International Society for Rock Mechanics


Rock Properties and Their Role in Rock Characterization, Modelling and Design Prof. Dr. Reşat Ulusay
Hacettepe University, Turkey

President of the ISRM Commission on Testing Methods


Despite the global nature of today’s problems, Geotechnology also including ROCK ENGINEERING has remained divided into disciplines such as mining, civil and petroleum engineering, geology and geophysics. REMIFICATINOS OF GEOTECHNOLOGY

RockySlopes ) ş Shafts & Tunnels Foundations Dams



Geothermal Energy

Radioactive Waste Disposal

(Rearranged from Hudson, 1989)

(Amadei et al., 2000)


Rocks and rock-hewn openings have been used as a construction material and settlement since down of civilization.
Historical and recent man-made underground and semi-underground rock structures and settlements in the soft tuffs of the Cappadocia Region of Turkey

Different structures have been built on, in or of rock, including houses, bridges, dams, tunnels and caverns.
Saint Gotthardt Tunnel (Alps) Hoosac Tunnel (USA)

Underground city

Rock-hewn hotel

Cliff settlement Church

Congress center under construction

Police office in a fairy chimney

Vaiont dam (Italy) Millau Viaduct (France)

(Photos: R. Ulusay)

. Homogeneous . Continuous . Isotropic

When dealing with the mechanical behaviour of solids, a commom assumption is that they are:

ROCK MATERIAL A continium or polycrystalline solid between discontinuities consisting of an aggregate of minerals or grains. Its properties are governed by the physical properties of the materials of which it is composed. Terzaghi’s intact rock

But rocks are much more complex and their physical and mechanical properteis vary according to scale.


(Eberhartd, 2009)

Rocks differ from most engineering materials because they contain discontinuities. Therefore, a clear distinction must be made between rock material and rock mass.

ROCK MASS An assemblage of rock blocks separated by different types of geological discontinuities.

Rock mass
Intact rock



1980) KINEMATIC ANALYSIS When the structure is much larger than the blocks Rock mass properties 3 . JOINTED OR BLOCKY ROCK • Rock masses with moderate number of discontinuities • Excavation dimension > discontinuity spacing . it is important to choose the right domain that is representative of the rock mass affected by the structure analyzed.Because rock masses are discontinuous and varibale in space. as a Logistic Tool (Arranged from Hoek & Brown. Rock masses with few discontinuities. Excavation dimension < discontinuity spacing MASSIVE ROCK OR . HEAVILY JOINTED ROCK • Rock masses with a large number of discontinuities • Excavation dimension >> discontinuity spacing Relation of Discontinuity Spacing and Size of the Problem Discontinuity properties govern When the problem domain is much smaller than rock blocks (excavation of rock by drilling) Intact rock material MAIN DESIGN AND MODELLING METHODOLOGIES IN ROCK ENGINEERING NUMERICAL METHODS/ MODELLING OBSERVATIONAL APPROACH EMPIRICAL METHODS ANALYTICAL METHODS If necessary.

Modelling Monitoring -The procedure is to base the design on whatever information can be secured .eu) (www. 1989. OBSERVATIONAL APPROACH provides a “Learn as you go” alternative.Based on the original assumptions. DESIGN Numerical Modelling. if necessary. Analysis GSI Rock mass behaviour - H&B Failure Criterion m S σci 4 . gradually close the gaps in knowledge and. LEM Modelling. Classification and Design Classify the rock mass using: using: DESIGN Empirical database 2.finesoftware. modify the design during construction (www.gpiko.Based on the results of the measurements.Make note of all possible diferrences between reality and the assumptions. OBSERVATIONAL APPROACH The term “observational method” appears to have been coined by Terzaghi in the 1940’s. EMPIRICAL METHODS Mainly based on previous experience as derived from construction of rock structures having similar characteristics as the one to be designed ROCK MASS CLASSIFICATION (such as RMR. compute various quantities that can be measured in the field . Example: Numerical modelling and performance monitoring for a tunnel. then .ru) IF NECESSARY CHANGE IN DESIGN Rock Mass Characterization. GSI) Rock mass classification Line survey/Boring RMR or Q Describe the discontnuities Support requirements RMCS today form an integral part of the most predominant design approach INDIRECT METHODS Stand-up time (RMR) (Bieniawski.1. Q.

