Clarito G. lopez Jr.

MPA/PA,LLB Page |1

TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AND ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION WARNING: These materials are only authorized for the use of AVC Reviewees under Mr. Clarito G. Lopez and others he has personally authorized. Students of other schools and reviewees of other review centers are NOT authorized to use.

Part I 1 What is Transportation? Answer: transportation is the movement or conveying of persons and goods from one location to another. 2 What is ROADWAY? Answer: that part of motor vehicles pass.

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3 What is TRAFFIC? Answer: the movement of persons, goods, or vehicles, either powered by combustion system or animal drawn, from one place to another for the purpose of travel. 4 What is TRAFFIC WAY? Answer: the entire width between boundary lines of every way or place of which any part is open to the use of the public for purpose of vehicular traffic as a matter of right or custom. 5 What are the major causes of traffic congestion?

Clarito G. lopez Jr. MPA/PA,LLB Page |2

Answer: 1. 2. 3. 4.

PHYSICAL INADEQUACY POOR CONTROL MEASURES HUMAN ERRORS. POOR MAINTENANCE

6 What are scopes of Traffic Management? Answer: a All public surface facilities traversing and parking, and all types of conveyances for the approving, funding, construction and/or maintaining these public facilities for such movements. b All agencies having responsibilities for ascertaining traffic flow requirements for such movements. c All agencies responsible for licensing, approving, restricting, stopping, prohibiting or controlling the use of these facilities. 7 What are the various agencies involved in Traffic Management? Answer: a Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC) b City or Municipal Engineers’ Office c DPWH d Legislation (Congress/City or Municipal Boards). e PNP f Academic Institution g Courts h Public Information Offices i Citizen Support Groups

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j Media 8 What are the Five Pillars (E’s) of Traffic? Answer: a Traffic Engineering b Traffic Education c Traffic Enforcement. d Traffic Ecology or Traffic Environment e Traffic Economy. This is the most recent of the pillars of traffic which deals with the benefits and adverse effects of traffic to our economy. Primarily, travelling operation is designed to expedite given locality, traffic adversely affect the economic status of the commuting public. 9 What is Traffic Safety Education? Answer: the process of training roads users in the avoidance and prevention of traffic – related accidents. 10 What is Road Safety? Answer: Reduced risk of accident or injury on the roads, achieved through multidisciplinary approaches involving road engineering and traffic management, education and training of road users, and vehicle design. 11 What are the factors contributing to Accidents? Answer: a Human errors include (95%)  Going too fast or excessive speed;  Failing to give at junctions;

road marking.  More wide use of road markings to delineate traffic lanes and waiting areas turning vehicles. c Main vehicle factors are:  Defects in tires.  Improvements in skidding resistance of wet roads. information. MPA/PA. and  More highly visible and legible direction. and lights. and warning signs.  Inadequate signing. and  Obstructions on the road such as parked vehicle. and  Poorly maintained motor vehicles. etc. lopez Jr.LLB Page |4  Following too closely.  Absence of non-using of seat belts. 12 What are the three (3) “E”s or pillars of traffic as applied to prevention of traffic accidents? Answer: a Engineering (traffic engineering)  Changes in layout at junctions to define priorities more clearly (use of roundabouts. on going road construction. b Road deficiencies that are main contributory factors are:  Poor design of layout and control at junctions. etc. brakes. and lighting.  overtaking improperly.  More uniform street lighting. b Education (in traffic safety) .  Slippery roads.Clarito G. etc).

If we usually overcome any ill effect by awareness and will power. It is also known as road .  Education of teenagers in schools. and  The development of rehabilitation course like seminars for apprehended traffic violators. MPA/PA.  Enhanced publicity. we can psychologically cope up with any situation.Clarito G. and  Changing of attitudes.  New technology to aid enforcement. b If we know our biorhythm for a certain day.  Training in hazard perception. c Enforcement (of traffic rules)  Strengthening and simplifying the application of the law. 13 What is BIORHYTHM? Answer: the theory which assets that man exhibits a constant variation of life energy and mood states. lopez Jr. 14 What are the Importance of biorhythm in the field of the study? Answer: a Assets that people are accident prone if their biorhythm crosses the centerline on a certain day or is totally below the line. 15 What is Safety Campaign? Answer: This is a mass publicity aimed to make road users behave more safety.LLB Page |5  New approach to training and educating young drivers.

