay shockingly up to date. Try and learn everything there is in your line of business. Try new things in your own organization and learn from those experiences. This is where most consulting companies fail. They tell others so many things, but rarely ever employ any of those methods in their own set ups. This is bigotry. - Sam Walton (1918-1992) (Founder of Wal-Mart Stores) Never before in history has innovation offered promise of so much to so many in so short a time. - Bill Gates (b.1955 -) It is change, continuing change, inevitable change that is the dominant factor in society today. No sensible decision can be made any longer without taking into account not only the world as it is, but the world as it will be.

- Isaac Asimov (1920 1992) Business more than any other occupation is a continual dealing with the future; it is a continual calculation, an instinctive exercise in foresight. - Henry R. Luce (1898 1967) Founder of Time magazine In times of rapid change, experience is your worst enemy. - John Paul Getty (1892-1976) (American Industrialist) The world has never truly had to develop an ethic of interdependence rooted in our common humanity. And if we do it, the 21st century will be the most interesting, exciting, peaceful era in history. - Bill Clinton quotes (b.1946) For more such quotes click on the following links: Ancient India History is a record of time. Ages have come and brought with them their foundations and ruins. The study of Ancient India begins with the study of the Stone Age. 1. Stone Age The Stone Age, or the stages of early man can be classified into: Paleolithic Age This period was essentially the stage of hunters and food gatherers. They used crude tools made of flakes. They had no knowledge of cultivation and house building. They lived on roots and fruits. By the end of the Paleolithic Age, the flint industry came up. The important development of this age was the emergence of HomoSapiens.

Mesolithic Age This age was the transition between the Paleolithic & the Neolithic Ages. Mesolithic people lived on hunting, fishing and food gathering. At a later stage, they domesticated animals. They used microlith - a small raw-stone tools. Neolithic Age These people used tools and implements of polished stone. They particularly used stone axes. Parashurama became an important axe-wielding hero. Dwelling pits, ceramics, a variety of stone and bone tools and a complete absence of microliths marked this age. Cattle, sheep and goat were domesticated. Men became food producer. 2. Chalcolithic Age Copper was the first metal used by men. 3. Indus Valley Civilization The most important event of ancient Indian history was the development of Indus Valley Civilization. This Civilization prospered on the banks of river Indus. It extended from Jammu in the North to Daimabad in the South, and covered various regions of Gujarat. The main sites which have been found in the excavation are: Kalibangan in Rajasthan Lothal in Gujarat (Sea Port) Banwali in Haryana Ropar in Punjab. Mohenjodaro in Pakistan (Great Bath) The Indus Valley Civilization existed between 2350 BC and 1750 BC. The main cities associated with the civilization were Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and Lothal. The main feature of this civilization was Town Planning. They had great buildings, well-planned roads, cities and drainage systems. Trade and agriculture were the main sources of livelihood for the people. The people of Indus Valley were the first to produce cotton. Mother Goddess was the most important deity of worship. Wheat was the main food crops. They did not know about Iron. 4. Vedic Period This period is marked by the entry of the Aryans, who were originally inhabitants of Central Asia around the Caspian Sea and probably came through the Hindu Kush Mountains. The period in which they existed was between 1500-600 BC. The Main Features of the Aryans were: i) They were admirers of nature and worshipped the Sun, Fire and Water. ii) Indra was an important deity for the Aryans. iii) Metal iron was used for the first time during this period in 1000 BC. iv) Sanskrit was first time introduced in India by Aryans. The following religious books were written during this period: i) Vedas: These were their most sacred books.

They were four in number, viz. : a) Rig Veda The oldest, and it contained prayers of God, Vayu, Varun, Indra and Agni. b) Sam Veda It dealt with music. c) Yajur Veda It dealt with formulae, sacrifices and rituals. d) Atharva Veda It dealt with medicines. ii) The Upanishads: They are the foundation stones of Indian Philosophy and are 108 in numbers. Satyameva Jayate (Truth Alone Triumphs) is taken from Mundaka Upanishad. 5. Rise of Religions The two major religions that came into prominence after the vedic period: i) Buddhism - Initiated by a Kshatriya prince of the Shakya clan, Siddhartha, (who later came to be known as Buddha) around 6th century BC. Siddhartha was born in 567 BC at Lumbini in Kapilavastu (present day Nepal). He was the son of king Shuddhodana. He went in search of truth and attained enlightenment under a pipal tree at Bodh Gaya, and delivered his first sermons at Sarnath in U.P. He died at Kushinagar in U.P. The main Buddhist teachings of the eightfold path of right faith thought action livelihood efforts speech remembrance and concentration belief in nirvana (freedom from the cycle of birth and death) Ahimsa and law of karma were recorded in Triptikas, the religious book of Buddhists. ii) Jainism - Initiated by Rishabha Dava (a Kshatriya prince), Jainism attained peak under Vardhamana Mahavira (the 24th Tirthankara). Mahavira was born at Kundagrama in 540 BC. He left his house at the age of 30 years and attained Kaivalya (Perfect knowledge) at the age of 42 years. He became a Jina (one who has conquered happiness and misery) and died at Pavapuri (present day Bihar). The major teachings of Jainism were based on the Tri-ratna concept and the Tri-ratna concept was based on a) Right knowledge, b) Right faith c) Right conduct. Religious book - Agam (In Pali Language) Dilwara Temple at Mount Abu in Rajasthan is a famous religious place of Jainism. 6. Magadha Empire (6th Century BC - 4th Century BC) Major dynasties of the Magadha Empire were:

i) Haryanka Dynasty - Bimbisara and Ajatashatru laid the foundation of this dynasty in 684 BC. ii) Shishunaga Dynasty - This dynasty was founded by Shishunag in 413 BC after defeating the last king of the Haryanka dynasty. iii) Nanda Dynasty This dynasty was founded in 382 BC by Mahapadma Nanda. 7. Alexanders Invasion of India Alexander, after establishing his Kingdom in present day Pakistan, crossed the river Indus and invaded India. He defeated Porus, the ruler of Punjab in the Battle of Hydaspes in 326 BC and extended his kingdom till India. He founded the city of Alexandria in present day Afghanistan. 8. The Age of Mauryas (321-198 BC) Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of Maurya Empire. Kautilya (also known as Chanakya) was in the court of Chandragupta Maurya and he had written the book titled Arthashastra. Megasthenese was a Greek ambassador who came in the court of Chandragupta Maurya and wrote the book titled INDICA. Ashoka (273-232 BC) was the important king of this dynasty. Ashoka fought the Kalinga war (261 BC) and after that war he adopted Buddhism. Ashoka was the first Indian king to talk directly to the people throughout his empire. The Ashoka pillar of Sarnath is the most popular of the Eelics left by Ashoka. It has four lions standing back to back which is adopted as the emblem of modern day Republic. The last king of Maurya empire Brihadratha was killed by his commander in chief Pushyamitra Sunga 9. Kushan Empire The Kushan Empire was founded by the Kushan tribe of the Yuezhi Confederation around 1st century BC. Kanishka was the most important king of the empire. He founded the Saka Era in 78 AD. His capital was at Pursushpura (now Peshawar). He was responsible for organizing the 4th Buddhist council in Kashmir. Both Gandhar and Mathura art forms developed during Kanishkas reign. 10. Gupta Empire It was founded by Chandragupta I (320-325 AD). He started the Gupta Era in 320 AD. Other important kings of the Gupta empire were: i) Samudra Gupta (335-380 AD): He was known as the Napoleon of India. His coins depicted him as playing the musical instrument Veena.

ii) Chandragupta II (380-412 AD): He was also known as Vikramaditya. Chinese Pilgrim, Fa-hien came in his court. Aryabhatta and Kalidas were among the Nine Gems or distinguished men at the court of Chandragupta II. With Chandragupta II began the Vikram Era in 58 BC. iii) Kumaragupta I of this dynasty built the Nalanda University (in present day Bihar). 11. Harshvardhana Harshvardhana was the last important king of North India. His capital was at Kannauj. Hiuen-Tsang, the Chinese pilgrime came to his court. Harshcharita, a book on the life of Harshvardhana was written by Banabhata, who had also written Kadambari. He was defeated by Pulshekin II of the Chalukya dynasty. 12. South Indian Dynasties 12.1 The Sathavanas This dynasty was founded by Simuka. (65 BC) Satakarni was an important king. They constructed many buddhist worshipping sites- the important ones being at Amaravati and Nagarjuna Konda. They issued the maximum number of lead coins. Sangam Literature relates primarily to Pandyan kingdom but also contains information about Cholas and Cheras. Tolkappiyam is the oldest book of Tamil grammar. Three Major Southern Kingdoms

12.2 The Chalukyas (6th - 7th Century AD) Pulkeshin I founded the Chalukya dynasty and established its capital at Vatapi. Pulkeshin II (609 AD - 642 AD) was the most important king. According to the Aihole inscriptions, he defeated Harshvardhana on the banks of river Narmada in 619 AD. Narasimhavarman I defeated and killed Pulkeshin II and captured Vadani. Most of the Buddhist caves at Ajanta and Ellora were structured during the reign of the Chalukyas.

Aihole was the temple town of this period. 12.3 The Pallavas (560 AD 903 AD) The Pallava dynasty was founded by Simhavishnu in 560 AD. Their Capital was at Kanch. Mahendravarman I was defeated by Pulakeshin II. Narasimhavarma I was the greatest king, and because he defeated Pulakeshin II and captured Badan, he was known as Vatapi-Konda. Narshimhavarma II constructed the shore temple of Mahabalipuram and the Kailashnath Temple of Kanchi. Narshimhavarma II was also a worshipper of Vishnu. He built the Vaikunthaperumal Temple at Kanchi. Aparajita Pallav was the last ruler and was defeated by Aditya Chola.
Administrative Units of the Pallavas Mandal (Province) Nadu (District) Village (Kottam - Group of Villages) Names of the Chiefs Rastrik Deshatric Gram Bhojak

12.4 The Rashtrakutas Founded by Dantidurga in Deccan, their capital was located at Manyakheta or Malkhed. Greatest kings of the Rashtrakuta dynasty were: i) Govind III (796 AD - 814 AD) ii) Amoghavarsha I (814 AD - 978 AD) - He had written the first Kannada book Kavirajamarga. and Ratnamalika in Kannada. iii) KrishnaI built the Kailash Temple at Ellora (in 9th century). Administrative Units of the Rashtrakutas Rashtras - the provinces Visaya - the districts Bhukti - the villages 12.5 The Cholas (850 -1200 AD) The Chola dynasty was founded by Vijayalaya in 850 AD. Early capital was situated at Uraiyur. Later the capital was shifted to Tanjore. Raja Raja I (985 AD - 1014 AD) was an important king. - He constructed the Siva Temple at Tanjore which is also famous as Raja Rajeshvar Temple. Rajendra I (1014 AD- 1044AD) was called the Napolean of South India. The Cholas were famous for naval power and for their village administration. Administrative Units of the Cholas Mandlam, the provinces

Valanadusnadus, the districts Taniyur, the large villages The Village Assembly was constituted of Urs - the assembly of common people. Abha - the assembly of brahmins. Nagaram - the assembly of merchants.

Medieval India It is marked by the beginning of the Sultanate of Delhi, which was established after the conquest of Muhammad Ghori. The period of the Sultanate of Delhi ranges from AD 1206-1526. It is also considered as the beginning of Muslim rule in India. Important Dynasties: 1. The Slave Dynasty period ranges from AD 1206-1290. It was founded by Qutabuddin Aibak whose capital was at Lahore. The Qutub Minar at Delhi was also built by Qutabud-din Aibak. Later Iltutmish got three more floors added to the Minar. Razia Sultana, the only woman ruler of India, and Balban was the important ruler of the Slave Dynasty. Balban had started the Persian Festival, NAUROZ. 2. The Khilji Dynasty was founded by Jalal-ud-din Khilji and its period ranges from AD 1290-1320. Ala-ud-din Khilji was one of the most prominent rulers of this dynasty. He started branding of horses and constructed Siri Fort at Delhi and Alai Darwaza near Qutub Minar. He was famous for market reforms. 3. The Tughlaq dynasty was founded by Ghiyath-al-din-Tughlag and the period of this dynasty ranges from AD 1320-1414. Ibn Buttuta was an important African traveller who visited India in 1333. Mohammed-Bin-Tughlaq introduced coins of brass and copper. Feroz Shah Tughlaq was another important king and he constructed many towns. 4. The Lodhi dynasty was founded by Bahlol Lodhi and the period of this dynasty ranges from AD 14511526. Sikandar Lodhi and Ibrahim Lodhi were the other two prominent rulers belonging to this dynasty. Sikandar Lodhi established Agra City and transferred his capital from Agra to Delhi. 5. Mughal Dynasty (AD 1526-1857) 5.1 Babur - He is credited with the foundation of the Mughal empire by defeating Ibrahim Lodhi in the First Battle of Panipat on April 20, 1526. His tomb is built at Kabul, and his autobiography Baburnama is written in Turkish.

5.2 Humayun - He was the next emperor of the Mughal empire after Babur. His tomb is in Delhi, his biography Humayu-Nama was written by Gulbadan Begum. 5.3 Akbar - He was the most successful Mughal emperor. An excellent leader, who separated religion and politics, started a new religion called Din-e-Ilahi. He established Fatehpur Sikri and Buland Darwaza near Agra. He abolished the Jazia Tax. Bairam Khan, Akbars General, fought the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556 and defeated Hemu. Two important books Akbar-Nama and Ain-e-Akbari were written during Akbars tenure by Abul Fazal. His tomb is built at Sikandara near Agra. 5.4 Jehangir - The son of Akbar, who ascended the throne after Akbars death, known for his administration and strict sense of justice. He was the husband of Noor Jahan Begum and had built Shalimar and Nishant Bagh. His autobiography is Tuzk-eJahangiri and his tomb is built at Lahore. 5.5 Shahjahan - Famous ruler and son of Jehangir, who built the Taj Mahal at Agra, in the memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. Jama Masjid and Red Fort are the other two famous monuments that were built by him. He had transferred his capital from Agra to Delhi. 5.6 Aurangzeb - A very cruel ruler and son of Shahjahan, who demolished several religious structures of Hindus, and ruled for about 50 years. He constructed the Moti Masjid in the Red Fort at Delhi and Bibi ka Makbara at Aurangabad. The Mughal empire started declining with the attack of Nadir Shah who took with him the famous Kohinoor Diamond to Afghanistan and peacock throne to Iran. 6. Suri Dynasty (1540-1555): Sher Shah Suri (1540-1545) - He was a brilliant administrator who issued the Rupiah and Paisa coins and built the famous Grand Trunk Road from Peshawar to Calcutta. He constructed the Old Fort of Delhi. He came to power after Humayun and before Akbar

Modern India Coming of the Europeans

Vasco-da-Gama discovered the sea route to India in 1498 and he belonged to Portugal. So Portugal was the first Eu country to start trade with India. The East India Company (EIC) of England came to India in 1602.

The first officer of the EIC, Captain Hawkins came to India in 1608 in the court of Jahangir, the then ruler of India. The EIC established its first factory at Surat in 1613. The first English Ambassador, Sir Thomas Roe, came to India in 1615 in the court of Jahangir.

Important Battles of Modern India i) Battle of Plassey (1757) Siraj-ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal was defeated by the East India Co., under the leadership of Lord Clive, the first governor of Bengal. It is also known as the Black Hole Episode of the Indian history. ii) Battle of Wandiwash (1760) It was the decisive battle fought between the English and the French. The French rule in India came to an end. iii) Battle of Buxar (1764) The joint army of Mir Quasim, former Nawab of Bengal Suja-ud-Daulah, Nawab of Awadh and Shah Alam II was defeated by the English army under the leadership of Captain Hector Munro. The Regulating Act (1773) In1773, the British Parliament initiated a series of administrative and economic reforms in India. The post of Governor General for Bengal was created. Warren Hastings became the first Governor General of Bengal. The Governor General and his council had all the legislative powers. Supreme Court was established at Calcutta and Sir Elijah Impey became the First Chief Justice of India. Governor Generals (1774 - 1858) 1. Warren Hastings (1774 - 1785) Warren Hastings was the first Governor General of Bengal. The foundation of the British Empire was laid down by Lord Clive (first Governor of Bengal) and Warren Hastings consolidated it. 2. Lord Cornwallis (1786 - 1793) Lord Cornwallis is known as the father of Indian Civil Services. He introduced the system of the Permanent Settlement, also called the Zamindari System, in 1793 in Bengal. It was an agreement between East India Company and the Bengali landlords (zamindars) for effective agricultural methods and productivity in the empire. 3. Lord Wellesley (1797 - 1805) Lord Wellesely adopted the policy of Subsidiary Alliance. He established the Fort William College at Calcutta.

4. Lord William Bentinck (1828 - 1835) He was the first Governer General of India. He was a famous social reformer. He abolished the Sati system in 1829. He introduced engineering education in India. 5. Lord Dalhousie (1845 - 1856) Lord Dalhousie laid the foundation of railways in India. The first railway line was laid between Bombay and Thane and began operating in 1853. He also started the first telegram line in India between Agra and Calcutta. He introduced the Widow Remarriage Act, opened post offices throughout India, established the Public Works Department, and introduced The Doctrine of Lapse. Viceroys of India 1. Lord Canning (1858 - 1862) Lord Canning was the first Viceroy of India. He abolished The Doctrine of Lapse and also established three major Indian universities at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. 2. Lord Litton (1876 - 1880) Lord Litton introduced The Vernacular Press Act, to curb the freedom of Indian Press. 3. Lord Rippon (1880 - 1884) Lord Rippon was known as the father of Local Self Government. He started census for the first time in India in 1881.He abolished The Vernacular Press Act and introduced Illbert Bill. 4. Lord Curzon (1899 - 1904) Lord Curzon was responsible for the partition of Bengal into East and West Bengal in 1905. He passed Indian University Act in 1904 and also passed The Indian Monuments Act. 5. Lord Minto (1905 -1910) During his tenure there was great unrest in India because of the the Indian Council Act or the Minto Morley reforms passed in 1909. 6. Lord Hardinge (1910 - 1916) During his tenure a Durbar was held at Delhi in 1911 to greet the King of England, George V. Bengal was unified and Delhi was made the capital in place of Calcutta in 1911. Gate-way of India was constructed to greet him. 7. Lord Chelmsford (1916 - 1921) Under Lord Chelmsford, The Government of India Act of 1919, popularly know as Montague-Chelmsford reform was passed. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place on 13th April 1919. Rowlatt Act, also called the Black Bill, was passed in 1919. The Non Cooperation movement started in the year 1920.

8. Lord Reading (1921 - 1925) The visit of the Duke of Connaught and the Prince of Wales to India was boycotted under Lord Reading. Mahatma Gandhi called off Non-cooperation Movement in 1922 due to Chauri-Chaura event. 9. Lord Irwin (1926 - 1931) During Lord Irwins reign, the Simon commission visited India in 1928. Civil Disobedience movement was started in India by Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi - Irwin pact was signed in 1931. The First Round Table Conference was held in London. Indian National Congress boycotted it. 10. Lord Willingdon (1931 - 1936) Under Lord Willingdon, the second and third round table conferences were held at London. The Poona pact was signed between Dr. B R Ambedker and Mahatma Gandhi. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar participated in all thre round conference. 11. Lord Linlithgow (1936 - 1943) Under him elections were held for the first time in 11 Indian states in 1939. Congress ministries were formed in eight out of 11 provisions but subsequently resigned because India was being dragged into the Second World War. 12. Lord Wavell (1943 - 1947) Under him the Cabinet Mission came to India from London. The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on 9th December, 1946. 13. Lord Mountbatten (March 13, 1947 to 14 August 1947) Under him an act for Indian independence was passed by British Parliament. He was the last British Governor General of independent India. Presidents of Indian National Congress (Important Sessions)
Session No. 1 3 4 9 21 22 Year 1885 1887 1888 1893 1905 1906 Place Bombay Madras Allahabad Lahore Banaras Kolkata President W. C. Bannerjee BadurddinTyabji George Yule Dadabhai Naoroji G. K. Gokhale Dadabhai Naoroji

23 33 35 36 57

1907 1917 1918 1919 1939

Surat Kolkata Delhi (Annual Session) Amritsar Tripura

Dr. Rash Bihari Ghosh Mrs.Annie Besant M. M. Malyviya Lala Lajpat Rai Dr. Rajendra Prasad

Important Socio-Religious Organisations

Year 1815 1828 1829 1867 1875 Place Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Bombay Bombay Name of the Organisation Atmiya Sabha Brahmo Samaj Dharma Sabha Prarthna Samaj Arya Samaj Founder Ram Mohan Roy Ram Mohan Roy Radhakanta Dev Atmaram Pandurang Swami Dayanand Saraswati Madam H.P. Blavatsky and Col. H.S. Olcott Anand Mohan Bose G.G. Agarkar Syed Ahmad Khan M.G. Ranade Shivnarayan Agnihotri


New York (USA) Calcutta Pune (Poona) Aligarh Bombay Lahore

Theosophical Society

1878 1886 1887 1887 1887

Sadharan Brahmo Samaj Deccan Education Society Muhammadan Educational Conference Indian National Conference Deva Samaj

1897 1905 1911 1914

Belur Bombay Bombay Allahabad

Ramakrishna Mission Servents of Indian Society Social Service League Seva Samiti

Swami Vivekanand Gopalakrishna Gokhale N.M. Joshi H.N. Kunzru

Important Milestones of Modern India

Event First War of Independence Government of India Act Formation of Indian National Congress Year 1857 Related Facts Mangal Pandey was a prominent figure. He killed two British sepoys at Barrackpore.

1858 Direct governance of British Crown over India.


A. O. Hume was the founder. W.C. Banerjee was the first president of Indian National Congress.

Partition of Bengal 1905 Bengal was divided on the basis of religion. Swadeshi Movement Formation of Muslim League MorleyMinto Reforms Home Rule Movement Lucknow Pact 1905 Indian National Congress adopted a resolution on 7th August 1905 to boycott all foreign goods.

1906 Founded by Aga Khan and Salimuddin at Dhaka. Under these reforms, a separate electorate was made for Muslims during the leadership of Lord Minto.


1915Annie Besant started the movement in September 1916. 16 1916 Congress and Muslim League held their sessions at Lucknow, which strengthened the HinduMuslim unity.

Rowlatt Act

It gave unstoppable powers to the government to arrest 1919 and imprison suspects, without even having a trial. Because of firing, under the orders of General O Dyer, 1919 many people were killed, while attending a public meeting at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar. 1920 This was an antiBritish movement started by two brothers Shaukat and Muhammad Ali. Gandhiji pioneered the movement which included the boycott of foreign goods and refusing government work.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre Khilafat Movement Non-Cooperation Movement


Simon Commission was dispatched to India in 1927 to study constitutional reforms. Simon Commission was Simon Commission 1927 confronted by throngs of protesters in India. Lala Lajpat Rai died of his injuries due to Lathi charge in a procession against the Commission. Dandi March (Salt Satyagraha) Gandhiji marched from his Sabarmati Ashram, which was 1930 basically a form of protest against the tax on salt imposed by the British Government. Passed on the basis of the Simon Commission report, it 1935 envisaged the structure of the government under the direct governance of the British Crown. 1942 Mahatma Gandhi led this movement and asked the Britishers to leave India.

Government of India Act Quit India Movement Cabinet Mission Plan Formation of the Constituent Assembly Partition of India

1946 This envisaged forming an interim government in India Without the Muslim leagues participation under the 1946 Assembly predisency of Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the Constituent Assembly was formed. 1947 Indian Independence Act of 1947 was responsible for the partition of India.

Constitution Enforcement

1950 The Constitution came into force on 26th Jan, 1950.

THE EARTH Earth is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest in size. It is also the largest amongst its planetary systems terrestrial planets, making it the largest solid body in the solar system, and it is the only planet in the universe known to support life. The Earth was formed around 4.57 billion years ago and its largest natural satellite, the Moon, was orbiting it shortly thereafter, around 4.533 billion years ago. THE SHAPE OF THE EARTH The Earths shape is that of an oblate spheroid, with an average diameter of approximately 12,742 km (~ 40,000 km /p). THE COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH The mass of the Earth is approximately 5.98 1024 kg. It comprises of iron (35.1%), oxygen (28.2%), silicon (17.2%), magnesium (15.9%), nickel (1.6%), calcium (1.6%) and aluminum (1.5%). THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH The interior of the Earth, like that of the other terrestrial planets, is chemically divided into layers. The Earth has an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core. 1. Earths Hydrosphere The abundance of water on Earth is a unique feature that distinguishes The Blue Planet from the other planets in the Solar System. Approximately, 71% of the Earth is covered by water and only 29% is solid land.

The Earths hydrosphere mainly consists of oceans, but technically includes all water surfaces in the world, including inland seas, lakes, rivers, and underground waters. The average depth of the oceans is 3,794 m (12,447 ft), more than five times the average height of the continents. 2. Earths Atmosphere : It consists of the following layers: Troposphere - This is the lowermost part of the atmosphere in which we live, and which is the theatre for almost all the weather phenomena. Stratosphere - Above troposphere is the stratosphere, which is important primarily because of the presence of ozone. This layer of calm and clear air is preferred for highspeed jet flights because of the absence of air pockets. Mesophere - Above stratosphere is mesosphere, which is more of a transitional layer. Ionosphere - Above mesosphere lies the ionosphere, which has electrically conducting layers that help in radio communication. Exosphere - The outermost layer of the Earths atmosphere is known as the Exosphere. Kinds of Rocks Rocks are naturally occuring aggregate of minerals. The Earths crust and mantle are formed of rocks. The study of rocks is called Petrology. Rocks are classified by their mineral and chemical composition, texture of the constituent particles and the process by which they are formed. The transformation of one rock type to another through geographical process is called the Rock Cycle.

Types of Rocks i. Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks are formed when the molten magma or lava slowly cools and crystallises within the Earths crust. Examples of the Igneous rock are granite,basalt, etc. ii. Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks are formed by the deposition of organic and non-organic matter over a period of time. The process of deposition is called sedimentation. Commonly known sedimentary rocks are coal, limestone, sandstone etc. iii. Metamorphic Rocks Pressure and change in temprature under the Earths surface cause Igneous and Sedimentary rocks to undergo change. This change leads to the formation of Metamorphic Rocks. IMPORTANT GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS i. Latitude and Longitude - Latitude is the angular disance of a point on the Earths surface, measured in degrees from the centre of the Earth. Longitude is the angular distance, measured in degrees along the equator, east or west of the Prime Meridian (the meridian that passes through Greenwich near London). ii. International Date Line It is the line that passes through 180 East or West meridian of longitude which falls on the opposite side of the Greenwich meridian. One day is added when this line is crossed East to West and a day is deducted when the line passes West to East. iii. Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) GMT refers to the 0 longitude that passes through Greenwich near London. iv. Indian Standard Time (IST) - IST refers to the longitude that passes through Allahabad and is hours ahead of the GMT.

v. Solstice - It is the date on which the Sun shines vertically over a tropic when the days and nights are the longest and the shortest. On the 22nd of June the sun shines vertically over the Tropic of Cancer and this date is termed as Summer Solstice for the Northern Hemisphere and Winter Solstice for the Southern Hemisphere. Similarly, on December 22nd, the Sun shines vertically over the Tropic of Capricorn. Hence it is Summer Solstice for Southern Hemisphere and Winter Solstice for the Northern Hemisphere. vi. Equinox - It means two days during the year when the day and night are almost equal throughout the World because the Sun shines vertically over the Equator. March 21st is called the Vernal Equinox and September 23rd is called the Autumnal Equinox. vii. Equator - The Equator represents the imaginary line passing around the Earth midway between the North and South poles. It divides the Earth into two equal parts. viii. Meridians - They represent the imaginary lines drawn out on the global map from pole to pole and perpendicular to the Equator. Prime Meridian is the 0 degree meridian, which passes through Greenwich, a place near London. ix. Aphelion - Aphelion refers to that position of the Earth in its orbit, when it is at the greatest distance from the Sun (about 152 million kms). The Earth reaches this position during the northern summer. This term also refers to the position of any other planet or a comet, when it is at its greatest distance from the Sun. x. Perihelion - Perihelion refers to the nearest point of a heavenly body in its orbit around the Sun. The Earth at perihelion is at a distance of about 147 million kms from the Sun. xi. Apogee - Apogee refers to the position of the orbit of the moon when it is at its greatest distance from Earth. This is approximately 406,000 kms for the Earth. xii. Perigee - Perigee refers to the point of the moon when it is at its minimum distance from the Earth. This distance is approximately 364,000 kms. xiii. Cyclone - Any area of low pressure around which the air turns in the same direction as the Earth is a cyclone. In the Indian Ocean, a tropical storm with masses of air turning rapidly round a low pressure area is called a tropical cyclone. xiv. Typhoon - It is the name given to a tropical cyclone in the Far East. xv. Hurricane - It is a tropical storm in the Caribbean or West Pacific Ocean, with extremely strong winds. The wind force reaches 12 on the Beaufort scale. xvi. Tornado - It is a type of whirlwind which is formed by rising air currents associated with large cumulonimbus clouds. It rotates in an anticlockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in a clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere.

xvii. Estuary - It is the tidal mouth of a river where the salt water of the tide meets the fresh water of the river current. xviii. Isobars - Lines on the map denoting places experiencing equal pressure. xix. Isobaths - Lines denoting equal depths in the Sea. xx. Isobronts - Lines joining places experiencing a thunderstorm at the same time. xxi. Isochrones - Lines joining places located at equal travel time from a common centre. xxii. Isogonics - Lines joining places with the same magnetic declination. xxiii. Isorymes - Lines denoting places experiencing equal frost. xxiv. Isoseismics - Lines denoting places experiencing equal seismic activity. CONTINENTS OF THE WORLD


The 10 Smallest Countries

THE SEAS OF THE WORLD The 10 largest seas of the World and the area covered by them

The worlds largest salt water lake (Inland sea), is Russias Caspian Sea. It has an area of 372,000 Sq. Km. The largest fresh water lake is Lake Superior, Canada, with an area of 82,100 Sq Km. THE PEAKS OF THE WORLD The Tibetan name for Mt. Everest is Chomolungma, which means Goddess mother of the world. The 10 highest peaks of the World, all of which are in the Himalayas, are as follows * Source World Atlas



COUNTRIES, CAPITALS AND CURRENCIES Country Afghanistan Albania Algeria Principality of An Dorra Angola Argentina Australia Capital Kabul Tirane Algiers Andorra La Vieille Luanda Buenos Aires Canberra Currency Afghani Lek Dinar Franc Kwanza Peso Australian Dollar

Austria Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan

Vienna Manama Dhaka Bridgetown Brussels Belmopan Porto Novo Thimphu

Schilling Bahraini Dinar Taka Barbados Dollar Euro Belize Dollar Franc Ngultrum (fixed at par with Indian rupee)

Country Bolivia Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic (CAR) Chad Chile China

Capital La paz/Sucre Gaborone Brasilia Sofia Bujumbura Phnom-Penh Yaounde Ottawa Bangui NDjamena Santiago Beijing

Currency The Boliviano Pula Real Lev Burundi Franc Riel CFA Franc Dollar CFA Franc CFA Franc Peso Renmimbi (Yuan)

Colombia Congo Costa Rica Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Ethiopia Fiji Finland France Gabon The Gambia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada

Bogota Kinshasa San Jose Havana Nicosia Prague Copenhagen Djibouti Santo Domingo Quito Cairo San Salvador Malabo Addis Ababa Suva Helsinki Paris Liberville Banjul Berlin Accra Athens St. Georges

Colombian Peso Congolese Franc Costan Rican Colon Peso Cyprun Pound The Koruna Danish Krone Djibouti Franc Peso US Dollar and Sucre Egyptian Pound Colon CFA Franc Birr Dollar Euro Euro CFA Franc Dalasi Euro Cedi Euro East Carribean Dollar


Guatemala City


Country Guyana Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kenya Korea (North) Korea (South) Kuwait Laos

Capital Georgetown Tegucigalpa Victoria HK Budapest Reykjavik New Delhi Jakarta Teheran Baghdad Dublin Jerusalem Rome Kingston Tokyo Amman Nairobi Pyongyang Seoul Kuwait City Vientiane

Currency Guyana Dollar Lempira Dollar Forint Krona Rupee Rupiah Rial Iraqi Dinar Euro New Shekel Euro Dollar Yen Dinar Shilling Won Won Kuwaiti Dinar Kip

Lebanon Libya Malaysia Malawi Maldives Mauritius Mongolia Myanmar (Burma) Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Peru Philippines

Beirut Tripoli Kuala Lumpur Lilongwe Male Port Louis Ulan Bartor Yangon Windhoek Kathmandu Amsterdam Wellington Abuja Oslo Muscat Islamabad Lima Manila

Pound Libyan Dinar Ringgit Kwacha Rufiya Maurituan Rupee Tugrik Kyat Dollar Nepalese Rupee Euro NZ Dollar Naira Krone Rial Rupees New Sol Peso

Country Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

Capital Warsaw Lisbon San Juan

Currency Zloty Euro US Dollar

Qatar Romania Russia Rwanda Saudi Arabia Seychelles Singapore

Doha Bucharest Moscow Kigali Riyadh (Royal), Jeddah (Administrative) Victoria Singapore City Pretoria (Administrative),Cape Town (Legislative) Madrid Colombo Khartoum Stockholm Berne Damascus Taipei Dodoma Bangkok Tunis Ankara Kampala Abu Dhabi

Riyal (QAR) Leu Rouble Franc Rial Rupee Singapore Dollar

South Africa


Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan Tanzania Thailand Tunisia Turkey Uganda United Arab Emirates (UAE)

Euro Rupee Dinar Krona Franc Syrian Pound New Taiwan Dollar Shilling Baht Dinar Turkish Lira Uganda Shilling Dirham

United Kingdom (UK) United States of America Uruguay Venezuela Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

London Washington D.C. Montevideo Caracas Sanaa Lusaka Harare

Pound Sterling Dollar Peso Bolivar Rial Kwacha Dollar



IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES Durand Line : Boundary between India & Afghanistan. Hindenburg Line : Boundary between Germany & Poland. McMohan Line : Boundary between China & India. Maginot Line : Boundary between France & Germany. Radcliffe Line : Boundary between India & Pakistan. 17th parallel : Defined the boundary between North Vietnam & South Vietnam before the two were united. 38th parallel : Boundary line between North Korea & South Korea. 49th parallel : Boundary line between USA & Canada. Siegfried Line : The line between Germany and France

INDIA AT A GLANCE India, the seventh largest country of the world, accounts for about 2.4% of the total world area. It is bounded by the great Himalayas and other snowy mountains in the north. The country stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer, narrows down and ends into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the East and the Arabian Sea on the West. Location India lies on the Northern Hemisphere between parallels of latitude 37o6 and 8o4 North and between the Meridians of longitude 68o7 E and 97o25 East. Dimensions The land area covered by Indian mainland is 32, 87,780 Sq Kms. It measures about 3214 Kms from North to South and 2933 Kms from East to West. The length of the Indian coastline is 7615 Kms. It is bounded by Arabian Sea in the West, the Indian Ocean in the South and the Bay of Bengal in the East. The coastline of India is not indented and the sea on the coast is not very deep. The Western coast is rocky while the Eastern coast is shallow. Therefore, India does not have many good harbours. Only Mumbai and Goa are natural harbours while all the other are artificial. Population India is the second largest country in the World in terms of population. According to the 2001 census, the population of India was about 10287 crore (16.87% of the World population). The number of males in 2001 was 53.13 crore while the number of females was 49.57 crore. The density of population in India is about 324 persons per square km. The life expectancy is 64 years and the present literacy rate in 2005 was 65.38 percent. Neighbours To the North of the country lie China, Nepal, Bhutan and Afghanistan. The East of the country is surrounded by Myanmar and Bangladesh. Towards the West of India lies Pakistan and in the South, the Indian mainland is surrounded by Sri Lanka. INDIAN AGRICULTURE India primarily has an agrarian economy. About 2/3rd of the population is engaged in agricuture and it provides livelihood to about 60% of the population. About 43% of the total land area in India is under agricultural cultivation. It is the second largest contributor to the national income, and accounted for 16% of the national income. Major Soil Types The major types of soil found in India are: i. Alluvial Soil Alluvial soil is formed due the deposition of particles such as silt, gravel and sand by the rivers in the plains. It is the most fertile soil form found in India and is generally found in regions of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Haryana and parts of West Bengal. This soil type facilitates the cultivation of cereals, pulses, sugarcane and wheat.

ii. Black Soil - Also known as the cotton soil, this soil type is rich in iron, lime and alluminium. It covers 30 percent of the total area of the country. Black soil is generally found in Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu and facilitates the cultivation of cotton, wheat, oil seeds and tobacco. iii. Red Soil This soil is red in colour because of the presence of Iron oxides. It is mainly found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Orissa and Chattisgarh and facilitates the cultivation of wheat, millets, potato and chillies. iv. Laterite Soil Laterite soil is highly leached and the least fertile soil type found in India. It is mainly found in Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and facilitates the cultivation of tea, coffee, and cashew nut. Largest Producers of Major Food Crops
Crops Rice State 1 West Bengal 2 Punjab Wheat 1 Uttar Pradesh 2 Punjab Maize 1 Madhya Pradesh 2 Andhra Pradesh Total Coarse Cereals 1 Maharashtra 2 Karnataka Total Pulses 1 Madhya Pradesh 2 Uttar Pradesh Total Foodgrains 1 Uttar Pradesh 2 Punjab Groundnut 1 Gujarat 2 Tamil Nadu Rapessed & Mustard 1 Rajasthan

2 Uttar Pradesh Soyabean 1 Madhya Pradesh 2 Maharashtra Suflower 1 Karnataka 2 Andhra Pradesh Total Oilseeds 1 Madhya Pradesh 2 Maharashtra Cash Crops Sugarcane 1 Uttar Pradesh 2 Maharashtra Cotton 1 Maharashtra 2 Gujarat Jute & Mesta 1 West Bengal 2 Bihar Potato 1 Uttar Pradesh 2 West Bengal Onion 1 Maharashtra 2 Gujarat

MAJOR RIVERS OF INDIA There are four major river routes found in India. These are: 1) Himalayan Rivers The Himalayan Rivers are snow fed and have water throughout the year. During monsoon heavy rainfall in the Himalayan region causes frequent floods in these rivers. The major Himalayan rivers are: The Indus and its tributaries- Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. The Ganges and its tributaries- Yamuna, Chambal, Betwa, Sone, Ghagra, Gandak, Gomti etc. Brahmaputra and its tributary - Tista.