and the rock mass is disturbed and weathered. Linear Elastic behaviour (CHILE) Successfully used solutions. rock burst prone tunnels. Circular F. v H Kayma düzlemi Failure surface ψf Zw Z u R . However The problem can be initilally simplified through the assumptions of Continuous.Exploring alternatives rather than making absolute predictions . there is more concern about the validity of the CHILE. The typical output from LEM analyses is the Factor of Safety Planar F. Force and/or moment equilibrium conditions for different modes of failure are examined on the basis of statics. especially in those excavations at depth. for near surface excavations. where high stresses have closed the fractures and the rock mass is relatively homogeneous and isotropic. their fractures are more frequent.Making changes in the input data to see how the changes affect the overall response of rock structure (e. Wedge F. 1980) (b) LIMIT EQUILIBRIUM METHODS (LEM) The most widely applied analytical technique used for slope stability assessments. parametric studies). ANALYTICAL METHODS (a) CHILE Complexity of the nature of stress has to be fully considered in the design of underground excavations. STRESS σ STRAIN DISPL. soft rock slopes MAIN PURPOSES FS = (Hoek & Bray. with consideration given to the strength and deformability properties of the rock mass and of the discontinuities. 4.g. NUMERICAL METHODS / MODELLING These methods consist in applying the state of stress-strain in the engineering structure. where the rock stresses are lower. Isotropic. 1977) şev Slope face aynasında Toppling F. є u FS = Resisting forces Driving forces Shear strength Shear stress (a) Tansiyon çatlağı şev tepesinin gerisinde Tension crack Tansiyon çatlağı Useful for analysis and design in cases where analytical solutions are not available Examples Design of high slopes. Deep UG openings EXAMPLES: Estimation of Radius of Plastic Zone However.3. Homogenous. ψp w 5 .A way to gain understanding of governing deformation and failure mechanisms . Rock-support Interaction Analysis (Hoek & Brown.

Rock mass bahaviour is represented as a continuum . 2009) INTEGRAL METHODS . depending on the type of the model used (continuum or discontinuum): Geology Discontinuities (spacing/persistence) Material and mass properties (intact/discontinuity) Constitutive equations & failure criteria Groundwater pressure/Seismic loading In-situ stresses and external loads J1 J2 ROCK PROPERTIES J1 J2 Wedge failure in slopes Block falls in underground openings 6 . the failure path passes through the rock mass. 2009) Finite Element Method-FEM (PHASE) Finite Difference Method-FDM (FLAC) Blocks are subdivided into finitedifference mesh which follows linaer or non-linear stress-strain laws Distinct Element Method-DEM (UDEC) Continuum Discontinuum Continuum METHOD OF KINEMATIC ANALYSIS (A Logistic Tool) Structurally-controlled Rock Mass Failure Mechanisms (Barton.Only problem boundary is defined and discretized . As a discontinuum.Approximations to the connectivity of elements. 1998) Stress-controlled FEM-FDM DEM FEM-BEM Structurally-controlled instability: Blocks formed by discontinuities may be free to either fall or slide from the excavation under a set of body forces. and continuity of displacements and stresses between elements Time step 1 Time step 2 Time step 3 Time step 4 Time step 5 As a continuum. (Eberhardt. (Eberhardt. FDM. the failure surface is dictated more directly by the presence of pre-existing discontinuities.Numerical methods of stress and deformation analysis fall into two categories DIFFERENTIAL METHODS Continuum Methods Discontinuum Methods Rock mass is represented as assemblage of distinct interacting blocks or bodies that are subjected to external loads and are expected to undergo significant motion with time. DEM .Restricted to elastic analyses Boundary Element Method (BEM) DIFFERENTIAL METHODS -Problem domain is defined and discretized -Non-linear and heterogeneous material properties accomodated FEM. Analysis of kinematic addmissibility of poteantial wedges or planes intersecting the excavation face(s) KINEMATICAL ANALYSIS Numerical methods include consideration of the followings.