5448. 7924.D. i P.A. bells. vehicles. Requiring compulsory TPL insurance to all type of MV as registration requirement. g P. k P. etc. projects and activity of science agencies to be financed therefrom and for other purposes. j P. “Anti – Carnapping Act of 1972 c R.D. 8750. RULES AND REGULATIONS Answer: a R. 207 – as part of the laws of the Philippines the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic.A.D. 612. h P. Seat Belt law. Creation of the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA).A.D. Regulating the use of sirens. Land Transportation Code of the Philippines b R. d R.D. Prescribing. Abatement of air pollution from MVs (repealed by RA 8749) . to constitute a special science fund defining the programs. 1181. lopez Jr. The “Clean Air Act” e R. 8749. 6539. 4136. redefining or modifying the lines and modes of operations of public utility motor. 96. MPA/PA.LLB Page |6 propaganda which may be intended simply to inform or it may be felt that the public is already aware of the recommended behavior by need to be persuaded into adopting it. 16 What are the TRAFFIC LAWS.Clarito G. horns.A. to private MV.A. Imposition of tax on privately owned passenger automobiles. f R. and a science stamp tax. Signs and Signals. motorcycles and scooters. 101.A.

colleges. freight and/or passengers.O. 1729. highways and bridges whose load capacities are in excess of specific allowable limits. Removal of all impediments on roads. n L. 43.Clarito G. or other similar institutions. whether for private use or for hire to the public. 19 What is meant by Gross Weight? Answer: The measured weight of a motor vehicle plus the maximum allowable carrying capacity in merchandise. public boulevard.LLB Page |7 l P. m L. driveway. Prohibiting freight and cargo trucks from using roads.I No. No. and highways. avenue. 20 What is meant by Highways? Answer: Every public throughfare. park. Any driver driving his own motor vehicle for hire is a professional driver. 17 What is meant by the term “Driver”? Answer: Shall mean every and any licensed operator of a motor vehicle.O. 18 What is meant by Professional Driver? Answer: Every and any driver hired for driving or operating a motor vehicle.I. but shall not include roadway upon grounds owned by private persons. lopez Jr. streets. 112. alley and callejon. universities. Authorizing the Bureau of Land Transportation to dispose of impounded motor vehicles unclaimed by owners for a certain period of time.D. . MPA/PA.

24 What may be allowed to be carried on top of the truck? Answer: only baggage or freight provided that the weight thereof is not more than 20 kilos per square meter. 23 Exceeding Registered Capacity (Overloading) of public utility trucks or buses who is liable? Answer: Conductors are held liable for the overloading of vehicles under their charge. or to load or unload a small quantity of freight with reasonable dispatch shall not be considered as parked. 22 Who are Tourist? Answer: A foreigner who travels from place to place for pleasure or culture. if the motor vehicle again moves away without delay. 25 What are the Required Motor Vehicle Accessories? Answer: a Tires b Brake c Horns d Headlight e Tail Light . A motor vehicle which properly stops merely to discharge a passenger or to take in a waiting passenger. lopez Jr.Clarito G. and remains inactive in that place or close thereto for an appreciable period of time.LLB Page |8 21 What is Parking or Parked? Answer: Shall mean that a motor vehicle is parked or parking if it has been brought to a stop on the shoulder or proper edge of a highway. MPA/PA.

lopez Jr.Clarito G.LLB Page |9 f g h i Stop Light Windshield Wiper Use of Red Flag Mufflers 26 What practices are prohibited: Answer: a Hanging on to or riding on the outside or rear end of any vehicle. e Take measures to protect belongings of passengers. 51) d Driving while Under the Influence of Liquor or Other Prohibited Drugs. This prohibition applies even when discharging or loading passengers (Sec. 27 What are the Duties of Driver in Case of Accident? Answer: a Stop immediately. c Driver allowing any person to hang on to or ride outside of or at the rear end of the vehicle (Sec. e Obstruction of Traffic. Obstruction of traffic by operating a motor vehicle in such a manner as to obstruct. b Holding on to any moving vehicle whether on foot or otherwise. . including that of the owner of the vehicle. c Give his true name and address. or impede the passage of another vehicle is prohibited. b Show his driver’s license to inspecting traffic law enforcer. d Assist injured persons. block. MPA/PA. 54).

c Medical Certificate from LTO clearance. . R. L L B P a g e | 10 f Report the accident (Sec. (2) NON-PROFESSIONAL DL – in the applicant’s possession for at least 4 mos. l o p e z J r . 55) 28 When a driver could leave the area of accident without being held liable for HIT-AND-RUN if? Answer: A driver could leave the area of accident without being held liable for HIT-AND-RUN if: a His life is in imminent danger of being harmed by other person/s by reason of the accident. M P A / P A . and c He summons the assistance of a physician or nurse to aid the victim. and does not authorize to operate a privately owned MV (Sec. b He surrenders to proper authority.C l a r i t o G . 4136) 30 What are the requirements for Professional Driver’s License? Answer: a Must be at least 18 years of age. b Presentation of either the following documents: (1) STUDENT PERMIT – in the possession of the applicant for at least 5 mos. 29 What are the requirements for Military Driver’s License? Answer: no license or delinquency fees shall be collected thereof – shall bear the words “FOR GOVERNMENT VEHICLES ONLY” plainly marked or stamped in red inks across the face thereof. or Prosecutor’s clearance. NBI. d A Police.A. 20. e The applicant must pass a WRITTEN EXAMINATION.