2) Peninsular Rivers - The Peninsular rivers are only rain fed and fluctuate in volume and a large number of streams dry up after monsoon. The major peninsular rivers are: Mahanadi Krishna Kaveri known as the Ganga of South India. Godavari Narmada Tapi (also known as Tapti) 3) Coastal Rivers - The coastal rivers, especially on the West Coast, are short and have limited catchment areas. Most of these are non-perennial as well. Periyar, Mithi and Mandovi are major coastal rivers of India. 4) Rivers of the inland drainage basin - The rivers on the inland drainage basin consists of those in Western Rajasthan which are very few and short lived, like the Sambhar, which is lost in the desert sands, and the Loni that drains into the Rann of Kutch. Major River Projects
Name of the Project Bhakra Nangal Project Damodar Valley Project Farakka Barrage Project Hirakund Dam Project Nagarjunasagar Project Tehri Dam Project River Satluj Damodar Ganga Mahanadi Krishna Bhilangana, Bhagirathi State Punjab Jharkhand West Bengal Orissa Karnataka Uttrakhand

INDIAS MINERAL WEALTH India has certain basic and useful minerals such as iron and coal. India is very rich in iron, coal, aluminium, limestone, manganese, titanium, thorium and mica but does not have large reserves of mineral oil, sulphur, lead and tin. India is the largest producer of mica blocks and mica splittings, ranks third in the production of coal, fourth in iron ore, sixth in bauxite and manganese ore, tenth in aluminium and eleventh in crude steel. 1. Iron Ranked fourth in the world in iron ore production, India has almost one-fourth of the worlds iron ore reserves. Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa are major iron bearing areas. Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Keonjhar, Bonai and

Mayurbhanj (all Orissa) are areas with richest iron deposits in the world. The major iron ore mines are at Chanda, Bastar and Durg districts in Chhattisgarh. 2. Manganese Ranked sixth in the world for production of manganese, India is a major exporter of manganese and possesses one-third of the worlds reserves. It is an important mineral used for the production of steel. A major portion of the deposits is found in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir. 3. Mica Indias is the worlds largest producer of Mica. The majority of this product (almost 60%) comes from Jharkhand. Apart from Jharkhand, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh are the major producers of Mica in the country. Since the domestic consumption is not very large most of the Mica produce is exported. 4. Coal Ranked third in the production of coal, 80 per cent of the coal is extracted from the mines in West Bengal and Jharkhand. Huge coal reserves exist in Rani Ganj (West Bengal) and Jharia (Jharkhand). Other coal bearing areas are in Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. 5. Bauxite Bauxite is an aluminium ore which is mainly found in Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. These are also the largest aluminium producing areas of the country. Major Indian Industries and Industrial Regions Aircraft - Bangalore and Kanpur. Cement - Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. Cotton Textile - Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Glass - Firozabad, Jabalpur, Amritsar, Ambala, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu. Jute - West Bengal Leather - Kanpur, Batanagar, Dighaghat, Deonar, Chembur, Chennai, Agra, Coimbatore and Bangalore. Paper - Nepanagar, Pune, Saharanpur, Orissa, and Mumbai. Rail Engine and Coaches - Chittaranjan Locomotives Works at Chittaranjan, Diesel Locomotives at Varanasi, Rail Coaches at Integral Coach Factory at Perambur and Rail Coach Factory at Kapurthala. Silk - Karnataka, West Bengal and Jammu and Kashmir. Sugar - Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Tamil Nadu. INDIAN STATES

States Arunachal Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh

Capital Itanagar Hyderabad Guwahati Patna Raipur Panaji Gandhinagar Chandigarh Shimla Srinagar (Summer)

Since 1972 1956 1972 1936 2000 1961 1970 1966 1948

Former Capital Shillong (1874-1972) Ahmedabad (1960-1970)

Jammu and Kashmir Jammu (Winter) Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Ranchi Bengaluru Thiruvananthapuram Bhopal Mumbai Imphal Shillong Aizawl Kohima Bhubaneshwar


2000 1956 1956 1956 1960 1947 1970 1972 1963 1948

Kochi (1949-1956) Cuttack (1936-1948)

Lahore (1936-1947) Punjab Chandigarh 1966 Shimla (1947-1966) Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttaranchal Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Jaipur Gangtok Chennai Agartala Dehradun Lucknow Kolkata 1948 1975 1956 1956 2000 1937 1905

INDIAN UNION TERRITORIES States Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Delhi (NCT) Lakshadweep Puducherry Capital Port Blair Chandigarh Silvassa Daman Delhi Kavaratti Puducherry Since 1956 1966 1961 1987 1956 1956 1954 Former Capital

National Parks and Wild Life Sancturies of India

Name of the National Parks State and famous For

Gir Forests Kaziranga Sanctuary Manas Sanctuary Chandraprabha Sanctuary Ghana or Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary Dachigam Sanctuary Corbett National Park Kanha National Park Shiv Puri National Park Hazaribagh National Park Periyar Game Sanctuary Dudhwa National Park Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary Nokrek National Park Sariska Sanctuary Ranthambhor National Park Namdapha National Park Keibul Lamjo Floating National Park Palamau Tiger Project Simlipal National Park Ranganthittoo Bird Sanctuary Nagarhole National Park Mudumalai Sanctuary

Home of Asiatic lion, Gujarat One horned rhino, Assam One horned rhino, Assam 2nd home of Asiatic lion, Uttar Pradesh Bharatpur, Rajasthan Hangul, Kashmir Home of Tiger, Uttaranchal Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Jharkhand Elephants, Kerala Uttar Pradesh Tamil Nadu Meghalaya Rajasthan Rajasthan Arunachal Pradesh Manipur Bihar Orrisa Mysore, Karnataka Karnataka Tamil Nadu

Balpakram Sanctuary Bandipur Sanctuary Jaldapara Sanctuary Wild Ass Sanctuary

Meghalaya Along the Karnataka - Tamil Nadu Border Rhinos, West Bengal Wild Ass, Rann of Kutch, Gujarat

Important Towns on Rivers

Town River At the confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna Town River




Patna Varanasi Kanpur Hardwar Badrinath Delhi Mathura Ferozpur Ludhiana Srinagar Lucknow Jaunpur Ayodhya

Ganga Ganga Ganga Ganga Alaknanda Yamuna Yamuna Satluj Satluj Jhelum Gomti Gomti Saryu

Jabalpur Ujjain Surat Jamshedpur Agra Guwahati Kolkata Sambalpur Cuttack Serianagapatnam Hyderabad Nasik Vijayvada

Narmada Kshipra Tapti Swarnarekha Yamuna Brahmaputra Hooghly Mahanadi Mahanadi Cauvery Musi Godavari Krishna

Bareilly Ahmedabad

Ram Ganga Sabarmati



Acoustics Aerodynamics Aeronautics Anatomy Anaesthesiology Anthropology Archaeology Astrophysics Astronomy Bacteriology Biology Biophysics Botany Cardiology Ceramics Chemistry : The study of sound and sound waves : The study of forces acting upon bodies in motion in the air (e.g., aircraft, missiles, etc.) : The study of all activities pertaining to aerial locomotion (art of flying) : The science of the structure of th e animal/human body learnt by dissection. :

A branch of medicine concerned with administration of anaesthetics and the condition o patient while under anaesthesia.

: The study of the origin and physical and cultural development of mankind. :

A scientific study of the material remains of the past as evidence of mans life, culture an history.

: A branch of astronomy dealing with the physical nature of heav enly bodies. : The science of heavenly bodies (planets) : A branch of microbiology dealing with bacteria : The science of living organisms; subdivided into Botany and Zoology : The physics of the vital processes of living organisms : The science of the plant kingdom : A branch of medicine dealing with the heart : The art of making objects from clay : The study of elements, their behaviour and laws of their combination, etc.

Cosmetology Cosmology Cytopathology Dermatology Dietetics Entomology Endocrinology Genetics Geology Gerontology Gynaecology Haematology Hepatology Horticulture Hydrology Hygiene Immunology Neuropathology Obstetrics Oncology Ophthalmology Ornithology

: The study of cosmetics and their use : The study of the universeits origin, nature, structure and evolution : The study of diseased cells : A branch of medicine dealing with skin : The science of diet and nutrition : Deals with study of insects : The study of glands : A branch of biology dealing with heredity and the laws that govern it : A study of the chemical composition of the earths crust : A branch medicine studying the ageing process, problems and diseases : A branch of medicine dealing with female diseases of the reproduction system : A branch of medicine studying blood and its disorders : A branch of medicine dealing with liver : A branch of agricultural science dealing with flowers, fruits, vegetables, etc. :

The science of water with reference to its occurrence and properties in the hydrosphere atmosphere

: A branch of medicine dealing with health and its presevation : A branch of medicine dealing with the immune system of the body : A branch of medicine dealing with changes produced by diseases in the nervous system : A branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy, labour and child birth : A branch of medicine dealing with tumours : A branch of medicine dealing with eyes and related problems : The science of birds

Orthopaedics Paediatrics Pathology Physiology Psychiatry Radiology Zoology

A branch of medicine dealing with diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the skeletal sy (bones)

: A branch of medicine dealing with child diseases (infants)

: A branch of medicine that deals with etiologies, mechanisms and manifestation of disea : A study of the life processes of various organs of living organisms : The study and treatment of mental and emotional disorders : A branch of medical science dealing with the use of x-rays for diagnosis and treatment : A branch of biology that deals with animal life

SCIENTIFIC INVENTIONS x Adding Machine (Pascaline) Aeroplane Ballpoint Pen Barometer Bicycle Bicycle Tyre Centigrade Scale Computer Cinema Clock (mechanical) Clock (pendulum) Diesel Engine Dynamite Dynamo Electric Lam Electromagnet Elevator Fountain Pen Gas Lighting Gramophone Inventor(s) Blaise Pascal Wright brothers Laszlo Biro E. Torricelli Kirkpatrick J.B. Dunlop A. Celsius Charles Babbage A.L. and J.L. Lumiere Hsing and Ling-Tsan C. Hugyens Rudolf Diesel Alfred Nobel Michael Faraday Thomas Alva Edison W. Sturgeon E G Otis L.E. Waterman William Murdoch Thomas Alva Edison Country France US Hungary Italy Scotland Scotland France Britain France China The Netherlands Germany Sweden England US England US US Scotland US Year 1642 1903 1938 1644 1839 1888 1742 1820 1895 1725 1656 1892 1866 1831 1879 1825 1852 1884 1794 1877

Jet Engine
Locomotive Machine Gun Match (safety) Microphone

Sir Frank Whittle

Richard Trevithic Richard Gatling J.E. Lundstrom Alexander Graham Bell

England US Sweden US

1804 1861 1844 1876

Z. Janssen Microscope Motor Car (Petrol) Motorcycle Parachute Photography (film) Printing Press Razor (safety) Refrigerator Safety Pin Sewing Machine Ship (steam) Ship (turbine) Steam Engine (piston) Steam Engine Stainless Steel Submarine Telegraph Telegraph Code Karl Benz Daimler JPF Blanchard John Carbott J. Gutenberg K.C. Gillette J. Harrison and A. Catlin Walter Hunt B. Thimmonnier J.C. Perier Sir Charles Parsons Thomas Newcombe James Watt Harry Brearley D. Bushnell Sir Ernest Swington Samuel F.B. Morse

The Netherlands


Germany Germany France US Germany US Britain US France France Britain Britain Scotland England US France US

1885 1885 1785 1888 1455 1895 1850 1849 1829 1775 1894 1712 1765 1913 1776 1787 1837

Telephone Telescope Television Thermometer Transistor Typewriter Watch X-ray Zip Fastener

Alexander Graham Bell Hans Lippershey John Logie Baird Galileo Galilei Bardeen, Shockley and Brattain P Tari Manfredi Wilhelm Roentgen W.L. Judson

US The Netherlands Scotland Italy US Italy Italy Germany US

1876 1608 1926 1593 1948 1808 1462 1895 1891

Instrument Name Ammeter Barometer Calorimeter Cardiograph (ECG) Electrometer Endoscope Galvanometer Hydrometer Hygrometer Lactometer Manometer Micrometer Uses Instrument used for measuring electric current Instrument used for measuring atmospheric pressure Instrument used for measuring heat quantity Instrument used for recording movements of the heart Instrument used for measuring small electric current Instrument used to examine internal body organs Instrument used for measuring electric current Instrument used to relative density of liquids Instrument used to measure atmospheric humidity Instrument used to measure relative density of milk Instrument used to measure pressure of gases Instrument used to measure distances

Microscope Periscope Polygraph Salinometer Sphygmomanometer Stethoscope Telescope Transponder Voltmeter Wattmeter

Instrument used to very minute objects Instrument used in submarines to views objects above sea level Instrument used to record changes in the physiological process in the body Instrument to measure salinity in liquids Instrument used to measure blood pressure Instrument used to hear sounds produced in the body by the lungs and the heart Instrument used to view distant objects Instrument used to receive and send signals Instrument used to measure the potential electric difference between two points Instrument used to measure the power of an electric circuit

The Human Body The human body is composed of billions of cells to perform various functions. The cells are organised to from tissues, tissues are organised to from organs, and organs together form organ system and so on. Human body consists of many specialised organ systems such as skeletal system, muscular system, nervous system, digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system, etc.

1. Skeletal system: It is made up of all the bones of the body and tissues such as tendons, ligaments and cartilage that connects them. In humans, the skeletal system is made up of 206 bones and few cartilages. Functions: Its 206 bones form a rigid framework to which the softer tissues and organs of the body are attached. Vital organs are protected by the skeletal system. The brain is protected by the surrounding skull and the heart and lungs are encased by the sternum and rib cage. The movement in the body is carried out by the interaction of skeletal and muscular system. Bone marrow is the site of production of red blood cells. An average of 2.6 million red blood cells is produced each second by the bone marrow to replace those worn out and destroyed by the liver. Bones serve as a storage area for minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. When an excess is present in the blood, buildup will occur within the bones. When the supply of these minerals within the blood is low, it will be withdrawn from the bones to replenish the supply.

2. Muscular system: There are several types of muscles such as cardiac, sm and skeletal muscles that form a part of muscular system. The muscular syst composed of over 600 muscles. Differences between each muscle are recog by location, function, structure, and the way they are contracted.

Functions: The main function of muscular system is movement. Muscles in coordina with bones, joints, and some other tissues provide movement to the bod

The integrated action of joints, bones, and skeletal muscles produces obvi movements such as walking and running.

Skeletal muscles also produce more subtle movements that result in various expressions, eye movements, and respiration. In addition to movement, muscle contraction also fulfills some other impo functions in the body, such as posture, joint stability, and heat productio Posture, such as sitting and standing, is maintained as a result of muscle

3. Digestive system: The digestive system includes the digestive tract and its accessory organs, which process food into molecules that can be absorbed and utilized by the cells of the body. The digestive tract, also called the alimentary canal or gastrointestinal (GI) tract, consists of a long continuous tube that extends from the mouth to the anus. It includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. The tongue and teeth are accessory structures located in the mouth. The salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are major accessory organs that have a role in digestion. These organs secrete fluids into the digestive tract. Functions: The main function of digestive system is to break down the food particles into smaller and smaller particles so that they get absorbed in the blood.

4. Respiratory system: Respiration is the sequence of events that res in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphe and the body cells.

We generally associate breathing to be the only function of the Respiratory system, breathing is only one of the activities of the respiratory system. The body cells need a continuous supply of oxyge the metabolic processes that are necessary to maintain life. The respir system works with the circulatory system to provide this oxygen and remove the waste products of metabolism. It also helps to regulate pH the blood.

It consists of following organs: Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronc alveoli.

The process of breathing, which involves inhalation and exhalation m air into and out of the lungs.

After this, there is an exchange of gases between the lungs and the bl This is called external respiration. The blood transports the gases to a from the tissue cells. The exchange of gases between the blood and ti cells is internal respiration. Finally, the cells utilize the oxygen for th specific activities. This is cellular metabolism, or cellular respiration. Together these activities constitute respiration.

5. Circulatory system: This system is also known as cardio-vascular system. It consists of the heart, a muscular pumping device, and a closed system of vessels called arteries, veins, and capillaries. The blood is pumped by the heart around a close circuit of vessels. The vital role of the cardiovascular system in maintaining homeostasis depends on the continuous and controlled movement of blood through the thousands of miles of capillaries that permeate every tissue and reach every cell in the body. It is in the microscopic capillaries that blood performs its ultimate transport function. Nutrients and other essential materials pass from capillary blood into fluids surrounding the cells as waste products are removed.

6. Reproductive system: In humans, male reproductive system consists of testes, epididymus, scrotum, vas deferens, penis, and glands. Female reproductive system consists of vagina, cervix, fallopian tubes, uterus, The reproductive system has following functions (i) to produce sperm and egg cells (ii) to produce hormones (iii) to nurture the developing offspring

7. Urinary system: The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The kidneys form the urine and account for the other functio

The urinary system maintains an appropriate fluid volume by regulating the amou water that is excreted in the urine. Other aspects of its function include regulating concentrations of various electrolytes in the body fluids and maintaining normal p the blood. Although the urinary system has a major role in excretion, other organ contribute to the excretory function. The lungs in the respiratory system excrete s waste products, such as carbon dioxide and water. The skin is another excretory o that rids the body of wastes through the sweat glands. The liver and intestines exc bile pigments that result from the destruction of hemoglobin. The major task of excretion still belongs to the urinary system. If it fails the other organs cannot tak and compensate adequately.

8. Nervous system: The nervous system is composed of organs, principally the brain, spinal cord, nerves. These, in turn, consist of various tissues, including nerve, blood, and connective tissue. Together these carry out the complex activities of the nervous system. The nervous system is the major controlling, regulatory, and communicating system in the body. It is the center of all mental activity including thought, learning, and memory.}

9. Endocrine system: The endocrine system, along with the nervous system, functions in the regulation of body activities. The endocrine system acts through chemical messengers called hormones that influence growth, development, and metabolic activities. There are basically two types of glands endocrine and exocrine gland. The endocrine glands are also known as ductless glands. The secretory products of endocrine glands are called hormones and are secreted directly into the blood and then carried throughout the body where they influence only those cells that have receptor sites for that hormone. There are eight major endocrine glands scattered throughout the body. These are Pituitary and pineal gland; thyroid and parathyroid gland; adrenal gland; pancreas; gonads(testes and ovaries), etc. Some glands also have non-endocrine regions that have functions other than hormone secretion. For example, the pancreas has a major exocrine portion that secretes digestive enzymes and an endocrine portion that secretes hormones. The ovaries and testes secrete hormones and also produce the ova and sperm. COMPONENTS OF THE BODY I. Structural organization of cell The word cell is derived from a Latin word cellula, which means a little room. Robert Hooke was the scientist who coined the term cell. He observed the cells while examining a thin slice of cork. The human body, which is made up of numerous cells, begins as a single, newly fertilized cell. Cells constitute various components of plants and animals. A cell is the smallest unit of life and is capable of all living functions. Cells are the building blocks of life. This is the reason why cells are referred to as the basic structural and functional units of life.

The cell theory that all plants and animals are composed of cells and that cell is the basic unit of life was presented by two biologist, Schleiden (1838) and Schwann (1839). The cell theory was further expanded by Rudolf Virchow in 1855. He suggested that all cells arise from pre-existing cells. Principles of cell theory A. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells. B. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism. C. All cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells. There are many different types, sizes, and shapes of cells in the body. For descriptive purposes, the concept of a generalized cell is introduced. It includes features from all cell types. A cell consists of three parts: the cell membrane, the nucleus, and between the two, the cytoplasm. Within the cytoplasm lie intricate arrangements of fine fibers and hundreds or even thousands of miniscule but distinct structures called organelles. Plasma membrane or cell membrane: The cell membrane (or plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is the outermost covering of the cell that separates the contents of the cell from the external environment. Cell membrane is an extremely delicate, thin, elastic, and living membrane of the cell. It surrounds the cytoplasm of the cell and regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cell. This means that the cell membrane allows the entry of only some substances and prevents the movement of some other materials. Therefore, the cell membrane is known as selectively permeable membrane. Functions of plasma membrane: 1. It gives a definite shape to the cell. 2. It separates the contents of the cell from its surrounding medium. 3. It provides mechanical barrier for the protection of the internal contents of cell. 4. It regulates entry and exit of substances in and out of the cell. Cytoplasm: It is the fluid that fills the cell and occurs between the plasma membrane and the nuclear membrane. The cell organelles are suspended in the cytoplasm. Functions: 1. Cytoplasm helps in the exchange of material between the cell organelles. 2. It acts as a storage organelle of vital chemicals, such as amino acids, glucose, vitamins, ions etc. 3. It is the site of certain metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis, synthesis of fatty acids, nucleotides, and some amino acids. Nucleus: The nucleus is round in shape and is the largest organelle of the cell. It is generally present in the centre of the cell, except in plant cells where the nucleus is pushed towards

the periphery of the cell because of the central vacuole. The nucleus is composed of the following components: nuclear membrane, nucleoplasm, and nucleolus. Functions of nucleus: 1. The nucleus controls all metabolic activities of the cell. 2. It regulates the cell cycle. 3. It is concerned with the transmission of hereditary traits from the parent to the offspring. 4. It plays an important role in cellular reproduction, the process by which a single cell divides or forms two new cells. Cell organelles Endoplasmic Reticulum: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large network of membrane-bound tubes and sheets. It looks like long tubules or round or oblong bags (vesicles). The ER functions as a packaging system. However, it does not work alone; it works closely with Golgi apparatus and ribosomes. There are two types of ERrough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). RER looks rough under a microscope because it has particles called ribosomes attached to its surface. The ribosomes, which are present in all active cells, are the sites of protein manufacturing. Functions: 1. ER serves as a channel for the transport of materials (especially proteins) between various regions of the cytoplasm or between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. 2. ER also functions as a cytoplasmic framework providing a surface for some of the biochemical activities of the cell. Ribosomes: These are very small, round structures found either in free state suspended in the cytoplasm or attached to the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum. They are composed of ribonucleic acids and proteins. The main function of ribosomes is to act as a site of protein synthesis. Golgi Apparatus: The Golgi apparatus is another packaging organelle like the endoplasmic reticulum. It was named after Camillo Golgi, an Italian biologist. It consists of a system of membrane bound vesicles arranged approximately parallel to each other in stacks called cisterns. Functions: 1. The material synthesised near the ER is packaged and dispatched to various targets inside and outside the cell through the Golgi apparatus. 2. It helps in the storage, modification and packaging of products in vesicles. 3. The Golgi apparatus is also involved in the formation of lysosomes and peroxisomes.

Lysosomes: Lysosomes are found in almost all animal-like eukaryotic cells. It is a membrane-bound vesicular structure that holds variety of other enzymes. The purpose of lysosome is to digest worn out cells. Lysosomes are involved in intracellular digestion of foreign food particles or microbes and are called digestive bags. Sometimes, this organelle is also involved in the self-digestion of cells after their death, also known as autolysis. Hence they are also called as suicidal bags. Lysosomes are a kind of waste disposal system of a cell. Mitochondria: Mitochondria create energy for the cell and this process of creating energy for the cell is known as cellular respiration. Most of the chemical reactions involved in cellular respiration occur in mitochondria. (though cellular respiration also occur in cytoplasm but very little energy is produced) The energy required for various chemical activities needed for life is released by mitochondria in the form of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) molecules. This is why, mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of the cell. Functions of Mitochondria: 1. Mitochondria are the sites of cellular respiration. 2. They provide energy (in the form of ATP) for vital activities of the living cells. 3. Mitochondria are able to make some of their own proteins, so they are regarded as semiautonomous organelles. Plastids: Plastids are the organelles that are present only in plant cells. These are double membrane organelles which are usually spherical or discoidal in shape. There are two types of plastids chromoplasts (coloured plastids) and leucoplasts (white or colourless plastids). Chromoplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll are known as chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are important for photosynthesis in plants. Chloroplasts also contain various yellow or orange pigments in addition to chlorophyll. Leucoplasts are primarily organelles in which materials such as starch, oils and protein granules are stored. Vacuoles: Vacuoles are storage sacs (for solid or liquid contents) found in the cells. These are found in both plant and animal cells but are much larger in plant cells. The central vacuole of some plant cells may occupy 50-90% of the cell volume. In plant cells, vacuoles are full of cell sap and provide turgidity and rigidity to the cell. Vacuoles store food and nutrients that a cell needs to survive. These include amino acids, sugars, various organic acids and some proteins. Differences between plant and animal cells

Animal Cell 1. Animal cells are generally small in size. 2. Cell wall is absent.

Plant Cell 1. Plant cells are usually larger than animal cells.

2. The plasma membrane of plant cells is surrounded by a rigid ce of cellulose. 3. Plastids (chromoplasts and leucoplasts) are possesses plastids.

3. Except the protozoan Euglena, no animal cell present.

4. Vacuoles are less in number and small in size. 4. Vacuoles are present in abundance and larger in size. 5. Animal cells have a single highly complex and prominent golgi apparatus. 5. Plant cells have many simpler units of golgi apparatus, called dictyosomes.

II. Blood Blood is a highly specialised connective tissue present in human body. It is a vascular tissue that contains cells, separated by a non-living, liquid material. This liquid material or fluid is known as plasma. Red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets are suspended in plasma. The blood is the medium through which the entire body is nourished and supported carrying nutrient molecules from digested foods, as well as carrying away harmful waste products such as carbon dioxide. It circulates the needed oxygen from the lungs. It also picks up hormones and uses custom distribution to deliver chemical messages to the organs it comes into contact with. As other organs interact with the blood it is in a constant flux of updating and extending its chemical composition. Functions of blood: It transports hormones, nutrients, waste material to different parts of the body. Red blood cells transport respiratory gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. White blood cells fight diseases by producing antibodies. III. Human brain The brain is the main coordinating centre of the body. It is a part of the nervous system that controls and monitors every organ of the body.

The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) and th peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS consists of the brain and spinal while the PNS consists of nerves that connect the central nervous system to different parts of the body.

The central nervous system receives information from all parts of the body also sends information to the muscles. The communication between the CN the body parts is facilitated by the nerves of the PNS.

The brain is divisible into three main regionsforebrain, midbrain, and hin Forebrain: It consists of the cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus. It is the main thinking part of the brain. Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and constitutes fourfifth of its weight. The forebrain has sensory regions that receive sensory impulses from various receptors, as well as motor regions that control the movement of various muscles such as, the leg muscles. There are separate areas in the forebrain that are specialized for hearing, smelling, sight, and general sensations such as pain, touch, taste, etc. A certain part of the cerebrum primarily controls intelligence, learning, memory, thinking, and speech. The forebrain is also known as the main thinking part of the brain. The hypothalamus contains many areas that control things such as body temperature, urge for eating and drinking, etc. Some regions of the cerebrum, along with the hypothalamus, are involved in the regulation of sexual behaviour and expression of emotional reactions such as, excitement, pleasure, fear, etc. Midbrain: It has regions that are concerned with the sense of sight and hearing. Some regions of the midbrain transmit motor impulses to the limbs. Hindbrain: Most involuntary actions such as heartbeat, blood pressure, movement of food in the alimentary canal, salivation, etc., are controlled by the midbrain and hindbrain. All these involuntary actions are controlled by the medulla of the hindbrain. The cerebellum, which is a part of the hindbrain, is responsible for maintaining posture and equilibrium of the body. It also coordinates the contraction of voluntary muscles according to the directions of the cerebrum. The brain, as you have learnt, is an important organ for the maintenance of a variety of activities. As an important organ, it needs protection. Hence, it is enclosed by a bony box called the cranium. The spinal cord is protected by a bony, curved, vertical rod called the vertebrae or vertebral column. EYE Our paired eyes are located in sockets of the skull called orbits. A brief account of structure and functions of the human eye is given in the following sections.

Parts of an eye The adult human eye ball is nearly a spherical structure. The wall of the eye ball is composed of three layers.
The external layer is composed of a dense connective tissue and is called the sclera. The anterior portion of this layer is called the cornea. The middle layer, choroid, contains many blood vessels and looks bluish in colour. The choroid layer is thin over the posterior two-thirds of the eye ball, but it becomes thick in the anterior part to form the ciliary body. The ciliary body itself continues forward to form a pigmented and opaque structure called the iris which is the visible coloured portion of the eye.

The eye ball contains a transparent crystalline lens which is held in place by ligaments attached to the ciliary body

In front of the lens, the aperture surrounded by the iris is called the pupil. The diameter of the pupil is regulated b the muscle fibres of iris. The inner layer is the retina and it contains three layers of cells from inside to outside ganglion cells, bipolar cells and photoreceptor cells.


Myopia Myopia is also known as near-sightedness. A person with myopia can see nearby objects clearly but cannot see distant objects distinctly. This defect can be corrected by using a concave lens of suitable power.

Hypermetropia Hypermetropia is also known as far-sightedness. A person with hypermetropia can see distant objects clearly but cannot see nearby objects distinctly. This defect arises either because (i) the focal length of the eye lens is too long, or (ii) the eyeball has become too small. This defect can be corrected by using a convex lens of appropriate power. Presbyopia The power of accommodation of the eye usually decreases with ageing. For most people, the near point gradually recedes away. They find it difficult to see nearby objects comfortable and distinctly without corrective eye-glasses. This defect is called Presbyopia. EAR The ears perform two sensory functions, hearing and maintenance of body balance. Anatomically, the ear can be divided into three major sections called the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear.

The outer ear consists of the pinna and external auditory meatus (canal). The pinna collects the vibrations in the ai which produce sound. The external auditory meatus leads inwards and extends up to the tympanic membrane (the ear drum).

There are very fine hairs and wax- secreting sebaceous glands in the skin of the pinna and the meatus. The tympan membrane is composed of connective tissues covered with skin outside and with mucus membrane inside. The middle ear contains three ossicles called malleus, incus and stapes which are attached to one another in a chain-like fashion. The malleus is attached to the tympanic membrane and the stapes is attached to the oval window of the cochlea. The ear ossicles increase the efficiency of transmission of sound waves to the inner ear. An Eustachian tube connects the middle ear cavity with the pharynx. The Eustachian tube helps in equalising the pressures on either sides of the ear drum.

FOOD AND NUTRITION The process of intake of any external source of energy or food is called nutrition. All living organisms require energy, but they get it from different sources. Some organisms utilize simple inorganic sources such as, carbon dioxide and water, whereas the other organisms utilize complex substances. These complex substances are broken down into simpler ones before they can be utilized by various life processes for the growth and repair of the body. All the varied sources of energy, that any living organism consumes, are always broken down or built up into a uniform source of energy that can be used for sustaining various life processes. There are seven major classes of nutrients that the body needs: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, fibers and water Carbohydrates: These are the bodys main source of energy. The three different kinds of carbohydrates are starch, sugar and fibers. Plant foods like cereals, bread, rice, pasta, potatoes, plantains and corn are good sources of starch. They give us the energy we need to do daily activities. These starchy foods give us important vitamins and minerals, too. Fats: Fat is a nutrient that is an important source of calories. One gram of fat supplies 9 calories - more than twice the amount we get from carbohydrates or protein. Fat also is needed to carry and store essential fat-soluble vitamins, like vitamins A and D. There are two basic types of fat. They are grouped by their chemical structure. Each type of fat is used differently in our bodies and has a different effect on our health. Fat is found in many foods. Some of the fat that we eat comes from the fat we add in cooking or spread on breads, vegetables or other foods. A lot of fat is hidden in foods that we eat as snacks, pastries or prepared meals.

Proteins These are necessary for the growth of the cells. It also repairs or replaces healthy cells and tissues. Protein is made of chains of amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. Our bodies can make most of the amino acids. Most foods that are obtained from animals, such as fish, chicken, beef, pork, eggs, milk, cheese, and yogurt contain all of the essential amino acids. They are known as complete proteins. Plant foods, such as rice, dried beans, peas, lentils, nuts, seeds, wheat, oats, corn, may be low or lacking in one or more of the amino acids. They are considered to be incomplete proteins. Vitamins These are the organic compounds obtained from the food in minute quantity. They must be supplied from external sources and perform specific functions. On the basis of their solubility, vitamins are divided into two categories: Fat soluble vitamins Vitamin A, D, E, and K Water soluble vitamins Vitamin B complex, and C Vitamin A: It is also known as retinol. It is manly found in animal sources such as codliver oil, milk, butter, ghee, egg, fish, etc. In plant sources, vitamin A is mainly found in carrot, tomatoes, leafy vegetable, papaya, etc. The deficiency of this vitamin can cause nightblindness. Functions Vitamin A is essential for growth. It is main component of rhodopsin, hence it is essential for night vision. It controls the action of bone cells. Vitamin D: It is also known as calciferol. It is mainly found in animal sources such as cod liver oil, butter, milk, ghee, egg, etc. Functions It promotes calcium absorption from the intestine. It helps in the development of new born. Vitamin E: It is also known as tocopherol. The main animal source of this vitamin is egg, fish, meat, etc. The plant sources include vegetable seed oils sucha s wheat, soyabean, corn, etc. Functions It has antioxidative properties. It mainly prevents unwanted oxidation the body. It is required for normal functioning of muscles. Vitamin K: It is also known as phylloquinone. The main plant sources of this vitamin are cabbage, spinach, tomatoes, etc.

Functions It helps in the maintenance of normal prothrombin and factor VII in the blood. Thus it takes active part in normal coagulation. Vitamin B complex: It includes vitamin B1 or thiamine, B2 or riboflavin, B3 or pantothenic acid, B5 or niacin, B6 or pyridoxine, B12 or cyanocobalamin. The main source of this vitamin are cereals, pulses, nuts, and green vegetables. Functions: It is essential for normal growth It is essential basic reactions of metabolism It helps in the formation of fat from carbohydrates. Vitamin C: It is also known as ascorbic acid. It is mainly found in citrus fruits such as amla, tomato, papaya, etc. It is also found in fresh vegetables such as cabbage, spinach, cauliflower, beans. Etc. Functions: It is essential for proper functioning of the formative cells of various tissues It plays a key role in wound repair. Human diseases 1. Infectious diseases A disease caused due to microorganisms is known as an infectious disease. Infectious agents: They are the disease-causing microorganisms which belong to different categories such as: Viruses Some bacteria Some fungi Some unicellular animals Some multicellular animals

Infectious agents

Viruses They are very tiny organisms which are visible only with the help of electron microscope. They cannot grow, multiply, or reproduce on their own. They need to infect a host cell to get the required machinery to perform these functions. Influenza, cold (Rhinovirus), dengue, AIDS, etc., are certain human diseases caused by viruses.

Bacteria Bacteria are unicellular organisms that are larger than viruses. There are only some bacteria that cause diseases while some other bacteria are useful in nature. Whooping cough, typhoid, cholera, anthrax, etc., are certain human diseases caused by bacteria.

Fungi They are plant-like organisms, which are heterotrophic, i.e., they lack chlorophyll. Their cells have cell walls Athletes foot, candidiasis, ringworms, etc., are some human diseases caused by fungi. Protozoa They are simple, primitive unicellular organisms which include Amoeba, Trypanosoma, and Leishmania. They are often found in water as they need moisture for survival. Hence, they cause diseases through contaminated water. Amoebiasis, kala azar, malaria, African sleeping sickness, etc., are some of the diseases caused by protozoans.

Multicellular animals like worms Worms are the parasites that infect intestines of human beings and other animals. It includes round worms, pinworms, hookworm, tapeworm etc. Diarrhoea, anaemia, liver rot, etc., are caused by these worms.

2. Deficiency diseases: These diseases are caused by the deficiency of one or the other nutrient in the diet. For example,
i. ii. Deficiency of protein may cause Kwashiorkar and marasmus Deficiency of iron causes anaemia

iii. Deficiency of iodine causes goitre iv. Deficiency of vitamin A causes night blindness v. Deficiency of vitamin B1 causes beri-beri

Books and Authors

Name of the book Author


BaburNama Made in Japan Mein Kamph Moon Walk Sunny Days Wings of Fire

Babur Akio Morita Adolf Hitler Michael Jackson Sunil Gavaskar APJ Abdul Kalam

Biographies Ain-I-Akbari Akbarnama Idols Shahnama Abul Fazal Abul Fazal Sunil Gavaskar Firdausi

Classic Alls Well that Ends well A Tale of Two Cities Anna Karenina Antony and Cleopatra As You like it Abhijnanshakuntalam Babbit Ceaser and Cleopatra The Comedy of Errors William Shakespeare Charles Dickens Leo Tolstoy William Shakespeare William Shakespeare Kalidas Sinclair Lewis George Bernard Shaw Shakespeare

David Copperfield Devdas Sharat Doctor Zhivago Don Quixote Fountain Head Gone with the Wind Gullivers Travels Hamlet Iliad Indica The Importance of Being Earnest Invisible Man Julius Caesar Kadambari Kamasutra Kamayani King Lear Macbeth Mahabharata Meghdoot Merchant of Venice Much Ado About Nothing

Charles Dickens Chandra Chatterjee Boris Pasternak Miguel de Cervantes Ayn Rand Margaret Mitchell Jonathan Swift William Shakespeare Homer Magasthenese Oscar Wilde H. G. Wells William Shakespeare Bana Bhatt Vatsyayan Jai Shankar Prasad William Shakespeare William Shakespeare Ved Vyas Kalidas William Shakespeare William Shakespeare

Mudra Rakshas Natya Shastra Nine Days Wonder Odyssey Oliver Othello Paradise Lost Pather Panchali Pride and Prejudice Raghuvamsa Ram Charita Manas Ramayana Ratnavali Rendezvous with Rama Ritu Samhara Robinson Crusoe Romeo and Juliet Savitri Sense and Sensibility Sohrab and Rustum The Tempest The Count of Monte Cristo

Vishakadutta Bharat Muni John Masefield Homer Charles Dickens William Shakespeare John Milton Bibhuti Bhushan Bandopadhyay Jane Austen Kalidas Tulsidas Valmiki Harsha Vardhan Arthur C Clarke Kalidas Daniel Defoe William Shakespeare Sir Aurobindo Ghosh Jane Austen Mathew Arnold William Shakespeare Alexander Dumas

My Experiments with Truth Three Musketeers Time machine Treasure Island Twelfth Night Twenty Years After Ulysses James Unto This Last Uttar Ramcharita Vanity Fair Vinay Patrika The Virginians Yama

Mahatma Gandhi Alexander Dumas H.G. Wells R L Stevenson Willam Shakespeare Alexander Dumas Joyce John Ruskin Bhavbhuti William Thackeray Tulsidas William Thackeray Mahadevi Verma

Descriptive Area of Darkness Freedom from Fear Long Walk to Freedom Maneaters of Kumaon Origin of Species Sadar-I-Riyasat Starry Nights V. S. Naipaul Aung San Su Kyi Nelson Mandela Jim Corbett Charles Darwin Karan Singh Shobha De

Economics New Dimensions of Indias Foreign Policy Wealth of Nations A B Vajpayee Adam Smith

Fantasy Adventures of Tom Sawyer The Class Dr. JekyII and Mr. Hyde One Hundred Years of Solitude Other Side of Midnight, The Swami and Friends The Alchemist The God of Small Things Mark Twain Eric Segal Robert Louis Stevenson Gabrial Garcla Marquez Sidney Sheldon R.K. Narayan Paulo Coelho Arundhati Roy

Fiction Adventures of Sherlock Holmes Adventure of Robinson Crusoe Adventures of Tom Sawyer Alice in Wonderland A Bend In the River A Suitable Boy An Equal Music Arabian Nights Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Daniel Defoe Mark Twain Lewis Carrol V S Naipaul Vikram Seth Vikram Seth Richard Burton

Being Digital Catcher in the Rye Canterbury Tales Chitra City of Joy Coolie East West Fury Future Shock Godfather Godan The Guide Gullivers Travels Half a Life Harsha Charita Inscrutable Americans Interpreter of Maladies Iron in the soul Ivanhoe The Judgement Jungle Book Kim

Nicholas Negroponte J D Sallinger Geoffrey Chaucer Rabindranath Tagore Domonique Lapiere Mulk Raj Anand Salman Rushdie Salman Rushdie Alvin Toffler Mario Puzo Munshi Prem Chand R.K. Narayan Jonathan Swift V S Naipaul Bana Bhatt Anurag Mathur Jhumpa Lahiri Jean Paul Sartre Walter Scott Kuldip Nayar Rudyard Kipling Rudyard Kipling

Life Divine Lajja Lolita Love Story Malgudi Days Midnights children Moors Last Sigh Mother Nice Guys Finish Second Panchatantra Post Office The Satanic Verses Shape of Things to Come Shame The Last Don The Tin Drum Treasure Island Two Leaves and a Bud Unofficial Guide to Ethical Hacking Vish Vriksha War and Peace

Aurobindo Ghosh Tasleema Nasreen V. Nabakov Eric Segal R K Narayan Salman Rushdie Salman Rushdie Moxim Gorky B K Nehru Vishnu Sharma Rabindranath Tagore Salman Rushdie H. G. Wells Salman Rushdie Mario Puzo Guenter Grass R L Stevenson Mulk Raj Anand Ankit Fadia Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Leo Tolstoy

History Books

Arthashastra August 1914 (H) Ben Hur Communist Manifesto Discovery of India Hindu View of Life India-A Wounded Civilisation India Divided India Wins Freedom Indian Home Rule Indian Philosophy Man and Superman A Passage to India Wake up India The Wonder that Was India

Kautilya Alexander Solzhenitsyn Lewis Wallace Karl Marx Jawahar Lal Nehru D. S. Radhakrishnan V S Naipaul Rajendra Prasad Maulana Abul Kalam Azad M. K. Gandhi D. S. Radhakrishnan George Bernard Shaw E. M. Forster Annie Besant A.L. Basham

Poetry Bharat Bharati Geet Govinda Gitanjali Rubaiyat Maithili Sharan Gupt Jaya Dev Rabindranath Tagore Omar Khayyam


Atlas Shrugged Geet govinda Voice of Conscience

Ayn Rand Jaya Dev V. V. Giri

Psychology Crime and Punishment Games People Play Man of Destiny Satyartha Prakash Fyodor Dostoevsky Eric Berne George Bernard Shaw Swami Dayanand

Sociology Das Kapital Diplomacy Gita Rahasya Grammer of Politics Politics Republic Sub Regionalism in Asia Surviving Men The Degeneration of India Untouchable Utopia Karl Marx Henry Kissinger Bal Gangadhar Tilak Harold Laski Aristotle Plato Abul Kalam Azad Khushwant Singh T. N. Seshan Mulk Raj Anand Thomas Moore


Area of Darkness Between the lines Brave New world Broken wing Beyond Peace Blood, Brain and Beer Confessions of a Lover District Diary Dragon Fire Dilemma of our time Doctors Dilemma Don Juan Ends and Means Fifth Column Farewell to Arms First Among Equals For Whom the Bell Tolls Gathering Storm Glimpses of World History Golden Threshold The Golden Gate Heat and Dust

V. S. Naipaul Kuldip Nayar Aldous Huxley Sarojini Naidu Richard Nixon David Ogilvy Mulk Raj Anand Jaswant Singh Humphry Hawensky Harold Joseph Laski George Bernard Shaw Lord Byron Aldous Huxley Ernest Hemingway Ernest Hemingway Jeffrey Archer Ernest Hemingway Winston Churchill Jawaharlal Nehru Sarojini Naidu Virkram Seth Ruth P. Jhabwala

India Unbound Is Paris Burning If I am Assassinated Kumar Sambhava Mother India My Music, My life My Truth A Passage to England To live or Not to Live Triumph Valley of Dolls Worshipping False Gods

Gurcharan Das Larry Collins & Dominique Lapiere Z. A. Bhutto Kalidas Katherine Mayo Ravi Shankar Indira Gandhi Nirad C. Choudhary Nirad C. Choudhary John Kenneth Galbraith Jacqueline Susan Arun Shourie

Major Print Media Companies in India 1. ANANDA BAZAR PATRIKA LTD. (ABP LTD.)