In situ stress on cores rock mass larger-scale modulus and can not be measured properties permeability tests There are always limitations on resources Therefore. (www. when optimizing the rock characterization procedures it is necessary to consider the requirements and to choose the rock access method and testing techniques in accordance with the engineering objective. vs) (ix) Permeability (b) Rock engineering design (i) Shear strength of intact rock (ii) UCS and deformability (E. 1996) Kinematic analysis for rock slopes φ αf αp ψp Discontinuity masurements Measurement of disconttinuity for Rock Mass properties is limited and no possibility Indirect methods Characterization of measuring rock mass properties are nedded for assessing the Flat-jack stress determination.sfu. water content. ψf INTACT ROCK AND ROCK MASS PROPERTIES COMMONLY USED IN ROCK ENGINEERING 1. absorbtion (ii) Hardness. Determined from laboratory tests (Intact Rock and Discontinuites): (a) Classification and characterization of intact rock (i) Porosity.sfu. Determined from in-situ measurements and tests (Rock Mass) (a) Characterization of rock mass (i) Properties of discontinuities (ii) In-situ sound velocity (iii) Properties obtained from geophysical borehole tests (b) Design (i) In-situ deformability (ii) Rock mass strength (iii) Field permeability (iv) In-situ stresses . unit weight.Stereographic Projection Technique: ACCESS TO THE ROCK Rock Exposures Borehole Cores Borehole Wall Images φ φ Kinematic analysis of blocks in U/G openings İKZ İKZ (Hoek & 2. G. K) (iii) Shear strength and stiffness of discontinuities (iv) Tensile strength (direct or indirect) (www. abrasivity (iii) Durability (iv) Point load strength index (v) BPI (vi) UCS and deformability (viii) Sound velocity (vp. ν. 1980) 20 0 20 0 Intact rock Block samples for testing Süreksizlik Discontinuity Intact rock Cores for testing Şev Slope (Norrish & 7 .

2000) ANOTHER IMPORTANT ISSUE ! Rock engineer should consider whether emphasis is to be placed on INDEX TESTS. DEFORMABILITY & PERMEABILITY) (www. performed quickly Rock engineers must decide Do not determine an intrinsic property FUNDAMENTAL TESTS In situ stress is most important and should be determined Slope or surface blasting case: Not an important parameter Whether they are going to make particular measurements on the basis of the overall objective UCS= k Is50 More expensive.slopeindicator. Also time consuming and expansive tests GOODMAN BOREHOLE JACK (b) Via the properties of the rock mass as measured or estimated directly (STRENGTH. 2000) 8 . Importance of rock mechanics parameters for HYDROELECTRIC SCHEME PRESSURE TUNNEL design (Hudson & (Hudson & Harrison. and use the calibrated values HOW WE CAN CHARACTERIZE ROCK MASSES AND ESTIMATE THEIR STRENGTH? For the determination of rock mass properties we have two alternative ways: (a) via the properties of the intact rock and the properties of the discontinuities which together make up the rock mass properties OR A) ROCK MASS PROPERTIES DETERMINED FROM IN-SITU MEASUREMENTS Because rock masses are usually anisotropic. essential device must both apply load and measure displacement in different radial directions. FUNDAMENTAL TESTS or COMBINATION OF THE TWO INDEX TESTS Point Load Test Cheap. time consuming Measure the property directly UCS Carry out a few UCS tests and more PLT.TAILORING TESTING TO ENGINEERING REQUIREMENT Objective: To tailor the testing to the engineering objective by considering a number of testing methods. Install some form of loading within the borehole to obtain force-displacement curve and estimate the associated elastic parameters of the rock Testing of strength of rock mass is difficult because of the high loads involved.

Q and others) >10 cm Q (Support & Span) JRC. 1993) Roughness (JRC) ROCK MASS CLASSIFICATION (RMR. determine discontinuity properties Scan-line survey Hysteresis is directly associated with discontinuities Borehole Outcrop (ISRM. blasting etc. Stiffness RQD 9 . 1981) (Hudson. JCS Disc.) Final RMR Q SYSTEM Stand-up time Q=(RQD/Jn) (Jr/Ja) (Jw/SRF) RMR (Serafim & Pereira. 1983) Block size Weathering (Bienaiwski. 1989) RMR SYSTEM A S Orientation Spacing Set number Persistence Aperture Basic RMR = R ( σci) + R (RQD) + R (spacing) + R (JC) + R (GW) Adjustments (Orientation. 1989) İKZ (Support) Estimation of Erm from classification Joint wall strength (JCS) İKZ (Grimstad and Barton.PLATE LOADING TEST On a surface of rock exposure Underground B) CHARACTERIZATION OF ROCK MASSES AND CLASSIFICATION Depending on the rock mass classification used.