4136) Answer: a Must be at least 17 years of age. d Must pass a WRITTEN EXAMINATION e Must pass an actual ROAD TEST. f An application form (ADL) filed out by the applicant g Fees (subject to change)  The holder of a Non-Professional driver’s license shall be restricted to operate motor vehicles up to 4500 kgs gross vehicle weight (GVW) and is also renewable every 3 years. 4136). h Fees (subject to change)  The professional driver’s license is renewable every 3 years.A. The color of its logo is green. b Student Driver’s Permit that has been issued not less than 1 month. M P A / P A . 3. l o p e z J r .e. R. R. 32 What are the requirements for Student Driver’s Permit? Answer: accompanied by an instructor who may either be a licensed professional or non-professional driver (Sec. 31 What are the requirements for Non-Professional Driver’s License? (Effect of Sec. g An applicant form (ADL) filed out by the applicant. (2) Has normal vision and hearing.C l a r i t o G . 30. L L B P a g e | 11 f The applicant must pass an actual ROAD TEST. c A certificate from an LTO accredited doctor attesting that the applicant: (1) Is physically and mentally sound.A. The color of its logo is red. Requirements are: .

1 x 1 black and white or color photographs of the applicant. in Tagalog. either of the following:  Joint affidavit by2 not related individuals attesting to the age of the applicant.  SSS identification card. e Must apply personally at any LTO and have with him the following documents: (1) Documents of birth proof that he is 16 years old.D. l o p e z J r . an affidavit of consent signed by the parents or by the applicant’s legal guardian. d Must know how to read and write in his native dialect. f 2 pcs. or in English. c Must be mentally capable.C l a r i t o G . g Fees (subject to change) A student permit is valid for up to 12 months from the date of issue.  Passport  Voter’s I. L L B P a g e | 12 a Must be at least 16 years of age b Must be physically sound and in good health with no contagious ailments. (2) Applicants between 16-18. 33 What are the required points in the Written Examination for securing drivers license? Answer: a Non-Professional – 30 out of 40 questions b Professional – 50 out of 60 questions (45 of 60 – previous) 34 What are the requirements securing drivers license? for The Road Test in . M P A / P A .

e The driver of a vehicle.C l a r i t o G . b The driver of a hospital ambulance on the way to and from the place of accident or other emergency. c Proper engine control and use of the gear shift lever and the foot pedals. the battery. M P A / P A . g Proper backing procedures. . windshield wipers. f Proper turning procedures. e Proper knowledge and interpretation of road signs and markings. d Proper speed control and observance and practice of road discipline. lights. L L B P a g e | 13 Answer: a Capability of performing a check on the primary components of the vehicle such as the engine. 35 What are the exceptions to the Speed limit? Answer: a A physician or his driver when the former responds to emergency calls. the tires. l o p e z J r . or any other similar place. etc… b Proper use and correct positioning of the hands on the steering wheel. c Any driver bringing a wounded or sick person for emergency treatment to a hospital. clinic. when he or his passengers are in pursuit of a criminal. brakes. h Proper parking procedures. transmission and clutch. d The driver of a motor vehicle belonging to the Armed forces while in use for official purposes in times of riot. insurrection or invasion.

A. g The driver officially operating a motor vehicle of any fire department. L L B P a g e | 14 f A law-enforcement officer who is trying to overtake a violator of traffic laws. 36 What is Lateral Placement? Answer: Lateral placement means the proper positioning of the motor vehicle while traversing on traffic way or while on parked. 39. another vehicle may be overtaken on the right (Sec.A. provided that exemption shall not be construed to allow useless or unnecessary fast driving of drivers aforementioned. Exception. l o p e z J r . 41. 4136) . a driver should pass at a safe distance to the left of the vehicle being overtaken and shall resume driving on the right side of the road only after passing clear of the overtaken vehicle. M P A / P A . R.A. 37 What are the rules in overtaking and passing? Answer: In overtaking another vehicle. 40.C l a r i t o G . R. 4136 39 What are the restrictions on Overtaking and Passing? (Sec. 4136) 38 What is the duty of the driver of a motor vehicle about to be overtaken? Answer: The driver of a motor vehicle about to be overtaken must give way to the overtaking vehicle and shall not increase his speed until the overtaking vehicle has fully passed by (Sec. On the highways with two or more lanes where traffic goes in one direction. R.

41 What are the Rules on Right of Way? (Section 42-44.A. nor at any intersection of highways. except on a highway having two or more lanes for movement of vehicles in one direction.C l a r i t o G . the driver of the vehicle on the left shall yield the right of way.a). M P A / P A .” 40 What is Right of Way? Answer: The legal or customary precedence (priority) which allows one vehicle to cross or pass in front of another. of R. . e In any “no passing or overtaking zone. unless such left side is clearly visible. l o p e z J r . 4136) Answer: a In case of two vehicles approaching or entering an intersection at the same time. however. c At any railway grade crossing. and is free of oncoming traffic for a sufficient distance distance ahead to permit safety overtaking. nor upon a curve in the highway. 42. b When approaching the crest of a grade. d Between any points indicated by the placing of official temporary or caution signs indicating that men are working on the highways. L L B P a g e | 15 Answer: a To the left side of the center line of a highway in overtaking another vehicle proceeding in the same direction. the driver of any vehicle travelling at an unlawful speed forfeits this right (Sec.