ABP Ltd. is one of the leading media companies in India. The group started out as a newspaper by the name of Ananda Bazar Patrika in 1922. ABP was founded by Prafulla Chandra Sarkar who was also the editor. Today along with its flagship newspaper, the group publishes 9 other publications. These include
l l l The Telegraph in Schools standlone Newspaper by & for school students Unish Kuri teen Bengali Magazine 2003 Ananda Bazar Patrika a premier Bengali language daily

l l l l l l l l l l l

Anandamela a childrens monthly magazine in Bengali Anadalok a film magazine published in Bengali Desh a literary magazine Boier Desh another literary magazine in Bengali Sports World a sports magazine The Telegraph an English language daily Sunday an English language weekly magazine Business World a weekly business magazine Career Fortnightly launched in 2004 Sanada Fortnightly Woman Magazine Bengali & Oriya Star Majha Marathi 2007, Star News 2003

The group jointly owns a 24 hour news channel in collaboration with Star India by the name of Star Ananda Bengali 2005. The present editor-in-chief of the group is Mr. Aveek Sarkar.


The Indian Express group is another leading media company owned by the RPG group. The Indian Express group started out as a newspaper by the same name in 1932. The foundation of the group was laid down by Late Shri Ramnath Goenka. The present Chairman and Managing Director of the group is Mr. Vivek Goenka. Presently the group owns 35 national editions, 14 publication centers and 7 national language dailies. Some of the major group publications are
l l l l l The Indian Express a leading national daily The Sunday Express a weekly English newspaper Loksatta a Marathi language daily Express Hospitality Express Travel work monthly The Financial Express daily business newspaper

l l l l l l l

Lok Prabha a weekly Marathi language magazine Jansatta a Hindi language daily Screen a film magazine published in Hindi and English Network Magazine an IT Intelligent Enterprize Express Computer Weekly express channel business Express Pharma Express Healthcare Healthcare Management a pharmacy magazine


The company started its operations in Bombay (Mumbai) in 1838 when the first edition of The Times of India was published. Today, Bennett Coleman & Co. Ltd. is one of the leading media house in India. The group is a multi-product group and has a number of leading media brands to its name. These include,
l l l l l l l l l The Times of India a leading English language daily The Economic Times a leading business daily NavBharat Times a leading Hindi language daily Maharashtra Times a leading Marathi daily Femina a womens magazine published in English Filmfare a film magazine Times Music The groups music label Radio Mirchi The groups radio station The groups internet portal

The present chairperson of the group is Ms. Indu Jain. Mr. Vineet Jain is the Managing Director of the group. 4. HT MEDIA LTD.

One of the largest Indian media company, HT Media ltd. was founded in 1924 when its first newspaper, Hindustan Times was launched. A flagship company of the KK Birla group, HT Media Ltd. today operates with 15 printing facilities across India. Some major brands owned by the company are:
l l l l l l l l l Hindustan Times a leading English daily online newspaper of the group industan a leading Hindi daily online Hindi newspaper HT Next a youth newspaper Kadambini a monthly Hindi magazine Nandan a popular childrens magazine published in Hindi and English Metro Now Young Delhities Newspaper Mint Business Newspaper

The present Chairman of HT Media Ltd. is Mr. K K Birla. Mr. Vir Sanghvi is the editor-in-chief. 5. INDIA TODAY GROUP (LIVING MEDIA PVT. LTD.)

India Today Group is the largest media house in India. The group was founded in 1975 by Mr. Aroon Purie, who has held the position of editor- in- chief for the last three decades. Today the group has 12 magazines, 3 Radio stations, 4 TV channels, a newspaper, a music label, a book publishing house and Indias only book club in its bouquet. These include:

l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l

India Today a weekly magazine published in Hindi and English Money Today a monthly financial magazine Business Today a fortnightly business magazine Mens Health a monthly health magazine for men Design Today a monthly interior design magazine Good Housekeeping a monthly magazine Travel Plus a monthly travel magazine Cosmopolitan a monthly womens magazine Readers Digest a monthly magazine Golf Digest India a monthly golf magazine Harvard Business Review a Harvard Business School management journal Time Indian issue of the magazine Fortune Indian issue of the magazine Chartered Accountant a monthly journal on Chartered Accountancy Today a daily newspaper Aaj Tak, Delhi Aaj Tak, Tez 24 hour Hindi news channels Headlines Today 24 hour English news channel Thompson Press The groups publishing label Music Today The groups music label Meow 104.8 FM Stations Just for Women


The Hindu group started its operations as a weekly newspaper by the same name in 1878. The newspaper became a daily in 1889. Today, the groups flagship newspaper is printed from 12 centers. Some of the other group publications include:

l l l l l l l l l l

Hindu Business Line a business daily The Sportstar a weekly sports magazine Frontline fortnightly features magazine Survey of the Indian Industry an annual review on Indian industries Survey of Indian Agriculture an annual review on Indian agriculture Survey of the Environment an annual review of the environment Indian Cricket an annual record book on cricket The Hindu Daily The Hindu International Edition Weekly The Hindu International Monthly & Cumulated annual

The present group editor-in-chief is Mr. N. Ram. Major Indian Magazines

Magazine A&M Business World The Week Business Today Computers Today Cosmopolitan Digit Economic & Political Weekly Femina Filmfare Publishing House Spectrum Magazines Ananda Bazar Patrika Malayala Manorama Living Media Living Media Living Media Jassubhai Digital Media Sameeksha Trust Bennett Coleman & Co. Bennett Coleman & Co.

Fortune (Indian Edition) Frontline Gentleman Good Housekeeping India Today Intelligent Investor Kadambini Nandan Outlook Readers Digest (Indian Edition) The Sportstar Teens Today Yojana

Living Media Hindu Group Express Publications Living Media Living Media Berkshire Hathaway HT Media Ltd. HT Media Ltd. Rajan Raheja group Living Media Hindu Group Living Media Ministry of I&B

Major Indian Newspapers

Newspaper Asian Age Business Standard Financial Express Hindu Business Line Hindustan Times Indian Express Navbharat Times Publishing House Asian Age Holdings Business Standard Ltd. RPG promoted Indian Express Group Hindu Group K K Birla promoted HT Media Ltd. RPG promoted Indian Express Group Bennett Coleman & Co.

Pioneer Telegraph The Hindu The Economic Times The Times of India Tribune

CMYK Printech Ananda Bazar Patrika Hindu Group Bennett Coleman & Co. Bennett Coleman & Co. Tribune Trust


AAGR AAR ABB ADAG ADB ADR AGM APEC APM ASCII ASSOCHAM B2B B2C BIS BOP Average Annual Growth Rate Average Annual Return Asean Braun Boveri Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group Asian Development Bank American Depository Receipts Annual General Meeting Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Administered Price Mechanism American Standard Code for Information Interchange Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry Business to Business Business to Consumer Bank for International Settlements, Bureau of Indian Standards Balance of Payment


Business Process Outsourcing Brazil India Russia China Bombay Stock Exchange Compounded Annual Growth Rate Chief Executive Officer Chief Financial Officer Confederation of Indian Industries Commonwealth of Independent States Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy Consumer Price Index Credit Rating Information Services of India Ltd. Cash Reserve Ratio Central Statics organization Delhi International Airport Ltd. Equated Monthly Installment Earnings Per Share Export Processing Zone Employee Stock Ownership Plan Export and Import Bank Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Exchange Management Act Foreign Exchange Regulation Act


Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry Foreign Institutional Investor Foreign Investment Promotion Board General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Gross Domestic Product Global Depository Receipt Gross National Product Housing Development Finance Corporation High Net Worth Individuals Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency of India Industrial Development Bank of India Industrial Finance Corporation; International Finance Corporation International Labour Organization International Monetary Fund Indian Petrochemical Corporation Limited Initial Public Offering Insurance Regulation and Development Authority Internal Rate of Return Joint Venture Key Performance Indicators London Inter-bank Offered Rate


Life Insurance Corporation of India Money supply with public M1 + time related deposits + savings deposits, money market funds. Aggregate monetary resources Multi National Corporation Memorandum of Understanding National Bank of Agriculture and Rural Development North American Free Trade Agreement National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation National Association of Software and Service Companies (of India) Net Asset Value National Council of Applied Economic Search National Highways Authority of India Limited Non Performing Assets Non-Resident Indian National Readership Survey National Stock Exchange New York Stock Exchange Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries Over the Counter Exchange of India People for Ethical Treatment of Animals



Prime Lending Rate Purchasing Power Parity Public Sector Undertaking Reserve Bank of India Retail Price Index South Asian Association for Regional Coorporation Steel Authority of India Limited Securities and Exchange Board of India Sensitivity Index (of Share Price on BSE) Special Economic Zone Statutory Liquidity Ratio SME Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats Tata Iron and Steel Co. Ultra-high Networth Individual United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Value Added Tax World Economics Forum Whole Sale Price Index Yield to Maturity

TYPES OF BUSINESS ENTITIES A business entity is an institution engaged in an economic activity, producing, selling and distributing goods/services with an aim of earning profits. Three important types of

business entities are: 1. Sole Proprietorship 2. Partnership 3. Company 1. SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP When an individual takes the initiative to start an activity related to start a trade or commerce for his own economic benefit, it is known as sole proprietorship. A sole proprietor is a single person who owns, maintains and manages the whole show in the business. All the salaries and other overheads only form a part of the expenses of the sole proprietorship firm. After deducting all the expenses that relate to the business from total receipts of the business, what remains is the profit which may either be reinvested in the firm or could be withdrawn by the proprietor. Characteristic of a Sole Proprietorship Business
i. Single Ownership

ii. Autonomy in Decision Making - The sole proprietor is the only decision maker and has complete autonomy in deci making. iii. Quick Decision Making Since the firm is owned by a single person, the decision making is prompt.

iv. Unlimited Liability In case of insolvency of the firm, the liability stands unlimited i.e. if the assets of the firm are n enough to pay off the business debts the personal assets of the proprietor are also attached to the firms property v. Can be winded up without any prior legal notice.

vi. No Separate Legal Entity In case of sole proprietorship, the owner and the business are considered one and the s the actions taken by the proprietor are binding upon the firm and vice versa.

2. PARTNERSHIP An individual i.e. a sole proprietor may not be in a position to cope with the financial and managerial demands of the present business world. As a result, two or more individuals may decide to pool in their financial ad non-financial resources to start and carry on a business. The Indian partnership act defines partnership as, the partnership between persons who have agreed to share the profits of business carried on by all, or any one of them acting for all. Characteristics of a Partnership Business
i. An association of two or more persons.

ii. An agreement entered into by all persons concerned. iii. Existence of business (and not just an agreement) . iv. The carrying on of business by all, or any one of them acting for all. v. Sharing of profits (or losses)of the business.

From the point of view, the main thing is that relations among the partners will be governed by mutual agreement. The agreement is known as The Partnership Deed which is to be properly stamped. It should be comprehensive to avoid disputes later on. It is usual therefore, to find the following clauses in a Partnership business:
i. Name of the firm and the partnership business.

ii. Commencement and duration of business iii. Amount of capital to be contributed by each partner iv. Rate of interest to be provided to each partner on his capital v. Disposal of profits and the ratio in which it would be done vi. Amount to be allowed to each partner as drawings and the timings of such drawings vii. Whether a partner will be allowed a salary viii. Any variation in the mutual rights and duties of the partners ix Method by which goodwill will be calculated x Procedure by which a partner may retire and the method of payment of his dues

xi Treatment of losses arising out of the insolvency of a partner xii Preparation of accounts and their audit

3. COMPANY The word Company etymologically is a combination of two Latin words Com meaning with or together and Pains meaning bread. Originally, it referred to a group of persons who took their meals together. In business terminology, a company refers to a legal entity formed which has a separate legal entity from its members, and is ordinarily incorporated to undertake commercial business.

Put in simple words, a company is nothing but a group of persons that have come together and have contributed money for some common purpose and have incorporated themselves into a distinct legal entity in the form of a company for the same purpose. A company is formed and registered under the Companies Act, 1956.
Characteristics of a Company i.

Separate Legal Entity - A company has a legal identity distinct from that of its members. In a court case, Salomon v Salomon & Co. Ltd, 1807, the entity of the company has been described as following A company is a person, artif invisible, intangible and existing in the eyes of law.

ii. Limited Liability In a company limited by shares, liability of the members is limited to the unpaid value of the sha whereas in a company limited by guarantee, liability of the members is limited to such amount as the members m undertake to contribute to the assets of the company, in the event of it being winded up.

iii. Perpetual Succession A companys life does not depend upon the life of its members. Members of a company m come and go, may change from time to time, but that does not affect the continuity of the company.

iv. Separate Property Since the company has a separate legal entity, it also has a separate property of its own. No m can claim to be the owner of the companys property till the existence of the company. v. Transferability of Shares The shares in a company are freely transferable but subject to certain conditions, such shareholder is permanently or necessarily attached to the company.

vi. Common Seal - A company is an artificial person and does not have a physical existence. A common seal is the off signature of the company under which it operates and carries out its activities.

vii. Legal Entity Since a company is a separate entity, distinguished from its owners, it has the capacity to sue and ca sued in its own name.

viii. Separate Management A company is owned by its shareholders but the management of a company is in the han its managerial force constituted of Board of Directors, employees etc. Thus the management of a company is sepa from its owners. The shareholders may or may not constitute a companys management.

ix One Share-One Vote The voting principle followed by a company is of the pattern where one share constitutes o vote. If a person holds 100 shares of a company, he has 100 eligible votes in that company.

Types of Companies 1. Public Company Public Company is a company in which shares are held collectively by the general public rather than a selected few individuals. Minimum number of members in a public

company is seven, if members become less than seven, the company is no longer a public company but is rather a private company. 2. Private Company Private company means a company which by its articles of association,
l l Restricts the right of members to transfer its shares

Limits the number of its members to fifty. In determining this number of 50, employee-members and ex-employee members are not to be considered. Prohibits an invitation to the public to subscribe to any shares in or the debentures of the company.

If a private company contravenes any of the aforesaid provisions, it ceases to be a private company and loses all the exemptions and privileges which a private company is entitled to. Minimum number of members in a private company is two. A private company does not need a separate certificate from the Registrar of Companies for the commencement of its business. 3. Companies deemed to be Public Limited Company A private company will be treated as a deemed public limited company under one of the following circumstances:

l Where at least 25% of the paid up share capital of a private company is held by one or more body corporates, the p company shall automatically become a public company on and from the date on which the aforesaid percentage is

l Where the annual average turnover of the private company during the period of three consecutive financial years is less than Rs 25 crores, the private company shall be, irrespective of its paid up share capital, deemed a public comp

l Where not less than 25% of the paid up capital of a public limited company is held by the private company, then the private company shall become a public company on and from the date on which the aforesaid percentage is so held

l Where a private company accepts deposits from public, after an invitation is made by advertisement or renews dep from the public (other than from its members or directors or their relatives), such company shall become public com on and from the date when such acceptance or renewal is first made.

4. Limited and Unlimited Companies Companies may be limited, limited by shares or limited by guarantee.

a) Company limited by shares - In this case, the liability of the members is limited to the amount of uncalled share cap member of the company limited by the shares can be called upon to pay more than the face value of shares or so m it as has remained unpaid. The members of limited companies have no liability in case of fully paid up shares.

b) Company limited by the guarantee - A company limited by guarantee is a registered company having the liability o members limited by its Memorandum of Association (MoA) to such amount as the members may respectively ther undertake to pay if necessary on liquidation of the company. The liability of the members to pay the guaranteed am arises only when the company has gone into liquidation and not when it is a going concern.

c) Unlimited Company: The liability of the members of an unlimited company is unlimited. Therefore their liability is s to that of the liability of the partners in a partnership firm.

5. Section 25 Company Under the Companies Act, 1956, the name of a public limited company must end with the word Limited and the name of a private limited company must end with the word Private Limited. However, under Section 25, the Central Government may allow companies to remove the word Limited / Private Limited from the name if any of the following conditions are met by:
l l The company is formed for promoting commerce, science, art, religion, charity or other socially useful objectives.

The company does not intend to pay dividend to its members but apply its profits and other income in promotion objectives.

6. Holding and Subsidiary Companies A company shall be deemed to be a subsidiary of another company if:
l l That other company controls the composition of its board of directors That other company holds more than half (>50%) in face value of its equity share capital.

The control of the composition of the Board of Directors of the company means that the holding company has the power at its discretion, to appoint or remove all or majority of directors of the subsidiary company without consent or concurrence of any other person. 7. Government Company A Government Company is the one in which 51% or more is held either by the central government or by the state government or is jointly held by the central and the state government. All the decisions pertaining to its management and operations are taken by the government. 8. Foreign Company A company that has been incorporated outside India, under the law of some other country, is registered in that country and has set up its business in India is called a Foreign Company GLOBAL COMPANIES AND LEADERS

AUTOMOBILE S. No 1 Company BMW Headquarters Munich, Germany Founded in 1913 Founder Karl & Gustav otto Rapp Present head Dr. Norbert Designation Chairman

Daimler AG

Stuttgart, Germany

Kar Benz of Benz & Cie (founded in 1883) & Giffkiev 1924 (as Daimler & Wilhelm Daimler-Benz Maybach of Daimler AG) Motoren Gasellschaft (founded 1890).

Dieter Zetsche



Turin, Italy


Giovanni Agnelli

Luca Cordero Di Montezemolo William Ford. Jr.


Ford Motors

Dearborn, USA


Henry Ford

Chairman CEO & Alan Mullaly is President & CEO Chairman Chairman & CEO CEO

Honda Motors

Tokyo, Japan


Soichiro Honda

Satoshi Aoki

6 7

Mitsubishi General Motors Harley Davidson

Tokyo, Japan DetroitMinnesota, USA Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA Boulogne Billancourt, France Michigan, USA Japan

1870 1908

Yataro Iwasaki William C. Durant

Takashi Nishioka Fritz Henderson


William S. Harley Keith E Wandell and Arthur Davidson



Louis Renault

Carlos Ghosn


10 11

Chrysler LLC Toyota

1925 1937

Walter P. Chrysler Sergio Marchionne Kiichiro Toyoda Fujio Cho

CEO & Chairman Chairman


Volkswagen AG



Government of Germany

Martin Winterkorn


IT S. No 1 Company Adobe Systems Headquarters San Jose. California U.S.A Seattle, Washington, USA San Francisco, California, USA Texas, USA San Jose, California, USA Founded in 1982 Founder John Warnock & Charles Gerchke Jeffrey P. Bezos Present Head Shantanu Narayanan Designation CEO & President


Jeffrey P. Bezos CEO & President

Cisco Systems


Len Bosack and Sandra Lerner Michael Dell Pierre Omidyar

John Chambers CEO & Chairman

4 5

Dell Computer eBay

1984 1995

Michael Dell John Donahoe

Chairman & CEO CEO


Tokyo, Japan


Fujitsu: Joint Venture between Furukaw a Electric Company, Japan Hiroaki Kurokawa and German Conglomerate Siemens Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard


Hewlett Packard

Palo Alto, California, USA Santa Clara, California, USA


Mark Hurd

President and CEO & Chairman



Gordon E. Moore Paul Otellini Craig CEO Chairman & Robert Noyce Barett Samuel Palmisano Chairman and CEO Chairman CEO


New York, USA


Herman Hollerith



Redmond, USA


Bill Gates and Paul Bill Gates Steve Allen Ballmer



California, USA


Lawrence J. Ellison, Bob Miner and Ed Oates Dietmar Hopp, Hans-Werner Hector, Hasso Plattner, Klaus Tschira and Claus Wellenreuther Scott McNealy, Vinod Khosla, Andy Bechtolsheim Steve Jobs & Steve Woznaik

Lawrence J. Ellison




Walldorf, Germany


Leo Apotheker

CEO & President


SUN Microsystems

Santa Clara, California, USA


Scott McNealy Jonathan I. Schwartz

Chairman CEO & President


Apple Computers

Cupertino California, USA


Steve Jobs




Hamilton Bermuda


Founded as consulting division of Anderson William Green Consulting by Arther Anderson & Clarence Delany Randall L. Stephenson Larry Page & Sergey Brin Eric Schmidt



AT & T inc.

Dallas, Texas, USA





California, USA





Paris, France

2006 (1898 - Alcate and Lucent Ben Verwaayen Alcatel) Technologies Phillippe Camus Paul Galvin & Joseph Galvin

CEO Chairman



Schaumburg Illinois, USA


Greg Brown

President and CEO

BANKS/FINANCIAL SERFVICES S.No Company Headquarters Founded in Founder Present Head Designation

Allianz SE

Munich, Germany


Public Company Henry Wells, William Fargo and John Butterfield

Michael Diekmann Kenneth I. Chenault


American Express

New York City, New York USA


Chairman and CEO


London, UK


Created by a merger Lord Sharman of Norwich Union and Andrew Moss CGU plc

Chairman CEO

Bank of America

Charlotte, North Carolina, USA


Amadeo Giannini

Kenneth D Lewis

Chairman and CEO


London, UK


Several Banks United under one banner called Barclays & Co.

Marcus Agius



New York, USA


Through a merger of Vikram Pandit Sir Citicorp and Travelers CEO Chairman Win Bischoff Group Adelbert Delbruck and Ludwig Bamberger Thomas Sunderland Henry S. Morgan and Harold Stanley Chairman and CEO Chairman Chairman and CEO

Deutsche Bank

Frankfurt, Germany London, UK New York , USA


Josef Ackermann

8 9

HSBC Morgan Stanley

1865 1935

Stephen Green John J. Mack



Zurich, Switzerland


Merger of Union Bank of Switzerland & Kaspar Villiger Swiss Bank Corporation Cornelius Vander Starr Oliver Chace Marcus Goldman Edward M. Liddy



AIG Berkshire Hathaway Goldman Sachs

New York USA


CEO & Chairman CEO & Chairman CEO and

12 13

Nebraska, USA New York, USA

1839 1869

Warren Buffet Lloyd Blankfien

Chairman New York City USA Chase Manhatten acquired JP Morgan in 2000 Chairman & CEO


JP Morgan Chase


James L.Dimon

PHARMACEUTICALS S.No Company Headquarters Founded in Founder SanofiSynthelabo acquired Aventis in 2004 Friedrich Bayer & Johann Friedrich Weskott Formed by the merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham Robert wood Johnson, James Wood Johnson & Edward Mead Johnson Charles Pfizer & Charles Erhardt Present Head Jean-Francois Dehecq Chris Viehbacher Designation

Sanofi- Aventis

Paris, France


Chairman CEO

Bayer AG

Leverkusen, Germany


Werner Wenning


Glaxo SmithKline

London, UK


Sir Chris Gent Andrew Witty

Chairman CEO

Johnson & Johnson

New Brunswick, USA


William C. Weldon

Chairman and CEO


New York, USA


Jeff Kindler

CEO Chairman President & CEO

Eli Lilly

Indianapolis, Indiana, USA


Colonel Eli Lilly

Sidney Taurel John C. Lachleiter

MEDIA S.No 1 Company News Corp Headquarters New York, USA Founded in 1979 Founder Rupert Murdoch Present Head Rupert Murdoch Designation CEO &

Chairman Merger between Time Inc. and Warner Chairman and Jeffrey L. Bewkes Comm,.subseq-uently CEO purchased by AOL Walt and Roy Disney Robert Iger John President and E. Pepper Jr. CEO Chairman

Time Warner

New York, USA


The Walt Disney Burbank Company California, USA


FMCG/CONSUMER DURABLE S.No 1 Company Coca- Cola Headquarters Atlanta, USA Founded in 1892 Founder Asa Griggs Candler Present Head Muhtar Kent Designation CEO & Chairman

Colgate Palmolive

New York, USA


Colgate was founded Roger D in 1806 and in 1928 it Casmeyer Justin MD Chairman was bought by Skala Palmolive John Cadbury Cadbury Schweppes plc demerged in 2008 Roger Carr Todd Chairman CEO separated its global Stitzer confectionery business. Hans Straberg Marcus Wallenberg CEO & President Chairman CEO & Chairman

Cadbury plc

London, UK



Stockholm, Sweden

Through the merger 1910 as of Elektromekaniska Elektomekaniska AB and Lux AB in AB 1919 1876 Fritz Henkel

Henkel AG

Dusseldorf, Germany

Kasper Rorsted


Clichy, France


Eugne Schueller

Lindsay Owen Jones Jean-Paul Chairman CEO Agon


Seoul, Korea


Through a merger of the appliance company Goldstar and the chemical company Lucky.

Koo Bon Moo



Vevey, Switzerland Cincinnati, Ohio, USA


Henri Nestle

Peter BrabeckLetmathe Paul Chairman CEO Bulcke Bob McDonald Chairman and CEO

Procter and Gamble


William Procter & James Gamble Donald M. Kendall and Herman W. Lay through the merger of Pepsi-Cola and Frito-Lay


Pepsi Co.

New York, USA


Indra Nooyi

Chairwoman & President & CEO



Amsterdam, the Netherlands Tokyo, Japan Il1inois, USA London, UK and Rotterdam Netherlands Illinois, USA


Gerard Philips

Gerard J. Kleisterlee Sir Howard Stringer Brenda C. Barnes


12 13

Sony Sara Lee

1946 1939

Masaru Ibuka and Akio Morita Nathan Cummings

Chairman and CEO CEO




Formed as a merger Micheal Treschow of Lever Brothers and Chairman CEO Paul Polman Margarine Unie James. L. Kraft Irene Rosenfeld Chairman


Kraft Foods


GARMENTS/APPARELS S.No Company Headquarters Herzogenaurach, Germany Founded in 1924 as Gebriider Dassler SchuhFabrik in 1949 registered as Founder Present Head Designation


Adolf Dassler

Herbert Hainer


Adidas AG


Oregon, USA


Philip Knight and William J. Bill Bowerman Ralph Lauren David T. Abercrombie Ezra Fitch Rene Lacoste

Philip Knight Mark Parker

Chairman CEO & President CEO & Chairman Chairman & CEO Chairman Chairman & CEO President & Director

Polo Ralph Lauren

New York, USA


Ralph Lauren

Abercrombie & New Albany, USA Fitch Lacoste Paris


Michael S. Jeffries Michel Lacoste


Phillips-Van Manhatten, New Heusen York, USA Corporation Tommy Hilfiger New York, USA


John M. Van Heusen & Isaac Emanuel Chirico Phillips Tommy Hilfiger David F. Dyer


MISCELLANEOUS S.No 1 Company Asahi Glass Headquarters Tokyo, Japan Founded in 1907 Founder Toshiya Iwasaki Present Head Masahiro Kadomatsu Frederick W. Smith Designation Chairman & CEO Chairman & President

Fed Ex

Memphis, USA


Frederick W. Smith

General Electric

Fairfield, USA


Thomas Alva Edison, Elihu Chairman and Jeffrey R. Immelt Thomson, Edwin J. CEO Hovston Goro Yoshida and Saburo Uchida FujioMitarai Chairman and CEO


Tokyo, Japan


Luxembourg City, Arcelor Mittal Luxembourg


Through the Chairman of merger of Arcelor Lakshmi N. Mittal the borad & and Mittal Steel CEO Richard Branson Richard Branson Stephen Murphy Mike Duke President Chairman CEO

Virgin Atlantic Wal-Mart Stores inc. IKEA

London, UK


Arkansas, USA Leiden, the Netherlands Chicago, USA


Sam Walton


Ingvar Kamprad

Anders Dahlvig W. James McNerney, Jr.




William Boeing Began as a consortium of European aviation firms







PETROLEUM CORPORATION S.No 1 Company BP Headquarters London, UK Founded in 1954 Founder Donald Alexander Smith Formed by the merger of Exxon & Mobil Jean Kessler Formed by Anti Trust breakup of Standard Oil Present Head Anthony B. Hayward Designation CEO

Exxon Mobil

Texas, USA


Rex W. Tillerson

Chairman and CEO

Royal Dutch Shell

The Hague, the Netherlands


Peter Vosek Jorma Ollila

CEO Chairman

Chevron Corp.

California, USA


David Reilly

Chairman and CEO

Brand/Company Punchlines

BRAND/COMPANY Mercedes Benz Mahindra Bolero Wagon R Maruti Suzuki Bajaj Pulsar Splendor + Hyundai Motors Chevrolet Optra Opel Super Splendor Ford Fiesta Bajaj Auto TVS Apache Alto Toyota Corolla Ford Motors Indica V2 Toyota Mahindra Scorpio Honda City ZX Mitsubishi Lancer Bridgestone Audi Tata Safari Dicor Tata Indigo Ford Ikon Ford Endeavour Honda Chevron Corporation BMW Honda Accord Yamaha Hyundai Sonata Embera Maruti Esteem Hyundai Accent Ford GM Volkswagen PUNCHLINE Brace Yourself Break Free For the smarter race Count On Us Definitely Male Designed To Excel Drive Your Way For A Special Journey Called Life Fresh Thinking, Better Cars Generation Nayi Bharosa Wohi Go Fida Inspiring Confidence Its Now Or Never Lets Go Lifes A Journey Make Everyday Exciting More Car Per Car Touch the Perfection Nothing Else Will Do Outperform Own The Road Passion For Excellence Vorsprung Durch Technik (Progress through technology) Reclaim your life Spoil yourself The Josh Machine The Next Big Thing The Power Of Dreams Human Energy The Ultimate Driving Machine The Unbeatable Accord Touching Your Heart Undoubtedly Distinguished Welcome To The Big World What Dreams Drive Built for the Road Ahead Only GM Drivers wanted

Fiat Tata Motors Skoda

Driven by Passion. FIAT Even More Car per Car Obsessed with quality since 1897

IT BRAND/COMPANY Wipro TCS Acer Accenture Compaq Hewlett & Packard Intel Infosys Technologies Cisco ebay Microsoft Windows XP HP-Invent IBM Lenovo Apple Macintosh Adobe Dell Sun Microsystems AT&T Aptech Cognizent PUNCHLINE Applying Thought Experience Certainity Empowering People High Performance Delivered Inspiration Technology Invent Intel inside Powered By Intellect, Driven By Values Powered Network The Worlds online market place. Earth's Biggest Bookstore If you have a reason, we have the job Your Potential Our Passion Do More with Less Everything is Possible On Demand We are building a new technology company. Think Different Simplicity at work. Better by adobe Easy as DELL. The Network is the Computer The World's Networking Company Never Settle Its all about money, honey We change lives Passion for building stronger businesses

PHARAMACEUTICALS BRAND/COMPANY PUNCHLINE Bayer Science for a Better life Wockhardt Healthcare Is In Our Genes Torrent Pharmaceuticals Not Just Healthcare Life care IBP Pure bhi Pura bhi

Pfizer Cipla Sanofi Aventis Bicon Dr. Reddy lab

Working together For A Healthier World Caring for life. Life is our lifes work Because Health Matters The difference lies in our DNA Life Research Hope

MEDIA BRAND/COMPANY CNN.Com Forbes NDTV Discovery Channel Times Now Business Today Business Standard ZEE Network Indian Express Hindustan Times Times Of India BBC World CNBC India HBO Outlook Tehelka The Economic Times CNN The Telegraph NDTV Profit Star Sports Aaj Tak PUNCHLINE Be The First To Know Capitalist Tool Expertise. Truth First Lets all discover Feel The News For Managing Tomorrow Intelligence Everywhere Jiyo Zee Bhar Ke Journalism Of Courage The Name India trusts for News Let Truth Prevail Putting News First Profit From It Simply The Best Speak Out The Peoples Paper The Power Of Knowledge The Worlds News Leader Unputdownable News you can Use We know your game Sabse Tez

PETROLEUM CORPORATION BRAND/COMPANY PUNCHLINE IOCL Bringing Energy To Life Hindustan Petroleum Future full of Energy Bharat Petroleum Energising Lives GAIL Indias No. 1 Gas company ONGC Making Tomorrow Brighter British Petroleum Beyond Petroleum BPCL Pure for Sure

Speed Servo

High Performance Petrol 100% Performance Everytime

MISCELLANEOUS BRAND/COMPANY Reliance Communication Ventures Ltd. Amway Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL) Max Healthcare De Beers Longines IL & FS Kerala Reliance Industries GE Tata Group Berger Paints TAG Heuer Xerox Reynolds Omega Swatch Apollo Hospitals Gati MRF CEAT Ernst and Young Nintendo Omega DuPont Samsonite Piramyd Brand Quotient and Brand Endorsers BRAND QUOTIENT AUTOMOBILE COMPANIES Tata Indica V2 Nano Indigo Marina Safari Sierra Sumo Estate Xeta TL 4x4 XenonXT Cliffrider Xover PUNCHLINE A New Way Of Life Better Ideas Better Life Brightening Lives Powering Projects Caring For You For Life Diamonds Are Forever Elegance Is An Attitude Energising Capital Realising Ideas Gods Own Country Growth Of Life Imagination At Work Improving The Quality Of Life Paint Your Imagination Swiss Avant Garde Grade Since 1860 The Document Company The Pen The World Prefers The Sign Of Excellence Time Is What You Make Of It Touching Lives Ahead is Reach Tyres with Muscle Born Tough Quality in Everything we Do Get N or get out. The sign of Excellence The Miracles of Science. Lifes a journey Consulting Inc.

M800 Maruti Gypsy

Alto Esteem

Omni Grand Vitara Bolero Scorpio

Zen Estillo Versa Classic LCV Range

Wagon R SX4 MM Range Marshal

Baleno A-star, Swift CL 500 Ingenio Xylo, Thar, Legend, Axe,

Commander Armada Mahindra Renault Logan Voyager Santro Verna City ZX Ikon MaXX

Hyundai Honda Ford GM

Accent Sonata Elantra Getz Tucson Terracan I 10 Accord CR-V Civic Odyssey Element Fiesta Endeavour Fusion Escort Mondeo Chevrolet Chevrolet Chevrolet Aveo Opel Corsa Opel Astra Optra SRV Tavera Opel Swing Cadillac U-VA Lancer Cedia Innova Spark RTV Buick Pajero Qualis Pontiac Montero RV4 Sienna

MASCOT T-480 FC, Pushpak

Hindustan Ambassador Motors Toyota Skoda Auto Corolla Octavia Discover Bajaj Auto

Lancer Camry Laura

Land Cruiser Prado Octavia Superb Combi Pulsar CT100 Eliminator Boxer

Sunny Hero & Honda Super Splendor Dawn Select II LML Energy FX TVS Fiero Super XL Nova 35 Zing 80 Luna Prima Victor Apache Velocity Kine Stryker Passion + Ambition NV CBZ Xtreme Activa Karizma

Rider 1.8 Roomster Turbo Avenger Platina Aspire Kristal XCD Dts-i CD DAWN CD Deluxe Pleasure

Bajaj ULC (Nano competitor) HUNK, ACHIEVER, Glamour,


Dio Eterno Adreno Freedom Graptor Supremo FX Freedom Freedom Trendy Topper Centra Scooty Star Star City Max 100 Shogun GF125 Zoom Challenger Aquila Comet 4S GF Laser King V2 250 Boss

Yamaha Libero Crux R G5 Nisan X-Trail Motors Mitsubishi Lancer Pajero Royal Thunderbird Bullet Machismo Enfield cruiser Mitsubishi Lancer Pajero




FMCG COMPANIES Lifebuoy Sunsilk Surf Excel Ponds Yellow Label Tea Rin Kissan Axe Margo Lux Fair & Lovely Dove Pears Vim Bouty, Crest, Dawn, Tide Duracell, Detergent Ivory, Gain, Fusion, OralB Always Robin Blue Strepsils Pril Schauma, Pritt, Duck Gaviscon Lipton Tea, Vaseline, Pureit, Sunlight, Breez, Aviance

Clinic Range HUL Brooke Bond Pepsodent Kwality Walls

Wheel Annapurna Bru Liril

Lakme Breeze Hamam Ayush

Rexona Ala CloseUp Knorr

Head & Shoulders P&G,




Pantene Pro V

Rejoice Reckitt Benckiser Cherry Blossom Vanish Fa Aquafresh Toothpaste

Pampers Dettol Veet Mr. White

Gillette Lysol Colin Henko

Tide Mortein Finish Chick

Pringles Harpic Clarsil Spee

Henkel Glaxo Smithkline






Dairy Fifty-Fifty Britannia GoodDay Ghee Milkman Milk Flavoured milk Cheese Pure Magic Bread Butter Tiger Half Half cake Whitener Marie Treat



Glucose D

Pudin Hara



Amla Hair Oil

Hommade Lal Dantmanjan Coolers Saffola


Vatika Hair Oil Babool Toothpaste Odonil

Anmol Herbal Janma Ghuti Heena

Binaca Lemoneez Parachute Marico Industries Ltd. Oil of Malabar Coca-Cola Coca-Cola Maaza RimZim Pepsi Pepsi Co. Mountain Dew Cadila Healthcare Ltd. Sugar Free

Lal Tail Odomos Hair&Care

Amla lite, Red Badam Tail, Toothpest Meswak, Nature Care, Odopic, Shilajit Promise, Sani Fresh, Sat Baby Olive Isabgol, oil Shaukha Puspi,

Shanti Badam Mealmaker, Mediker Amla Nihar Kaya Skin Clinics Fanta Georgia Sweekar Silk n Shine Sunfil Shock Kinley

Nihar, Starz, Manjal

Sil Limca Coke

Revive Thums Up Sprite

7-Up Lipton Medicines

Slice Tropicana Generic Drugs

Miranda Gatorade EverYuth Skincare Sweetex



Boots Piramal Strepsils & Ultra Ltd. Clearasil Parle Bisleri, Frooti,


Icy ParleG, Monaco, Hide

Saridon Poppins, Mango



Melody & Murret

Appy, Saint Juice

& Seek, Must Shakti, Marie, Bites

Bite, Kismi Toffee

Bites, Orange Candy

Apparel Companies Raymond Madura Garments Bombay Dyeing Arvind Mills Park Avenue Zapp Van Heusen Parx Notting Hill Orchard Manzoni Colorplus

Louis Philippe Peter England

Allen Solly

SF Jeans

Vivaldi Flying Machine

Excalibur Arrow




Ruff & Tuff

Tommy Hilfiger Spykar Jeans Tamarind Belmonte S.Kumars Stephens Brothers Urbana Lombard, John Miller Buffalo, GIG

S Kumars

Reid & Taylor

Indus- League Indigo Nation (Future Group) Reebok Nike Adidas Levi Strauss Traxtar Cole Haan Supernova Dockers Mobile


Urban Yoga Jealous Jeans




Amitabh Bachchan Aishwarya Rai

Reid & Taylor, Cadburys Dairy Milk, Nerolac, Hajmola, Navratan, Emami, Dabur, Tide, Pulse Polio Campaign, Binani Cement, Parker Pen LOral, Longines, Lux

Shahrukh Khan

Videocon, Pepsi, Santro Xing, Unicef, Tag Heuer, Omega, Airtel, ITC Sunfeast, Dish TV, Nokia, Hyundai-i10, ICICI, Belmonte Atlas Cycles, Tata Tea, Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh, Save the Girl Child Campaign, Lotto, Tata Indicom, Hyundai Getz, HPCL, Sprite, Adidas Coke, ITC John Players, Hero Honda Karizma, Sony Ericsson, Acer, Rasna, Rupa Macro Man, Hide-n-seek Biscuits Diet Pepsi, Yamaha, Clinic Shampoo, Wrangler, Fastrack Sunglasses, Samsung Mobiles, Mumbai Marathon 2008, Castrol Citizen Eco-Drive Watches, Pepsi, Lux, Globus, Garnier, Anne French, Head & Shoulder, Boro Plus, Dulux Paints, Vivel Di Wills Exide Batteries, IOC, TVS Star City, Reebok, Brylcreem, Frito Lay, Videocon, GE Money, BPCL, RCOM, Reliance Energy, Royal Stag, Tata Sonata Kingfisher Airlines, Tissot, Levis Signature Jeans, Maybelline, Pepsi, Liril Soap, Parachute oil Idea, Flying Machine, Big 92.7 FM, Omega, Motorola, Ford Fiesta Lux, J Hampstead, Tag Heuer, Sunsilk, Killer Jeans, Nokia, Ponds, Hero Honda Tag Hauer, olay, kiah, Pantene Shampoo Donear Suiting, Marico, Xbox 360, Royal Stag, Pepsi, Microsoft, SBI Cards, Seagram TVS, Canon, Adidas, MRF, Aviva, Sunfeast, Boost Titan Raga, Nestle Munch, Good Night, Aveo Aveo, Royal Stag, Asian Paint, Lenevo, Frito Lay, Provogue, Newport, TajMahal tea Estelle Jewellery, Lakm, Pantene, Veet, Kodak, LG, Slice, Nakshatra

Sania Mirza

Hrithik Roshan

John Abraham

Kareena Kapoor

M. S. Dhoni

Deepika Padukone Abhishek Bachchan Priyanka Chopra Sushmita Sen Yuvraj Singh Sachin Tendulkar Rani Mukherji Saif Ali Khan Katrina Kaif


AUTOMOBILES S.No. 1 Company Bajaj Auto Headquarters Pune Founded in 1945 Founder Jamnalal Bajaj Present Head Designation

Rahul Bajaj Rajiv Chairman MD

Bajaj Castrol, the global brand, was founded by Naveen Kshatriya Charles Wakefield Mr. Satyanand Munjal, Mr. Brijmohan Lal Dr. Brij Mohan Lall Munjal and Mr. O. P. Munjal Munjal Shri.T V Sundaram Iyengar Baba Kalyani Venu Srinivasan Managing Director

Castrol India



Hero Group

Varied locations for different Group companies Chennai


Chairman Group

TVS Motors


Chairman Chairman and CEO

Bharat Forge



Baba Kalyani

Mahindra and Mahindra Tata Motors Maruti Suzuki India Ltd.