C) ROCK MASS STRENGTH (Hoek & Brown Failure Criterion) GEOLOGICAL STRENGTH INDEX (GSI) Original GSI Chart (Hoek.winona. 1999) Quantitative GSI Chart (Sönmez & Ulusay. 2005) a ⎛ GSI − 100 ⎞ ⎟ s = exp⎜ ⎜ ⎟ bs ⎝ ⎠ b m = 28 − 14D b s = 9 − 3D a= 1 1 − GSI / 15 + e − e − 20 / 3 2 6 ( ) How to incorporate mode of failure and rock mass strength ROCK MASS UG Slope Ground response IN SITU SOUND VELOCITY Closely reated to rock mass characteristics and one of the most important index properties Seismic Characterization Method ROCK MASS Slope UG ( Ground response (Whitley. 1990) 10 . 2002) Generalized H&B equation ⎞ ⎛ σ' σ = σ + σc ⎜ m b 3 + s ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ σc ⎠ ⎝ ' 1 ' 3 ⎛ GSI − 100 ⎞ ⎟ m b = m i exp⎜ ⎜ ⎟ bm ⎝ ⎠ (Barla & Barla.

2007) σv = γh Rebound Number: . 1989) 11 . steel. and governs permeability h (Barton. 1995) Relationships between Vp and rock mass characteristics (Barton.. Unit Weight: Indirect indication of weathering and soundness. (Deere & Miller. 2007) (Barton.g. It is an important measure to estimate wear of rock drilling and boring equipment. near-surface. 2007) Water Content: Indirect indication of porosity of intact rock or clay content of sedimentary rock. 1966) (Bieniawski.To further aid in geological classification and as indicators of rock mass behavior .Vp-Q-RQD-λ relationships for hard.To provide a measure of the “quality” of the rock.They are not directly used in design. low porosity rock masses Dynamic E-Q-RMR INDEX PROPERTIES OF ROCK MATERIAL Intact samples of rock may be selected for index testing .To indirectly estimate fundamental properties by empirical relationships . and is used to estimate vertical stress Porosity: Indirect indication of weathering and soundness. . (Barton.Relative hardness and indirect strength of intact rock Point Load Strength Index: Indirect method to determine unconfined compressive strength (UCS) σc = kIs50 k=5-52 (?) Weak and highly weathered rocks Care is necessary As a classification parameter in RMR system Abrasivity: Measures the abrasiveness of a rock material against other materials e.Index of relative hardness and quality of rock mass on the exposed surface when the rock is fragmented .

20 20 .It is most useful as a means for comparing rocks and classifying their likely behavior as an index property.10 10 .UCS is a rock property most oftenly used to characterize the mechanical behavior of (Sassa et al.Block Punch Strength Index (BPI): To indirectly estimate the UCS UCS= 5. CLASSIFICATION OF INTACT ROCK F σci = F/A Estimation of dynamic elastic properties: (Vp) (www..5 5 .. They provide estimates of rock properties and/or are used as an index in their own right indicating anisotropy and/or inhomogenity NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST UNIAXIAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (Intact Rock) . 1988) (Deere & Miller. 1. 2001) Pillar Sound velocity: Closely reated to rock properties and one of the most important index properties.50 > 50 Strength Class Very weak Weak Moderate Medium High Very high UG opening The loss of sample weight is a measure of the susceptibility of the rock to the combined action of slaking and mechanical erosion. 1966) (Vs) Primary index test for strength and deformability of intact rock (νfield / νlab)2 = velocity index (an indicator of intensity of discontinuities) 12 . Particularly important in soft and clay-bearing rocks (may cause collapse) Outcrop BPIc (MPa) <1 1. .winona.1BPIc Durability: Index of weatherability (degradability) of rock exposed in excavations. SLAKE DURABILITY TEST (Ulusay et al.