423. b The driver of a vehicle entering a “through highway” or a “stop intersection” shall yield the right of way to all vehicles approaching in either direction on such “through highway”. its driver shall yield the right of way to pedestrians crossing the highway within a crosswalk.c). its driver shall yield the right of way to vehicles already within such intersection or turning therein to the left across the line of travel of the first mentioned vehicle (Sec. 42. d In case of a vehicle traversing a “thruhighway”. if it is clear and no hazards exist. 42 What are the exceptions to the Right of Way Rule of a vehicle entering from a private road or drive (Sec. except at crosswalk. the vehicle may slow down to 5 miles per hour instead of a full stop 9Sec. pedestrians shall yield the right of way to vehicles on the highways (Sec.d). M P A / P A . c In case of a vehicle on a highway within a business or residential district.b). l o p e z J r .C l a r i t o G . 42. L L B P a g e | 16 b In the case of a vehicle approaching but has not yet entered the intersection. However. its driver should bring it to a full stop before crossing. 43)? Answer: a The driver of a vehicle upon a highway shall yield the right of way to police or fire department vehicles and ambulances when such vehicles are operated on official business and the drivers thereof sound audible signal of their approach. .

e If there is a sign prohibiting turn unless the light is GREE. b Stay on the right lane of the road c NEVER make a right turn from left lane. Stopping or Turning Rules? Answer: driver shall give a clearly audible signal by sounding the vehicle’s horn. . (Sec. l o p e z J r . before you intended to make your turn. 45 What are the rules in making a Right Turn (Normal Procedures) – from a four – Lane Street to a four-lane street? Answer: a Signal your intention to turn right at least 100 ft. make a right turn ONLY after coming to a full stop.C l a r i t o G . 44. d At an intersection with a red traffic light. c NEVER make a left turn from the right lane. L L B P a g e | 17 43 What are the Starting.b). DO NOT turn right while the RED LIGHT IS ON. M P A / P A . b Stay on the left lane of the road. 46 What are the rules in making a Left Turn (Normal Procedures) – to four-lane street: Answer: a Signal your intention to turn left at least 100 feet before you intended to make you turn. 44 What is Hand Signal? Answer: The required signal shall be given by means of extending the hand or arm beyond the left side of the vehicle or by an approved mechanical or electrical signal device.

48 What is Traffic Control? Answer: the procedures. and communication systems that help vehicles and vessels safely share the same roads. vehicles GOING STRAIGHT have the right of way. c Once all traffic has passed you. l o p e z J r . rails. and ship captains rely on to avoid collisions and other hazards. devices. e At an intersection with a traffic light. 47 Making a U-turn on a Two-lane Road (Normal Procedure). Come to a complete stop if necessary. L L B P a g e | 18 d At an intersection with a traffic light. Keep to the right side until you have increased your speed sufficiently to move to the middle of the lane. b Stay as close to the right side as possible. or air space. make a left turn ONLY WHEN THE GREEN LIGHT IS ON OR WHEN THERE IS A LEFT TURN LIGHT. waterways. 49 What Traffic Control Transportation? is as applied to Land . train engineers. Answer: a Make a right turn signal at least 100 ft before you start moving to the right side of the road. M P A / P A . Check behind you for traffic. Wait for them to pass first before you turn left. pilots. Also check for oncoming traffic on the other lane. d Do not move immediately to the middle of the road. See that you can make it on one “sweep”. initiate you Uturn.C l a r i t o G . establishes a set of rules and instructions that drivers.

and markings. employing prescribed traffic rules and regulations and devices such as signals. l o p e z J r .C l a r i t o G . Traffic 53 What are the classifications of Traffic Signal Lights? . 50 What are the different Highway Traffic controls? Answer: a Traffic Signs – the most extensively used form of traffic control b Pavement Markings c Traffic – Signal d Priority control – one form of transportation is given priority by restricting or banning other forms of transportation. 51 What is Traffic Lights? Answer: any power operated traffic control device by which traffic is warned or directed to take some specific actions. traffic control planners use devices to discourage heavy use of a route. L L B P a g e | 19 Answer: A system of traffic engineering. e Restraints – banning traffic. M P A / P A . usually in heavily populated urban areas. Traffic light signals are used to control traffic at junctions and also to stop traffic to provide crossing points for pedestrians and cyclists. 52 What are the common problems Concerning Lights? Answer: Disrespect to traffic signs. to relieve vehicular congestion and air pollution to promote safety and pedestrian mobility.