J.C. Mahindra & K.C. Keshub Mahindra Mahindra & Ghulam Chairman MD Anand Mahindra Mohammad Jamshedji Tata (JRD) Indian subsidary of Suzuki, Japan Ratan Tata Chairman

7 8

Mumbai Gurgaon

1945 1981

R.C.Bhargava Chairman CEO Shinzo Nakanishi

IT S.No. 1 Company HCL Corp. Headquarters Noida Founded in 1976 Founder Shiv Nadar and Ajai Chowdhry Present Head Designation

Shiv Nadar Roshni Chairman CEO Nadar




N R Narayana Murthy, Nandan Nilekani, N S Narayana NR Raghavan, S Murthy Kris. Gopalakrishnan, S D Gopalakrishnan Shibulal, K Dinesh and Ashok Arora. Rajesh Hukku Rajesh Hukku

Honorary Chairman CEO and MD

Oracle Financial Services Ltd.




Moser Baer

New Delhi


Mr. Deepak Puri

Mr. Deepak Puri


Patni Computers



Narendra K. Patni, Chairman and Gajendra K. Patni and Narendra K Patni CEO Ashok K. Patni



Founded in 1987. Became B Ramalinga Raju and Mahindra B Rama Raju Satyam in June 2009 1945 1993 Azim Premji Arun Jain Ranjendar S. Pawar & Vijay Thadani Merger of U.S. based IT consulting company MphasiS Corporation & the Indian IT services company BFL, Software Ltd. Started as a division of the Tata Group



7 8

Wipro Polaris Software Ltd. NIIT

Bangalore Chennai

Azim Premji Arun Jain R. S. Pawar & Vijay Thadani

Chairman Chairman and CEO Chairman CEO

New Delhi






Andy Mattes Ganesh Ayyar

Chairman CEO & Director


Tata Consultancy Services Ltd





AIRLINES S.No. Company Headquarters Founded in Founder Present Head Designation

Air India

Mumbai, Maharashtra


Initially started as Tata Airlines, a division of Tata Sons Ltd. by Aravind Jadhav J.R.D. Tata. It was converted into a public limited company in

Chairman and Managing Director


2 3 4

Kingfisher Jet Airways IndiGo

Bengaluru Mumbai New Delhi

2004 1993 2005

Vijay Mallya Naresh Goyal Rahul Bhatiya & Rakesh Gangwal

Vijay Mallya Naresh Goyal Bruce Ashby

Chairman & MD Chairman CEO


New Delhi


It was earlier known as Royal Airways, a Sanjay Aggarwal reincarnation of Modi Luft. Wadia Group Edgardo Badiali Jehangir Wadia






BANKS/FINANCIAL SERVICES S.No. 1. Company HDFC Headquarters Mumbai Founded in 1977 Founder Hashmukhbhia Parekh Started as collaboration between world Bank, Government of India and representatives of Indian Industry Present Head Mr. D S Parekh Designation Chairman





Chairman MD & CEO

4. 5.




Estd. by a special act of the Parliament to provide credit to Indian Industry Government of India

Yogesh Agarwal O.P.Bhatt

Chairman and MD Chairman


Mumbai New Delhi

1806 1895

Sardar Dyal Singh Majithia and K.C. Chairman and Lala Harkishen Lal Chakrabarty MD

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Bank of Baroda Bank of India Oriental Bank Of Commerce Canara Bank Yes Bank

Mumbai Mumbai New Delhi Bengaluru Mumbai

1908 1906 1943 1906 2004



London, England, U.K.


12. 13.

LIC of India MCX

Mumbai Andheri, Mumbai Mumbai Mumbai Mumbai

1956 2003 1875 1935 1992

14. Bombay Stock

Exchange Ltd. 15. Reserve Bank of India 16. NSE

Sir Maharaja Sayajirao Chairman and M.D. Mallya Gaekwad III MD Founded by a group of Hindus, T.S. Chairman and Muslims, Parsis & Jews lead Narayanan MD promoter was Sir Sasson David Swami Rai Bahadur Lala Chairman and A.K.Mishra Sohan Lal MD Chairman and Ammembal Subbarao Pai A.C. Mahajan MD Founder and Rana Kapoor Rana Kapoor CEO Stephen Chairman Green Thomas Sutherland (CEO HSBC Naina Lal India Kidwai branches) Chairman and Government of India T.S.Vijayan CEO Joseph Jignesh Shah CEO and MD Massey Rajnikant Government of India CEO Patel Dr. D. Government of India Governor Subbarao Government of India Ravi Narain MD

PHARMACEUTICALS S.No. Company Headquarters Founded In Founder Present Head Designation


Bangalore, Karnataka and New Jersey USA


Ms. Kiran MazumdarMs. Kiran Chairman and Shaw Mazumdar Shaw MD


Mumbai, Maharashtra Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh


Khwaja Abdul Hamied Dr. Y.K. Hamied

Chairman and MD

Dr. Reddys


Dr. Anji Reddy

Dr. Anji Reddy G Chairman CEO V Prasad

Nicholas Piramal

Mumbai, Maharashtra Gurgaon, Haryana Ahmedabad, Gujarat


Merger of Many Companies Bhai Mohan Singh

Ajay G Piramal




Malvinder Mohan MD and CEO Singh Chairman & Managing Director Chairman

Zydus Cadila


Ramanbhai Patel & Indravadan Modi

Pankaj R. Patel

Wockhardt Hospital Novartis International AG. Morepen Laboratories



Habil Khorakiwala

Habil Khorakiwala

Basel, Switzerland


Merger of Ciba-Geigy & Sandoz laboratories

Daniel Vasella

Chairman and CEO Chairman and MD

New Delhi


K.B. Suri

Sushil Suri


Aventis Sanofi

Paris, France


Started as Aventis. Later on, SanofiSynthelabo purchased Aventis. Subsidary Pfizer Friedrich Bayer

Jean-Francois Dehecq


11 12

Pfizer India Bayer India Ltd Torrent Pharmaceuticals

New York Germany

1849 1863

Kewal Handa Vijay Mallya Sudhir Mehta Sameer Mehta

MD Chairman




U.N. Mehta

Chairman MD


S.No. 1. 2. 3.

Headquarters Founded In Founder Present Head Mumbai, Jeetendra 1999 Jeetendra Kapoor Maharashtra Kapoor Mumbai, Mukta Arts 1972 Subhash Ghai Subhash Ghai Maharashtra Mumbai, Subhash Zee Telefilms 1992 Subhash Chandra Maharashtra Chandra

Company Balaji Telefilms

Designation Chairman Chairman and MD Chairman & Managing

4. 5.

Sun TV Sahara India Pariwar

Tamil Nadu Goregaon, Mumbai, Lucknow

1993 1978

Karunanidhi Family News Corporation

Kalanithi Maran Subrato Roy

Director Chairman and MD Group Chairman

PETROLEUM CORPORATION S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Company IOC ONGC BPCL GAIL HPCL IPCL Headquarters Founded In New Delhi Dehradun Mumbai New Delhi Mumbai Mumbai 1959 1956 1976 1984 1976 1969 Founder Government of India Govt. of India Govt. of India Govt. of India Govt. of India Mukesh Ambani Present Head Sarthak Behuria R.S.Sharma Ashok Shina Dr. B.C. Tripathi Designation Chairman Chairman and MD Chairman and MD Chairman and MD

Arun Balakrishanan Chairman and MD Mukesh Ambani Chairman

FMCG/CONSUMER DURABLES S.No. Company Headquarters Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh Mumbai, Maharashtra Ahmedabad, Gujarat Aurangabad Maharashtra Anand Founded In 1884 Founder Present Head Designation


Dr. S K. Burman Ardeshir and Pirojsha Godrej Karsanbhai Patel

Anand. Burman Amit Chairman ViceBurman Chairman J.N. Godrej Chairman Chairman and MD Chairman Chairman CEO and MD





Karsanbhai Patel

Videocon Hindustan Unilever Ltd. (HUL)


Nandlal Madhavlal Venugopal Dhoot Dhoot Subsidary Uniliver Harish Manwani Nitin Paranjape


Britannia Industries

Kolkata & Bangalore



Vineeta Bali Nasli Wadia

MD Chairman

GARMENTS/APPARELS S.No. 1 Company Arvind Mills Headquarters Ahmedabad, Gujrat Mumbai, Maharashtra Mumbai, Maharashtra Mumbai, Maharashtra Founded In 1931 Founder Kasturbhai Lalbhai Nowrosjee Wadia Kishore Biyani Present Head Designation

Mr. Sanjay.S.Lalbhai Chaiman & MD

Bombay Dyeing Future Group (India) Raymond


Nusli Wadia



Kishore Biyani Gautam Hari Singhania

CEO & MD Chairman and MD


Lala Juggilal

MISCELLANEOUS S.No. Company Headquarters Founded In Founder Present Head Designation

Aditya Birla Group

Mumbai, Maharashtra


The groups founding father was Ghanshyamdas Birla, under Aditya Kumar Mangalam Vikram Birla, it became a world-calss Birla business base.


Apollo Tyres

Perambra, Kerala


Matthew T Maratukallam and Jacob Chairman & Thomas. Later taken over by Raunaq Onkar S. Kanwar MD Singh in 1974

Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group BILT (Avantha Group)

Mumbai, Maharashtra


Mr. Anil Ambani

Mr. Anil Ambani


Gurgaon, Haryana


Founded by Late Karam Chand Gautam Thapar Thapar as Ballarpur Paper and Straw


to Ballarpur Industries Ltd. In 1975 5 6 7 Hinduja Group Jaypee Group Larsen & Toubro RPG Group Reliance Industries Tata Group London, U.K. New Delhi Mumbai, Maharashtra Mumbai Mumbai, Maharashtra Mumbai, Maharashtra 1914 1972 1938 Parmanand Deepchand Hinduja Jaiprakash Gaur Henning Holck-Larsen and Soren Kristian Toubro Ramdutt Goenka Srichand P Hinduja Jaiprakash Gaur A. M. Naik Harsh Vardhan Goenka Mukesh Ambani Chairman Chairman Chairman, MD & CEO Chairman





Dhirubhai Ambani

Chairman and MD Chairman



Jamshetji Nusserwanji Tata

Ratan Tata Anil Agarwal Kuldip Kumar Kaura Tulsi Tanti


Sterlite Tuticorin, Tamil Industries Nadu


Anil Agarwal

Chairman MD & CEO

12. Suzlon Energy

Pune Gurgaon, Haryana Mumbai New Delhi Delhi Mumbai Gurgaon, Haryana


Tulsi Tanti

Chairman and CEO CEO CEO Chairman MD Chairman CEO & President CEO


Unitech Ltd.


Ramesh Chandra

Ramesh Chandra B. Muthuraman Ratan Tata E.Shreedharan Kushal Pal Singh Atul Singh

14. 15. 16. 17.

Tata Steel Delhi Metro DLF Limited Coca-Cola India Pepsi India

1907 1995 1946 1993

JRD -Jamsedji Tata Govt. of India C.R.Singh -------



Subsidary Pepsi Inc.

Sanjeev Chadda


S.No. 1.

Company Bharti TeleVentures Essar Group Reliance Communication

Headquarters New Delhi Mumbai, Maharashtra Navi Mumbai

Founded In 1995

Founder Mr. Sunil Bharti Mittal

Present Head Mr. Sunil Bharti Mittal Shashi Ruia

Designation Chairman



Nand Kishore Ruia

Chairman Chairman & MD



Dhirubhai Ambani

Anil Ambani

Indias Advertisement Agency Name of the Agency Ogilvy & Mather JWT Euro RSCG Saatchi & Saatchi Leo Burnett FCB Ulka R.K. Swamy/BBDO Mudra Communication Ltd. David & Bates Rediffusion McCann-Erickson Contract Advertising Lintas Media Group (LMG) Grey Group (Asia Pacific) Head Piyush Pandey (Chairman & National Creative Director) Colvyn J. Harris Suman Shrivastava Kamal Basu (CEO) Arvind Sharma (Chairman & CEO) Ambi M.G. Parmeswaran (Executive Director) Shekar Swamy Madhukar Kamat (MD & CEO) Subhash Kamat (CEO) Diwan Arun Nanda (MD & CEO) Prasoon Joshi (National Creative Director) Ravi Deshpande (Chairman & Chief Creative Officer) Lynn de Souza Nirvik Singh (Chairman & CEO)

Electronic Media I. Major Indian Production Houses 1. Dharma Productions

Dharma Productions is a film production company founded by Late Yash Johar in 1976. The first film to be produced by the company was Dostana in 1980. Headquarter Dharma Productions is based in Mumbai. Present Management With the release of Kuchh Kuchh Hota Hai in 1998, Yash Johars son Karan Johar made his directorial debut. Presently he is the Managing Director and his mother Hiroo Johar is the Chairperson of the company. Major Productions Some other films produced by the company include:
l l l l l l l l Muqaddar Ka Faisla (1987) Agneepath (1990) Gumrah (1993) Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1998) Kabhi Khushi Kabhi Gham (2001) Kal Ho Naa Ho (2003) Kaal (2005) Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna (2006)

2. Balaji Telefilms

Balaji Telefilms is one of the leading production houses of India. It is run by the Kapoor family, with Jeetendra as its Chairman. The production house is mainly into producing television serials. Headquarter Balaji Telefilms is based in Mumbai. Present Management Ms. Shobha Kapoor is the Managing Director and CEO of the company while her daughter Ekta Kapoor is the Creative Head of the company. Major Productions Some of the major serials produced by Balaji Telefilms are:
l l l l l l Kahaani Ghar Ghar Kii Kahiin To Hoga Karam Apnaa Apnaa Kasamh Se Kasautii Zindagi Kay Kyunki Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi

3. United Television (UTV)

United Television is a leading media and entertainment company of India with offices in South East Asia, US and UK. UTV is into producing content for television, motion pictures and broadcasting. The company was established 18 years ago by Ronnie Screwvala in 1990. The company has 4 subsidiaries:
l United Entertainment Solutions Ltd (India).

l l l

UTV Communication (USA) LLC UTV Communication (UK) Ltd. UTV Communication (Mauritius) Ltd.

Headquarter UTV is headquartered at Mumbai. Present Management Mr. Ronnie Screwvala is the CEO of UTV. 4. Adlabs

Adlabs is the largest entertainment company in India. Adlabs was founded by Manmohan Shetty in 1978 along with Vasanji Mamania as a small film processing unit catering to ad films. In 1989, the firm entered mainstream cinema processing. Today, the company processes more them 70 percent of all Hindi films produced in India. In June 2005, Anil Ambani who owned Reliance-Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group (ADAG) became a majority stakeholder (51%) in Adlabs. In 2006, Adlabs had also entered into television content creation by becoming a majority stakeholder in Siddhartha Basus Synergy Communication. Adlabs cinema is also one of the largest motion picture exhibitors in India. Headquarter Adlabs is headquartered at Mumbai. Present Management Mr. Manmohan Shetty is the Chairman and Managing Director of the company and his daughter Ms. Pooja Shetty is the whole-time Director of the company. 5. Sahara One Media and Entertainment Ltd (SOMEL)

Sahara One Media and Entertainment Limited (SOMEL) is the media company of the Sahara India Parivar. It operates two television channels Sahara One a general entertainment channel and Filmy (2006 Feb) a Hindi movie channel. Sahara One Motion pictures is one of Indias largest movie production houses in the business of producing, marketing, and distributing motion pictures in Hindi and other Indian regional languages.

Headquarter Sahara One Media and Entertainment Ltd. is headquartered at Mumbai. Present Management Mr. Subrata Roy is the Managing Worker and Chairman of the Sahara One Media and Entertainment Ltd. 6. Yash Raj Films

Yash Raj Films is a multiproduct company set up by Yash Chopra in 1970. Apart from producing motion pictures in Hindi language, the company is also in the business of distributing films. It has also launched a music label by the name Yash Raj Music and also produces DVDs, VCDs and videos under the label Yash Raj Films Home Entertainment. In 2001, Yash Raj films became the first Indian production company to create a Corporate Structure. In 2004, an International film magazine Hollywood Reporter, rated Yash Raj Films as the 27th Biggest Film Distribution House in the World and the largest production company as in 2006. Recently it has started a new state-of-the-art studio at Mumbai. Headquarter Yash Raj films is based in Mumbai. Present Management The present Chairman of the company is Yash Chopra. Major Productions of Yashraj Productions
l l l l l l l Kabhi Kabhi (1976) Silsila (1981) Lamhe (1991) Dilwale Dulhaiya Le Jayenge (1995) Dil to Pagal Hai (1997) Mohabbatein (2000) Saathiya (2002)

l l

Kabul Express (2006) Chak De! India (2007)

II. Major Internet Companies 1. Google Inc.

Google was started by Sergey Brin and Larry Page as a research project while undergoing their Ph.D. at Stanford University, California. The search engine was initially nicknamed Back Rub. The domain name was registered on Sep 15, 1997. The company has its office in Menlo Park, California. The total initial investment raised for the new company was US $1.1 million, including a cheque of $ 1 million from Andy Bechtolscheim, one of the founders of Sun Microsystems. Headquarter The head office of Google inc. The Googleplex is situated at Mountain View, California. Present Management Eric E. Schmidt CEO/Chairman Sergey Brin President, Technology Larry Page President, Products Products and Services offered The major product offerings of Google include the Google Search Engine, Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Talk, Google Docs and Spreadsheets, Jot Spot, Adwords, Google Notebook, Orkut, google Groups, Picassa-Web albums, Google Earth, Google Maps and You Tube. 2. Yahoo! Inc

Yahoo! Inc was founded by David Filo and Jerry Yang, Ph.D. students of electrical engineering at Stanford University, in January 1995. The website was initially named Jerry and Davids guide to the world wide web, but eventually got the name Yahoo! Yet another hierarchical officious oracle. Headquarter The present headquarter of Yahoo! Inc is at Sunnyvale, California, USA

Present Management Roy J. Bostock Chairman Carol Bartz CEO David Filo Co-Founder Products and Services offered The major product/service offering of Yahoo include - Ask Yahoo!, Blogs, Flickr a public photo album for users, Geocities a web hosting service, My Yahoo personalized homepage for users, Yahoo 360 - social networking domain for users, Yahoo Education, Yahoo Finance, Yahoo Games, Yahoo Gallery, Yahoo Greetings, Yahoo Groups, Yahoo Mail, Yahoo Messages, Yahoo Search and Yahoo Video. 3. eBay Inc.

The online auction site, eBay was founded in San Jose, California on September 3, 1995 by computer programmer Pierre Omidyar as auction web. The first item sold by the website was a broken laser pointer for which Omidyar earned $14.83. The name of the service was changed from auction web to eBay in September 1997. Headquarter The company, eBay Inc is headquartered at San Jose, California. Present Management Pierre Omidyar Chairman John Donahoe CEO Services Offered eBay is an online auction portal having a varied range of products for sale on the portal. Some of the items sold on the website include Apparel and Accessories, Books and Magazine, Camera and Optics, Cars and Bikes etc. 4. Inc. Inc is an American e-commerce company. The company was founded by Jeff Bezos in 1994. offers services for access to its catalogue as well as for integration with retailers. provides search engine services to the website. went live on April 14, 2004. Its results derive from Windows Live Search, supplemented by Alexa (a subsidiary of and other engines for specific search types.

Headquarter The company is presently headquartered at Seattle, Washington, USA Present Management Jeffrey Bezos Chairman, CEO and President Products and Services Offered began as an online bookstore, but it soon diversified into other product areas which includes DVDs, CDs, computer software, videogames, electronics, apparels, furniture, and food. It also facilitates integration with retailers like Target and Marks & Spencer. Kindle launch in Novemeber 2007 is an ebook reader and amazon mp3 was started in January 2008 5. Microsoft Corporation Inc.

Microsoft Corporation was founded by two students from Harvard University, Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975. The name became a registered trademark on November 26, 1976. The company started its operations from Albuquerque, New Mexico. Its first international office was opened in Japan on November 1, 1978. The company underwent a restructuring on June 25, 1981 to become an incorporated business in the state of Washington. Kindle Nov 2007 ebook reader Amazon MP3 Jan 08 Headquarters Microsoft Inc. is headquartered at Redmond, Washington, USA Present Management Bill Gates Co-founder and Executive Chairman Steve Ballmer CEO Ray Ozzie Chief software Architect Craig Mundie (CRSO) Products and Services offered Some of the major product/service offerings of Microsoft include Ultra Mobile PC, Windows operating system MS Office, Windows Series System, Developer Tools, Xbox 360 and MSN, Business Solutions Zune. 6. AOL LLC.

Formerly America Online, Inc., is an American global Internet services and media company formerly operated by Time Warner and headquartered in New York, New York.

It has franchised its services to companies in several nations around the world, or set up international versions of its services. Headquarters New York, USA Present Management Tim Armstrong, CEO Products and Services ICQ, AIM, Compuserve, Goowy, Netscape, Winamp, Weblogs, INC. and etc. First chatroom base text role playing game Black Bayou (2004). III. Major Television Channels
Company NDTV Sony Entertainment Television Star Group Synergy Communication Network Eighteen TV Today Group UTV Zee Network Owner Prannoy Roy Kunal Dasgupta (CEO) Uday Shankar (CEO) Siddharths Basu Raghav Behl (MD) Living Media Ronnie Screwvala (CEO) Subhash Chandra

IV. Major Radio Stations

Station Radio City Radio Mirchi Radio One Owner Star Group Bennett Coleman & Co. Mid-Day

Big FM Red FM Radio Tadka (95 FM) Fever 104 FM

Adlabs Value Labs, Malaysian media group Astro & NDTV Rajasthan Patrika Fever 104 FM

PUBLIC SECTOR COMPANIES A public company is one in which 51 per cent or more stake is owned by the government. Public sector companies can be broadly classified into : I. Navratna Companies

l The Government of India had in 1997 identified 11 public sector undertakings as Navratna companies or crown jewe

l The Board of Directors of those companies can approve all decisions relating to capital expenditure and no separate clearance is required from the government.

l In case of equity acquisitions in a joint venture company, a Navratna company can take an independent decision for investments up to Rs. 1,000 crore. But the investment is subject to the condition that the total investment in all suc ventures is below 30% of the net worth of the Navratna Company. l At present there are 9 Navratna companies as IPCL & VSNL have been privatized by the government.

l In addition to the Navratna companies, the government of India has created another category called Mini - Ratna. T Ratna designation applies to PSUs that have made profits continuously for the last 3 years or have earned a net pro 30 crores or more in three years.

1. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL)

l BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India, in the energy related infrastructure sector to l It was established more than 40 years ago in 1962.

l BHEL manufactures over 180 products under 30 major product groups and caters to core sectors of the Indian Econ power generation & transmission, transportation, telecommunication and renewable energy.

l BHEL has acquired certifications for quality management systems (ISO 9001), environmental management systems 14001) and Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS) 18001).

Headquarter Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd. (BHEL) is headquartered at New Delhi. Present Management Mr. K. Ravi Kumar is the present Chairman and Managing Director (CMD) of BHEL. Products and Services Offered BHEL offers a wide range of products for:
l l l l l power sector industrial production transmission and transportation sectors non-conventional energy sources R & D products

The company offers services in

l l l l Power Generation Systems transmission systems transportation systems industrial systems.

2. Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL)

l l

The Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) was established on 1st of April, 1986.

The company was set up to take over the management, control and operation of Delhi Telephone District and Mum Telephone District. It is a public limited company largely owned by the Government of India (GOI).

Headquarters Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) is headquartered at New Delhi, India. Present Management Mr. R. S. P. Sinha is the Chairman & Managing Director of MTNL. Services Offered Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) provides fixed line telephone services, cellular services both GSM & WLL and internet services through both Dial -Up & Digital Subscriber Loop (DSL). 3. Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL)

HPCL came into existence in 1974 after the takeover and merger of the erstwhile Esso and Lube India undertaking government.

l l l l

In 1976, Caltex Oil Refinery India Ltd. was taken over by the government and was subsequently merged with HPCL 1978.

In 1979, Kosan Gas Company was taken over and merged with HPCL and a single entity HPCL came into existence.

Today, HPCL is the second largest oil company in India and is one of the largest PSU companies in terms of revenu It is also one of the Fortune 500 companies of the world, ranked at 290th position.

Headquarters Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) is headquartered at Mumbai. Present Management Mr. Arun Balakrishnan is the present Chairman and MD. Products and Services Offered The product/service offerings by the company include
l l l l Refined oil for industrial use and export LPG for domestic consumption offered through its subsidiary HP gas Lubricants for domestic consumption, industrial consumption and exports

Bulk fuels and specialties for industrial consumers like power plants, chemical companies, fertilizer companies and

shipping companies l l Aviation fuel and Lubricants Products and services for retail customers which it markets through Club HP outlets

4. Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL)

Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) was founded in 1976 by the Government of India, when it acquired Burma Shell group of companies. It was on 1st August, 1977, that the company was renamed Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited. BPCL was also the first refinery to process newly found indigenous crude in the country (at Bombay High.). BPCL is one of the Fortune 500 companies of the world currently ranked at 325th position.

l l

Headquarters Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) is headquartered at Mumbai. Present Management Mr. Ashok Sinha is the present Chairman and MD of BPCL. Products and Services Offered The product/service offerings of the company include
l l l l l l Refined oil for industry and export LPG for domestic consumption offered through its subsidiary Bharat Gas Lubricants for domestic consumption, industrial consumption and exports. Fuels and solvents, industrial services and e-business facilities for commercial units. Aviation fuel and lubricants. Retail services - at petrol pumps, speed fuels, in & out stores, petro card, smart fleet card and Pure for Sure

5. GAIL (India) Limited

GAIL (India) ltd. (Erstwhile Gas Authority of India Ltd.), Indias principal gas transmission and Marketing Company, established by the government of India on August 16, 1984. The company entered into LPG business in February 1991. It began city gas distribution in Delhi in 1997 by setting up the first CNG station. GAIL commissioned its petrochemicals plant in March 1999 at Pata.

l l l

Headquarter GAIL (India) Ltd. is headquartered at New Delhi. Present Management Mr. B.C.Tripathi is the present Chairman and Managing Director of GAIL (India) Ltd. Product and Services Offered Apart from marketing of
l l l gas city gas CNG

GAIL (India) Ltd. has presence in various other product areas. It offers l l l l l petrochemical products telecom services Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) power exploration and production of gas and holds participatory interest in 12 exploration blocks in the country.

6. Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL)

Indian Oil Corporation Limited was founded in 1964 through a merger of Indian Oil Company Ltd. and Indian Refin Ltd. In 1965, Gujarat Refinery was inaugurated. In 1967, Haldia Barauni Pipeline was commissioned.

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In 1969, the company undertook the marketing of Madras Refinery Products. Servo the first indigenous lubricant launched in 1972. In 1995, Kandla Bhatinda Pipeline started operations and IOCL launched Indane Home Shoppe. In 1997 the company entered into LNG business through a JV company, Petronet LNG. IOCL, in 2000 became the first Indian company to achieve the turnover of Rs. 1,00,000 crore.

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In 2001, Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (CPCL) and Bongaigaon Refinery and Petrochemicals Ltd. (BRPL) were acquired by the company. In 2003, Lanka IOC Pvt. Ltd. (LIOC) was launched in Sri Lanka.

Headquarter Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL) is headquartered at New Delhi. Present Management Mr. Sarthak Behuria is the present chairman and MD of IOCL. Products and Services Offered The product/service offerings of the company include:
l l l Refined oil for industrial use and export purposes. LPG for domestic consumption offered by its subsidiary Indane Gas. Lubricants for domestic consumption, industrial consumption and export.

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Aviation fuel and lubricants. Auto gas companys LPG variant which has been launched in selected markets in India. Retail services - at petrol pumps, Xtrapower products for customers and Swagat highway flagship retail outlets.

7. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC)

l In 1955, the Government of India decided to develop oil and natural gas resources in various areas of the country. this objective, an Oil and Natural Gas Directorate was set up.

l In August 1956, the directorate was raised to the state of Commission with enhanced power, but was still under th direct control of the government.

l In October 1959, the commission was converted into a statutory body by an Act of the Indian parliament and ONG formed. l Since its formation, ONGC has carried out its activities in various parts of the country and also started its overseas operations. The company went offshore in early 70s when it discovered an oil field at Bombay High. l In 1994, ONGC was re-organised as a limited company under the Company Act of 1956.

l In 2002 ONGC purchased Mangalore Refinery Pvt. Ltd. (MRPL) from AV Birla group. It also entered the global marke 2003 through its subsidiary ONGC Videsh Limited (OVL). l The company has also made investments in Vietnam, Sakhlin (Russia) and Sudan and earned its first revenue from hydrocarbon business in Vietnam. l ONGC is currently ranked 369th on the fortune 500 list.

Headquarter ONGC is headquartered in Dehradun. Present Management Mr. R. S. Sharma is the Chairman and Managing Director of the company. Products and Services offered

ONGCs diverse activities are handled through the holding company ONGC India and its two subsidiaries ONGC Vid Limited (OVL) and Mangalore Refinery Pvt. Ltd (MRPL). ONGC India offers a diversified range of petroleum by-products used mainly for industrial purpose.

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ONGC Videsh Llimited (OVL), the companys overseas arm is engaged is exploration and production activities outsi territorial boundaries of the country.

The companys subsidiary MRPL produces refined petroleum and by-products used by industrial units and for expo purposes.

8. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL)

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Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd was formed in October, 2000. It is the largest telecommunication company in India providing comprehensive range of telecom services.

BSNL is the largest fixed line service provider in the country having operations across India except Mumbai and De

Headquarters BSNL is headquartered in New Delhi Present Management Mr. Kuldeep Goyal is the present Chairman and Managing Director of the company. Products/Services Offered BSNL offers a wide range of service to its customers. These include:
l l l l Fixed line telephony service Internet service, both Dial-up and Broadband Message carrier services VSAT and VOIP services

Intelligent Network (I.N) services

9. Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL)

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Steel Authority of India Limited is the leading steel-making company in India. Incorporated on Jan 23, 1973.

Ranked amongst the top ten public sector companies in India in terms of turnover, SAIL is a fully integrated iron a steel maker.

SAIL produces iron and steel at 5 steel plants located at Bhilai, Bokaro, Durgapur, Rourkela and Asansol (West Ben SAIL featured in 2005 list of Forbes Global 2000 ranked at 764th position.

Headquarter SAIL is headquartered in New Delhi Present Management Mr. S K Roongta is the present Chairman of the company Products offered A broad range of steel products is offered by the company. These include:
l l l l l l Hot and cold - rolled sheets and coils Galvanised sheets. Electrical sheets and structures. Railway product. Iron plates, bars and rods. Stainless steel and other steel alloys.

The company clientele include construction companies, engineering companies, power companies, engineering companies, railways industry, automobile companies, defense

industries and importers from other countries. II. Other Important Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) 1. Indian Railways

Indian Railway is owned by the GOI. It is one of the largest and busiest rail networks in the world, transporting ove billion of passengers and freight worth INR 750 million annually.

Railways were introduced in India in 16th April 1853 when the first railway line between Bombay and Thane becam operational.

By the year 1947, there were forty-two rail systems in the country. All the units were nationalised into a single unit Railway in 1951, making it one of the largest rail networks in the world.

l Presently, both the long distance and suburban rail systems in India are operated by the Indian Railways. l

The Indian rail network is spread over a distance of 63,140 km, operational on broad metre gauge and narrow met gauge (The Calcutta Metro is also owned and operated by Indian Railways).

Railway Zones For administrative purposes, Indian railways are divided into sixteen functional zones These are:
Zone Northern Railway North Eastern Railway Eastern Railway South Eastern Railway South Central Railway Headquarter Delhi Gorakhpur Maligaon Kolkata Secunderabad

Southern Railway Central Railway Western Railway South Western Railway North Western Railway West Central Railway North Central Railway South East Control Railway East Coast Railway East Control Railway

Chennai Mumbai Mumbai Hubli Jaipur Jabalpur Allahabad Bilaspur Bhubaneswar Hajipur

Railway Production Units In addition to its operation of trains, Indian Railway also carries out its own production services. It owns six production units each headed by General Manager who reports to the Railways Board. These production units are:
l l l l l l Chittaranjan Locomotive Works at Chittaranjan, West Bengal Diesel Locomotive factory at Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh Integral coach factory at Perambur, Tamil Nadu. Rail coach factory at Kapurthala, Punjab Rail wheel factory at Yelahanka (near Bangalore) Karnataka. Diesel modernization works at Patiala, Punjab.

Notable Achievement of Indian Railways Some of the notable achievements of Indian railways are:

l The Darjeeling Himalayan Railways, Nilgiri Mountain Railway and Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus (railway station in Mu

are all world heritage sites accredited by UNESCO. l Samjhauta Express and Thar express are two trains run by Indian Railway that connect India and Pakistan. l Lifeline Express is a hospital on wheels providing healthcare facilities to people in rural areas.

l Kharagpur railway station has the largest railway platform in the World, while ib is the shortest name for a statio longest name is Sri Venkatanarasimharajauvaripeta.

Present Management Presently, Ms. Mamata Banerjee is the Union Railway Minister of the Government of India. Indian Railway also enjoys the distinction of being the worlds largest employer with more than 16 million employees. Mr. S.S.Khurana is the present Chairman of Indian Railways. 2. Air India

l Air India was originally founded as Tata Airlines in 1932, a subsidiary of Tata Sons Ltd by J.R.D. Tata. l In 1946, government of India purchased a majority stake in Tata Airlines and the company was renamed Air-India International.

Air-India International was registered on March 8, 1948 and inaugurated its international service on June 8, 1948 w weekly flight between Mumbai and London. The word International was dropped by the company in 1962.

l In 1994, the airline was renamed as Air India Limited. l Air India has recently started with Air India Express, the low cost variant of Air India. l

Indian Airlines since 2007 has been amalgamated to be a part of Air India. Air India is now an amalgamation of Air I Limited and Indian Airlines.

Headquarter The company is headquartered at Mumbai. Present Management Mr. Aravind Jadhav is the present Chairman & MD of Air India. Fleet and Network At present Air India has 45 aircrafts which include Boeing 747s, Airbus 310s, Airbus 300s and

Boeing 777s. The airline operates its flight on all major international air routes and on some important domestic air routes. The airline at present covers 42 destinations - 29 international air routes and 13 domestic air routes. 3. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)

l Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is a major aerospace company under the Ministry of Defence. It was establish Hindustan Aircraft in 1940 by Walchand Hirachand, backed by the Kingdom of Mysore to produce aircrafts in the c l

In April 1942, British government bought out the stake of Walchand Hirachand and some other promoters. The bu helped the Britishers greatly during the second world war.

The kingdom of Mysore however, did not sell its stake in the company. Thus, the company was nationalized in 194 company acquired its present name in 1964.

l In 2006, the company entered into a joint venture with Samtel for developing and manufacturing Avionics Display system. l This is the first public private partnership in the area of defence avionics (aviation communication). l The first military aircraft constructed in South Asia was built by HAL.

Headquarters HAL is headquartered at Bangalore, Karnataka. Present Management Mr. Ashok Nayak is the present Chairman of HAL. Products Offered Hindustan Aeronautics Limited is currently involved in the
l l l l l design assembly of aircrafts jet engines helicopters and their components and spares parts communication and navigation equipment

HAL has collaboration with Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to prod

PRIVATE SECTOR COMPANIES I. Automobile Industry The automobile industry in India can be mainly classified on the basis of
i) Market for Commercial Vehicles ii) Market for Private Vehicles

i) Market for Commercial Vehicles The market for commercial vehicles is a linchpin in the Indian Industrial Sector and responsible for transportation of more than 60 percent of the total freight handled in the country. As transportation is involved in every sector of the economy, the performance of the commercial vehicle market reflects the overall performance of the economy. The commercial vehicle industry has a cyclical nature of demand, because the demand is driven by a number of factors such as
l l l l l l l industrial growth agricultural production increase in volumes of freight movement road use for freight movement change in freight prices fuel prices government policies

Since 2001 02, the demand for commercial vehicles has been on a rise. In 2003, the total number of commercial vehicles grew by 20% and stood at 4025 thousand units. The growth is expected to augment due to a rise in the industrial production and supportive government policies. The major players in the market are Mahindra and Mahindra, Escorts, Ashok Leyland, Tata and Hindustan Motors. ii) Market for Private Vehicles The market for private Vehicles can be further classified on two basis.

a) Market for Two Wheelers The present market for two wheelers has witnessed rapid growth since the past four years. The total sales of two wheelers in India stood at 5,000,000 units in 2003 04. This has grown to 7,857,548 units in 2006 07. The rapid growth in the past two years is attributable to a rise in
l l l l l household/consumers income easy availability of finance growing replacement demand introduction of new models increasingly aggressive outlook of the key players.

The overall sales of two wheelers are expected to reach 11,000,000 units in 200910. The expected surge in rural demand will play a key role in steering the total demand for two wheelers. Key Players in the Market 1. Hero Honda Motors Limited

Hero Honda Motors Limited started as a joint venture between Hero group and the Honda Motor Company of Jap 1984, Jan 19. The first motorcycle CD 100 was produced in 1985. In the year 1996. Hero Honda became the first company to serve the armed forces with its 100cc Motorcycles. In 2000, companys brand Splendor was declared worlds number one largest selling single two wheeler model. Presently, Hero Honda Motors Limited is the single largest two wheeler manufacturer in the world.

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Headquarter Hero Honda Motors Limited is headquartered at New Delhi, India. Present Management Mr. Brij Mohan Lal Munjal is the present Chairman of the company while Mr. Pawan Munjal is the Managing Director of Hero Honda Group. Products Offered The product range offered by the company includes

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Karizma CD Deluxe Glamour

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Splendor Passion Achiever

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CD100 SS Passion Plus Hunk

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Super Splendor CD Dawn CBZ Xtreme

2. Bajaj Auto
l Bajaj Auto started its business as M/s Bachraj Trading Corporation Limited in 1945 by Jamnalal Bajaj. l It started with the sales of imported two and three wheelers in 1948. l In 1959, Bajaj Auto obtained license from Government of India to manufacture two and three wheelers.

l Rahul Bajaj took charge of the business in 1965. Under his leadership, the company tied up with Kawasaki Industrie Japan for technological collaboration and launched Kawasaki Bajaj KB 100 motorcycles. l At present, Bajaj Auto is ranked as worlds fourth largest two and three wheelers manufacturer.