1989) (Bieniawski. CHARACTERIZATION (b) As an intact rock parameter to be used by the empirical rock mass failure criteria (σci) Generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion: RMR System (Bieniawaski. 1989) σ’1= σ’3+ σci (mb (σ’3/ σci)+s))a (Hudson.5σci [mi.5] Compare the computed stresses with estimated rock mass strength in discontiuum media or intact rock strength in weak and not jointed media σc Pillar stresses 13 .5828 Erm = 10 (Qσci /100) 1/3 (Gökçeoglu et al.(a) Input Parameter for Rock Mass Classification 2.001 [ ((Ei/ σci) ((1+RQD/)100) /WD]1. σcrm = (sσci)0. 1989) (c) First estimate of the tensile strength σt = . 2005) (Hoek & Brown. IN DESIGN AND MODELLING (a) As a design parameter of rock structures subjected to uniaxial compressive stresses..σci /10 (d) Estimation of UCS and deformation modulus of rock masses: UCS of rock mass: 3.5 Deformation modulus of rock masses: Erm= (σci / 10)0. 2002) Erm= 0. 1980) σt = 0.5 10(GSI-10)/40 Erm = (1-(D/2)) (σci / 100)0. 2002) (e) Estimation of the tensile strength of intact rock with the H-B strength criterion: (Barla & Barla.5 (Hoek & Brown. 1997) 10(GSI-10)/40 (Hoek et al.(mi2 + 4)0.. such as pillars (intact or rock mass UCS) Strength of pillar is a function of material strength and distribution of stresses in pillar. 2003) Pillar Pillar (Barton.

simulating the response of discontinuous media (jointed rock mass) subjected to either static or dynamic loading UCS is as one of the parameters used by BartonBandis model. the jointing may very well eliminate the tensile strength of the rock mass.15p-0. tensile rock strength is low enough when rock is in tension. the tensile strength is not as significant parameter as the UCS for rocks. mm) Kni= -7. (Zhang. 1980) (a) Analysis of rock structures subjected to tensile stresses. 1975): (D: Disc diameter. 1) DESIGN (Hoek & Brown. 1982) (p:Penetration. Generally.15+1. σti = P/A In jointed rock masses. 2005) (c) Rock fragmentation and rock cutting For estimation of initial normal stiffness Fractures by disc cutters: -Effect of rock strength on tool forces Fnormal/σc =0. it splits and tensile stresses are relieved. in which case the in situ rock should be considered as having zero tensile strength.5 (d) Rock-support interaction analysis (as an input parameter) Compression In rock indentation assessments TENSILE STRENGTH For underground stability. such as wide roof spans (Hudson & Harrison.21 (Snowdoown et al.(b) In numerical codes such as UDEC.02) Discontinuity aperture (mm) Ft= 4 σc tan (θ/2)(Dp3-p4))0. 2000) 14 .04 σci)-0.75 JRC+0. mm) e≈ (JRC (0.02 (JCS/e) -The thrust force affecting penetration (Roxborough & Philips..

DESIGN (a) Estimation of deformations in various rock engineering designs . 1966) (b) Estimation of rock mass deformation modulus from that of intact rock 2. (1994) Hoek and Diederichs (2006) Sonmez et al. CLASSIFICATION (Intact rock) .Continuum models such as FLAC (Mohr-Coulomb model ) . (Hutchinson et al.Discontinuous model such as UDEC (Mohr-Coulomb model) (Deere & Miller.Estimation of deformations around underground openings/Rock-support (analytical) interaction analysis (Analytical solutions) Em = f(Ei) Nicholson & Bieniawski (1983) Mitri et al. (2004) 15 .(b) Input parameter in numerical analyses: DEFORMABILITY PROPERTIES A) MODULUS OF ELASTICITY OF INTACT ROCK AND MODULUS OF DEFORMATION OF THE ROCK MASS 1..In analysis of flexural toppling: As an input parameter Bending of the slabs induces tensile cracking in their upper face. (2006) If the medium is jointed rock mass Use Erm (Hoek & Brown. 2009) (Hoek & Bray. 1980) Sonmez et al. 1977) Modulus Ratio .