. M P A / P A . c Computerized Control of Signal Networks – Signal changes and are ordered by the demands of traffic and are directed by computers that operate on the basis of traffic information relayed from vehicle sensors on the streets. b Special Pedestrian Signals – provides regulation for pedestrians like the “WALK” and “DO NOT WALK” signal lights. and other similar regulations. L L B P a g e | 20 Answer: a Traffic Control Signals – designed primarily to control and regulate traffic flows. l o p e z J r . permitting a vehicle that maintains a constant speed to proceed without interruption under normal circumstances. 55 What are the Specific Meaning of Traffic Lights? Answer: a Steady Red  STOP at the designated line. c Train Approach and Gates Signals d Other Special Traffic Signals – installed on traffic ways where special regulations are emphasized like “YIELD TO VEHICLES COMING FROM THE LEFT”.C l a r i t o G . 54 What is the Traffic Signal Systems? Answer: a The fixed-time System – traffic is alternately commanded to stop and permitted to proceed in accordance with predetermined time schedule. b Progressive System – at successive intersections along the artery are timed to change from red to green at slaggered intervals.

b Steady Green  It is the turn of the vehicles on the other side to STOP.  Vehicles GOING STRAIGHT have the right of way.  DO NOT ANTICIPATE A GREEN ARROW d Steady Yellow.  DO NOT ANTICIPATE A GREEN LIGHT. l o p e z J r .  Pedestrians are not allowed to cross the pedestrian lane in front of you. c Study Green Arrow  GO  Vehicles turning left can do so. you can TURN RIGHT after a FULL STOP to clear traffic coming from the left.  Unless specified.C l a r i t o G .  PREPARE TO STOP  It is the turn of the vehicles on the other side and will be given the GO signal shortly. M P A / P A . .  DO NOT BEAT A YELLOW LIGHT. you can move up to the middle section of the intersection and make a left turn when clear.  If specified.  On coming straight traffic is still RED to give way for the vehicles turning left. L L B P a g e | 21  Vehicles will be crossing from the “other side”  Expect pedestrians to cross at the pedestrian lane.

or other gadgets except signs set into the surface or applied upon or attached to the pavement or curbing or to objects within or adjacent to the roadway. 56 What is Pavement Markings? Answer: all lines. l o p e z J r . colors.  Vehicles will be crossing from the “other side”.  Proceed through the intersection with CAUTION.  Vehicles can go straight or vehicles on the left lane can make a left turn.  Expect pedestrians to cross at the pedestrians lane. L L B P a g e | 22 e Flashing Red. M P A / P A . f Flashing Yellow.  Vehicles on the other side will proceed after coming to a FULL STOP.  This is the same as a STOP SIGN.  Vehicles can go straight or vehicles on the right lane can make a right turn.  STOP at the designated line. warning or guiding traffic. patterns.  This is the same as a YIELD SIGN. .  You have the right of way over a flashing RED LIGHT.  PROCEED WHEN CLEAR.  The RIGHT GREEN signal might or might NOT have a road sign disallowing a right turn while the RED light is ONE.C l a r i t o G . g Steady Green and Steady Left/right Arrow. officially placed for the purpose of regulating. words.

it separates traffic moving in opposite directions. d Reflectorized Markings – are markings or gadgets designed to reflect and become luminous when hit by vehicles headlight. M P A / P A .C l a r i t o G . L L B P a g e | 23 57 What are the types of Pavement markings and Markers? Answer: a Pavement Markings – the lines usually white and yellow or a combination of yellow and white officially set on the roadway as separation for motor vehicles travelling in the opposite direction or the same direction in case of twolane one-way street.  Overtaking is possible when other lane is clear of oncoming possible. separates traffic moving in one direction. rocks or similar hazardous objects on the side of the road. l o p e z J r . installed in the middle of the roadway to supplement separation lines or on object at the side of the roadway which are too near or within the road pavement itself 58 What are the specific Meaning of Pavement Markings? Answer: a Single White Dotted Line  On two lane road. two-lane two-way street or four-lane two-way street. c Object Markings – markings placed on objects on the road or beside the road like humps. .  On a one way street. b Curb Markings for Restriction – markings placed on the curbs or edges of the traffic for restriction or for parking regulation purposes.

 Could be find in road sections that are dangerous. A yellow or white line with a dotted white line means:  That you cannot overtake if the solid line is on your side. L L B P a g e | 24 b Single white Continuous Line in A Two-lane Traffic Way. return to your lane BEFORE the solid line. f Yellow Continuous Line on Road Provided with a Passing Lane. indicates:  When there are slow and fast lanes. d Double Yellow Line or Double White Line. c Single Continuous Line On a Four-Lane Road . .  Separates traffic moving in opposite direction.C l a r i t o G . l o p e z J r . NEVER overtake by passing over the solid white line.  Lanes 2 & 3 (inner lanes are usually for faster moving vehicles.  Lanes 1 & 4 (outer lanes) for slow moving vehicles.  ABSOLUTELY NO OVERTAKING  Overtaking is extremely dangerous  Stay in your lane until you pass the end of the solid lines.  If you overtake. e Single Yellow/White Line.  Passing and overtaking can be made but ONLY under circumstances when there is no oncoming traffic.on four-lane streets. M P A / P A . Vehicles on this lane should not be BELOW the minimum speed limit.