Products Offered The product range offered by the company includes

l CT100 l Avenger l l Wind Kawasaki Caliber l l Discover XCD 125 l Pulsar l Kawasaki Eliminator

Headquarter Bajaj Auto is headquartered at Pune, Maharashtra. Present Management Mr. Rahul Bajaj is the present Chairman and Mr. Madhur Bajaj is the Vice Chairman of the Bajaj Group. b) Market for Four Wheelers

l The four wheelers market in India is at present experiencing a boom owing to high domestic demand, increasing e ambitious expansion plans by the major players of the sector and entry of foreign car manufacturer in the domesti market.

l The domestic sales are expected to grow annually at 12 per cent from 1.06 million vehicles 2004 05 to nearly 1.8 million in 2009 10.

l Healthy growth in the disposable incomes of consumers, lower EMIs owing to longer tenure and an improved distribution network will drive the growth in passenger cars and utility vehicles. l The export of four wheelers from India is also growing at an increasing rate and is expected to grow by 21 percent annum in the next four years.

l The global export from India is dominated by the small car segment with Hyundai Santro Xing, Maruti Alto and Tat topping the list.

Key Players in the Market 1. Maruti Suzuki

l Maruti Suzuki was established as Maruti Udyog Limited (MUL) in Feb 1981 through an Act of Parliament to meet th growing demand for a personal mode of transport.

l Suzuki Motor Company (now Suzuki Motor Corporation of Japan) was chosen from seven prospective partners wor and a joint venture agreement was signed between Government of India and Suzuki in October, 1982.

l As a part of the companys corporate social responsibility (CSR), The Institute of Driving Training and Research (IDT started in 2000, jointly with Delhi Government to promote safe driving habits among people.

l In 2002, Suzuki Motors Corporation increased its stake in Maruti to 54.2 percent and became the major stakeholde Maruti Suzuki is the largest car manufacturer in India.

Brands Offered The brands offered by Maruti are

l l l l l l Maruti 800 Alto Versa Wagon R Baleno SX4 l l l l l l Omni Gypsy Zen Estilo Esteem Swift Grand Vitara

Headquarter The companys registered and corporate office is located at New Delhi and the workshop is located in Gurgaon, Haryana. Present Management Mr. Shizno Nakanishi is the Managing Director & CEO and R.C. Bhargava is the chairman of Maruti Suzuki. 2. Hyundai Motor India Limited (HMIL)
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Hyundai Motor India Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of Hyundai Motor Company, South Korea. The company started its operation in India in 1998 99. At present Hyundai Motors India limited is the second largest car manufacturer in India.

The year 2006 had been a significant year for the company. It achieved a significant milestone by rolling out the fa 300,000th export car. The company exports to over 65 countries globally and has recently ventured into the UK market.

The Company has also been awarded ISO 1400 certification for its sustainable environment management practice

Brand Offered The brands offered by Hyundai India are:

l l l l Santro Xing Accent Elantra Tucson l l l l Getz Verna Embera i 10

Headquarter The companys headquarters are located at New Delhi Present Management Mr. H.S. Lheem is the Managing Director of Hyundai Motor India Limited ________________________________________________________________________ ___ II. Information Technology Industry

l Post Liberalization, the IT industry has become one of the core business sectors of the economy. l The annual growth rate of Indias software exports has been consistently over 50 percent since 1991.

l According to a report from Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, The ITeS BPO industry has g by about 54 per cent with exports earnings of US $3.6 billion during 2003 2004.

l The governments IT policy aims to use IT as a tool for raising the living standards of population based in rural area enhancing rural connectivity and increasing IT awareness. l The recent findings of NASSCOM Mc Kinsey report projects a further growth in the revenue of IT industry. l It is expected to reach US $87 billion in 2008. The report also says that the growth in the IT industry would lead to creation of about 2.2 million jobs.

Key Players in the Market 1. Infosys


Infosys Technologies Limited (NASDAQ: INFY) is an information technology (IT) company founded at Pune in 1981 seven IT professionals. In 1987 the company set up its first international office in the US in Fremont. In the year 1992, Infosys became a public limited company in India. In 1999, it became the first Indian company to be listed on NASDAQ and attained SEI CMM level 5 certification. The company operates nine development centres in India and has over 30 offices in 20 other nations.

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Apart from its core business area, Infosys, through its subsidiaries, operates in some other business interests as w namely

i) Progeon Infosys offers business process outsourcing solution to the global clients through Progeon.

ii) Infosys Consulting Inc. US a subsidiary of Infosys Technologies, the company offers IT consulting to clients across America.

iii) Infosys Technologies was also responsible for the introduction of Finacle, the software for Indian Banking indust

Headquarter Infosys technologies is headquartered at Bangalore. Present Management Mr. N. R. Narayan Murthy is the Chief Mentor and Chairman of BOD, S. Gopalakrishnan is the Chairman and Managing Director. 2. Tata Consultancy Services (TCS).
l l l l Tata Consultancy Services Limited is a Tata group company. TCS commenced its operations in 1968.

Today the company has its presence in 34 countries across 6 continents and offers a range of services to its clients

The main services provided by TCS are - complete range of IT products/service, consultancy services and outsourc services.

Headquarter The companys corporate office is at Mumbai. Present Management Mr. Ratan N Tata is the Chairman of the Tata Group and Mr. S.Ramadorai is the CEO and Managing Director of TCS. 3. Wipro Technologies
l Wipro was set up in 1945 as Western India Vegetable Products Limited with modest presence in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.

l The diversification into IT happened for the company in 1980 when IT services were started in the domestic marke

l Wipro launched its hardware company in 1981. In 1982, the companys name was changed to Wipro Limited and it launched its software product subsidiary Wipro Systems Limited in 1984.

l In 2000 the company was listed on New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). In 2001, WIPRO became worlds first PCMM l company. l In 1975, WIPRO marketed Indias 1st homegrown PC.

Headquarter Wipro Technologies is headquartered at Bangalore.

Present Management Mr. Azim Premji is the present Chairman of Wipro Technologies/Wipro Group. ________________________________________________________________________ ___ III. Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) Market

l The Indian FMCG sector is the fourth largest sector in the economy with a total market size in excess of US $13.1 bi

l The FMCG Industry has strong presence in the Indian Economy and is characterised by a well established distributio network, intense competition between the organised and unorganised segments and low production costs. l Availability of key raw material and cheap labor costs gives India a competitive advantage.

l India is one of the largest emerging markets and the fourth largest economy in terms of purchasing power parity, w strong middle class base. The large share of fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) in total individual spending clubbe the large population base marks Indian as one of the largest FMCG markets. l The size of the FMCG market is set to treble from US $11.6 billion in 2003 to US $33.4 billion in 2015. l

Growth in this sector is also likely to come from consumer upgradation to matured product categories like processe food.

l By 2010, about 200 million people in India are expected to consume processed and packaged food, which would re large investment in the food processing industry. Key Players in The Market

1. Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL)

l In the summer of 1888, visitors to the Kolkata harbour noticed crates full of Sunlight soap bars embossed with the Made in England by Lever Brothers. With it, began the era of branded Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) in In

l In 1895 the company launched Lifebuoy and other famous brands like Pears, Lux and Vim. Vanaspati was launched 1918.

l In 1931, Unilever set up its Indian subsidiary by the name Hindustan Vanaspati Manufacturing Company. Brand Da came to the Indian Market in 1937. l It was followed by setting up of Lever Brothers Limited in 1933 and United Traders Limited in 1935. l The three Companies were merged together in 1956 and Hindustan Lever Limited (HLL) was formed.

l The company was renamed from HLL to HUL in late Jun 2007 to provide the optimum balance and the future bene synergies of global alignment with the corporate name of Unilever. l At present, HUL is Indias largest FMCG company with its presence across varied product categories namely Home Personal care, processed foods and Beverages.

l It is also one of the largest exporters in the country and has been recognised as Golden Super Star Trading House b Government of India.

Headquarter Hindustan Unilever Limited has its headquarters at Mumbai. Present Management Mr. Harish Manwani is the Present non executive Chairman of the company and Nitin Paranjpe, CEO. Products Offered The various products offered by HLL are:
Personal Care Lux Laundry Surf Excel Foods Appliances Brooke Bond Hindustan Lever Limited has also come out with Pureit Lipton Kissan Knorr Annapurna Bru Kwality Walls The worlds most advanced water purifier.

Lifebouy Liril Hamam Breeze Dove Pears Rexona Fair and Lovely Ponds Sunsilk Naturals Clinic

Rin Wheel

Pepsodent Close-Up Axe Vaseline Ayush Lakme

2. ITC Limited
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ITC Limited was incorporated on August 24, 1910 under the name of Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited

The companys ownership was progressively Indianised and the name of the company was changed to ITC Limited 1974.

The companys packaging and printing business divisions were set up in 1925 to provide strategic support to ITCs cigarette business.

Apart from FMCG product offerings, the company has also marked its presence in hotel industry under two brand names Welcome Group of Hotels and Sheraton Hotels. The company ventured into the hotel business in 1975. It also offers a range of lifestyle products and stationery items. In 2000, the company started its stationery business and also introduced Wills Lifestyle range of clothing.

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It made an entry into the packaged foods business in 2001, with the launch of its brand Kitchens of India. In 200 company launched Aashirwad brand of atta and subsequently in 2003 Sunfeast brand of biscuits was launche

Headquarter ITC Limited is headquartered at Kolkata Present Management Mr. Y. C. Deveshwar is the present Chairman of the company. Products Offered Major Brands in various product offerings of company include:

a) Cigarettes Insignia, India Kings, Classic, Gold Flake, Capstan, Flake and etc. b) Food Brands Kitchens of India, Fashioned, Sunfeast, Mint-O, Candyman & Bingo. c) Lifestyle Retailing Will Lifestyle, John Players, Essenza De Wills, Miss Players d) Personal Care Farina Di Wills e) Stationery Expression Greeting Cards, Classmate, Papercraft, Regalia f) Safety Matches & Agarbattis Ikon, Aim, Vare Lit, Mangaldeep, Delite 2) Hotels - Maurya Sheraton, Chola Mandalam 3) Paperboard & Specialty Papers 4) Packaging 5) Agni Business 6) Information Technology

3. Proctor and Gamble India (P & G)

l l Proctor & Gamble started its operation in India when Vicks Product Inc. India was established in 1951.

In 1964, a public limited company, Richardson Hindustan Limited (RHL) was formed which obtained a license from government to produce menthol oil and Vicks range of products.

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In 1967, RHL introduced CLEARASIL, the pimple cream and subsequently in 1979, VICKS ACTION 500 was launch

In 1985, RHL became an affiliate of Proctor & Gamble Company, USA and the name was finally changed to Proctor Gamble, India in 1989.

In 1991, Ariel brand of detergent was introduced. In 1993, Proctor and Gamble India started the marketing of Ol brand of products. In 1999, the name of the company was changed to Proctor & Gamble Hygiene and Health Care Limited.

Headquarter P & G India is headquartered at Mumbai. Robert A. McDonald is Chairman & CEO of the Company.

Products Offered 1. Hygiene & Health Care Whisper, Vicks Vapor Rub, Vicks Inhaler, Vicks Formula 44, Vicks Cough Drops, Vicks Action 500+ 2. Home Production Ariel Tide Detergent and Bar Pantene Olay Joy Heads & Shoulders Pantene Rejoice Pampers ________________________________________________________________________ ___ IV. Telecom Sector
l According to a recent report by CRIS INFAC the Indian Telecom Sector is one of the fastest growing, high potential telecom markets in the world.

The total subscriber base in India is expected to grow to 490.0 million suscribers by 2012 at a Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 24.3 percent.

The urban teledensity is expected to cross 50 percent mark by 200910 and the rural teledensity would reach doub figures.

Wireless telephony services (Mobile & fixed wireless) until now account for almost the entire growth in the sector. mobile subscriber base is expected to grow from 52.2 million at the end of 2004 05 to 490.0 million in 2011 12.

l The fixed line subscriber base is expected to grow from 45.9 million at the end of 200405 to 73.4 million in 2009

The current telecom boom is likely to sustain itself in future because of many factors:
l l l l Low access charge Reduction in license fee Reduction in tariff rates, both for fixed line and wireless services Increase in FDI limit for the sector

Government policy of moving from fixed license regime to a revenue share regime

Key players in the market 1. Bharti Tele-Ventures (AIRTEL) Bharti Tele-Ventures limited, a part of Bharti enterprises, is Indias leading private sector telecommunication service provider. The business of Bharti Tele-Ventures has been structured into two main strategic business groups: i) Mobility business group ii) Infotel business group The Mobility Business Group provides GSM mobile services across India in 23 Telecom circles and the Infotel Business Group provides broadband and telephone (fixed line) services. Till now, it is the only company to operate in all 23 circles in India. The telephone and internet services provided by the company are available in 15 circles. In 2005, Vodafone Group Plc., the largest telecom company of United Kingdom bought 10% stake in Bharti Tele-Ventures for US $1.5 billion. Headquarter Bharti Tele-Ventures Ltd. is headquartered at New Delhi. Present Management Mr. Sunil Bharti Mittal is the Chairman and Managing Director of the company. 2. Vodafone Essar Vodafone Essar previously known as Hutchison Essar, brands its product as Vodafone. Vodafone Essar is owned by Vodafone Group (52%), Essar Group (33%), and other Indian Nationals (15%). Headquarter Vodafone Essar is headquartered at Mumbai Present Management Mr. Asim Ghosh is CEO of Vodafone Essar and Mr. Arun Sarin is the CEO of Vodafone Group. 3. Reliance Communications Limited (RCL)

l Reliance Communications Limited was originally incorporated on July 15, 2004 under the Companies Act, 1956 as R Infrastructure Limited. l The status of the company was changed from private limited to public limited on July 25, 2005.

l The name has since been changed to its present name - Reliance Communications Limited, under a fresh Certificate incorporation obtained from the government for the consequent change of name on June 7, 2006.

Headquarter Reliance Communications Limited is headquartered at Navi Mumbai. Present Management Mr. Anil Dhirubhai Ambani is the present chairman of the company ________________________________________________________________________ ___ V. Infrastructure Sector

l Infrastructure Development has begun to pick up over the past two years and is set to surge over the next few yea

l Driven by government initiatives, private participation in the sector, innovative financing schemes and low interest on borrowing, have made it easier and cheaper for companies to fund large projects.

l According to a recent CMIE (Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy) report, the further growth expected in the sec would require investments to the tune of Rs. 6,196 billion over FY 2005 08. l The focus of the PublicPrivate partnership is on development of roads, ports and power sector. l All these initiatives would translate into huge earnings for the construction companies.

Key Players in the Market 1. Jaiprakash Industries (Jaypee Group)

l The Jaypee Group is a well diversified infrastructure company of India. The company was set up by Shri Jayparakas in 1979. After his stint with the government of Uttar Pradesh, he branched off on his own as a Civil Contractor in 19 l Jaiprakash Associates Pvt. Ltd (JAPL) was set up in 1979. l In 1980, Hotel Siddharth (New Delhi) and Hotel Vasant Continental (New Delhi) were set up.

l In 1983, Jaypee Rewa Cement Plant (JRCL) was set up and subsequently Jaiprakash Industries Limited (JIL) was form 1986 by amalgamation of JAPL into JRCL. l In 1992, the group ventured into power sector and two New Companies Jaiprakash Hydro Power Ltd. (JHPL) and Jaiprakash Power Venture Ltd. (JPVL) were formed.

l In the year 2000, Jaypee Cement Ltd (JCL) was set up after a merger of JRCL and another Cement Plant Jaypee Bela

Cement Plant (JBCP).

l In 2003, JIL was merged with JIL and Jaiprakash Associates Ltd. (JAL) was formed in 2005, JHPL was listed on both N BSE and thereby became the first Hydropower Company to be listed on either BSE or NSE in India.

Headquarter Jaiprakash Industries is headquartered at New Delhi. Present Management Shri Jaiprakash Gaur is the Present Chairman of the Group. 2. DLF Group

The DLF Group founded in 1946 is a leading name in Indias real estate Industry. The Groups existing range of bus verticals spans across Homes, Offices, Shopping Malls and Recreational Spaces like DLF Golf and Country Club.

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It has been responsible for the development of various urban colonies and townships across India, primarily Gurg (NCR). Already a major player in locations across the country, the company is now focusing on new business areas. The group has made significant investments in hotels, infrastructure and Special Economic Zones (SEZs).

DLF has also entered into a Joint Venture with Laing ORourke of UK to develop expressways and airports in the co

Headquarter DLF Group has its Corporate Office in New Delhi. Present Management Mr. KP Singh is the present Chairman of the group. 3. Gammon India
l Gammon India Limited is one of the leading construction companies in India.

l The company was established by Mr. JG Gammon in 1919 as a firm of civic engineers and contractor which in 1922 incorporated as a private limited company. l Under its present name the firm went public in 1962.

l Gammon India has to its credit the largest river bridge in the world across the river Ganges at Patna, the largest roa bridge in India across the open sea in Mumbai and the first Cable stayed bridge in India.

l Gammon India Limited is the only Indian construction company to have been accredited with ISO 9001 certification fields of civil engineering works.

Headquarter The Company has its corporate office in Mumbai. Present Management Mr. Abhijit Ranjan is the Chairman and Managing Director of the Company. 4. GMR Group
l GMR Group is an infrastructure development company founded in 1978. l The group today has major interests in energy, transportation and business in manufacturing.

As a part of groups corporate social responsibility initiative, GMR Varalakshmi foundation (GMRVF) was establishe l 1991 with focus on education, community services, health and hygiene and creation of livelihood through empowe of local communities. l

In early 2006, the group also bagged the contract for restructuring and modernizing Delhis International Airport, jo with FRAPORT (Frankfurt airport)

Headquarter The company has its corporate office at Bangalore. Present Management Mr. G. M. Rao is the founding chairman of the GMR Group. ________________________________________________________________________ ___ VI. Major Business Groups 1. Tata Group

l Born in a Parsi family in 1839, Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata came to Bombay at the age of 14. In 1868, he started a pri trading firm with a capital of Rs.21000, laying the foundation of what now exists as Tata Group.

l His travels in the Far East and Europe created a strong desire in him to manufacture cotton goods. Finally, he launch famous Central India Spinning, Weaving and Manufacturing company in 1874 marking the groups entry into Textile

l The group later moved in to steel, electric power, locomotives, automobiles, banking, insurance, hotels and eventu information technology.

l Jamsetji had got the approval for building a steel plant in 1895. Many years were spent in surveying the Indian terra before the group hit gold in the remote coalfields of Bengal which had ore with rich iron content and a continuous f water. The Tata Iron and Steel Company was founded in 1907 at Jamshedpur, in Bihar (present day Jharkhand).

l Sir Dorabji Tata, aided by his cousin RD Tata, saw Jamsetjis projects through to the stage of accomplishment. Sir Do always believed that wealth must be put to constructive use. Towards the end of his career in 1932, he put all his w including the 245-carat Jubilee Diamond, twice as large as the Koh-i-noor and estimated at Rs. 1 croreinto a trust f advancement of learning and research, the relief of distress and other charitable purposes.

l Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata (JRD) was born in Paris on July 29, 1904. JRD, as he was fondly referred to all his life arrived at group headquarters, Bombay House to work under John Peterson, director-in-charge of Tata Steel, in 192

l In 1938, after the death of Sir Nowroji Saklatvala, chairman of Tata Sons, JRD Tata was catapulted to be the head of largest industrial empire.

l JRDs passion for flying was fulfilled with the formation of the Tata Aviation Service back in 1932. Just before Indias Independence, in 1945, Tata Steel promoted the Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (Telco) with the object making locomotives for the Indian Railways.

l For these endeavors, JRD Tata was awarded the countrys highest civilian honour - Bharat Ratna, in 1992one of the instances when the award was granted during a persons lifetime.

1868 Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata starts a private trading firm. The foundation of the Tata empire is laid. : 1874 The first Indian textile mill, Central India Spinning, Weaving and Manufacturing Company is established. : 1902 The Indian Hotels Company is established to run a chain of hotels in India. : 1907 The birth of the Tata Iron and Steel Company heralds Indias entry into the steel age. : 1910 The first of the three Tata electric companies, the Tata Hydro-Electric power Supply Company, is created. : 1911 The Indian Institute of Science is established in Bangalore. :

1917 The Tata entered consumer goods, as The Tata Oil Mills Company starts making soaps, detergents and cooking : 1931 Tata Press is born. It is now one of the countrys leading, integrated commercial printer. : 1932 Tata Airlines, a division of Tata Sons, is established. : 1939 Tata Chemicals, now the largest producer of soda ash in the country, is established. : 1945 The Tata Engineering and locomotive Company is set up to manufacture commercial vehicles : 1952 Lakme is established. : 1954 Indias major marketing, engineering and manufacturing organisation, Voltas is established. : 1962 Tata Finlay (now Tata Tea), one of the largest tea producers, is established. : 1968 Tata Consultancy Services is formed, a division of Tata Sons. : 1970 Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company is created to publish educational and technical books. Tata Economic : Consultancy Services is set up.

1984 Titan Industries a joint venture between the Tata Group and the Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporat : (TIDCO) is set up to manufacture watches. 1996 Tata Teleservices (TTSL) is established to spearhead the Groups foray into the telecom sector. : 1998 Tata Indica, Indias first indigenously designed, developed and manufactured car is launched. : 1999 The new Tata Group corporate mark and logo are launched. : 2000 Tata Tea acquires Tetley Group, UK.

2001 Tata-AIG a joint venture between the Tata Group and American International Group Inc (AIG) marks the Tat entry into insurance. (The Groups insurance company New India Assurance, was nationalised in 1956). The Tat : Group Executive Office (GEO) is set up to design and implement change in the Tata Group and to provide long-t direction.

2003 Tata BP Solar inaugurates plant; launches three new products. Tata Motors launches City Rover Indica fashion : the European market.

2005 Tata Steel acquires Singapore-based steel company NatSteel by subscribing to 100 per cent equity of its subsidi : NatSteel Asia.

2007 Tata Steel, part of Indias Tata Group, offered to purchase 100% stake in the Corus Group at 608 p. per share in cash deal, cumulatively valued at USD 12.04 Billion. This deal was also the biggest acquisition by any Indian com : till date.

Headquarter The Tata Groups holding company has its headquarters at Mumbai, Maharashtra. Present Management Mr. Ratan Tata is the present Chairman of the group.
Engineering Services/Products Power Chemicals Communication IT Consumer Products Tata McGrawhill publishing Services

Glo Oper

TAL Manufacturing Tata BP Rallies India Solutions Solar India

Tata Sky

Nelito Systems

Indian Hotels T (Taj Group) Enterp Taj Housing Development Corporation (THDC) Financial Services

Tata AutoComp System

Tata Tata power Tata Teleservices Chemicals


Tata Tea

T Incorp

Tata Holset

Tata Pigments


Tata Elxsi


T Intern

Tata Motors



Tata Tata Ceramics Technolgies

T Intern A

Tata Projects

Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) Tata Interactive Systems

Titan Industries

Tata AIG General Insurance Tata AIG Life Insurance

Tata L

TCE Consulting Engineers

Tata P L

Telco Construction Equipment Co.

Tata Asset Management Tata Financial Services Tata Investment Corporation Other Services Tata Quality Management Services Tata Services Tata Strategic Management Group.




Tata Steel

Group Companies 2. The Goenkas - RPG Group The RPG Groups business origin can be traced to 1820, when Mr. Ramdutt Goenka, arrived in Calcutta from Dundlod, in Rajasthan, India, to do business with the British East India Company. Along with his brothers and sons, he acquired several profitable agencies. By the turn of the twentieth century, his business had expanded rapidly with significant diversification in banking, textiles, jute and tea. For their outstanding contribution to the Indian business and community services, the British conferred Knighthood on Sir Hariram Goenka and Sir Badridas Goenka. They became prominent leaders of the Marwari community of Calcutta and held sway in business communities throughout India.

Sir Badridas Goenka played an important role in public life and national politics. In 1933, he became the first Indian to be appointed Chairman of the Imperial Bank of India, now known as the State Bank of India. In 1945, he was elected President of the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI). The successful streak of entrepreneurship continued with Keshav Prasad Goenka, son of Sir Badridas Goenka. He managed to steer his companies through the pre-independence and post-independence era and in the 1950s, embarked on a course of expansion and diversification at an escalating tempo. Keshav Prasad Goenka acquired the two British trading houses, Duncan Brothers and Octavius Steel. In the early 1960s, he promoted three companies in the automobile tyre industry namely Phillips Carbon Black and acquired several others. By the end of 1970s, when he progressively retired leaving the management of his business to his three sons, he had acquired substantial interests in tea, automobile tyre, jute, cotton textile and electric cables. Like his father, he played an active role in public life. He held the position of President of FICCI in 1965, and became a director of Indias central bank, the Reserve Bank of India, a position later held by his son Rama Prasad Goenka, better known as RP Goenka. In 1979, the fortune owned by Keshav Prasad Goenka was shared amongst his three sons. From owning four companies; Phillips Carbon Black, Asian Cables, Agarpara Jute and Murphy India, with a turnover of Rs 75 crore, RP Goenka, led the group to what it is today: a Rs 7,472 crore company (US$ 1.65 billion), with more than 20 companies in 7 different business sectors. With razor sharp business instincts, RP Goenka excelled in buying and selling companies. His first purchase was CEAT Tyres of India in 1981. In the 1980s, this takeover specialist acquired KEC (1982), Searle India (1983, later renamed RPG Life Sciences), Dunlop (1984), HMV (1988), and finally in 1989,CESC, Harrisons Malayalam, Spencer & Co. and ICIM. In 1990, he entrusted the management of the group to his two sons, Harsh and Sanjiv Goenka. RP Goenka became Chairman Emeritus, Harsh Goenka Chairman and Sanjiv Goenka Vice-Chairman of RPG Enterprises. Milestones 1979 : Inception of RPG Enterprises by Mr RP Goenka, a Rs. 700 million group, which comprises Phillips Carbon Black, Asian Cables, Agarpara Jute and Murphy (India) 1983 : RPG Life Sciences (formerly Searle India) is acquired. 1985 : Saregama India (formerly the Gramophone of India Ltd.) is acquired 1988 : HMV (His Masters Voice) is acquired. 1989 : Harrisons Malayalam Ltd., Spencers CESC Ltd., Raychem RPG (formerly Raychem Corporation) and Zensar Technologies (formerly ICIL) are acquired. 1995 : RPG Cellular commences its operations. 1996 : RPG Netcom is established. 1997 : MusicWorld and Health and Glow are formed. 1999 : Searle India becomes RPG Life Sciences. Foodworld is established.

2000 : International Computers India Ltd. (ICIL) becomes Zensar Technologies Ltd. 2001 : Giant hypermarkets is established. 2003 : RPG crosses the Rs.7000 crore turnover mark reaching Rs.7472 crore in sales. Headquarter The group is headquartered at Mumbai, Maharashtra. Present Management Mr. R P Goenka is the Chairman Emeritus, Mr. Harsh Goenka is the present Chairman of the group and Mr. Sanjiv Goenka is the Vice Chairman of the group.

RPG Group Companies Retail : Foodworld, Musicworld, Spencers, Hypermarkets Technology : Zensar Technology, RPG Cables, RPG Life Sciences Entertainment : Saregama HMV, HamaraCD Power Transmission : CESC Ltd., Noida Power Company Tyres : CEAT Ltd., CEAT Kelani, Phillips Carbon Black Ltd. Speciality : Raychem RPG, Transmission : KEC International, Nitel, RPG Transmission 3. Bajaj Group

The Bajaj Group is amongst the top 10 business houses in India. Its footprint stretches over a wide range of industries, spanning automobiles (two-wheelers and three-wheelers), home appliances, lighting, iron and steel, insurance, travel and finance. The groups flagship company, Bajaj Auto, is ranked as the worlds fourth largest two and three wheeler manufacturer and the Bajaj brand is well-known in over a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, the US and Asia. Founded in 1926, at the height of Indias movement for independence from the British, the group has an illustrious history. The integrity, dedication, resourcefulness and determination to succeed which are characteristic of the group today, can be traced back to its birth during those days of relentless devotion to a common cause. Jamnalal Bajaj, founder of the group, was a close confidant and disciple of Mahatma Gandhi. In fact, Gandhiji had adopted him as his son. This close relationship and his deep involvement in the independence movement did not leave Jamnalal Bajaj with much time to spend on his newly launched business venture. His son, Kamalnayan Bajaj, then 27, took over the reins of business in 1942. He too was close to Gandhiji and it was only after Independence in 1947, that he was able to give his full attention to the business. Kamalnayan Bajaj not only consolidated the group, but also diversified into various manufacturing activities. Headquarter Bajaj group is headquartered at Pune, Maharashtra. Present Management The present Chairman and Managing Director of the group, Rahul Bajaj, took charge of the business in 1965. Under his leadership, the turnover of the Bajaj Auto, the flagship company, has gone up from INR 72 million to INR 46.16 billion (USD 936 million) and its product portfolio has expanded and the brand has found a global market. He is one of Indias most distinguished business leaders and is internationally respected for his business acumen and entrepreneurial spirit. Bajaj Group Companies
Bajaj Auto Ltd. Bajaj Electricals Ltd. Bajaj Hindustan Ltd. Maharashtra Scooters Ltd. Bajaj Auto finance Ltd. Mukand Global Finance Ltd. Bachraj Factories Pvt. Ltd Bajaj Consumer Care Ltd. Bajaj Auto Holdings Ltd. Jamnalal Sons Pvt. Ltd.

Hercules Hoists Ltd. Bajaj Sevashram Pvt. Ltd. Hind lamps Ltd. Bajaj Ventures Ltd. Mukand International Ltd. The Hindustan Housing Co. Ltd. Baroda Industries Pvt. Ltd. Bombay Forgings Ltd.

Bachraj & Company Pvt. Ltd. Jeevan Ltd. Bajaj Allianz Life Insurance Company Ltd. Bajaj Allianz General Insurance Company Ltd. Stainless India Ltd. Hind Musafir Agency Pvt. Ltd. Bajaj Internatinal Pvt. Ltd.

4. Aditya Birla Group A formidable force in the Indian industry, Mr Aditya Birla dared to dream of setting up a global business empire at the age of 24. He was the first to put the Indian business on the world map, as far back as 1969, long before globalization became a buzzword in India. Interestingly, for Mr Aditya Birla, globalisation meant more than just geographic reach. He believed that a business could be global even whilst being based in India. Therefore, back in his home-territory, he single-mindedly drove to put together the building blocks to make his Indian business a global force. Under his stewardship, his companies rose to be the worlds largest producer of viscose staple fibre, the largest refiner of palm oil, the third largest producer of insulators and the sixth largest producer of carbon black. In India they attained the status of the largest single producer of viscose filament yarn, apart from being a producer of cement, grey cement and rayon grade pulp. The group is also the largest producer of aluminium in the private sector, the lowest cost producers in the world and the only producer of line in the textile industry in India.
Milestones 1857 The foundation of the Birla Group of Companies is laid by Seth Shiv Narayan Birlacotton trading operations : commence at Pilani, Rajasthan. 1919 Ghanshyam Das Birla, grandson of Shiv Narayan Birla, sets up the first Birla jute mill. : 1947 Grasim is incorporated. : 1958 Hindalco is incorporated.

: 1965 Aditya Birla, grandson of the legendary Ghanshyamdas Birla, starts the Eastern Spinning Mills & Industries. : 1966 The Indian Rayon Corporation Ltd. is acquired. : 1985 Indias first gas-based fertiliser plant in the private sector Indo Gulf goes on stream at Jagdishpur, UP : 1986 The Birla Growth Fund is set up. : 1990 Mr Kumar Mangalam Birla gets actively involved in the Groups operations. : 1995 The group enters the telecommunications sector through a joint venture with AT & T (USA) :

1996 All group companies are consolidated under the umbrella of the Aditya Birla Group, led by Mr. Kumar Mangala : Birla.

1999 A joint venture with financial services major Sun Life of Canada is inked, as part of the overall restructuring of t : Groups financial services business. 2000 l Indian Rayon acquires Madura Garments and selected overseas brand rights, taking the Group to the top of : league in the branded apparels sector.

l The Group forays into e-business through a strategic alliance of its software arm, Birla Software and Consulta Services (BCSS), with Lawson Software (USA). l Gyanodaya, the Institute of Management Learning of the Aditya Birla Group, is inaugurated. l Hindalco acquires Indal. The Indal board is reconstituted. Mr Kumar Mangalam Birla becomes Indals new chairman. The Group holding goes up to 74.6 percent, and further increases to 96 per cent in FY03.

l The Insurance Regulatory Development Authority (IRDA) grants registration in principle to Birla Sun Life Insu Company. Indian Rayon acquires major world rights for international apparel brands Louis Philippe, Allen Sol Peter England. l The Group announces its intention to launch a 450 MW Green Power Project in Karnataka.

l The merger of Birla AT&T and Tata Cellular is completed to form IDEA.

2004 Board reconstituted with Mr. Kumar Mangalam Birla taking over as Chairman. Completion of the implementati process to de-merge the cement business of L&T and completion of open offer by Grasim, with the latter acqui : controlling stake in the newly formed company UltraTech.

Headquarter The group is headquartered at Mumbai, Maharashtra. Present Management Mr. Kumar Mangalam Birla is the present Chairman of the group. Under his leadership the group has not only sustained existing empire but is also prospering to new heights. The group is spearheaded by Grasim, Hindalco, Indian Rayon, and Indo Gulf Fertilisers. Group Companies
Group Companies Grasim Industries Ltd. Hindalco Industries Ltd. Aditya Birla Nuvo Ltd. Ultra Tech Cement Ltd. Indian Companies PSI Data Systems TransWorks Essel Mining & Industries Ltd. Shree Digvijay Cement Ltd. Idea Cellular Ltd. Birla NGK Insulators Bihar Caustic and Chemicals Ltd. Joint Ventures Birla Sun Life Insurance Birla Sun Life Asset Management Company Ltd. Birla Sun Life Distribution Company Ltd. Tanfac Industries Ltd.

5. Reliance Industries Limited (Mukesh Ambani) The Reliance Group, founded by Dhirubhai H. Ambani (1932-2002), is Indias largest private sector enterprise, with businesses in the energy and materials value chain. Groups annual revenues are in excess of USD 27 billion. The flagship company, Reliance Industries Limited, is a Fortune Global 500 company and is the largest private sector company in India. The Groups activities span exploration and production of oil and gas, petroleum refining and marketing, petrochemicals (polyester, fibre intermediates, plastics and chemicals), textiles and retail.

Reliance enjoys global leadership in its businesses, being the largest polyester yarn and fibre producer in the world and among the top five to ten producers in the world in major petrochemical products. The Group exports products in excess of USD 15 billion to more than 100 countries in the world. There are more than 25,000 employees on the rolls of Group Companies. Major Group Companies are Reliance Industries Limited (including main subsidiaries Reliance Petroleum Limited and Reliance Retail Limited) and Reliance Industrial Infrastructure Limited. Milestones

1977 : Reliance went Public with IPO Dhirubhai Ambani introduced equity cult in India, a new model of business lea from a base of the broadcast public shareholding.

1992 : Reliance raised funds by pioneering foray into overseas capital markets with first ever international GDR offeri Indian corporate. 1993 : Reliance Petroleum Limited public issue - Indias largest public offering . Reliance pioneered the first ever Euro Convertible Bond issue by an Indian company. 1994 : Reliance offered the second Euro issue of GDR.

1995 : Net profit crossed the Rs 1,000 crore mark (Rs 1,065 crores or US$ 338 million), unparalleled in the Indian Priva sector. 1996First corporate in Asia to issue 50 and 100 years bond in US debt market. 97:

Reliance became the first private sector company to be rated by international credit rating agencies. S&P rated stable outlook, constrained by the Sovereign Ceiling. Moodys rated Baa3, Investment grade, constrained by th Sovereign Ceilings.

1998 : Dhirubhai Ambani was awarded the Deans Medal by the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, USA, for an outstanding example of leadership.

2001 : Reliance Industries Ltd. and Reliance Petroleum Ltd. became Indias two largest companies in terms of all majo financial parameters

Dhirubhai Ambani was conferred The Economic Times Award for Corporate Excellence for Lifetime Achieveme

2002 : l Reliance Infocomm to launch various telecom services on 28th December - beginning with Gujarat, the Infoc revolution will cover thousands of villages and hundreds of cities across the country. Reliance Infocomm will a major catalyst for changing the face of India and improving the quality of life of Indians.

l Reliance announced Indias biggest gas discovery in nearly three decades and one of the largest gas discover the world during 2002. The in place volume of natural gas is in excess of 7 trillion cubic feet, equivalent to ab billion barrels of crude oil. This is the first ever discovery by an Indian private sector company. l Reliance acquired control of Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Limited (IPCL) - Indias second largest petrochemicals company.

l The merger of Reliance Petroleum Limited with Reliance Industries Limited was announced - largest ever me India - Reliance Industries became the largest private sector company in India on all major financial paramete including sales, profits, net worth, assets, and exports.

2003 : l Reliance Infocomm acquires FLAG Telecom, a multinational telecom company providing bandwidth through undersea cable network comprising of over 50,000 kms of undersea fiber optic cable that spans four contine connects the key regions of Asia, Europe, Middle East and the USA. l Reliance strikes oil in an onshore block in Yemen, where it has an equity oil position.

l Reliances refinery at Jamnagar was ranked best in Shell Benchmarking for the third consecutive year in Ene Loss performance from amongst 50 refineries worldwide.

l BSES, one of the premier utility companies of the country, engaged in the generation, transmission and distr of electricity becomes part of the Reliance Group and Mr. Anil D Ambani is appointed its Chairman

2004 : l Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) emerged as the Petrochemicals Company of the Year at the prestigious sixt annual Platts Global Energy Awards ceremony in New York, USA

l The European Commission approved the acquisition of the German specialty polyester manufacturer Trevira Reliance.

l Reliance Industries emerged as the first and only private sector company from India to feature in the 2004 Fo Global 500 list of Worlds Largest Corporations. l Reliance announced it had struck gas off the Orissa Coast in the Bay of Bengal. l RIL became the first private sector company in India to record a net profit of US dollar of over 1 billion. 2006 : Reliance becomes Indias first private sector enterprise to cross US$2 billion profit mark. 2007 : l RIL completes a landmark acquisition of IPCL.

l Reliance Retail entered the organised retail market in India with the launch of its convenience store format u the brand name of Reliance Fresh.

Headquaters RIL is headquatered at Nariman Point, Mumbai

Present Management Chairman & Managing Director Mukesh Ambani 6. Reliance ADA Group

Reliance Capital Reliance Capital is one of Indias leading and fastest growing private sector financial services companies, and ranks among the top 3 private sector financial services and banking companies, in terms of net worth. The company has interests in asset management and mutual funds, life and general insurance, private equity and proprietary investments, stock broking and other activities in financial services. Reliance Communications Limited The flagship company of the Reliance ADA Group, Reliance Communications Limited, is the realisation of their founders dream of bringing about a digital revolution that will provide every Indian with affordable means of communication and a ready access to information. The company began operations in 1999 and has over 20 million subscribers today. It offers a complete range of integrated telecom services. These include mobile and fixed line telephony, broadband, national and international long distance services, data services and a wide range of value added services and applications aimed at enhancing the productivity of enterprises and individuals.