.4 0. (Gercek.2 ν (intact rock) (Kulatilake et al.3 0.1 0. . 2008) 1.2≤ 0. This classifications are applicable to isotropic rocks only.4≤ (Gercek. G Shear strain K (Bulk modulus)= E/(3(1-2ν) Measures the substance's resistance to uniform compression (Wyllie. 1992) dx y (B) POISSON’S RATIO It is a mechanical property playing a role in the deformation of elastic materials and utilized in rock engineering problems associated with the deformation of rocks such as an input parameter for the numerical stress analyses.1≤ 0.-Settlement for founadtions in homogeneous. FLAC and UDEC for different types of rock engineering problems .1≤ν<0. “USBR borehole deformation gauge”. isotropic rock conditions δv = (CdqB(1-ν2))/E (b) An important input parameter in numerical methods: Depending on the continuum and discontinuum media under investigation. CHARACTERIZATION Intact rock classification (Gercek.Other Elastic Properties: G (Shear modulus)= E/2(1+ν) Describes the material's response Shear stress to shearing strains. “CSIR triaxial strain cell” and “CSIRO hollow incluison cell”.ν (rockmass) ≈ 1.4≤ν<0. 16 . Indeed.There is no correlation between the values of Poisson’s ratio of rock mass and intact rock.3≤ν<0. in Overcoring Methods employing “CSIR doorstopper”. 2008) Lateral strain Axial strain Poisson’s ratio for rock masses is not required in majority of rock engineering applications.2≤ν<0. the value of Poisson’s ratio of intact rock is required for evaluation and interpretation of mesaurements. (2004) The intact rock value constitutes a limit for the values that may be assumed by the jointed rock mass (Gercek.3≤ 0.2 0. 2008) can be useful for a qualitative assessment of labortaory test results. Young’s modulus of the intact rock or deformation modulus of rock mass is used by all models for stress and deformation analyses such as PHASE. 2008) Category Very low Low Medium High Very high Poisson’s ratio Poisson’ 0≤ν<0.5 0.

2003) 17 . DESIGN (Analytical-Numerical) Poisson’s ratio of the medium influences the distribution of stresses in some solutions that are widely applied to geomechanics problem.2. Poisson’s ratio influences the normalized elastic radial displacements around the excavation face of a circular tunnel located in a hydrostatic in-situ stress field (Hoek & Brown. (a) In analytical solutions: Estimation of deformations around underground openings – Rock-support (analytical) interaction analysis (ν of rock mass) (d) An important input parameter used by numerical methods: Depending on the continuum and discontinuum media under investigation. Poisson’s ratio of the intact rock and/or deformation modulus of rock mass is used by all models for stress and deformation analyses such as PHASE.DESIGN: Particularly those of weak rocks in numerical methods (Unlu & Gercek. and residual cr & φp) Planar discontinuities Peak Residual . FLAC and UDEC. 1980) SHEAR STRENGTH A) SHEAR STRENGTH OF INTACT ROCK B) SHEAR STRENGTH OF DISCONTINUITIES Cohesion and Friction Angle: Commonly used properties in dicontinuum media (both as peak cp & φp.

1996) φ αf αp In-situ shear strength determination ψp ψf (b) Analysis of Structurally-Controlled Instabilities in Underground Openings (c) In Analytical Methods: Example 1: Structurally-controlled rock slopes Geometry of slope with tension crack in upper slope surface (a) Tansiyon çatlağı şev tepesinin gerisinde of slope Tansiyon çatlağı Tension crack in upper surface Slope şev face aynasında v Zw Z u φ H Failure surface Kayma düzlemi ψf ψp w Discontinuity (Hoek & Bray. 1991) Discontinuity F= (Hoek & Brown. numerical and kinematic methods of analysis EXAMPLES (a) Kinematic Analysis of Structurally-Controlled Slopes Undulated discontinuities (ISRM. 1981) (Hoek’s Corner) cA + ( WCosψ p − u − vSinψ p ) tan φ W sin ψ p + vCosψ p 18 . 1977) (Ulusay.Barton’s criteria Input parameter for analytical. 1981) 20 20 0 0 Süreksizlik Discontinuity Slope Şev (Norrish & Wyllie.