l o p e z J r . you should keep going in the direction indicated by the arrow until it is safe to turn of and get back on the street or highway which will carry you to your destination.  Directions of permitted traffic movement.  Inner lane is for vehicles to pass without having to use the other lane for vehicles coming from the opposite direction. g Crosswalk or Pedestrian Lane.  Some have double headed arrows which means the lane is for traffic going in the two directions indicated.  Vehicles coming from the opposite direction should not use the inner lane at the other side for overtaking.  Slow moving vehicles such as buses and heavy trucks should always use the outer lane.  Stop for pedestrians on an intersection with no traffic light. M P A / P A .  Pedestrians should ALWAYS cross a street on a crosswalk.  DO NOT STOP on pedestrian lane specially to load or unload passengers. L L B P a g e | 25  These are common on mountain roads.C l a r i t o G .  For pedestrian to cross.  When approaching intersections where pavement arrows are used. h Directional Arrows. .  If you get in the wrong lane. you should enter the lane where the arrow points in the direction you want to go.

These are the raised portion in the middle of the traffic way constructed to separate the streams of motor vehicles traversing on opposite directions. A new concept in reducing the seriousness of accident. expedite traffic flow or increase safety. j The Barrel Lines. 59 What is Traffic Island? Answer: areas within the roadway constructed in a manner to establish physical channels through which vehicular is guided. 62 What is Traffic Supervision? . you should stop behind the stop line. 60 What are the Functions of Traffic Islands? Answer: a Segregate pedestrians and vehicles. These are constructed between the pedestrian sidewalk and the road pavement. The barrels are engineered to act as impact cushion. Where these lines are present.C l a r i t o G . l o p e z J r . and b Control streams of traffic in order to minimize conflict. Usually installed in front of a solid obstacle or traffic island at an area of high accident frequency. M P A / P A . b Traffic Island. L L B P a g e | 26 i Stop Lines. 61 What are the Classifications of Traffic Islands? Answer: a Pedestrian Island (Pedestrian Barriers).

what are the needed three (3) police activities ? Answer: a Traffic Law Enforcement. b Traffic Direction and Control. 64 What is Traffic Law Enforcement action? Answer: Traffic Law Enforcement action is part of enforcement involving the arrest. M P A / P A . It’s objectives are: a To prevent collisions or congestion through proper allotment of time and space. L L B P a g e | 27 Answer: It is the keeping order on the streets and highways within existing regulations to make their use safe and expeditious. l o p e z J r . or regulation pertaining to the use of traffic roads. and c Traffic Accident Investigation. c To use road fullest extent.C l a r i t o G . Answer: a Police Traffic Law Enforcement b Court Traffic Law Enforcement of Traffic Law . 65 What are the Two major Functions Enforcement. and d To uphold that roads are primarily built to move traffic and not for carnivals. or warning of any person who is believed to have violated a law. b To move traffic speedily and safely. issuance of Temporary Operator’s Permit (TOP) or Inspection Report Summons. 63 In the allotment of the objectives of traffic supervision. ordinance.

L L B P a g e | 28 66 What are the Three Important Goals of Enforcement Activities? Answer: a To increase safety level b To increase traffic efficiency c To insure harmonious and comfortable environment 67 What are the Major Elements of Traffic Enforcement System? Answer: a Enforcement System b Road Users System (Traffic Way User). M P A / P A . 68 What is Traffic Citation? Answer: a means of having violators appear in court without physical arrest. Verbal Warning. and Written Warning. and motorists on the road. 69 What is Traffic Warning? Answer: enforcement action which does not contemplate possible assessment of penalty by the court or otherwise as a result of warning alone: Visual Warning.C l a r i t o G . it of 71 Define Intersection. 70 What is Road Check Answer: another enforcement activity where involves the conducting of actual inspection vehicles. l o p e z J r . c Road System (Traffic System). . Answer: As applied to a street or highway means the space occupied by two streets at the point where they cross each other.

This involves observation either by moving patrol or observation in a certain area which included a number of streets. 75 What are the types of Traffic Patrol? Answer: a Line Patrol. roads . how and where they may or may not move or stand at a particular place. This involves observation either in moving or stationary observation at a certain route or point of a major street in a city. volunteers coming from barangay security forces and other civic organizations 74 What is Traffic Patrol? Answer: This refers to the observation of road conditions. b Police auxillaries. the behavior of the drivers and other uses of vehicles for the purpose of traffic supervision and law enforcement and providing authorized traffic-connected services to the public. Usually. b Area Patrol. especially during emergencies or period of congestion. this is done by foot patrol officers. l o p e z J r . and d In some.C l a r i t o G . 73 Who are tasked to direct and guide traffic? Answer: Traffic officers are usually deputized by the Land Transportation Office who normally comes from: a The PNP – TMG. M P A / P A . c MMDA Traffic Management Section. L L B P a g e | 29 72 What is Police Traffic Direction? Answer: It is defined as telling drivers and pedestrians when.