Reliance Energy Limited Reliance Energy Limited, incorporated in 1929, is a fully integrated utility engaged in the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. It ranks among Indias top listed private companies on all major financial parameters, including assets, sales, profits and market capitalization. It is Indias foremost private sector utility with aggregate estimated revenues of Rs 9,500 crore (US$ 2.1 billion) and total assets of Rs 10,700 crore (US$ 2.4 billion). Reliance Health In a country where healthcare is fast becoming a booming industry, Reliance Health is a focused healthcare services company enabling the provision of solution to Indians, at affordable prices. The company aims at providing integrated health services that will compete with the best in the world.It also plans to venture into diversified fields like Insurance Administration, Health care Delivery and Integrated Health, Health Informatics and Information Management and Consumer Health. Reliance Media & Entertainment As part of the Reliance - ADA Group, Reliance Entertainment is spearheading the Groups foray into the media and entertainment space. Reliance Entertainments core focus is to build significant presence for Reliance in the Entertainment eco-system: across content and distribution platforms. The key content initiative are across Movies, Music, Sports, Gaming, Internet & mobile portals, leading to direct opportunities in delivery across the emerging digital distribution platforms: digital cinema, IPTV, DTH and Mobile TV. Reliance ADA Group acquired Adlabs Films Limited in 2005, one of the largest entertainment companies in India, which has interests in film processing, production, exhibition & digital cinema. Reliance Entertainment has made an entry into the FM Radio business through Adlabs Radio Having won 45 stations in the recent bidding, BIG 92.7 FM is already Indias largest private FM radio network with 12 radio stations across the country as on 28th February 2007, with many more to be launched in the coming months. Headquater The company has its headquarter in Mumbai Present Management Shri Anil D Ambani is the chairman of Reliance ADAG. 7. Mahindra & Mahindra
l Mahindra & Mahindra Limited (M&M) is a major automaker in India. It is the flagship strategic business unit of the Mahindra Group.

l The company was set up in 1945 as Mahindra & Mohammed. Later, after the partition of India, Mr. Gulam Mohamm migrated to Pakistan and became that nations first finance minister.

l The company first traded steel with suppliers in England and the United States.

l Real business activity of M&M began by assembling complete knock down (CKD) Jeeps in 1949. The company expan indigenous manufacture of Jeep vehicles with a high level of local content under license from Kaiser Jeep and later American Motors (AMC).

l M&M soon branched out into manufacturing agricultural tractors and light commercial vehicles (LCVs). It later expa its operations to secure a significant presence in many more important sectors.

l The company has now transformed itself into a group of business units that caters to the Indian and overseas mark with a presence in vehicles, farm equipment, information technology, trade and finance related services, as well as infrastructure development.

l By 2005, M&M had become the largest producer of SUVs in India. The company has recently started a separate sec Mahindra Systems and Automotive Technologies (MSAT), to focus on developing components and offering enginee services.

l Mahindra & Mahindra rapidly grew from being a maker of army vehicles to a major automobile and tractor manufa with a growing global appetite.

l It made strategic acquisitions of plants in China and the United Kingdom, and has three assembly plants in the USA. has partnerships with international companies like Renault SA, France, Nissan and International Truck and Engine Corporation, USA. l M&M made its entry into the passenger car segment with Logan in April 2007 under the Mahindra Renault JV.

l M&M will make its maiden entry into the heavy trucks segment with Mahindra International, the joint venture with International Truck, USA.

l M&Ms Automotive Sector makes a wide rage of vehicles including MUVs, LCVs and three wheelers. M&M is the lar manufacturer of MUVs, offering over 20 models including new generation multi-utility vehicles like the Scorpio and Bolero. The company is a market leader in the Utility Vehicle segment.

l M&Ms products are being exported to the USA, Russia and several other countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America. Its global subsidiaries include Mahindra Europe Srl. based in Italy, Mahindra USA Inc., Mahindra South Afr Mahindra (China) Tractor Co. Ltd.

l M&M is the third largest tractor company in the world. It is also the largest manufacturer of tractors in India with sustained market leadership of around 24 years. It designs, develops, manufactures and markets tractors as well as implements.

Headquater The company is headquatered in Mumbai

Present Management Keshub Mahindra is Chairman and Anand G.Mahindra is the Vice-Chairman & Managing Director. IMPORTANT GOVERNING INSTITUTIONS 1. Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) Set up in 1927, on the advice of Mahatma Gandhi, FICCI is the largest and oldest apex business organization of Indian business. Its history is very closely interwoven with the freedom movement. FICCI inspired economic nationalism as a political tool to fight against discriminatory economic policies. That commitment, drive and mission continue in the ever-changing economic landscape of India, always chasing newer agendas. With a nationwide membership of over 1500 corporates and over 500 chambers of commerce and business associations, FICCI espouses the shared vision of Indian businesses and speaks directly and indirectly for over 2,50,000 business units. It has an expanding direct membership of enterprises drawn from large, medium, small and tiny segments of manufacturing, distributive trade and services. FICCI maintains the lead as the proactive business solution provider through research, interactions at the highest political level and global networking. Headquarter FICCI is headquartered at New Delhi Present Management Mr. Harsh Pati Singhania - President Mr. Rajan Bharati Mittal - Sr. Vice President Mr. Harsh C. Mariwala - Vice President 2. Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) works to create and sustain an environment conducive to the growth of industries in India, partnering industry and government alike through advisory and consultative processes. CII is a non-government, not-for-profit, industry-led and industry-managed organisation, playing a proactive role in Indias development process. Founded over 112 years ago, it is Indias premier business association, with a direct membership of over 7000 organisations from the private as well as public sectors, including SMEs and MNCs and indirect membership of over 90,000 companies from around 362 national and regional sectoral associations. Headquarter CII is headquartered at New Delhi Present Management Mr. Venu Srinivasan President, CII Mr. Hari S. Bhartia Vice President, CII 3. National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM)

National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM) is the premier trade body and the chamber of commerce of the IT software and services industry in India. NASSCOM is a global trade body with over 1200 members, of which over 250 are global companies from the US, UK, EU, Japan and China. NASSCOMs member companies are in the business of software development, software services, software products and IT-enabled Services/BPO services. NASSCOM was set up in 1988 to facilitate business and trade in software and services and to encourage advancement of research in software technology. It is a not-for-profit organization, registered under the Indian Societies Act, 1860. Headquarter NASSCOM has its headquarters at New Delhi Present Management Mr. Pramod Bhasin Chairman, NASSCOM Mr. Harsh Mangalik Vice Chairman, NASSCOM Mr. Som Mittal President, NASSCOM 4. ASSOCHAM The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) is the premiere body of chamber of commerce in India. Established in 1920, it currently has a membership of over 200,000 companies across the country. The organisation represents the interests of trade and commerce in India, and interacting with the Government of India on policy issues, and liaisoning with their international counterparts to promote trade between India and other nations. Present Management Swati Piramal, President, ASSOCHAM Dilip Modi, Vice President, ASSOCHAM Rajkumar Dhoot, Vice President, ASSOCHAM 5. Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is a board (autonomous body) created by the Government of India in 1988 and given statutory form in 1992 under the SEBI Act 1992. SEBI has three functions rolled into one body: legislative, judicial and executive. It drafts rules in its legislative capacity, it conducts enquiries and enforcement action in its executive function and it passes rulings and orders in its judicial capacity. SEBI has had a mixed history in terms of its success as a regulator. Though it has pushed systemic reforms aggressively and successively (e.g. the quick movement towards making the markets electronic and paperless), it seems to lack the legal expertise needed to sustain prosecutions/enforcement actions. Headquarter SEBI is headquartered at Mumbai. Present Management

Mr. C.B. Bhave Chairman, SEBI Dr. K.P. Krishna Joint Secretary CM 6. Finance Commission The First Finance Commission was constituted under Art. 280 by a Presidential Order dated November 22, 1951, under the chairmanship of KC Neogy. It is the duty of the Commission to make recommendations to the President as to:

The distribution between the Union and the States of the Net proceeds of Taxes which are to be, or may be, divid between them under this Chapter and the allocation between the States of the respective shares of such proceed

The principles which should govern the grants-in-aid of the revenues of the States out of the Consolidated Fund o

Headquarter Finance Commission is headquartered at New Delhi. Present Management Mr. Vijay L. Kelkar - Chairman, Finance Commision 7. National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) It was established in 1956 as a non-governmental body in Delhi to assist government, civil society and the private sector to make informed policy choices. The council encourages research on Indian themes using Indian data. Its major activities include:
l Developing policy reports for clients.

l Examining domestic agricultural market structures, price policy, linkages between agricultural price policy and pov and, the role of the Panchayats in fostering sustainable development. l Tracking key sectors of the economy for subscribers and forecasting the economic outlook.

l Conducting, designing, and analysing surveys that illuminate public policy issues as well as assist private sector dec l Disseminating research findings

Headquarter NCAER is headquartered at New Delhi. Present Management Mr. Nandan Nilekani - President, NCAER Mr. M.S. Verma Vice President, NCAE

THE PLANNING COMMISSION The Planning Commission is the supreme organ for planning social and economic development in India. It was established on March 15, 1950. The Prime Minister of India is the ex-officio Chairman of Planning Commission. The committee members also appoint a Deputy Chairman, who is the de-facto executive head of the Commission and enjoys the rank of a Cabinet Minister. The Cabinet Ministers with certain important portfolios act as part-time members of the Commission, while the full-time members are experts from various fields like Economics, Industry, Science and General Administration. The commission works through the following divisions
l l l General Planning Divisions Special Planning Divisions Programme Administration Divisions

The majority of experts in the commission are economists, making the commission the biggest employer of the Indian Economic Services. Five Year Plans The Indian Economy is based on the concept of planning. This is carried through the fiveyear plans, developed, executed and monitored by the Planning Commission. The First Five Year plan was implemented in 1951. The Tenth plan is currently underway.

l First Five Year Plan (1951-56) The first plan aimed at correcting the distortions caused to the economy after the W War II.

l Second Five Year Plan (1956-61) The second plan aimed at a pattern of development leading to a socialist societ framework for the economy.

l Third Five Year Plan (1961-66) The third plan aimed at achieving the goals enlisted in the first two plans and also at achieving self-sufficiency in foodgrains, increase employment oppurtunities and expand basic and heavy industri l Three Annual Plans (1966-69)

l Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) The objectives of the fourth plan were to achieve self-reliance, and give priority t agriculture, promote industrial production and exports.

l Fifth Five Year Plan (1974-79) The fifth five year plan aimed at removal of poverty, attaining economic self relianc

increasing employment oppurtunities in the country.

l Sixth Year Plan (1979-85) The sixth plan aimed at achieving a annual growth rate of 5.2 per cent and raising the p capita income by 3.3 per cent.

l Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) The plan focussed on policies and programmes to increase domestic industrial productivity, employment oppurtunities, and agriculture productivity by increasing the basic framework and by ado modern technologies. l Annual Plans 1990-92

l Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) The plan aimed at achieving a higher outlay of public sector enterprises to meet t demands of various central and state sectors.

l Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-02) The plan aimed to achieve an anual growth rate of 6.5 per cent. The total public se outlay was Rs. 859000 crore.

l Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07) This plan has adopted an aggressive approach. This plan aims at achieving 8 per ce GDP growth, reduce the poverty ratio to 20 per cent, increase the literacy rate to 72 per cent, reduce the infant mo rate to 45 per 1000 births and clean all major polluted rivers till the end of the plan in 2007.

l Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12) This plan aims to accelerate GDP growth from 8% to 10% and then maintain at the 12th Plan in order to double per capita income by 2016-17,increase literacy rate for persons of age 7 years or m 85%, reduce infant mortality rate to 28 and maternal mortality ratio to 1 per 1000 live births and ensure electricity connection to all villages and BPL households by 2009 and round-the-clock power.

THE MONETARY POLICY The Monetary Policy, as the name suggests, is the policy used as a tool to regulate the supply of money in the economy. The basic task of a monetary policy in a developing economy is to meet the credit needs of the growth sectors on the one hand and to curb the supply of money meant to be used in non - productive activities like speculative dealings, headging etc. In India, the monetary policy is regulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). The policy in India is designed on the principles mentioned above and exercises various quantitative controls to make the policy effective. The policy is therefore also referred to as the policy of Controlled Monetary Expansion which implies
i. Expansion in the supply of money.

ii. Restraint on secondary expansion of credit.

The Monetary Policy thus helps the government to exercise control over the money supply in the economy. THE FISCAL POLICY The fiscal policy helps the government exercise a control over the fiscal deficit i.e. the difference between the total revenue earned and the total expenditure incurred by the government. A rise in the fiscal deficit implies a higher borrowing for the government from the RBI. The economic impact of such borrowing is that the money supply in the economy decreases. The pressure on the money supply leads to an increase of prices i.e. an inflationary situation. So the government, through a proper fiscal policy tries to maximize revenue sources (taxes) and reduce expenditure, thereby reducing fiscal deficits. THE MAJOR PUBLIC SECTOR FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS 1. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) was set up in April 1935, with its central office at Calcutta (Kolkata) under the Reserve Bank of India Act of 1934, but was permanently moved to Mumbai in 1937. Though originally privately owned, since nationalization in 1949, the RBI is fully owned by Government of India. Presently, RBI is the central bank of India. It issues notes, buys and sells government securities, regulates the volume of what direction and cost of credit, manages foreign exchange, supports other financial institutions and comes out with the Monetary Policy. The RBI is presently headquartered at Mumbai and the present RBI governor is Dr. Duruvi Subbarao. 2. The Small Industrial Development Bank of India (SIDBI) SIDBI was established on April 2, 1990. The Small Industries Development Bank of India Act, 1989 envisaged SIDBI to be the principal financial institution for the promotion, financing and development of industry in the small scale sector and to coordinate the functions of the institutions engaged in the promotion and financing or developing industry in the small scale sector and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. In the SIDBI charter,four basic objectives were set out. They are Financing, Promotion, Development, Coordination, for orderly growth of industry in the small scale sector. The business domain of SIDBI consists of small scale industrial units, which contribute significantly to the national economy in terms of production, employment and exports. Small scale industries are the industrial units in which the investment in plant and machinery does not exceed Rs.10 million. About 3.1 million such units, employing 17.2 million persons account for a share of 36 per cent of Indias exports and 40 per cent of industrial manufacture. In addition, SIDBIs assistance flows to the transport, health care and tourism sectors and also to the professional and self-employed persons setting up small-sized professional ventures. Mr. Rajendra Mohan Malla is the present chairman and managing director of the SIDBI. 3. The Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI)

IDBI was established on July 1, 1964, by an act of the Parliament as a wholly owned subsidiary of the Reserve Bank of India, to catalyze the development of a diversified and efficient industrial structure in the country, in tune with national priorities. In 1976, the ownership was transferred from the RBI to the Government of India. The current Government holding in IDBI is about 53%. IDBI is currently the tenth largest development bank in the world. It financed some well-known institutes in India like, the National Stock Exchange of India (NSE), the National Securities Depository Services Ltd. (NSDL), and the Stock Holding Corporation of India (SHCIL). To meet the emerging challenges and to keep up with reforms in the financial sector, IDBI converted into a banking company in 2004, to undertake an entire gamut of banking activities. Mr. Yogesh Agarwal is the present Chairman and Managing Director of the IDBI bank. 4. The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) NABARD was established on 12th July 1982 to implement the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Act 1981. It replaced the Agricultural Credit Department (ACD) and the Rural Planning and Credit Cell (RPCC) of the Reserve Bank of India, and the Agricultural Refinance and Development Corporation (ARDC). The following functions are performed by NABARD

i. Serves as an apex financing agency for the institutions providing investment and production credit for promoting t various developmental activities in rural areas.

ii. Takes measures towards institution building for improving absorptive capacity of the credit delivery system, includ monitoring, formulation of rehabilitation schemes, restructuring of credit institutions, training of personnel, etc.

iii. Co-ordinates the rural financing activities of all institutions engaged in developmental work at the field level and maintains liaison with the Government of India, State Governments, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and other nat level institutions concerned with policy formulation. iv. Undertakes monitoring and evaluation of projects refinanced by it.

Shri Umesh Chandra Sarangi is the present chairman of NABARD. ECONOMIC LIBERALISATION (1991) The economic liberalisation of 1991 was initiated by the then Indian Prime Minister, Mr. P. V. Narasimha Rao and his Finance Minister, Mr. Manmohan Singh in response to a balance-of-payments crisis being faced by the country. The new economic framework adopted by the government did away with the Licence Raj (investment, industrial and import licensing) system and ended many public monopolies. The policy aimed at allowing foreign direct investment (FDI) in many sectors of the economy. Even though the foreign direct investment ceiling was removed by the government in 1991, it was only

in 1996 that foreign investors started showing confidence in the Indian economy and large sectors saw the inflow of foreign capital. Since then, the overall direction of liberalisation has remained the same, irrespective of the ruling party, although no party has yet tried to take on powerful lobbies such as the trade unions and farmers, or contentious issues such as reforming labour laws and reducing agricultural subsidies. IMPORTANT SECTORS OF INDIAN ECONOMY
1. AGRICULTURE i) Contribution to GDP

Agriculture forms the backbone of Indian economy. it contributes approx. 26 percent of Gross Domestic Produc was 55.4 percent in 1950-51.

Though the agriculture in national income has come down, even now agriculture contributes a major share of t national income in India. Further, the share of agriculture in manufacturing and services sector is increasing. ii) Source of Employment Agriculture provides employment to around 65 percent of the total work-force of the country. iii) Source of Industrial Development Agriculture has been the source of supply of raw material to our leading industries. Many of our small and cottage industries like handloom, weaving, oil crushing, rice husking, etc. depends on agriculture.

Green Revolution Indian Green Revolution is associated with the use of HYVS (High Yielding Variety Seeds). Chemical fertilizers and new technology led to a sharp rise in agricultural production during the middle of 1960. The term Green Revolution was given by Americal Scientist, Dr. William Gande. During the middle of sixties, Indian agriculture scientists developed a number of new high yielding varieties of wheat by processing wheat seeds imported from Mexico. A similar improvement in variety of rice was also observed. The credit of this goes not only to Nobel Laureate Dr. Norman Borlaug. But also to Dr. M.S. Swaminathan. Dr. M.S. Swaminathan is also known as the father of the Green

Revolution in India. Second Green Revolution Of all the plans, the sixth five-year plan was hailed as a great success on the agriculture front. As against the expected annual growth of 3.8 percent for agriculture, the actual growth rate was 4.3 percent. The production of food grains in 1983-84 was 152 million tones and was hailed by the Government as the Second Green Revolution. While the first Green Revolution from 1967-68 arose from the introduction of HYVS of Mexican wheat and rice, the second Green Revolution from 1983-84 was said to be for the extension in supplies of inputs and services to farmers, agricultural extension and better management. While the first Green Revolution was confirmed mainly to Punjab, Haryana, and Western Uttar Pradesh, the second Revolution has spread to the entire North India. Other Revolutions
Revolution Yellow Revolution White Revolution Blue Revolution Pink Revolution Grey Revolution Golden Revolution Area Oil Seeds Milk Fish Shrimp Egg Horticulture


1. LARGE SCALE INDUSTRIES i) Iron and Steel Industries: Ist Steel Industry at Kulti near Jhari, West Bengal

Ist large scale steel plant - TISCO at Jamshedpur in 1907 followed by IISCO at Bumpur in 1919. Both belonged to p sector.

The first public sector unit was Vishveshvaraya Iron and Steel Works at Bhadrawati

Public Sector Steel Plants

Location 1. Rourkela (Orissa) 2. Bhilai (Madhya Pradesh) 3. Durgapur (West Bengal) 4. Bokaro (Jharkhand) 5. Burnpur (West Bengal) 6. Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh) 7. Salem (Tamilnadu) 8. Vijai Nagar (Karnataka) 9. Bhadrawati (Karnataka) Nationalization of Vishveshvaraya Iron and Steel Ltd. (Owned by Central and State Government) Assistance Germany Russian Govt. Britain Govt. Russian Govt. Acquired by Private sector in 1976 Russian Govt.

All these are managed by SAIL. (At present all important steels except TISCO, are under Public Sector). Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) was established in 1974 and was made responsible for the development of the steel Industry. Bhilai, Durgapur and Rourkela were established during the Second Five Year Plan. Bokaro was established during the Third while the steel plants at Salem, Vijay Nagar, and Vishakhapatnam were established in the Fourth Five Year Plant. Presently India is the 8th largest steel producing country in the world. ii) Jute Industry : Jute industry is an important industry for a country like India, because not only does it earn foreign Exchange but also provides substantial employment opportunities in agriculture and industrial sectors. Its first modernized industrial unit was established at Reshra in West Bengal in 1855. There are at present 73 jute mills in India, out of which West Bengal has 59 mills, Bihar 3

mills, Uttar Pradesh 3 mills, Andhra Pradesh 4 mills and Assam, Tripura, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh one each. The Jute Industry in the Country is traditionally export oriented. India ranks number one in raw jute and jute goods production and number two in export of jute goods in the world. iii) Cotton and Textile Industry : Oldest industry of India, and employs largest number of workers. It is the largest organized and broad-based industry which accounts for about 4 percent of GDP, 20 percent of manufacturing value added and one-third of total export earnings. The first Indian modernized cotton cloth mill was established in 1818 at Fort Gloaster near Kolkata but this mill was not successful. The second mill named Bombay Spinning and Weaving Co. was established in 1854 at Bombay by K.G.N. Daber. iv) Sugar Industry : Sugar Industry is the second largest industry after cotton textile industry among agriculture based Industries in the country. There are more than 500 installed sugar factories in the country. This industry provides not only employment to a substantial number of persons but also holds the potential of developing other industries related to its by-products. India is now the largest producer and consumer of sugar in the world. Maharashtra contributes over one-third of the total sugar output, followed closely by Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are the other important producers of sugar. v) Fertilizer Industry : India is the third largest producer of nitrogeneous fertilizers in the world. There are at present, 57 fertilizer units manufacturing a wide range of nitrogeneous and complex fertilizers, including 29 units producing urea and 9 units producing ammonium sulphate as a by-product. vi) Paper Industry : The first mechanized paper mill was set-up in 1812 at Serampur in West Bengal. The Paper Industry in India is ranked among the 15 top global paper industries. vii) Silk Industry : India is the second largest (first being China) country in the world in producing natural silk. At present, India produces about 16 percent silk of the world. India enjoys the distinction of being the only country producing all the five known commercial varieties of silk, viz. Mulberry, Troical rassal, Oak Tussar, Eri and Muga. viii) Petroleum and Natural Gas : First successful oil well was dug in India in 1889 at Digboi, Assam. For exploration purpose, Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) was established in 1956 at Dehradun, Uttranchal. The total oil reserves in India have been estimated to be about 13 crore tones. Domestic production of oil in India is much less to meet the domestic demand. India currently

produces just over 32 million tones of crude oil against it annual demand of 105 million tones meeting only 30.5 percent of demand from domestic resources. Marketing and Distribution of Petroleum Products
a) Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (BPCL): By acquisition of Burmah Shell in 1976.

b) Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (HPCL): Established in 1974 by acquiring the assets of US company ESSO Eas In 1976, Government acquired Caltex Oil Refining Ltd. and merged it with HPCL.

c) Gas Authority of India Ltd. (GAIL): Established in 1984 for handling post-exploration activities relating to natural ga company was assigned the priority task of setting up the cross country HBJ (Hazira, Bijapur, and Jagdishpur) pipelin Presently GAIL is the largest company in India for marketing of natural gas.

NAVRATNAS In 1997, the Government identified nine leading, well performing and high profit making public enterprises as Navratnas (Nine Precious Jewels). Later, on the same year, two more were added to the list. They have been given special powers including freedom to form new joint ventures, make new investments and authorized to raise money.
1. Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (IOC) 2. Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (BPCL) 3. Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (HPCL) 4. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. (ONGC) 5. Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Ltd. (IPCL) 6. Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL) 7. National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd. (NTPC) 8. Bharat Heavy Electronics Ltd. (BHEL) 9. Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd. (VSNL) 10. Mahangar Telephone Nigam Ltd. (MTNL) 11. Gas Authority of India Ltd. (GAIL)

Two of these Navratnas, IPCL and VSNL, have been privatized. INSURANCE Insurance has been an important part of the Indian financial system. Until recently, insurance services were provided by the public sector, i.e. life insurance by the Life Insurance Corporation of India and general insurance by the General Insurance Corporation and its four Subsidaries. This insurance industry was opened to the Private sector in August 2000. After the opening, 12 new companies have entered life segment and 9 companies in the non life segment.
1. Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) Established Head Office Zonal Offices : : : Sept, 1956 Mumbai 7 (Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Kanpur, Hyderabad, Bhopal)

2. General Insurance Corporation (GIC) Established : Jan 1, 1973

It has four subsidiary companies: 1.National Insurance Company Ltd., Kolkatta 2.The New India Assurance Co. Ltd., Mumbai 3.The Oriental Fire and General Insurance Co.Ltd., New Delhi 4.United India Fire and General Insurance Co. Ltd., Chennai.

STOCK EXCHANGES Stock exchange or share market plays a dominant role in mobilizing resources for corporate sector. It is a market for dealing in shares, debentures and financial securities. In the stock exchange, shares and debentures are bought and sold for investment as well as for speculative purposes. There are 24 stock exchanges in the country. CENSUS-2001
Total Population Males : : 1,02,70,15,247 531,277,078

Females Population Growth Males Females Average Yearly Growth Rate Density of population Sex Ratio Literacy Rate Males Females Life Expectancy Child Population

: : : : : : : : : : : :

495,738,169 21.34% 20.93% 21.70% 1.93% 324 933 65.38 75.85 54.16 62 years 15.42%

TOP STATES IN IMPORTANT PARAMETERS MAXIMUM POPULATION Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra Bihar West Bengal Andhra Pradesh : : : : : 16.6 crore 9.7 crore 8.3 crore 8.0 crore 7.6 crore

MINIMUM POPULATION Sikkim Mizoram Arunachal Pradesh : : : 5.4 lakh 8.9 lakh 10.9 lakh

Goa Nagaland

: :

13.4 lakh 19.8 lakh

MAXIMUM DECADAL GROWTH RATE Nagaland Sikkim Manipur Jammu and Kashmir Meghalaya : : : : : 64.41 32.98 30.02 29.04 29.94

MAXIMUM POPULATION DENSITY West Bengal Bihar Kerala Uttar Pradesh Punjab : : : : : 904 880 819 689 482

MINIMUM POPULATION DENSITY Arunachal Pradesh Mizoram Sikkim Jammu and Kashmir Meghalaya : : : : : 13 42 76 99 103


Kerala Chhatisgarh Tamilandu Andhra Pradesh Manipur

: : : : :

1058 990 986 978 978

MINIMUM SEX RATIO Haryana Punjab Sikkim Uttar Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir : : : : : 861 874 875 898 900

MAXIMUM LITERACY RATE Kerala Mizoram Goa Maharashtra Himachal Pradesh : : : : : 90.92 88.49 82.32 77.27 77.13

MINIMUM LITERACY RATE Bihar Jharkhand Jammu and Kashmir Uttar Pradesh : : : : 47.53 54.13 54.74 57.36

MAXIMUM FEMALE LITERACY RATE Kerala Mizoram Goa Himachal Pradesh Maharashtra : : : : : 87.86 86.13 75.51 68.08 67.57

MINIMUM FEMALE LITERACY RATE Bihar Jharkhand Jammu and Kashmir Uttar Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh : : : : : 33.57 39.38 41.82 42.98 44.24

MAXIMUM URBAN POPULATION (%) Goa Mizoram Tamilnadu Maharashtra Gujarat : : : : : 49.77 49.5 43.86 42.4 37.35

MINIMUM URBAN POPULATION(%) Himachal Pradesh Bihar Sikkim : : : 9.79 10.47 11.1

Assam Orissa

: :

12.72 14.97

IMPORTANT PARAMETERS OF UNION TERRITORIES TOTAL POPULATION Delhi Pondicherry Chandigarh Andaman and Nicobar Dadra and Nagar Haveli Lakshadweep POPULATION DENSITY Delhi Chandigarh Pondicherry Lakshadwep Daman and Diu Dadar and Nagar Haveli Andaman and Nicobar : : : : : : : 9294 7903 2029 1894 1411 449 43 : : : : : : 1.3 crore 9.7 lakh 9.0 lakh 3.5 lakh 2.2 lakh 0.6 lakh

SEX RATIO Pondicherry Daman and Diu Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar : : : : 1001 989 947 846

Delhi Dadar and Nagar Haveli Chandigarh

: : :

821 811 773

LITERACY RATE Lakshadweep Delhi Chandigarh Pondicherry Andaman and Nicobar Daman and Diu Dadar and Nagar Haveli : : : : : : : 87.52 81.82 81.76 81.49 81.18 81.09 60.03

BASIC COMPUTER TERMINOLOGY A Computer is an electronic device for automatically carrying out a program of instructions. It is a powerful general-purpose machine which can be programmed to do a wide variety of computations. There are three basic main steps to carry out any particular computation:

INPUT- The user feeds in, or inputs, his program and data (the data is the information which the program will proc produce the desired results of the computations.) PROCESS/EXECUTION- The computer carries out, or executes the program of instructions. OUTPUT- The results of the computation are fed back, or output, to the user.

The tasks that a computer performs can be divided into three categories:
Arithmetic Operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division)

Comparison operations (determining whether a given value is greater than, equal to, or less than another value) Storage and retrieval operations (saving a program on any of the disks for further use)

ANATOMY OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM HARDWARE The hardware consists of the actual physical components of a computer. The three basic components of a computer system, which are essentially the same regardless of the type of system, are: a central processing unit, a primary storage unit and peripheral devices. The Central Processing Unit (CPU), rightly called the brain of the computer is composed of: the control unit and arithmetic/logic unit. The control unit controls the activities of the CPU. It does not process or store the data, but instructs the various parts of the computer in performing these tasks. This unit interprets the instructions given by the user and sends out signals to circuits within the CPU to execute these instructions. The control unit also keeps track of all the programs that have already been executed and the ones which remain to be executed. Finally it collects the output and sends it to the output device, like monitor screen or a printer. The arithmetic/logic unit performs only the mathematical computations like addition, subtraction, multiplication or division and logical operations. A logical operation is performed by instructing the computer to make a comparison and then to take an action based on the result of that comparison. The Primary Storage Types of Computer Memory: Based on the different needs, the memory in computers is classified into two types: Primary Memory & Secondary Memory Primary Memory (also referred to as main memory, primary storage or internal storage) The Primary memory is very important to the immediate processing needs of the computer, which means that when the computer is first switched on, there is an immediate requirement of memory, which is supplied by the primary memory. This unit temporarily holds program instruction, data and the intermediate and final results of processing. It consists of various storage locations, each having a unique address and holding a small amount of information. The address allocated to each storage locations allows the computer to locate items that have been stored in the computers memory. This type of memory is of two types:
Random Access Memory or RAM Read Only Memory or ROM

RAM - This is the additional memory which is inside the CPU. RAM is called the Temporary Memory of the computer because the data, information or program that is present in the memory either gets overwritten by new data or information gets erased when the computer is switched off. ROM - The ROM contains programs that are permanently coded by the CPU. The ROM is called so, i.e read only because it cannot be written on by the CPU. Unlike RAM, ROM does not allow anything to be written on it. Secondary Memory (also called external storage/external memory/storage device/magnetic storage device) is so called because it is found outside the CPU box. The common examples of secondary storage devices are floppy disks, compact disk and hard disk. The Peripheral Devices These devices are input devices, output devices, and secondary storage devices. The programs and data that are entered into a computer to be processed are called input. The word data refers to unorganized facts. When this data is processed to some meaningful form, it is called information. Input devices These devices are used to enter data into the computer so that it can be processed. Some examples of input devices are a terminal keyboard, a mouse, a graphics tablet, and a light pen. Output Devices The device that gives the processed data or information to us is called the output device. Depending on the requirement of the user, the result is displayed on the monitor or a printer.

Monitor: All the data entered from the keyboard, first appears on the small TV called monitor. It is called so becaus allows the user of the computer to keep a check on the things that are being typed. Another very important use of monitor is that after the processing has been completed by the computer the result is obtained and is flashed on th monitor, allowing the user to see the information. Monitors can be Monochrome (having a dark background) or Coloured (can display text and pictures in all colours)

Printers: The data that has been processed in the computer can be printed on the paper by means of a printer. The classified on the basis of how they work. If the printer creates an impression of the typed letter on the paper, it is c an impact printer, otherwise it is known as non-impact printer.

Displaying output on the screen gives the user the result in a convenient readable form; this output is referred to as soft copy. Printing the results on paper is a way of permanently saving the information which can even be used at a later time. This output is called hard copy.

The Secondary storage devices allow programs, data and processing results to be saved on a storage media (such as magnetic tape, floppy diskettes). If it is required to process these items, they can be transferred back into the primary storage unit of the computer. Although it takes more time to access items in secondary storage devices than in main memory, but the main advantage of secondary storage devices over primary ones is that they are less expensive and can store enormous quantities of data. SOFTWARE The computer needs written instructions to solve a problem, these instructions must be written in a programming language. These programs and series of programs are referred to as software. These programs are of two types- system programs and application programs. The system programs direct the computer in its own internal operations while the application programs are written to solve users problems. OPERATING SYSTEMS Operating System is a set of software modules (Program) within a computer system that governs the control of equipment resources such as processors, main memory, secondary memory, I/O devices and files. Some examples of operating system are DOS, WINDOWS, WINDOWS-XP, etc. TYPES OF COMPUTERS DIGITAL, ANALOG & HYBRID COMPUTERS The automatic, digital computer was invented in 1833 by Charles Babbage (known as the Father of Computers) A digital computer is so called because it uses a series of digits to represent all types of information. The digits used are called binary digit (0 and 1) also balled bits. In contrast to digital computers, analogue computers use the values of continuously varying physical quantities to represent information. The desirable features of analog and digital machines can be combined to create a Hybrid computing system, which is partly digital and partly analog. Programs Refers to the set of instructions that have to be written for the computer so that it is able to process the data to give the desired information. These programs are written by only those Computer Professionals called programmers. These programmers have the required knowledge of how to communicate with the computer. The tool that is used for writing the set of instructions is called a computer language. Working a program is called executing or running the program. Types of Programs The operating system contains several types of programs. These are:

1. Supervisor Program: (also called the monitor or executive) is the major component of the operating system. It coordinates the activities of all other parts of the operating system. This program schedules the order of input and output operations. It also sends messages to the computer operator if an error occurs or if the computer requires

additional direction.

2. Job Control Program: A job is a unit of work to be processed by the CPU. Job control commands are used to identif beginning of a job, the specific program to be executed, the work to be done, and the input/output devices require The job control program translates the job control commands written by a programmmer into machine language.

3. Input/Output Management System: When a user-written program requests information to be transferred into or main memory, the input/output (I/O) management system oversees and coordinates the process. Input and outpu devices are assigned to specific programs and information is moved between the devices and memory locations.

4. Language Translation Programs: A computer can only execute instructions that are in machine language, which co of 0s and 1s. In order for the computer to use English-like programs such as those written in Pascal, it must use a language translation program. This program translates the English-like program into machine language. There are t types of language translation programs: interpreters and compilers. Compiler, on the other hand, is a program that translates high-level language into absolute code, or sometimes into assembly language. The input to the compiler description of an algorithm or program in a problem-oriented language; its output (the object code) is an equivalen description of the algorithm in a machine-oriented language (the source code).

5. Library Programs: Library programs are user-written or manufacturer-supplied programs and subprograms that ar frequently used in other programs. They perform commonly needed tasks. Library programs are stored in a system library and called into main memory when needed. They are then linked together with other programs.

6. Utility Programs: Utility programs perform specialized functions. Utility programs or routines are pre-written prog to provide procedures commonly required by virtually all applications. For example, a utility program can transfer d from a tape to a disk, to another tape, or to a printer.

Computer Languages The languages that are used to communicate with the computer are called computer languages. These computer languages have developed a great deal since they were first used. Their evolution spans about four stages which are referred to as generations. Each generation has its own individual characteristic language.

First Generation Language: This language used for computers consisted of zeroes and ones. All instructions that ha be given consisted of zeroes and ones. This language was also called machine language (also called binary representation). This was used on computers of the first generation, which used vacuum tubes. Data represented in binary form is stored in the computer as a series of on and off states of electronic devices representing binary d (or bits)

Second Generation Language: The chief characteristic of second generation language was assembly language (also referred to as low-level language). In this type of language the programmer uses symbolic names to specify various machine operations; these symbolic names are called mnemonics. Mnemonics are nothing but easy to remember s

cuts to certain complex instructions. The use of these mnemonics makes assembly language programming easier th machine language programming. Another important improvement of Assemble language over machine language is use of names to represent storage locations, so that the programmer no longer has to know the address of the loca in which a particular value is kept.

Third Generation Language: The languages used in the third generation were very easy to learn and use on the computers. These language do not require the programmer to understand the technical details of internal compute operations. As they were very close to the English languages so they were called high level languages. Example of s languages are Pascal, BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, C, C++, etc.

Fourth Generation Language: These languages are used even today with most computers available. They are popu because they allow a lot of data to be collected, stored and used for extracting various types of information. Such h collections of data is called a database. Examples of these type of language are dBASE, FoxPro, Oracle and Ingres.

VIRUS The term virus is used to describe virtually any type of destructive software. Viruses do not affect the hardware of the computer. The viruses can and do corrupt data and programs. Computer Viruses are executable computer programs. Like biological viruses, they find and attach themselves to a host. Most viruses stay active in memory until the system is switched off. When we turn off the computer we remove the virus from memory, but not from the file, files or disk it has affected. So, next time we use our computer, the virus program is activated again and attaches itself to more programs. Typer of Virus Mainly, there are two main types of virus - Program Virus & Boot Virus Program Virus must be written for a specific operating system. Boot Virus exploit the inherent features of the computer (rather than operating system) to spread and activate. Definitions Virus: A virus is a type of program that can replicate itself by making (possibly modified) copies of itself. The main criterion for classifying a piece of executable code as a virus is that it spreads itself by means of hosts. A virus can only spread from one computer to another when its host is taken to the uninfected computer, for instance by a user sending it over a network or carrying it on a removable medium. Additionally, viruses can spread to other computers by infecting files on a network file system or a file system that is accessed by another computer. Viruses are sometimes confused with worms. Worm: A worm, however, can spread itself to other computers without needing to be transferred as part of a host. Many personal computers are now connected to the Internet and to local-area networks, facilitating their spread. Todays viruses may also take advantage of network services such as the World Wide Web, e-mail, and file sharing systems to spread, blurring the line between viruses and worms.

Viruses can infect different types of hosts. The most common targets are executable files that contain application software or parts of the operating system. Viruses have also infected the executable boot sectors of floppy disks, script files of application programs, and documents that can contain macro scripts. Additionally, viruses can infect files in other ways than simply inserting a copy of their code into the code of the host program. For example, a virus can overwrite its host with the virus code, or it can use a trick to ensure that the virus program is executed when the user wants to execute the (unmodified) host program. Viruses have existed for many different operating systems, including MSDOS, Amiga OS, Linux and even Mac OS; however, the vast majority of viruses affect Microsoft Windows. Spyware: In the field of computing, the term spyware refers to a broad category of malicious software designed to intercept or take partial control of a computers operation without the informed consent of that machines owner or legitimate user. While the term taken literally suggests software that surreptitiously monitors the user, it has come to refer more broadly to software that subverts the computers operation for the benefit of a third party. Spyware differs from viruses and worms in that it does not usually self-replicate. Like many recent viruses, however, spyware by design exploits infected computers for commercial gain. Typical tactics furthering this goal include delivery of unsolicited popup advertisements; theft of personal information (including financial information such as credit card numbers); monitoring of Web-browsing activity for marketing purposes; or routing of HTTP requests to advertising sites. Adware: Adware or advertising-supported software is any software package which automatically plays, displays, or downloads advertising material to a computer after the software is installed on it or while the application is being used. COMPUTER NETWORKING Computer networking is the scientific and engineering discipline concerned with communication between computer systems. Such networks involve at least two computers seperated by a few inches (e.g. via Bluetooth) or thousands of miles (e.g. via the Internet). Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications. History Carrying instructions between calculation machines and early computers was done by human users. In September, 1940 George Stibitz used a teletype machine to send instructions for a problem set from his Model K at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire to his Complex Number Calculator in New York and received results back by the same means. Linking output systems like teletypes to computers was an interest at the Advanced Research Projects Agency ARPA when, in 1962, J.C.R. Licklider was hired and developed a working group he called the Intergalactic Network, a precursor to the ARPANet. In 1964, researchers at Dartmouth developed a time sharing system for

distributed users of large computer systems. The same year, at MIT, a research group supported by General Electric and Bell Labs used a computer (DECs PDP-8) to route and manage telephone connections. In 1968 Paul Baran proposed a network system consisting of datagrams or packets that could be used in a packet switching network between computer systems. In 1969 the University of California at Los Angeles, SRI (in Stanford), University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah were connected as the beginning of the ARPANet network using 50 kbit/s circuits. Categorizing Local area network A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small local area, like a home, office, or small group of buildings such as a home, office, or college. Current LANs are most likely to be based on switched Ethernet or Wi-Fi technology running at from 10 to 10000 Mbit/s. The defining characteristics of LANs in contrast to WANs are: a) much higher data rates, b) smaller geographic range - at most a few kilometers, and c) they do not involve leased telecommunication lines. LAN usually does not refer to data running over local analog telephone lines, as on a private branch exchange (PBX). Wide area network A wide area network or WAN is a computer network covering a wide geographical area, involving a vast array of computers. This is different from personal area networks (PANs), metropolitan area networks (MANs) or local area networks (LANs) that are usually limited to a room, building or campus. The most well-known example of a WAN is the Internet. WANs are used to connect local area networks (LANs) together, so that users and computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in other locations. Many WANs are built for one particular organization and are private. Others, built by Internet Service Providers, provide connections from an organizations LAN to the Internet. WANs are most often built using leased lines. At each end of the leased line, a router connects to the LAN on one side and a hub within the WAN on the other. Network protocols including TCP/IP deliver transport and addressing functions. Protocols including Packet over SONET/SDH, MPLS, ATM and Frame relay are often used by service providers to deliver the links that are used in WANs. X.25 was an important early WAN protocol, and is often considered to be the grandfather of Frame Relay as many of the underlying protocols and functions of X.25 are still in use today (with upgrades) by Frame Relay. Benefits of Networks
Exchanging Data Sharing system resources

Creation of workgroups Centralized Management Security Access to more than one operating system Enhancement of the corporate structure

Components of Networks

Server - A server runs the network operating system and offers network services to users at their individual worksta It offers services such as file, storage, security, resource management, user management. The types of server are 1. File server 2. E-mail server or E-mail gateway 3. Database server 4. Fax server 5. Print server 6. Backup and archive server

Workstations - When a computer is connected to a network, it becomes a node on the network and is called a workstation or client. A workstations job has been to execute program files retrieved from the network, and the se job is to deliver those files to the workstation.

NICs - Network Interface Cards provides interface between the server and workstations. Each computer attached to network requires a network interface card (NIC) that supports a specific networking scheme. The type of NICs used usually decides the maximum data transfer rate Cabling - The network cabling system is the media used to connect the server and the workstations together.

Shared resources and peripherals - Shared resources and peripherals include storage devices attached to the serve optical disk drives, printers, plotters, modem and other equipment that can be used by everyone on the network.

NTERNET The Internet, or simply the Net, is the publicly accessible worldwide system of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using a standardized Internet Protocol (IP). It is made up of thousands of smaller commercial, academic, domestic, and government networks. It carries various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, and the interlinked Web pages and other

documents of the World Wide Web. Contrary to some common usage, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not synonymous: the Internet is a collection of interconnected computer networks, linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections etc.; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents, linked by hyperlinks and URLs, and is accessible using the Internet. Creation of the Internet The USSRs launch of Sputnik spurred the U.S. to create the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in February 1958 to regain a technological lead. DARPA created the Information Processing Technology Office to further the research of the Semi Automatic Ground Environment program, which had networked country-wide radar systems together for the first time. J. C. R. Licklider was selected to head the IPTO, and saw universal networking as a potential unifying human revolution. Licklider recruited Lawrence Roberts to head a project to implement a network, and Roberts based the technology on the work of Paul Baran who had written an exhaustive study for the U.S. Air Force that recommended packet switching to make a network highly robust and survivable. After much work, the first node went live at UCLA on October 29, 1969 on what would be called the ARPANET, the eve network of todays Internet. In December of 1970, Charles A. Petrik contacted the U.S. Navy and suggested that a special communications network, that the Department of Defence had built for use in the possibility of a nuclear attack, could also be used during peace time. Petrik convinced the military to connect the computers of the U.S. National Laboratories for scientific research purposes, and to allow these labs to get data to other labs faster, and safer. The vast majority of todays Internet uses version four of the IP protocol (i.e. IPv4), and although IPv6 is standardised, it exists only as islands of connectivity, and there are many ISPs who dont have any IPv6 connectivity at all. The first TCP/IP wide area network was operational by 1 January 1983 , when the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) constructed a university network backbone that would later become the NSFNet. (This date is held by some to be technically that of the birth of the Internet.) It was then followed by the opening of the network to commercial interests in 1995. Important separate networks that offered gateways into, then later merged into the Internet include Usenet, Bitnet and the various commercial and educational X.25 networks such as Compuserve and JANET. The ability of TCP/IP to work over these pre-existing communication networks allowed for a great ease of growth. Use of Internet as a phrase to describe a single global TCP/IP network originated around this time. The network gained a public face in the 1990s. In August 1991 CERN in Switzerland publicized the new World Wide Web project, two years after Tim Berners-Lee had begun creating HTML, HTTP and the first few web pages at CERN in Switzerland. In 1993 the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign released the Mosaic web browser version 1.0, and by late 1994 there was growing public interest in the previously academic/technical Internet. By 1996 the word Internet was common public currency, but it referred almost entirely to the World Wide Web.

Meanwhile, over the course of the decade, the Internet successfully accommodated the majority of previously existing public computer networks (although some networks such as FidoNet have remained separate). This growth is often attributed to the lack of central administration, which allows organic growth of the network, as well as the nonproprietary open nature of the Internet protocols, which encourages vendor interoperability and prevents any one company from exerting too much control over the network. Todays Internet Apart from the complex physical connections that make up its infrastructure, the Internet is held together by bi- or multi-lateral commercial contracts (for example peering agreements) and by technical specifications or protocols that describe how to exchange data over the network. Indeed, the Internet is essentially defined by its interconnections and routing policies. Internet protocols In this context, there are three layers of protocols:
at the lowest level is IP - the datagram which carries a block of data from one node to another

next comes TCP & UDP - the protocols by which one host exchanges data with another the former making a virtu circuit giving some level of guarantee of reliability, the latter being a best-effort connection-less transport

on top comes the application protocol - the specific messages or data stream used by the application running on the hosts to talk to each other.

Unlike older communications systems, the Internet protocol suite was deliberately designed to be independent of the underlying physical medium. Any communications network, wired or wireless, that can carry two-way digital data can carry Internet traffic. Thus, Internet packets flow through wired networks like copper wire, coaxial cable, and fibre optic; and through wireless networks like Wi-Fi. Together, all these networks, sharing the same high-level protocols, form the Internet. The Internet protocols originate from discussions within the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and its working groups, which are open to public participation and review. These committees produce documents that are known as Request for Comments documents (RFCs). Some RFCs are raised to the status of Internet Standard by the IETF process. Some of the popular services on the Internet that make use of these protocols are e-mail, Usenet newsgroups, file sharing, Instant Messenger, the World Wide Web, Gopher, session access, WAIS, finger, IRC, MUDs, and MUSHs. Of these, e-mail and the World Wide Web are clearly the most used, and many other services are built upon them, such

as mailing lists and blogs. The Internet makes it possible to provide real-time services such as Internet radio and webcasts that can be accessed from anywhere in the world. World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW or simply the Web) is a global information space which people can read-from and write-to via a large number of different Internetconnected devices. For example, computers, Personal Digital Assistants, cellular phones, telephone kiosks, etc. The World Wide Web is also available (sometimes only partially) through digital television services, exposing content onto television screens.


1. The Constituent Assembly was formed by the order of The Cabinet Mission in 1946. 2. Sachida Prasad Sinha was the temporary President of the Constituent Assembly. 3. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the permanent President of the Constituent Assembly. 4. Dr. B.R. Ambedker was the chairman of the Drafting Committee. 5. B.N. Rao was the legal advisor of the Constituent Assembly. 6. The Constituent Assembly took 2 years 11 months and 18 days to prepare the largest written constitution in the World. 7. Rs. 64 lakhs were spent on the making of the Constitution. 8. The original Constitution consisted of 22 parts, 395 articles but at present it has 22 parts, 444 articles and 12 schedules. 9. It was adopted by the Government of India on the 26th of November, 1949. 10. It was enforced by the Government of India on the 26th of January, 1950.

Structure of the Indian Constitution The constitution of India consists of :

1. The Preamble 2.. Parts I to XXII, covering over 449 Articles 3. Schedules 1 12 4. An Appendix

Fundamental Rights
1. Part III (Articles 12 - 35) of the Constitution deals with Fundamental Rights. 2. Originally, seven Fundamental Rights were listed, but after the 44th Amendment, only six Fundamental Rights exist. These are a. Right to Equality (14 - 18) b. Right to freedom of speech (19) c. Right against Exploitation (23-24)

d. Right to freedom of Religion (25-28) e. Culture and Educational Right (29-30) f. Right to Constitutional Remedies (32-33)

3. Right to Property used to be a Fundamental Right but after the 44th Amendment it became a legal right.

Fundamental Duties
Article (51-A) included in the Constitution in the 42nd Amendment, lays down 11 Fundamental Duties that citizens have towards the state. These are: a) To abide by the Constitution, show respect to the National Flag and the National Anthem. b) To follow the noble ideas of the freedom struggle. c) To protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.

d) To defend ones country. e) To promote common brotherhood and establish dignity of women. f) To preserve our heritage and culture. g) To protect the natural environment. h) To develop a scientific temper. i) To safeguard public property. j) To strive for excellence in all spheres of activity. k) Every citizen who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or as the case may be ward between the age of 6 & 14 years.

Union Executive
Part V (Articles 52-78) describe the functioning of the president, Vice president and the parliament. The president is elected by the member of an electoral college consisting of the elected members of both House of Parliament and the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States and the Union Territory of Delhi and Puducherry. Article 55 describes how President is elected. The election is held in accordance with the system of proportional representation through secret ballot. Every elected member of the Legislative Assembly of a State shall have as many votes as there are multiply of 1000 in the quotient obtained by dividing the pupulation of the State by the total number of the elected members of Assembly. The term of the president is 5 years (Article 56 but can serve for any number of terms). The qualifications of the president are laid down in Article 58. To be eligible, a person must be: a) b) a citizen of India, has minimum age of thirty-five years,


is qualified for election as a member of the Lok Sabha

A person is not eligible for election as President if he holds any office of profit under a) b) c) central government state government any local or other authority.

The monthly salary of the president is Rs. 1,00,000 per month. There is no limit as to how many times a person can become President. Article 61 lays down the procedure for impeachment of the President. Article 63-68 lays down the procedure for the Vice-President of India. The Vicepresident is ex-officio chairman of the council of states (Rajaya Sabha) and shall not hold any other office of profit. If the president is temporarily unable to discharge his duties, the vice-president discharge his functions. The procedure of election of the Vice-president is laid down in Article 66 and is similar to that of the president. The Vice-president is elected by the members of electoral college consisting of the members of both House of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation. The basic qualifications are the same as that of the president. The term of office of Vice-president is five years. Any disputes in connection with the election of a president or Vice-president are to be decided by the Supreme Court. (Article 71) The president has a power to grant pardons, reprieves, respires of remissions of punishment of commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence (Article 72). Under Article 74, the Council of ministers with the prime minister as the head, is to aid and advice the president who shall, in the exercise of his functions, act in accordance with such advice. Article 76 - the appointment of Attorney General of India, who gives advice to the government of India upon legal matters.

Article 77 says that all executives action of the government of India is to be taken in the name of the president. In this regard, it is the duty of the prime minister to inform the president about the decision of the Council of Ministers (Article 78), and to furnish information relating of the Union as the president may call for.

Kinds of Bills
i Ordinary Bill - An ordinary bill can be introduced in either of the Houses and can be passed by a simple majority in both the Houses. In case of a deadlock a joint sitting of both the houses is possible. ii Money Bill (Article 110) A money bill is concerned with taxation and government spending. It can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha after prior recommendation of the President. Speaker of the Lok Sabha is the deciding authority whether the introduced bill is a Money bill or not. iii Financial Bill - A bill which is related with revenue and expenditure of the government is a financial bill. iv Constitutional Amendment Bill (Article 368) - This bill can be introduced in either of the Houses of the Parliament. It can be passed only by a special majority.

For more information visit the following websites: The Indian Political System INDIAN LEGISLATURE India is the second largest democracy in the world. The Indian legislature is bicameral i.e. the Indian Parliament is made up of the Lower House Lok Sabha, and the Upper House Rajya Sabha and President.


1. The Constitution contains provisions related to the Union Judiciary in Articles 124127.

2. Supreme Court is the apex court of India. Supreme Court has 26 judges including the Chief Justice. The salary of th Justice is Rs.33000 per month and each judge gets Rs. 30000 per month. The retirement age of the judges of the Su Court is 65 years.

3. High Courts are at the top of hiearchy in the State Judicial System. Presently there are 21 High Courts in the countr retirement age of the judges of a High Court is 62 years.

States and Union Territories

Article 3 authorises the Parliament, by a majority vote, to establish or eliminate State and Union Territories. India has 28 States and 7 Union Territories. Article 370 provides special status to Jammu and Kashmir in the Consititution. Article 256 and 257 require States to comply with the governor, who is appointed by the President.

The eligibility for appointment as Governor is that he is a citizen of India and has completed the age of thirty-five y and he should not hold any other office of profit.

The Governor of a state has the power to grant pardons, reprieves or remissions of punishment or to remit or com the sentence of any person relating to a matter to which the executive power of the State extends. The term of the governor is five years unless dismissed by the president or resignation.

In 6 of Indias 28 state (Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Maharastra, Jammu & Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh) the legisl

council serves as the upper houses of a bicameral legislature.

Where there are two houses of the Legislature of a State, one is known as the Legislative Council and the other as t Legilative Assembly, and where there is only one House, it is known as the Legislative Assembly.

There is a Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister as the head to aid and advice the Governor in the exercise o functions.

The Legislative Assembly of each state shall consist of not more than five hundred, and not less than sixty member chosen by direct election. (except Sikkim)

The Central government distributes taxes and grants-in-aid to States through the decision of the Finance Commissi stipulated in Article 275. The president constitutes the Finance Commission at the expiry of 5 years.

The central Government also distributes grants to States through the development plans prepared by the Planning Commission.

Union Territories are administered by the President through the administrator who is appointed by President. Pres may appoint the Goveror of a state as the administrator of an adjoining Union Territory.


The powers and duties of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) are described in Articles 149 and 150 three main functions: (1) to audit governments expenditure; (2) to see that the financial rules are obeyed; and (3) the sanction of expenditure.

Under Article 151, reports of the CAG relating to the Union are submitted to the President, those relating to the sta submitted to the Governor. These are to be a placed before Parliament and State Legislature respectively.


Under Article 327, Parliament is vested with the Supreme power to legislate on all matters relating to elections, inc election State legislatures. The States have also been vested with certain limited powers of legislation with respect elections, Under Article 328. But such legislation should not be in conflict with any parlimentary.

One of the outstanding features of the Consitution is adult suffrage. Every person who is not less than 18 years of th has the right to vote in the election to the House of the People and the State Legislative Party. The only grounds for disqualifications are: () non residence (ii) unsoundness of mind, (iii) crime, and (iv) corrupt or illegal practice, Article says that no person will be ineligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in special, electoral roll on grounds o religion, race, caste or sex.

Article 324 provides that the superintendence, direction and control of election in India to be vested in and Election Commission. According to the 19th Amendment, the provisions of constituting election tribunals have been abolish Election petitions are now heard by the High Court in appeals. Article 339, however, bars interference by courts in e matters. State election commission conducts election of corporations, municipalities and other local bodies.

THE ELECTION COMMISSION OF INDIA The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional body created to conduct free and fair elections for the representative bodies in India. It was established on January 25, 1950. The Constitution of India has vested in the Election Commission of India the superintendence, direction and control of the entire process for the conduct of elections for the Parliament and the Legislature of every State and for the offices of the President and the Vice-President of India.The law which governs all the elections in India as mentioned above is the Representation of People Act, 1950. The Commission presently consists of a Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners. Originally, however, the Commission had just one Chief Commissioner. Two Commissioners were appointed for the first time on October 16, 1989 but their tenure lasted only till January 1, 1990. On October 1, 1993, two additional Election Commissioners were appointed. The commission has followed the multi-member structure since then, with decisions taken by a majority vote. The Election Commission has a Secretariat at New Delhi consisting of about 300 officials. INDIAN DEFENCE The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the armed forces. It is on his behalf that the Defence Minister looks after all the matters concerning the Defence Services. The Defence Minister is responsible to the Parliament for all matters concerning the Defence. However, the responsibility of national defence rests with the Cabinet of Ministers. The three services of Defence i.e. Army, Navy and Air Force, function under their respective Chief of Staff. Army Indian Army is responsible for the defence and security of Indias territorial area. The Army is organised into five operational commmands Northern, Eastern, Western, Central and Southern and one Training Command each headed by a Commander-inChief of the rank of Lieutenant General. The Army, with its headquarter at New Delhi, consists of a number of services such as armoured corps, regiment of artillery, engineer corps, infantry, army services corps, army medical corps, intelligence corps, etc. The

Chief of the Army is of the designation General and is answerable to the Defence Minister. Navy The Indian Navy is responsible for the defence and security of the Indian water. The Navy is organised into three operational commands Western, Eastern, and Southern headquartered at Mumbai, Vishakhapatnam, and Cochin respectively. The Western and the Eastern commands have under them operational fleets like warships, submarines, aircrafts and other support ships. The Southern Naval Command is responsible for all the training activities of the Navy. The designation of The Chief of the Navy is Admiral and he is answerable to the Defence Minister. Air Force The Indian Air Force is responsible for the defence and security of the Indian airspace. The fourth largest Air Force in the World, it is organised into five operational commands Western Command, South-Western Command, Central Air Command, Eastern Air Command, and Southern Air Command and two functional commands - a Maintainance and a Training command. It is headquartered at New Delhi. The designation of The Chief of the Air Force is Air Chief Marshall and he is answerable to the Defence Minister

First in Indian Politics

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. First President of India Dr. Rajendra Prasad. First Vice-President of India Dr. S. Radhakrishnan. First Muslim President of India Dr. Zakir Hussain. First Sikh President of India Giani Jail Singh. First Prime Minister of India Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru First Woman Prime Minister of India Mrs. Indira Gandhi. First Speaker of the Lok Sabha G.V. Mavlankar. First Chief Justice of India Justice H.L. Kania. First Chairman of the Rajaya Sabha Dr. S. Radhakrishnan.

10. First Woman Governor of a State Mrs. Sarojini Naidu.

11. First Woman Chief Minister Mrs. Sucheta Kripalani. 12. First Woman Central Minister Rajkumari Amrit Kaur. 13. First Woman Speaker of Lok Sabha Mrs. Shanno Devi. 14. First Woman IAS Officer Anna George. 15. First Woman IPS Officer Kiran Bedi. 16. First Woman Advocate Carnelia Sorabji. 17. First Woman Judge Anna Chandi. 18. First Woman Judge of High Court Anna Chandi. 19. First Woman Judge of Supreme Court M. Fathima Beevi. 20. First Woman Judge of Supreme Court M. Fathima Beevi. 21. First Chairman of Planning Commission Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru. 22. First Chairman of Finance Commission K.C. Niyogi. 23. First Acting Prime Minister of India Guljari Lal Nanda. 24. First Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha M. Ananthasayanam Ayyangar. 25. First recognised leader of opposition in Lok Sabha Y.V. Chavan. 26. First recognised leader of opposition in Rajya Sabha Lokpati Tripathi. 27. First Lok Sabha Election 1952 28. First State where Panchayati Raj was implemented (in the whole state) Rajasthan. 29. First Chief Election Commissioner of India Sukumar Sen. 30. First Woman Chief Election Commissioner (acting) of India Smt. V.S. Rama


Legal Awareness HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE (from 1942 to 1947)

l The Quit India Resolution 1942:- emphasized on ending the British rule in India This movement was suppressed by the government. This continued till 1944. l Sri Rajagopalachari along with Mahatma Gandhi wanted the Muslim League to endorse the Indian demand for independence and cooperate with the Congress in the formation of a provincial interim government, and began negotiations with Lord Wavell. Mr.Jinnah refused to accept. l The Wavell Plan 1945 And The Simla Conference: - both the Wavell plan and the Simla conference were a failure, because the congress did not accept Mr.Jinnah demand of Pakistan. The Governor General was not prepared to have an interim settlement without the cooperation and consent of the Muslim League. l The Cabinet Mission Plan 1946 For United India: - The Cripps mission in March 1942 had proposed that, immediately after the cessation of hostilities steps shall be taken to set up in India a Constitution making body to frame a new Constitution for India. The British cabinet mission consisting of Lord Patrick Lawrence and Secretary Of State A.V. Alexander and Sir Stafford Cripps came to Delhi on March 24 1946. l The cabinet suggested its formula on May 16 1946 to resolve the issue As the political parties, the Muslim League and the congress did not come to any mutual understanding and the congress ruled out the idea of Pakistan. l The mission recommended that there should be a union of India. l To frame a Constitution, the cabinet mission suggested that a constituent assembly be formed consisting of 389 members. Provincial representatives were to be sent in the proportion of 1:10, 00,000. l However the Muslim league resolved that the proceedings of the constituent assembly was ultra vires and demanded its dissolution. l December 9 1946 the constituent assembly first met. The Muslim league members did not attend.

l Lord Mountbattens plan of 1947 for transfer of power:i) The partition of India, After Bengal and Punjab had decided that they wanted their respective ii) provinces to be partioned; Sindh and the N.W.F. provinces decided to join Pakistan. l Indian Independence: - the Indian Independence Bill was passed by the Parliament on the July 18, 1947. l Indian Independence Act, 1947 ended the British Raj in India and the partition of India into India and Pakistan. l Our national flag, the tricolor was adopted on the July 22, 1947 l August 15, 1947, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was sworn in as the first Prime minister of independent India. l Our first President was Dr. Rajendra Prasad l The Constituent Assembly appointed the drafting committee on August 29 1947 under the chairmanship of Dr. Ambedkar. l The Draft Constitution was ready by October and the Draft Constitution of India was published in February 1948. l The constituent assembly read the draft clause by clause from November 15 1948 to October 17 1949. l The third reading started from November 14 1949 and finished it on November 26 1949. On this date the Constitution received the signature of the President Dr. Rajendra Prasad. l Our draft Constitution of India when presented to the President of the constituent assembly. It contained 315 Articles and 8 Schedules. l The date of commencement of the Constitution was 26th January 1950. It contained 395 Articles and 8 Schedules. l The State Emblem which has three lions, a horse a bull and a charka was taken from Ashokas Pillar in Sarnath, it was adopted on 26th January 1950 and has the words Satyameva Jayayte let Truth alone prevail.

l The National Anthem composed by Rabindranath Tagore was adopted on 24th January 1950. l India as Part of the Commonwealth:-India did not sever all ties with the British Commonwealth. India joined the Commonwealth without any allegiance to the British crown. l It was this decision of India to join the Commonwealth, that the association of these independent nations it was called the Commonwealth of Nations. This historic decision took place in London on April 27th 1949. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru said it is an agreement by free will, to be terminated by free will. l This historic decision took place in London on April 27th 1949. l Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru said it is an agreement by free will, to be terminated by free will.

l The Constitutional laws of the country contain the legal and the non legal norms. Legal norms are those which are enforceable in the courts of law and non legal norms are generally practices and conventions of the Constitution which are not enforceable. l Ours being a written Constitution is in the form of a Constitutional document whereas England does not have a written Constitution the Sovereignty the Parliament is based upon traditions. l A written Constitution contains the supreme law of the land on the source of the Constitutional law in the country. Every organ in the country must adhere to it otherwise it will be declared unconstitutional. l Though we have often heard that the Indian Parliament is Sovereign, it is sovereign to the extent that India is a sovereign nation and not under any external influence. Therefore the Parliament which functions under the written Constitution has to adhere to the rules stated under it and cannot have unbridled powers. l Our Constitution being a federal Constitution has a few characteristics attached to it, they are:-

i) ii) iii) iv) v)

Distribution of powers Supremacy of the Constitution Written Constitution Rigidity Authority of the Courts

l The Preamble literally means preface, preliminary statement or intorduction states that India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Democratic Republic. l Sovereign denotes that our country is not subject to any external authority. l Socialist herein does not mean that it adheres to any ideas of Socialism but means that it will have Private enterprise as well as State ownership. What we were trying was a mixed economy. l Secular, means that the Constitution ensures equal freedom for all religions. l Democratic signifies that India has a Parliamentary form of government wherein the government is responsible to an elected legislature. l Republic means where the Head of the State is an elected functionary. l According to the Preamble it is the people who have imposed this Constitution upon themselves and will conduct their government through elected representatives. l The terms Socialist And Secular were added by the 42nd Amendment. l The Preamble envisages being a Social Welfare State as stated by the Directive Principles of State Policy l In Aruna Roy v. Union of India 2002 SC, it was held that the Preamble was part of the basic structure of the Constitution. The essence of secularism is non discrimination of people by the State on the basis of religious differences.


l It is very important to have an independent and impartial Judiciary. Our Constitution has done everything to make the Supreme Courts and the various High Courts independent of the Executive. l The High Court is a Court Of Appeal and can also enforce the Fundamental Rights. The Supreme Court, the High Court and the lower courts constitute a single judiciary having jurisdiction over all cases arising under any law whether enacted by the Parliament or the State Legislature. l The judiciary scrutinizes Governmental action in order to assess whether it confirms with the Constitution or not. It also scrutinizes the administrative action. l Judicial review is based on the assumption that the Constitution is the supreme law of the land and that all government organs and governmental actions must confirm with the Constitution. l The State shall not make any law that takes away the Fundamental Rights of the people.

l A person who is born in the territory of India Citizenship Act 1955; either whose parents are born in India; or who has been ordinarily a resident in the territory of India for not less than five years immediately preceding such commencement, shall be a citizen of India. l Articles 5 to 11 of the Constitution lay down as to who are citizens of India at the commencement of the Constitution. l Article 5 deals with the Domicile of a person. But however the term domicile has not been defined in the Constitution. Domicile means permanent home. l The Article draws a difference between Domicile and Residence. Its domicile and not residence that makes a person an Indian citizen. Domicile and five years Residence is sufficient to make a person a citizen of India. l India has neither State citizenship, nor dual citizenship. There is single citizenship in India.(2003 Citizenship Ammendant Act that further ammends the Citizenship Act, 155, 2 provides for overseas Indian citizenship or Dual citizenship


l Concept of Fundamental Rights: i) The fundamental rights were supposed to be basic, natural and in alienable rights of the man. Where there are rights there are certain limitations. With time it became the most important thing to protect the rights and liberties of the people to be protected from governmental action. ii) The fundamental rights in India has its roots in the preamble which the people of India have given to themselves and apart from guaranteeing all that, it also safeguards the interests of the minorities and tries to keep away discrimination, guaranteeing religious freedom and protecting other cultural rights. l Fundamental Rights In India i) The framers of the constitution have tried to strike a balance between the rights of the people and the society and the courts have also had a tough time interpreting them. ii) Though it was said earlier that the fundamental rights were mutually exclusive but now the courts have held that some of the rights are not mutually exclusive. l Justiciability Of Fundamental Rights i) Article 13 makes the fundamental rights justiciable. It is because of this Article that the fundamental rights cannot be infringed by the government.


l Right to equality will encompass : i) Equality before law-Article 14 ii) Prohibition on the grounds of religion ,race, caste, sex or place-Article 15 iii) Equal opportunity in matters of employment-Article 16

iv) Abolition of titles-Article 18 l Right to equality Article 14:i) According to the Article all persons who are in the similar circumstances are to be treated alike in respect to both privileges conferred and the liabilities imposed. It however does not forbid different treatment of unequals. All persons are not equal in all respects and they cannot be treated at par with every body. Thus, would only result in unequal treatment (e.g. the reservation we have for the various classes of people is one such example of giving different treatment for unequal). ii) Right to equality has been recognised as the Basic Structure of the Constitution held in Indra Swahney v. Union of India A.I.R. 2000 ii) Article14 does not allow classification of persons into groups that are treated differently but does not forbid differentiation on the grounds of reasonable classification. iv) According to the new approach of Article14; Article 14 strikes at the arbitrariness of the state action and ensures fairness and equality of State action. The principle of reasonableness is an essential element of equality. Any arbitrary or those actions which are unreasonable are as such discriminatory. v) In Vishaka v. State of Rajasthan, A.I.R. 1997 Article14 was invoked to prohibit sexual harassment of women in their workplace on grounds of violation of the right to gender equality. l Probation of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste sex or place of birth-Article15 i) The State may provide special provisions in favour of women and children. ii) Indra Swahney v. Union of India the court held that other that in extraordinary cases reservation should not exceed 50%. Caste should not be the yardstick for social or economic backwardness (SEBC. Socially and educationally backward classes) within the SEBC further classification between backward and more backward is however permissible. l Equal opportunity in matters of Employment-Article 16

i) Right to Equality is guaranteed by Article14, Article 16 gives Equality of Opportunity in matters relating to appointment or employment in offices under the State. l Abolition of titles-Article 18 i) Untouchability is abolished and its practice in any form is punishable by law. l Abolition of titles-Article 18 i) No titles other than military and academic shall be conferred by the state. Conferring honors on the people, like Bharat Ratna, Padma Vibhushan, and Padma Bhushan are not to be treated as a title.


l Freedom of speech Article 19(1)(a); l Freedom to assemble peacefully Article19(1)(b); l Freedom to form associations or unions Article19(1)(c) l Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India Article 19(1)(d); l To reside and settle in any part of the country Article 19(1)(e); l To acquire, hold and dispose off property Article 19(1)(f) (this freedom was omitted by the 44th Amendment Act 1978) l To practice any profession, or carry on any occupation, trade or business Article 19(1) (g). l These freedoms are available only to citizens. These freedoms guaranteed under Article 19 are basic freedoms which all persons should enjoy, but these freedoms do not come without certain restrictions. l From clause (2) to clause (6) of Article 19 the state has the right to impose certain reasonable restrictions so that the interests of the public, security of the state, public order e.t.c are protected for general welfare of the people. l These freedoms are restricted in matters related to the security of state, defamation, public order, decency or morality, contempt of court, incitement to

an offence, sovereignty and integrity of India. l The freedom to assembly is restricted so as to maintain public order. l The freedom to form associations does not mean several people getting together or voluntarily forming an association but not at the cost of the sovereignty and integrity of India, public order or morality. l Wherein restrictions have been made on the freedom of movement it has to be reasonable in the interests of the general public or for the protection of the interests of the schedule tribes. l The freedom to trade and occupation should not jeopardize the public order or public health, economic welfare of the community.

PROTECTION IN RESPECT OF CONVICTION OF OFFENSES ARTICLE 20 Article 20 gives protection to persons with respect to conviction for offences.
l Expost facto laws Article 20(1) i) Ex-post laws are those laws which nullified and punished acts which were lawful when done. Article20 (1) prohibits all convictions or subjections to penalties after the Constitution, in respect of an ex- post facto law. It means that no one can be punished for any action which was not declared a crime when such an action was done. l Double Jeopardy Article 20(2) i) Under Article20 (2) no person shall be prosecuted or punished for the same offence more than once. under the Indian Constitution in order to bring a person within the ambit of this Article it has to be shown that he was prosecuted before the court and punished by it for the same offence for which he is prosecuted again. There is no Constitutional bar to a second prosecution and punishment for the same unless the accused has been punished in the first instance. l Self IncriminationArticle20(3) i) Under Article 20(3) no person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself by a person accused of an offence. ii) To be a witness herein would mean to give oral or written statements against

oneself in or out of the court out of compulsion. iii) The prohibition is only on the person being compelled to give evidence against oneself. This however does not apply to those cases where the accused gives evidence without threat, or inducement.


l Article 21 gives the fundamental right to life and liberty in accordance to procedure established by law.

For sometime the courts were of the view that right to life does not include right to livelihood. Under Article39 (a) men and women equally have the right to l adequate means of livelihood. The courts now have clearly held that right to life would include right to livelihood because no person can live without the means of living or livelihood. Procedure established by law in Article 21 would mean; not mean a law which has only a semblance of law even if it is arbitrary and unreasonable. It would now l mean that the procedure must satisfy certain requisites like being fair and reasonable .the procedure must not be arbitrary, unfair, and unreasonable. l Some of the areas which shows the widening horizon of Article21 are:Bandua Mukti Morcha v. Union of India A.I.R.1984 the court held that the bonded laborers were to be released and rehabilitated as it was against the principles enunciated by Article21 and also the Directive Principles of State Policy. In Hussain v. State of Kerala 2000 SC and Rudal Shah v. State of Bihar recognised the Right to Compensation for the violation of Article21.




l Fundamental rights can be suspended for the period the emergency is proclaimed but the rights under Article20 and 21 cannot be suspended even then. l Today progressive judicial interpretation of Article 21 has lead it to greater heights in terms of protecting a persons life and liberty. The procedure established by law could deprive a person of his right to life and liberty under

Article 21. The procedure must answer to the test of reasonableness. Article 21 is the procedural Magna Carta protective of right to life and liberty and article 22 draws its strength from it. l Article 22 confers a few rights on the person who is arrested i) ii) Shall not be detained without being informed of the grounds of arrest. Right to consult a lawyer. The right to consult a lawyer is not lost if he is released on bail.

iii) To be produced before a magistrate within 24 hours of his arrest. l Cannot be detained for a period exceeding 24 hours without the authority of the court. i) All these are instances of punitive detention where in a person is detained for the wrong caused by him. In case of preventive detention the object of this is to curtail a persons liberty so that h is prevented from doing anything injurious. Preventive detention is used for the purposes like defence, foreign affairs, or the security of India.




l Prohibition of Traffic in Human Beings and Forced Labour Article 24. i) There were socio economic problems that were growing out of the control which was mainly due to poverty. Lack of education and economic conditions so bad that people were willing to work for any amount of money. ii) According to this article no person can be forced to work without payment, and traffic in human beings means to buy and sell human beings like property, other forms of forced labour which includes bonded labour, and also includes immoral traffic of women. iii) Bandua Mukti Morcha v. Union of India A.I.R.1984 the Supreme Court held that it was the fundamental right of every human being to live with human dignity and free from exploitation.

l Prohibition Of Employment Of Children In Factories Article 24 i) Most of the Indias poor have many children and because the families feel that the family can be supported by the extra income that the child will bring in, child labour is more of an economic problem than any thing else. ii) This article has been able to achieve only partial prohibition as there are millions of children in our country who are toiling their childhood away without any one even listening to their plight. iii) M.C. Mehta v. State of T.N. it was seen that child labour was wide spread. In this case the directions were given by the Supreme Court in the context of employing children in the cracker and match factories of Sivakasi. iv) In Bandua Mukti Morcha v. Union of India, A.I.R. 1997 SC this case was concerning the children being employed in the carpet weaving industry in U.P. The Supreme Court reiterated the direction of the earlier case and prohibited the employment of children below the age of 14 making arrangements for their education by creating a fund and providing employment to the parents or able bodied adults in the family.


l Religion is an integral part in our lives and India being a country where many religions are followed it has been called a Secular state and the people do have a certain amount of religious tolerance but not enough to shun communal violence which is rampant. Religious tolerance is one and being fanatic is an other. We should try to maintain the secular feature of our constitution. l Our constitution guarantees to every person not merely to the citizens freedom to profess, practice but also to carry out religious obligations and propagate religion. l The state however has the authority to step in when it has to maintain public order, morality, curtail practices which are not the integral part of the religion, conversion by fraud. l No Religion states that prayers have to be done with the help of loud speakers or beating of drums. It was held by the Supreme Court that such practice should not adversely affect the rights of others including those who are not disturbed by their activities. Not only was their liberty infringed under Article 21 people also have their rights under Article19 (1) (a) wherein they need not be subjected to

sounds they do not like.


l Article 29 protects the interest of minorities: - this article provides the minorities the guarantee to conserve their culture, language and their script. The state shall in no manner restrict this right. l Article 30 gives the minorities to establish and administer educational institutions: - The state shall not discriminate against these institutions while granting aid. Article states that when the institution is granted aid by the state then no citizen shall be denied admission on basis of religion, race, caste, language. The minority institution may however reserve up to 50% of the seats of the members of its community. Wherein the institution is receiving no aid then they are free in matters of admission.


l Under Article 32 the right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of rights conferred by way of Fundamental Rights is guaranteed. l This Right is remedial in nature. Since we have all the Fundamental Rights conferred to us by the Constitution, we have the remedy under Article 32 when it is infringed. This right under Article 32 cannot be taken away or abridged by an Act of the legislature unless the Constitution itself is amended. l Enforcement of fundamental rights i) Article 32 is applicable only if there is an infringement of a fundamental right. Cases where there has been no specific violation of fundamental right also petitions under Article 32 has been entertained. ii) Under Article 32 the petitioner can challenge not only the validity of the law but can also question executive action. iii) The petition has an alternative under article 226, but that does not mean that the court will not grant relief under Article 32. The Supreme Court insists that when an alternative remedy is available then that remedy should be availed as extraordinary remedies should not be availed when ordinary remedy is

available. l Who can apply i) When ever there has been an infringement of a fundamental right the person aggrieved by such infraction can file a petition. ii) When it is a writ of habeas corpus then any person, a relative or a friend can file a petition on behalf of the person who has been detained. iii) In case of public interest litigations any member of the public having sufficient interest can file a petition for the persons against whom a legal injury has been caused by a violation of the fundamental rights are incapable of doing so as they are under poverty or socially or economically disadvantaged. Today petitions are filed by public spirited persons who take up issues like pavement dwellers, bonded labourers, child labour, and child prostitution. The court has also acted on basis of news paper reports, letters written to the court. The court has to be very careful as there are numerous people who will fritter ways the valuable time of the court with frivolous litigation. l Various writs i) Habeas corpus: -This writ used to secure a person who has been unlawfully detained without a legal justification. l Though function of this writ is to release a person unlawfully arrested or detained, the Supreme Court has widened its scope by giving relief to prisoners who are subjected to inhuman and cruel treatment in the prison. The court permits the use of this writ for protecting the various personal liberties that have been granted to persons who are arrested and prisoners under the various laws and the constitution. ii) Mandamus: - mandamus is used to enforce the performance of public duties by public authorities which are imposed by law. l Mandamus is issued when the government denies jurisdiction when it very well has the jurisdiction under law. l The main function of this writ is to keep the public authorities within their limits of jurisdiction while carrying out their public functions. This writ can be issued to administrative bodies, legislative, judicial as well as quasi judicial bodies.

l A discriminatory administrative decision can be squashed by a writ of mandamus iii) Certiorari: - The function of certiorari is to squash a decision already made by the lower subordinate court or a tribunal. And so it is issued when the body in question has deposed off the matter and rendered the decision. l The function of certiorari is supervisory. This writ is issued when the authority is acting under an invalid law. iv) Quo warranto: - This writ is used to control executive action in the areas of making appointments to public offices under relevant statutory provisions judicially. l This writ protects the citizens from the holder of a public office when he is not entitled to it. This writ requires the holder of a particular public office to show under what authority he is holding that particular office. If it is found that he is not entitled to that office then the court will restrain him from holding that office and declare that office vacant. v) Prohibition: - both prohibition and certiorari are remedies for the judicial control of quasi judicial bodies and administrative decisions affecting the rights. l Prohibition is issued when the matter has not been disposed of but being considered by the body concerned. The function of prohibition is to prohibit the body concerned from proceeding with the matter further.