 Explosion. L L B P a g e | 30 or sections of a highway. Refers to any event that results in unintended injury or property damage attributable directly or indirectly to the action of a motor vehicle or its loads. b TRAFFIC ACCIDENT. somebody injured or possibly killed. 76 What is Traffic Accident Investigation? Answer: SOMETHING WENT WRONG on the highway. An accident involving travel transportation on a traffic way. or properly damage. 77 What are the Common Words and Phrases Used in Traffic Accident Investigation? Answer: a ACCIDENT. Area patrolling is usually the job of mobile police officers as well as those motorcycle cops. either a wrecked car. l o p e z J r . Include:  Accidental injury from inhalation of exhaust gas. c MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENT.C l a r i t o G . death.  Fires.  Discharge a firearm within the motor vehicle while in motion. and .  Collision between a MV and a railroad train or street car on stationary rails or tracks. M P A / P A . It is that occurrence in a sequence of events which usually produces unintended injury.

including any vehicle. c Street cars. parking or other purposes as a pedestrian or deriver. It applies also to: a Pedestrians. DEBRIS. b Cyclists. or animal which he is using. e Farm tractors. d Horse-drawn (animal-drawn) vehicles. KEY EVENT – event on the road which characterizes the manner of occurrence of a motor vehicle traffic accident. is being loaded on or unloaded from another conveyance. l o p e z J r . M P A / P A . dust and other SKID MARKS. These are marks left on the roadway by tires which are not free to rotate. usually because brakes are applied strong and the wheels locked. Example: A traffic accident could involve a cyclist and a pedestrian.  Injury or damage due to cataclysms (flood or sudden physical change on earth surface).C l a r i t o G . . TRAFFIC UNIT. and  Injury or damage while the motor vehicle is not under its power. L L B P a g e | 31  Failure of any part of the motor while the vehicle is in motion. the accumulation of broken parts of vehicles rubbish. Any person using a traffic way for travel. Excluded are: vehicle d e f g  Collision of a motor vehicle with an aircraft or water – craft in motion. and f Other road users in almost any combination.

or accelerating to avoid collision or other accident. rub-off of material or puncture. This is generated when a critical space-motion relationship between a traffic unit and another object develops due to the movement of either or both. l IMPACT. braking. Damage to a vehicle resulting from direct pressure of some foreign object in a collision or roll over. Another traffic unit in the path is also a hazard. Any circumstance contributing to a result without which the result could not have occurred or it is an element necessary to . Example: A curve in the path is a hazard. giving signals of intent to turn or slow down.C l a r i t o G . L L B P a g e | 32 h HAZARDS. The speed adjusted to the potential or possible hazards or the road and traffic situation ahead. j STRATEGY. l o p e z J r . position on the road. It is the striking of one body against another or a collision of a motor vehicle with another motor vehicle. and direction of motion. n FACTOR. It is determined by the road rather than the particular driver of a vehicle. It refers to any action taken by the traffic unit to avoid hazardous situations like steering. Example: A curve ahead is a hazard and a safe speed for it is a speed at which it can be taken comfortably. It is usually indicated by situations. m CONTACT DAMAGE. i SAFE SPEED. M P A / P A . It is the adjusting of speed. k TACTIC. or any other action in situations involving potential hazards.

A misnomer loosely applied to the most obvious or easily explained factor in the cause of an accident or the most easily modified condition factor. but not by itself sufficient. L L B P a g e | 33 o p q r produce the result.  Railroad train. Answer: a Running off road b Non-collision on road c Collision on road. or a person that affects the probability of a traffic accident. The combination of simultaneous and sequential factors without any one of which result could not have occurred.  Other motor vehicle. A circumstance that alters an attribute permanently or temporarily. CAUSE.  Bicycle.C l a r i t o G . PRIMARY CAUSE. Examples of this are motor vehicles colliding with:  Pedestrian. ATTRIBUT. a vehicle. Any inherent characteristics of a road. b Motor Vehicle Non-Traffic Accident c Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident 79 What are the Classification of Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident According to key Event.  Parked motor vehicle. l o p e z J r . MODIFIER. . M P A / P A . 78 What are the Kinds of Traffic Accidents? Answer: a Non-Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident.