Res judicata
l Wherein a matter has been resolved under Article 32 between two parties the same matter between the same parties cannot come up under the same Article. l This principle will be applicable even when the High Court has been moved under Article 226 and a fresh petition has been filed under Article 32. l The writ of Habeas corpus is an exception to this rule. Res judicata is not applicable for this writ. A writ of Habeas Corpus has been rejected by the High Court a petition can be filed under Article 32 under the same writ.


l Articles 38 to 51 deals with the Directive Principles of State Policy. This concept was borrowed from the Irish Constitution. The directive principles lay down certain socio-economic goals which the government of India seeks to achieve. l These directives are not enforceable in the court of law. The reason behind the non-justiciability of the principles is that they impose positive obligations on the government. l Then why have them? It was more to have an awakened public opinion. l When directive principles override the fundamental rights, the courts have held that it is the fundamental rights that will prevail. The fundamental rights are justiciable wherein the directive principles are not. The laws made to implement directive principles cannot take away the fundamental rights. l If the Parliament in its capacity of an amending body amends the Constitution, by which a fundamental right is taken away or is abridged the court cannot declare the Constitutional amendment as wrong. l Both the directive principles and the fundamental rights have to coexist harmoniously. There has to be a harmonious construction between the directive principles and the fundamental rights.


l The directive principle seeks to create certain obligations upon the government and at the same time gives certain rights to its citizens. l The obligation it imposes upon the State:i) Directs the State to strive for social, political, and economic equality Article 38(1)

ii) To minimize inequality of income Article 38(2) iii) To direct its policy towards controlling material resources Article 39 (b) and concentration of wealth in the hands of few Article 39(c).this affects the entire economic system of our nation.

iv) To enable the citizens to have village panchayats Article 40. v) Welfare of the workers .and to promote cottage industries on individual or cooperative basis in rural areas Article 42, 43. vi) To strive for a uniform civil code Article 44. vii) Provision of free and compulsory education for children Article 45. viii) Educational and economic interests for the weaker sections of the people Article 46. ix) To regard as its primary duty to improve public health and raise nutritional levels and standard of living Article 47. x) To organize agriculture and animal husbandry Article 48. xi) To protect and improve environment safeguard wildlife and forests of the country Article48A. xii) Places of historical interest to be protected Article 49. xiii) Independence of judiciary from executive Article 50. xiv) To promote international peace and security and harmonious relations between countries. To abide by treaties and international law Article 51. l The rights that the directive principles give its citizens. Though these are nonjusticiable rights there are statutes which implement these provisions. i) Right to means of livelihood Article 39(a)

ii) Equal work for men and women Article 39(d) iii) Health of the workers Article 39(e) iv) Protection against exploitation and moral and material abandonment Article 39(f) v) To get free legal aid Article 39 A vi) To have humane conditions of work and maternity leave Article 42.

vii) Participation of workers in the management Article 43A. viii) Compulsory and free education for children Article 45. This directive just does not mean primary education but education till the age of 14 years.

l Article 51A contains ten Fundamental Duties which were brought in by the i) ii) To abide by the Constitution . Respect the national flag and anthem. To cherish and follow the noble ideas which inspired our national struggle for freedom

iii) To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India. iv) To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so. v) To promote harmony and the spirit of common brother hood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic, and regional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to dignity of women.

vi) To value the rich heritage of our composite culture. vii) To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes rivers and wildlife, and to have compassion for living creatures. viii) To develop scientific temper, humanism and spirit of enquiry and reform. ix) To safeguard public property and to abjure violence x) To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement.


l The Indian Parliament is bicameral i.e., having two houses. It follows a Parliamentary system. It consists of the Ho

the People or the Lok sabha and the Council of States which is the upper house or as we know the Rajya Sabha.

l The Parliament is constituted by the two houses and the President. These three organs are important for the proce legislation by the Parliament.

l It is the Parliament that tries to maintain a balance between the executive actions and the legislations, as it is a Parliamentary system. It is also responsible for the legislations, taxes, and revenue and expenditure of the public m COMPOSITION OF THE RAJYA SABHA AND LOK SABHA:-

l Rajya Sabha
i) The Council of States is a permanent body. ii) The Vice-President is the ex-officio chair man of the Rajya Sabha. iii) The representatives of the State in the Rajya sabha are elected by the elected members of the State Legislative Assembly. iv) There are some members who are elected and some who are nominated.

v) There is no difference between them except that the nominated members of the Rajya sabha do not participate in election of the President of India.

l Membership
i) The maximum strength of the Rajya sabha has been fixed at 250 members. ii) 238 members are elected representatives of the States and Union Territories.

iii) 12 members are nominated by the President, who have special or practical knowledge of subjects like literature, s art, social sciences.

l Duration
i) 1/3rd of the members retire at the end of the second year.

ii) The Rajya sabha is not subjected to dissolution as it is a continuing body. iii) The members continue for a duration of 6 years.

l Qualification
i) Should be a citizen of India.

ii) Should not be less than 30 years of age iii) Should possess other qualifications that Parliament may by law prescribe.

l Disqualification
i) Corrupt practices during elections

ii) Conviction for an offence leading to imprisonment for more than two or more years. iii) Should not hold office of profit under the government. iv) A person cannot be a member for both the houses of the Parliament.

i) The members of the Lok sabha are directly elected by the people.

ii) The Speaker is the Chief Officer of the Lok sabha. iii) The Speaker and the Deputy Speaker are chosen by the house amongst the members itself.

l Membership
i) Not more than 530 members are representatives of the state.

ii) Not more than 20 representatives of the union territories. iii) Not more than 2 members belonging to the Anglo-Indian community.

l Duration
i) The Lok sabha is not a continuing body.

ii) Elections may be held to constitute new Lok sabha before that is done the existing Lok sabha is dissolved.

iii) The house shall continue for a period of 5 years. iv) It can be dissolved earlier by the President. The life of the Lok sabha can be extended when there is a proclaimed emergency.

l Qualification
i) A citizen of India ii) Not less than 25 years of age.

l Disqualification
i) Must not be of unsound mind.

ii) Should not be discharged or insolvent. iii) Voluntarily acquired the citizenship or acknowledges the allegiance to another country. iv) If should not hold an office of profit.

EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS OF THE CENTRE WORKING OF EXECUTIVE The Union Executive consists of the President, Prime minister, and the Council Of Ministers. Though the Constitution gives a lot of functions to the President he actually does not do so without the consultation of the ministers, so effectively it is the Prime minister and the Council of Ministers that constitute the Executive. PRESIDENT
l Qualifications For Election As The President-Article58 i) Should be a citizen of India

ii) Should have completed 35 years of age iii) Should be qualified for election as a member of the House Of The People iv) Should not hold any office of profit under the Central Government or any of the State Governments. l Manner In Which The President Is Elected- Article55


The President of India is not directly elected by the people but by indirect election.

ii) President is elected by an electoral college which consists of the elected members of both the Houses Parliame the State Legislative Assemblies.

iii) Election is done in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable by secret ballot. l Tenure Of The President i) 5 years from the time he enters upon his office.

ii) Even after the term expires he continues as President till his successor takes over. iii) The President may resign by giving in writing addressed to the Vice-President

iv) In the event of the death, resignation or removal of the President the Vice-President shall act as the President u new President is elected. l Salary i) The salary of the President is Rs.50,000 per month.

l Re-election as President i) The Constitution lays no restrictions on the reelection of the same person to the office of the President.

ii) He may be elected many numbers of terms. iii) Dr. Rajendra Prasad the first President of India was elected twice from 26th January 1950 to 1962. l Powers Of The President i) Executive powers:-

l Initiation of legislation, maintaining order, promoting social and economic welfare, public health, welfare of ind workers, education transport. The executive power vested in the President has to be exercised in accordance w Constitution. ii) Administrative powers:-

l Appoints the Prime Minister, the Ministers of the Union, Attorney-General, Chief-Justice, the Commission to investigate the conditions of Backward Classes, the Judges of the Supreme Court, the Chief Election Commissio Election Commissioner, Chairman and Members of the Union Public Service, the Finance Commission. In case o

proclamation of an emergency, the President can suspend the enforcement of the fundamental rights. iii) Legislative powers

l Every Bill in order to become a law, has to have the accent of the President. S/he can refuse to give accent and back for reconsideration, issue ordinances during the recess of the Parliament and can dissolve the Parliament convene joint sessions. His/her accent is also required for the amendment of the Constitution. iv) Powers dealing with defence:l S/he is the supreme commander of the forces. l This military power is exercised in accordance with the Constitution. l The exercise of the supreme military power can be regulated by an Act of Parliament. v) Judicial powers:-

l Can grant pardons, reprieves (temporary suspension of a punishment fixed by law), remit punishments (reduce amount of punishments without changing the punishment), and give respites (postpone the execution of a punishment to the future), and commutation (changing the punishment).

vi) The President is the head of the state. S/he receives international dignitaries and also represents India internat vii) The present President of India is Smt. Pratibha Patil.

l The Vice-President is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. l

If the office of the President falls vacant In the event of death, resignation or removal of the President the Vice-Pre shall act as the President until a new President is elected.

l Elected:-

i) The Vice- President acts as the president when the president is unable to carry out his duties due to illness or ab

Vice-President is elected by an electoral college which consists of the elected members of both the Houses Parli ii) Election is done in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable by secret ballot. l Qualification:-

i) A citizen of India. ii) 35 years of age. iii) Cannot be a member of the Parliament and the State Legislature. iv) Should be qualified to be elected as a member of the Rajya Sabha. l Tenure:i) 5 years from the date he enters upon his office. ii) He may resign his office by writing to the President. iii) He may also be removed by a resolution by members of the Rajya Sabha and agreed to by the Lok sabha.

l l l Since it is a parliamentary form of government the Prime minister have a very important role to play. He is the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha and also of the Council Of Ministers.

The Prime Minister is the link between the President and the Ministers. He appoints a minister and can also comp resignation of the minister. The entire functioning of the parliament depends upon the Prime Minister. The President may be the Head of State but practically it seems that the Prime Minister is the Head of State. When ever the Prime Minister resigns the entire council of ministers also resign. The Constitution states that the Prime Minister is the head of the Council of Ministers.

l l l l


l The total number of the ministers including the Prime Minister in the Council of Ministers should not exceed 15% o total number of members in the House of People. The ministers hold office at the pleasure of the President.

l The Council of Ministers has collective responsibility towards the house of people. Where in the whole ministry wi treated like a single entity on matters relating to policies as far as being answerable to the parliament. The Presiden act in accordance to the aid and advice given by the council of ministers but the President can always ask the Counc Ministers to reconsider such advice.

l If a minister within the period of 6 months is not a member of either house of the Parliament ceases to be a ministe


l l l

A person qualified to be appointed as the judge of the Supreme Court shall be appointed as the Attorney General India. Holds office at the pleasure of the President. Functions of the Attorney General i) To give advice to the Government of India on legal matters. ii) Perform such duties assigned to him by the President. iii) Discharge functions conferred to him by the Constitution.

SUPREME COURT It is the protector of fundamental rights of the people in exercise of its original as well as appellate jurisdiction It is the ultimate authority to interpret the provisions of the Constitution. It is the final court of appeal in all matters, constitutional, civil, criminal, etc It is the sole tribunal to decide matters regarding Centre State relationship and inter -State disputes.

l Number of Judges:i) Article124 of the Constitution of India provides for the Chief Justice of India.

ii) The total number of judges 25. The age of retirement is 65. iii) In S.C. Advocates on Board v. Union of India, A.I.R. 1994 SC The court held that the number of judges should commensurate to the amount of work otherwise the judiciary cannot perform its Constitutional obligations.

l Appointment of Judges:i) The Judge of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President of India.

ii) The Judge of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President of India. iii) The judges of the Supreme Court hold office at the pleasure of the President. iv)

The President should consult the Chief Justice of India in the appointment of a Judge other than the Chief Justic India.

v) The Constitution does not give any procedure for the appointment of the Chief Justice.

It is the senior most Judge of the Supreme Court who is appointed as the Chief Justice. On two occasions this ru vi) flouted, first when Justice A. N. Ray was appointed and when he retired Justice Khanna was superceded and Jus Beg was appointed. vii) The Supreme Court has since held that as a matter of rule only the senior most Judge shall be appointed as the Justice of India.

viii) Honble Mr. Justice Hiralal J. Kania was the first Chief Justice of India from 26th Jan., 1950 - 6th Nov.,1951 ix) The present Chief Justice is l Qualification of a Supreme Court Judge Article124(3) i) Must be a citizen of India

ii) Five years as the Judge of the High court in India iii) Advocate of ten years standing iv) Or in the opinion of the President an eminent jurist l Removal i) A Judge of the Supreme Court can be removed by an order of the President

ii) The Presidents power to remove is exercisable only after an address to each House of Parliament. iii)

The removal is a Parliamentary procedure and no subject to judicial intervention unless it has resulted in remov the Judge wherein the finding has to be supported by the Inquiry Committee and also subject to the judicial rev

iv) The process of removal of a Judge under Article124 (4) was invoked only once against Justice Ramaswamy in 19

turned out in favour of the judge despite support for removal by the committee and the media bar, and the Parliamentarians. l Salary i)

The salary of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Rs 33,000 and other Judges of the supreme court Rs 30,000


l The Constitution of India grants the Supreme Court three types of Jurisdiction. They are Original Appellate and Adv Jurisdiction. l Original Jurisdiction

i) Under Article131 the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court extends to any dispute between the Centre and State. ii) The Supreme Court is not a court of original jurisdiction in all matters between parties.

iii) The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction under Article32 regarding the enforcement of Fundamentals Rights empowered to issue directions, orders or writs. l Appellate jurisdiction

i) Articles 132 to 136 deal with Appellate Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in Constitutional, Civil and Criminal ca ii) It deals with appeals involving interpretation of the statutes and also regarding civil matters

iii) Article134 empowers the Supreme Court to hear appeals from any judgment, final order or sentence in a crimin proceeding. It is a court of criminal appeal over the High Courts and creates a right of second appeal. l Advisory jurisdiction

i) The Supreme Court has advisory jurisdiction in matters which may specifically be referred to it by the President India under Article143 of the Constitution.

POWER TO REVIEW l Under Article137 the Supreme Court can review its own judgments, subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament or any rules made by the Supreme Court under Article145. PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION

l l l l

The Supreme Court as started looking into matters in which the interest of public at large is involved.

The court can be moved by any individual or group, by either filing a writ petition or by addressing a letter to the C Justice of India. This concept is called the Public Interest Litigation This concept is unique to the Supreme Court of India as no other court in the world excises this extraordinary jurisdiction.



If a person belonging to the poor section of the society or the schedule caste or tribe, is a victim to a natural calam who is a woman or a child or a mentally ill or otherwise a disabled person or an industrial workmen is entitled to g legal aid from the Supreme Court Legal Aid Committee.


l The High Courts i) ii) The High Court is the Head of the States judicial administration.

There are eighteen High Courts in the country and three of these High Courts have jurisdiction for more than o State. Like the Bombay High Court, the Gauhati High Court, and Calcutta High Court.


There are eighteen High Courts in the country and three of these High Courts have jurisdiction for more than o State. Like the Bombay High Court, the Gauhati High Court, and Calcutta High Court.

iv) Among the Union Territories only Delhi has a High Court .The others come under the different State High Court v)

The Ranchi High Court (Jharkand), the Nanital High Court (Uttaranchal) and the Bilaspur High Court (Chattisgra High Courts which were establishd in 2000.

l The Chief Justice And The Judges i) ii) Each High Court comprises of a Chief Justice and other judges as the President may appoint.

The Chief Justice of the High Court is appointed by the President in consultation with the Chief Justice of India a Governor of the State.

iii) THE FIRST WOMAN CHIEF JUSTICE OF A HIGH COURT LEILA SETH (1991) iv) The Chief Justice can also be from another State. v) They hold office until the age of 62 years and are removable in the same manner as the Supreme Court Judge vi)

To be legible for appointment as judge one must be a citizen of India and have held judicial office in India for te years or must have practiced as an Advocate of a High Court for a similar period.

vii) The salary of the Chief Justice of the High Court is Rs 30,000 and the Judges it is Rs 26,000

l l

The High Courts have Appellate Jurisdiction and is empower to supervise all courts under its appellate jurisdiction The High Courts of Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras and Andhra Pradesh continue to have admiralty jurisdiction.

l l

Article226 confers upon the High Courts of India to issue to any person or authority orders or writs for the enforc of the Fundamental Rights. Or any other legal right it can be exercised even against the Legislature.

l CONSTITUTION i) The State legislature shall consist of the Governor,

ii) In the States of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh the legislature is bicarmel, wh the States have two houses. The Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad) and the Legislative Assembly (vidhan sabh iii) In all the other States there is only one House which is the Legislative Assembly,

iv) The creation of, or the abolition of the Legislative Council shall not be considered the Amendment of the Consti l COMPOSITION i) Legislative Council

The total number of members in the Legislative Council of a State shall not exceed 1/3 of the total number of members in the Legislative Assembly of the State. But the total number of members shall not be less than 40.

The membership of the Legislative Council is not from territorial constituencies as in the Legislative Assemblie by nomination.

ii) Legislative Assembly l The members are elected directly by the people in the State. l They are elected once in every five years. l The minimum number members in the Legislative Assembly should be 60 and the maximum should be 500. l

No member shall be the member of the Council and the Assembly at the same time and no member can be th member of the Assembly and the Parliament.

l FUNCTION i) Legislative Council and Legislative Assembly l When there are two Houses then the Bill has to be passed by both the Houses. l

When the assembly is dissolved and the Bill pending in the Legislative Council which has not been passed by t Legislative Assembly does not lapse.

l But if passed by the Assembly and not by the Council then it lapses.

A non- money Bill may become an act without the consent of the Legislative Council if the Legislative Assemb l passes the Bill and the Council fails to pass it within three months from the date the Bill was laid before the Co or if the Council makes certain amendments to which the Assembly does not agree to. l A Money Bill shall not be introduced in the Legislative Council. l

Whether the Assembly accepts or does not accept the recommendations of the Council, the Money Bill shall b deemed to have been passed by both the Houses.

Like the Parliament both the Houses perform the function of discussing and debating public issues, controlling State Government, looking into policies.


l l


Each State has a Governor. Sometimes two or more States may have a common Governor. He is formally appointe the President.

The Governor is the Head of the State as well as the link between the Centre and the State so as to ensure a smoo functioning of the Constitutional Machinery.



The Governor appoints the Chief Minister. There is no specific qualification required to be the Chief Minister of a St only has to be the leader of the majority party.

The Governor can dismiss the Ministers and dissolve the Legislative Assembly. Under Article163 the Ministers have right to advice the Governor in relation to the functions he has to carry on under Constitution to exercise his discret

He maintains peace and tranquility of the State, summoning, dissolving the State Legislative Assembly, superintend l and direction, and control of elections, appointment of members of the State Public Service Commission, and Advoc General of the State.

By the Constitution (Ninety-first Amendment) act, 2003, Article164(1-A) the total number of the Ministers including l Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers should not exceed fifteen percent of the total number of the memberd o Legislative Assembly.

THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION (UNO) The United Nation Organisation came into existence on 24th October 1945.The name was devised by the then US President Franklin D. Roosevelt. At present, there are 192 members in the UNO. Taiwan and Vatican City are not the members. Vatican City is the permanent observer for the UN. Headquarter- First Avenue at 46th Street, UN Plaza, New York City-10017. Official Languages- English, Spanish, Arabic, Russian, French, and Chinese (Mandarin)
The Principal Organs of the UNO

The principal organs of the UNO are:

1. General Assembly - The General Assembly consists of representatives of the member nations. Each state has one v but may send 5 representatives. The assembly meets at least once in a year. Special sessions may be summoned b Secretary General, on a request by the Security Council.

2. Security Council - It consists of 15 members, each of which has one vote.There are 5 permanent and 10 non perma members. The 5 permanent members are USA, Russia, UK, France and China. The 10 non permanent members are elected by the General Assembly for a period of 2 years. The permanent members have the power to veto any dec

3. The Secretariat - It is composed of the Secretary General, the Chief Administrative Officer of the organisation and international staff appointed by him under the regulations of the General Assembly. However the Secretary Gener High commissioner of Refugees and the Managing Director of funds is appointed by the General Assembly.

4. Trusteeship Council - The Charter of the UN provides for an international trusteeship system to safeguard the inte of the inhabitants of territories which are not yet fully self-governing and which may have been placed thereunder individual trusteeship agreements.

5. International Court - The International Court of Justice was created by an international treaty, the statute of the C which forms an integral part of the UN charter, and all the members are ipso facto parties to the statute of the cou There are 15 judges, appointed for a 9 year term. The expenses of the Court are borne by the UN.

6. Economic and Social Council - It is responsible under the General Assembly for carrying out the functions of the UN regard to international, social, cultural, educational, health and related matters. The Economic and Social council c of 54 member States elected by a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly.

UN Secretary Generals
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Trygve Lie (Norway) 1946-53 Dag Hammarskjold (Sweden) 1953-61 U Thant (Burma) 1961-71 Kurt Waldheim (Austria) 1972-81 Javier Perez De Gueller (Peru) 1982-91 Boutros Boutros Ghali (Egypt) 1992-96 Kofi Annan (Ghana) 1997-2007 Ban Ki Moon (South Korea) 2007- till date

Specific UN Agencies and their Headquarters

1. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) - UNDP is the UNs global development network advocating ch and connecting countries to share knowledge and resources which helps build a better life in countries across the Presently it has offices in 166 member countries. UNDP is headquartered at New York, US.

2. The United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) UNICEF was initially set up in 1946 as an emergency fund to provid war relief to children in different countries. Today, as a childrens fund, UNICEF concentrates its activities on prov assistance to children and mothers in developing countries, aiming at improving their quality of life. UNICEF is headquartered at New York, US.

3. The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) UNESCO was founded on 16 November 194 assist developing countries in their educational projects, to help the countries in scientific development and to bu cultural understanding between the nations. UNESCO is headquartered at Paris, France.

4. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) IMF is an international organisation having 184 member countries. It wa established in 1945 to promote international monetary co-operation and exchange stability between nations whi turn would promote economic growth and increase employment opportunities. IMF also provides temporary fina assistance to its member countries to ease their balance of payment. IMF is headquartered at Washington DC, US

5. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, commonly known as the World Bank) The W Bank was formed after the Bretton Woods conference in 1944, but begun operations in 1946. It aims at providing financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the World. Presently World Bank has 184 memb countries and is headquartered at Washinton DC, US.

6. The World Trade Organisation (WTO) WTO was formed as an international trade body to replace General Agree on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) in 1995. WTO is the only international body dealing with rules of trade between the countries to help producers of goods and services, exporters and importers conduct their business. It is headquar at Geneva, Switzerland. Cape Verde has been the most recent member of the WTO since 23 July 2008. For the entire list of members go to

7. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) IAEA was set up in 1957. It is presently headquartered at Vienna Austria.

8. The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) FAO was set up in 1945. It is presently headquartered at Rome, Ita 9. The World Health Organisation (WHO) W.H.O was set up in 1946. It is presently headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland. 10. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) IFC is an affiliate of the World Bank, and was set up in 1956. It is headquartered at Washinton DC, US.

11. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) ITU was set up in 1932. It is headquartered at Geneva, Switze

12. The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) ICAO was set up in 1944. It is headquartered at Montreal, C 13. The Universal Postal Union (UPU) UPU was set up in 1875. It is headquartered at Berne, Switzerland. 14. The International Labor Organisation (ILO) ILO was set uo in 1919. It is headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland. 15. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) IMO was set up in 1948. It is headquartere


1. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) It is headquartered at Manila, Phillipines. 2. The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) It is headquartered at Jakarta, Indonesia. 3. The European Union (EU) It is headquartered at Brussels, Belgium. 4. The INTERPOL It is headquartered at Lyon, France 5. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) It is headquartered at Brussels, Belgium. 6. The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) It is headquartered at Vienna, Austria. 7. The Organisation of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) It is headquartered at Kuwait. 8. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) It is headquartered at Kathmandu, Nepal. 9. The Red Cross It is headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland.

Commonly Used Sports Terminologies

Sport Terms associated with sports disciplines

Badminton Basketball

Deuce, double fault, drop, let, love all, smash Basket, blocking, dribbling, free throw, held ball, holding, jump ball, pivot

Billiards Boxing Bridge Chess Cricket

Bauik line, bolting, cannon, cue hazard, long jenny, scratch, screwback, short jenny, spot stroke Babit punch, break, cut, defence, hook, jab lying on, knock, slam, upper cut, weight in, knockout

Chicane, dealer, dummy, finesse, grand slam, little slam, no trump, revoke, rubber, suit, tricks, vulnerab Bishop, castle, checkmate, gambit, king, knight, pawn, queen, rook, stalemate

Ashes, boundary, bowling, caught, chinaman, cover drive, crease, duck, follow on, googly, gully, hat tric wicket, LBW, leg break, leg bye, maiden over, no ball, off break, on drive, over pitch, popping crease, ru run out, sixer, silly point, square leg, straight drive, stumped, wicket Corner kick, dribble, free kick, goal kick, hat-trick, off side, penalty kick, throw in, tripping

Football Golf

Best ball, bogey, bunker, caddie, dormy, fairway, fourball, greed holes, links, niblic, par, put, rough, stym tee Bully, corner, dribble, hat-trick, offside, roll-in, scoop, short corner, stick, striking circle, tie break


Table Tennis Deuce, drop, let, spin, smash Tennis

Backhand stroke, crosscourt, deuce, double fault, fault, forehand, ground stroke, half volley, let, smash, volley Blocking, doubling, heave, love point, service, volley



i. Badminton Thomas Cup, Uber Cup, and World Cup.

ii. Cricket Ashes, Champions Trophy, C.K.Naidu Trophy, County Championships, Duleep Trophy, Gavaskar-Border T ICC World Cup, Irani Trophy, Ranji Trophy, and Sheffield Shield Cup.

iii. Football African Nations Cup, Asia Cup, Confederations Cup, Durand Cup, English Premier League, Federation Cu FIFA World Cup, German Bundeslga, Italian Serie A, Merdeka Cup, NFL Cup, Santosh Trophy, Spanish LA Liga, and Cup. iv. Golf British Open, Ryder Cup, US Open, and Walker Cup. v. Hockey Agha Khan Cup, Champions Trophy, Dhyan Chand Trophy, Sultan Azlan Shah Trophy, and World Cup.

vi. Tennis ATP Masters, Australian Open Championships, Champions Cup, Davis Cup, Federation Cup, French Open Championships, US Open Championships, and Wimbeldon Championships.

Years & Venues of Major Sports Olympic Games

Year 1896 1900 1904 1908 1912 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 Place Athens Paris St. Louis London Stockholm Antwerp Paris Amsterdam Los Angeles Berlin London Helsinki Melbourne Rome Tokyo Mexico City Munich Montreal

1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012

Moscow Los Angeles Seoul Barcelona Atlanta Sydney Athens Beijing London (scheduled)

Commonwealth Games Year 1930 1934 1938 1950 1954 1958 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 Venue Hamilton London Sydney Auckland Vancouver Cardiff Perth Jamaica Edinburgh Christchurch Edmonton Brisbane

1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010

Edinburgh Auckland Victoria Kuala Lumpur Manchester Melbourne Delhi (scheduled)

Asian Games Year 1951 1954 1958 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 Venue New Delhi Manila Tokyo Jakarta Bangkok Bangkok (originally had to be hosted by Seoul) Tehran Bangkok (originally had to be hosted by Karachi) New Delhi Seoul Beijing Hiroshima Bangkok Busan

2006 2010

Doha Guangzhou (scheduled)

Cricket World Cup Year 1975 1979 1983 1987 1992 1996 1999 Venue England England England Indian Subcontinent Australia & New Zealand Indian Subcontinent England South Africa, 2003 Zimbabwe & Kenya 2007 2011 2015 West Indies Indian Subcontinent Scheduled Australia & New Zealand Australia Sri Lanka Australia India Winner West Indies West Indies India Australia Pakistan Sri Lanka Australia Runner-up Australia England West Indies England England Australia Pakistan

Hockey World Cup Year 1971 1973 1975 1978 Venue Barcelona, Spain Amstelveen, The Netherlands Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Buenos Aires, Argentina Winner Pakistan Netherlands India Pakistan Runner-up Spain India Pakistan Netherlands

1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010

Mumbai, India London, England Lahore, Pakistan Sydney, Australia Utrecht, The Netherlands Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Monchengladbach, Germany New Delhi, India

Pakistan Australia Netherlands Pakistan Netherlands Germany Germany

West Germany England Pakistan Netherlands Spain Australia Australia Scheduled

Football World Cup Year 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 Venue West Germany Argentina Spain Mexico Italy USA France South Korea & Japan Germany South Africa Scheduled South America Winner West Germany Argentina Italy Argentina West Germany Brazil France Brazil Italy Runner-up Netherlands Netherlands West Germany West Germany Argentina Italy Brazil Germany France

Tennis Grand Slams

Australian Open Mens Title Year Winner 2009 Rafael Nadal (Spain) Novak Djokovic (Serbia) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Marat Safin (Russia) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Runner-up Roger Federer (Switzerland) Jo-Wilfried Tsonga (France) Fernando Gonzalez (Chile) Marcos Baghdatis (Cyprus) Lleyton Hewitt (Australia) Marat Safin (Russia) Winner Serena Williams (USA) Maria Sharapova (Russia) Serena Williams (USA) Amelie Mauresmo (France) Serena Williams (USA) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Runner-up Dinara Safina (Russia) Ana Ivanovic (Serbia) Maria Sharapova (Russia) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Lindsay Davenport (USA) Kim Clijsters (Belgium) Womens Title






French Open Mens Title Year Winner 2009 Roger Federer (Switzerland) Rafael Nadal (Spain) Rafael Nadal (Spain) Rafael Nadal (Spain) Rafael Nadal (Spain) Runner-up Robin Soderling (Sweden) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Mariano Puerta (Argentina) Winner Svetlana Kuznetsova (Russia) Ana Ivanovic (Serbia) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Runner-up Dinara Safina (Russia) Dinara Safina (Russia) Ana Ivanovic (Serbia) Svetlana Kuznetsova (Russia) Mary Pierce (France) Womens Title





Wimbledon Open Mens Title Year Winner 2009 Roger Federer (Switzerland) Rafael Nadal (Spain) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Runner-up Andy Roddick (USA) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Rafael Nadal (Spain) Andy Roddick (USA) Andy Roddick (USA) Andy Roddick (USA) Winner Serena Williams (USA) Venus Williams (USA) Venus Williams (USA) Amelie Mauresmo (France) Venus Williams (USA) Maria Sharapova (Russia) Runner-up Venus Williams (USA) Serena Williams (USA) Marion Bartoli (France) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Lindsay Davenport (USA) Serena Williams (USA) Womens Title






U.S.Open Mens Title Year Winner 2008 Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer Runner-up Andy Murray (United Kingdom) Novak Djokovic (Serbia) Andy Roddick (USA) Andre Agassi Winner Serena Williams (USA) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Maria Sharapova (Russia) Kim Clijsters Runner-up Jelena Jankovid (Serbia) Svetlona Kuznetsova (Russia) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Mary Pierce Womens Title


2006 2005

(Switzerland) 2004 Roger Federer (Switzerland)

(USA) Lleyton Hewitt (Australia)

(Belgium) Svetlona Kuznet sova (Russia)

(France) Elena Dementieva (Russia)

The Olympics The oldest and the largest sporting event in the World, Olympics were first started in 776 BC in Greece. The games were first played in the ancient Greek kingdom of Elis to honour Zeus, the Greek god of Sky and Thunder. But after the initial games in 776 BC, they became an irregular feature and were restricted only to Greece. It was only after 1500 years, in 1892 that revival of games was undertaken by Baron Pierre de Coubretin. In June, 1894 Baron and his associates decided to make the games a regular sporting event and created the International Olympic Committee (IOC). Presently, the IOC is headqutered at Laussane, Switzerland. Olympic Symbol (five rings) The Olympic Symbol comprises of five rings linked together to represent sporting friendship amongst countries. The rings represent the five continents Europe, Africa, America, Asia and Australia.
Year 1896 1900 1904 1908 1912 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1948 Place Athens Paris St. Louis London Stockholm Antwerp Paris Amsterdam Los Angeles Berlin London

1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 Commonwealth Games

Helsinki Melbourne Rome Tokyo Mexico City Munich Montreal Moscow Los Angeles Seoul Barcelona Atlanta Sydney Athens Beijing London (scheduled)

The Commonwealth Games are the second largest sporting event in the World after Olympics. These games are held every four years between the years of the Olympic Games. The games involve atheletes from Commonwealth Nations (majority erstwhile colonies of the British). Started in 1930, the games were originally called the British Empire Games. It was in 1978 that the present name of the Commonwelth Games was adopted. The table below gives the details of the Commonwealth Games till date. The games were not held from 1939 till 1949. Year 1930 Venue Hamilton

1934 1938 1950 1954 1958 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 Asian Games

London Sydney Auckland Vancouver Cardiff Perth Jamaica Edinburgh Christchurch Edmonton Brisbane Edinburgh Auckland Victoria Kuala Lumpur Manchester Melbourne Delhi (scheduled)

The Asian Games, also called the Asiad, is a sporting event on the lines of the Olympic Games held every four years among atheletes from all over Asia. India played a leading role in starting an event for the Asian nations. The motto of the Asian Games is Ever Onward. The table below gives the details of Asian Games till date. Year 1951 Venue New Delhi

1954 1958 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 Cricket World Cup

Manila Tokyo Jakarta Bangkok Bangkok (originally had to be hosted by Seoul) Tehran Bangkok (originally had to be hosted by Karachi) New Delhi Seoul Beijing Hiroshima Bangkok Busan Doha Guangzhou (scheduled)

The Cricket World Cup is a premier international championship for one day cricket in the world. The event is organised once every four years by the sports governing body, The International Cricket Council (ICC) and is contested by all Test playing nations (presently 10) plus the qualifying teams. The table below gives the details of the World Cups held till date.

Year 1975 1979 1983

Venue England England England

Winner West Indies West Indies India

Runner-up Australia England West Indies

1987 1992

Indian Subcontinent Australia & New Zealand

Australia Pakistan

England England

1996 1999

Indian Subcontinent England South Africa,

Sri Lanka Australia

Australia Pakistan

2003 Zimbabwe & Kenya 2007 2011 2015 Hockey World Cup West Indies Indian Subcontinent




Sri Lanka

Scheduled Australia & New Zealand

The Hockey World Cup is a premier international field hockey competition organised by the International Hockey Federation (FIH) once every four years. The tournament was started in 1971. The table below gives the details of each World Cup held till date. Year 1971 1973 Venue Barcelona, Spain Amstelveen, The Netherlands 1975 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Buenos Aires, Argentina Mumbai, India London, England Lahore, Pakistan Sydney, Australia India Pakistan Pakistan Australia Netherlands Pakistan Pakistan Netherlands West Germany England Pakistan Netherlands Winner Pakistan Netherlands Runner-up Spain India

1998 2002 2006 2010 Football World Cup

Utrecht, The Netherlands Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Monchengladbach, Germany New Delhi, India

Netherlands Germany Germany

Spain Australia Australia Scheduled

The Football/Soccer World Cup is an international football competition contested by the national teams of the member nations of Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). The tournament started in 1930 and is held every four years, but could not be held in 1942 and 1946 due to World War II. The table below gives details of the last ten World Cups. Year 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 Tennis Grand Slams The tables below give the last five year championship winners for four major Tennis Grand Slams viz Australian Open (held at Melbourne), French Open (held at Paris, also called Roland Garros), Wimbledon (held at Wimbledon, near London) and U.S. Open (held at Flushing Meadows, New York). Venue West Germany Argentina Spain Mexico Italy USA France South Korea & Japan Germany South Africa Scheduled South America Winner West Germany Argentina Italy Argentina West Germany Brazil France Brazil Italy Runner-up Netherlands Netherlands West Germany West Germany Argentina Italy Brazil Germany France

Australian Open Mens Title Year Winner 2009 Rafael Nadal (Spain) Novak Djokovic (Serbia) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Marat Safin (Russia) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Runner-up Roger Federer (Switzerland) Jo-Wilfried Tsonga (France) Fernando Gonzalez (Chile) Marcos Baghdatis (Cyprus) Lleyton Hewitt (Australia) Marat Safin (Russia) Winner Serena Williams (USA) Maria Sharapova (Russia) Serena Williams (USA) Amelie Mauresmo (France) Serena Williams (USA) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Runner-up Dinara Safina (Russia) Ana Ivanovic (Serbia) Maria Sharapova (Russia) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Lindsay Davenport (USA) Kim Clijsters (Belgium) Womens Title






French Open Mens Title Year Winner 2009 Roger Federer (Switzerland) Rafael Nadal (Spain) Rafael Nadal (Spain) Rafael Nadal (Spain) Runner-up Robin Soderling (Sweden) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Winner Svetlana Kuznetsova (Russia) Ana Ivanovic (Serbia) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Runner-up Dinara Safina (Russia) Dinara Safina (Russia) Ana Ivanovic (Serbia) Svetlana Kuznetsova (Russia) Womens Title





Rafael Nadal (Spain)

Mariano Puerta (Argentina)

Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium)

Mary Pierce (France)

Wimbledon Open Mens Title Year Winner 2009 Roger Federer (Switzerland) Rafael Nadal (Spain) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Runner-up Andy Roddick (USA) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Rafael Nadal (Spain) Andy Roddick (USA) Andy Roddick (USA) Andy Roddick (USA) Winner Serena Williams (USA) Venus Williams (USA) Venus Williams (USA) Amelie Mauresmo (France) Venus Williams (USA) Maria Sharapova (Russia) Runner-up Venus Williams (USA) Serena Williams (USA) Marion Bartoli (France) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Lindsay Davenport (USA) Serena Williams (USA) Womens Title






U.S.Open Mens Title Year Winner 2008 Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer Runner-up Andy Murray (United Kingdom) Novak Djokovic (Serbia) Andy Roddick Winner Serena Williams (USA) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Maria Sharapova Runner-up Jelena Jankovid (Serbia) Svetlona Kuznetsova (Russia) Justine Henin-Hardene Womens Title

2007 2006

(Switzerland) 2005 Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland)

(USA) Andre Agassi (USA) Lleyton Hewitt (Australia)

(Russia) Kim Clijsters (Belgium) Svetlona Kuznet sova (Russia)

(Belgium) Mary Pierce (France) Elena Dementieva (Russia)


Airport Animal Largest Tallest Largest & Heaviest Fastest Bay With max. shore line With max. area King Khaled International Airport, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) Giraffe (Average height 6.09m) Blue Whale (190 tonnes) Cheetah (Approximately 100 km/hr) Hudson Bay Bay of Bengal


HighestSuspension bridge

Over the Royal Gorge of the Arakansas river, Colorado, USA

LongestCross-sea bridge Road & Rail Traffic Bridge Building Highest Big Ship Canal Busiest Deepest Canyon Largest Church Largest

Donghai Bridge, China Tsing Ma bridge linking HongKong to Lantau island Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Suez Canal Kiel Canal Vicos Gorge (Greece) Grand Canyon (Colarado River) Basilica of St. Peter (Vatican City)

Cinema House

Largest Largest Population

Radio City Music Hall (New York) Mumbai Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia Asia (44.5 million sq km) Australia (7.7 million sq km) The Great Barrier Reef (Australia) China Russia India Vatican City China Grand Coulee Dam, Columbia River (USA) Rogunskaya dam across river Vakash, Tajakistan Ganges Delta (Sundarban Delta )

City Largest Area Largest Continent Smallest Coral Formation Largest Largest in Population Largest in Area Country With largest electorate Smallest in Area With most Land Frontiers Largest Dam Highest Delta Largest

Desert Diamond Dome Epic

Largest Largest Largest Largest Largest fresh water Most abundant

Sahara desert, Africa The Cullinan Louisiana Superdome, USA Mahabharata Plabeuk Bristle mouth Stone fish Electric Eel

Fish Most venomous Most electric

Longest Film Most Oscars Fountain Tallest Most nutritive Fruit

Die Zweite Heimat (Germany) Ben Hur and Titanic (11 oscars each) Fountain at Fountain Hills ( Arizona, US) Avocado (Vitamin A,C,E and Proteins)

Cucumber Least nutritive Gulf Largest With the most Hotel number of rooms Island Biggest Largest Lake Deepest Largest fresh water Biggest Library Biggest non statutory Highest Peak Mountain Highest Range Museum Ocean Peninsula Park Largest Largest and Deepest Largest Largest Coldest Places Driest Hottest Himalayas, Asia American museum of Natural History, New York Pacific Ocean Arabian National Park of Greenland Antartica Calama, Chile Dallol, Ethiopia New York Public Library Mt. Everest (8848 mts) Greenland Caspian Sea Baikal Lake Lake Superior US Library of Congress (Washinton DC) MGM Grand Las Vegas (Nevada) Gulf of Mexico

Rainiest Biggest Brightest, hottest, and nearest to the Earth Planet Farthest from Sun Nearest to Sun Most Satellites Plateau Highest

Mawsynram near Cherrapunji in Meghalaya Jupiter Venus Neptune/Pluto (Unsolved) Mercury Uranus Tibetan Plateau

Platform (rail)

Longest Largest

Kharagpur, West Bengal Port of New York and New Jersey Rotterdam, Netherlands Trans-Siberian Railway Grand Central Terminal, New York Condor, Bolivia

Port Busiest Railway Line Longest Largest Railway Station Highest

Hinduism Religion Oldest Largest Rivers Largest Highest Road Longest Largest Sea Largest (inland) Star Brightest Caspian Sea Sirius A ( dog star) Pan American Highway (from Alaska to Brasilia) South China Sea Christianity Amazon (6750 km) Kang-ti-Suu

Swimming course

Longest recognized Largest (radio)

English Channel at US National Science Foundation at Kitt Peak National Observatory at Yerkes Observatory Angkor Wat, Cambodia Burj Dubai Seikan Rail Tunnel (Japan) Laerdal Aurland, Norway The Great Wall of China Angel Falls in Venezuela Khone Falls in Loas Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe Etoha Reserve, Namibia


Largest (solar) Largest refractor

Temple Tower

Largest Tallest Longest (Railway)

Tunnel Largest (Road) Wall Longest Highest Waterfall Widest Largest

Largest Zoo Largest collection of animals Sandiago Zoo Berlin Zoo