 Drivers attitude or behavior b Sequential Factors:  Speed is greater or less than safe. One event usually leads to another so that the series can be spoken of as a “chain of events. . feeling. It is the first action taken by a traffic unit to escape from a collision course or otherwise avoid a hazard.” a Perception of Hazard. M P A / P A . L L B P a g e | 34  Fixed object. or hearing and understanding the usual or unexpected movement or condition that could be taken as sign of the accident about to happen course or otherwise avoid a hazard. l o p e z J r .  Driver’s faulty action to escape collision course 81 What are the Chain of Events in a Vehicular Accident? Answer: a series of an expected events leading to damage or injury.  Detective vehicle c Perception Factors:  Driver’s inability to reach promptly to a situation. &  Other objects 80 What are the Causes of Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident Answer: a Simultaneous Factors:  Road and weather conditions. b Start of evasive action. It is seeing.C l a r i t o G .

It is receiving bodily harm. It is the separation of a traffic unit in motion from an object with which it has collided. M P A / P A . It is a first accidental touching of an object collision course or otherwise avoid a hazard. It is greatest collapse or overlap in a collision. d Maximum Engagement.C l a r i t o G . It precedes actual perception and is the beginning of perception delay.  Final Position. g Injury. h Other events that may occur during an accident. f Stopping.  Perception Delay. L L B P a g e | 35 c Initial Contact. This event does not necessary occur after the accident but within any of the chain of events. The place and time of which the hazard could have been perceived by a normal person. It is that place and time after or beyond which the accident cannot be prevented by the traffic unit under consideration. e Disengagement. It is the place and time when objects involved in an accident finally come to rest without application of power. l o p e z J r . This is when the traffic unit/s involved come to rest.  Point of Possible Perception. . It usually stabilizes the accident situation.  Point of no Escape. The force between the traffic unit and the object collided with are greatest at maximum engagement. The time from the point of possible perception to actual perception. The force between the object ceases at this time.

property and planned movements involved. c Technical Preparation .delayed traffic accident data collection and organization for study and interpretation. traffic and persons. .all action taken at the scene of the crime or accident. e Cause Analysis . 84 When drivers can only leave the area of accident? Answer: Drivers can only leave the area of accident if he: a Is imminent danger of being seriously harmed by any person or persons by reasons of the accident. how the accident happened. b At – Scene Investigation . l o p e z J r . d Professional Reconstruction efforts to determine from whatever information is available. L L B P a g e | 36 82 What are the Five (5) Levels of Activity in Accident Investigation? Answer: a Reporting – basic data collection to identify and classify a motor vehicle. M P A / P A . 55 of RA 4136.C l a r i t o G .final analysis on the causes of accident which are bases for the prevention of similar accident. f Steps Taken by the Police During Traffic Accident Investigation 83 What is meant by Hit-and-run Answer: Evading responsibility is a term commonly applied to a traffic accident in which a driver fails to comply with any of the duties required by Sec.

k.C l a r i t o G . To get some idea how fast the car which left these marks was going prior to the accident. The shadowy beginning of a skid mark along the approach path of the vehicle is the impending skid mark (a. l o p e z J r . Skidmarks as a Tool in Traffic Accident Investigation. 85 What is a Skidmark? Answer: The sudden application of brakes which a result in the locked wheel condition places such a great pressure between the brake shoe and the brake drum that the frictional force at this point becomes greater than the frictional force between the tire and the road surface. 86 What are other Tire Marks? Answer: a Centrifugal skid mark.a. When this condition exists. the wheels skid. or c Driver has to summon a physician or nurse to aid the victim. b Impending skid marks. A marking on a roadway left by a rotating tire and wheel of a speeding vehicle on a curve when the speed of the vehicle is above the critical speed of the curve and the centrifugal force entirely or partially overcomes the friction between the mass of the vehicle and its tires and the surface of the roadway. M P A / P A . while the darker markings are the skid marks which begins in the . L L B P a g e | 37 b Reports the accident to the nearest officers of the law. as tire shadow marks). Marks caused by the forward rotation of the wheels being slower than the forward movement of the vehicle.

it is a roadway marking left by the tire and wheel of a vehicle sliding sideways as a result of force other than centrifugal force. A scuffmark made while a vehicle is yawning the mark made on the road by rotating tire which is slipping in a direction parallel to the axle of the wheel. A braking skid mark which is interrupted by release and reapplication of brakes or which terminates by release of brakes before collision. Skid mark. M P A / P A . Yawn mark. hence. it sometimes transfers its paint to the object. c Paint Strips. A braking skid mark interrupted at frequent regular intervals. the skid mark made by a bouncing wheel on which brakes keep the wheel from turning. When a vehicle collided with other object. a groove forming a path for anything. L L B P a g e | 38 c d e f impending skid mark and ends at the point of collision or position or final rest. b Gouge. l o p e z J r . Gap skid. 87 What are other Marks and Impression Left by a Motor Vehicle either on the Road surface or on the Other Motor Vehicles? Answer: a Ruts. Compare with gap skid. Side skid Mark (Scuff Mark) . A groove made by a hard part of a motor vehicles to another car after side-sweeping each other or it may be left on a road surface by a motor vehicle which over turned then slid on the road surface.C l a r i t o G . -oOo- . as in road. A sunken track worn by a wheel.

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