5+1)0.Example 2: Bearing capacity of shallow dipping bedded rocks (d) In Numerical Analyses: Particularly in the analysis of rock engineering structures such as underground openings and slopes in discontinuum media (UDEC) shear strength of discontinuities are important parameters. c2. 1992) (D) JOINT STIFFNESS The mechanical behaviour of discontinuities in generally plotted in the form of stress-displacement curves with the result that discvontinuity stiffness (MPa/m) and strength (kPa) can be measured. 1992) C) SHEAR STRENGTH OF ROCK MASS (a) Analytical and numerical methods TUNNEL SLOPE σ3A = (γB/2tanψ1) Nφ2 + (c2/tan φ1) (Nφ2 . 2005) Cf1cNc + Cf2 (Bγ/2) Nγ + γDNq ks = Δτ/ Δus 19 . (Wyllie.1) c1. φ1. Normal stiffness: kn= Δσ’n/ Δun Shear stiffness: qa= F φ dependent (Zhang.5σu(r) [1+(ms0.5] qa= F Weak rock with little fracturing: (Wyllie. φ2 qa= F Discontinuity shear strength parameters (Allowable bearing capacity) φ σ3Nφ1 + (c1/tan φ1 ) (Nφ1 -1) ci Bearing capacity of foundations on rock masses: The usual method to determine allowable bearing pressures Use published tables or building codes HOWEVER Where the rock conditions do not match descriptions in the codes Use analytical or numerical methods and rock mass strength Fractured rock: Cf1s0.

and is one of the most difficiult topics facing the practicing rock engineers.searchanddiscovery. porosity for intact rocks (www. (ii) SECONDARY (a) Permeability of Intact Rock (PRIMARY PERMEABILITY): Refers to matrix permeability and except in petroleum engineering.Normal and shear joint stiffnes values are used in discontinuum models such as UDEC (in Barton and Bandis Model) PERMEABILITY DEM Terminology Hydraulic gradient (Eberhardt. two types of permeability are considered: (i) PRIMARY. (Eberhardt. 2009) Permeability is concerned with fluid flow through a material or rocks and rock masses. 1977) 20 . Porosity Governed by Geological history In-situ stress K also varies with grain size (b) Permeability of Discontinuities: Infilled discontinuity Unfilled discontinuities Permeability of the infill material. 2009) Because of the presence of discontinuities in rock (Hoek & Bray. prime consideration is not paid to this type of permeability in rock engineering. for a set of parallel discontinuities K: K= g (e)3 12 vb v: Kinematic viscosity (10-6 m2/s) b: Spacing e: Aperture K is very sensitive to small changes in “e” Variation of dfiscontinuity set permeability as a function of the aperture and discontiuity frequencey PERMEAMETER Permeability vs.

1977) THE END 21 .g. 2000): The standardization guidance is helpful to anyone conducting the test. the tactical approach to individual tests can be standardized. The advantages of standardization are as follows (Hudson & Harrison. 2005) K in x-direction Commonly discontinuity permeability dominates over the intact rock permeability. the direction in which the rock is most likely to fail) Civil & Mining Engg.(c) Permeability of Rock Mass (Secondary Permeability): In rock masses consisting of discontinuities terminating against another. and therefore. computatins are not only made for the permeability of a set of parallel discontinuties but also for the discontinuities meeting. the second term may often be neglected. In situ stress is one of the most important boundary conditions for the analyses of U/G excavations σ1 Failure FOS= Strength Stress In situ stress state 3 ortogonal sets (Zhang. To have basic knowledge of the stress state (e. direction and magnitude of the major principal stresses. Although the strategy of rock characterization is a function of the engineering objectives. Stability of U/G excavations Drilling & blasting Pillar design Design of support systems Prediction of rock burst Dams Slope stability σ2 σ1 σ3 σ2 σ3 σ3 σ1 Energy Development Borehole stability Fracturing & fracture propogation Fluid flow and geothermal problems Reservoir production management Energy extraction and storage In-situ messurement of K Packer Test STANDARDIZED TESTS Determination of properties of intact rock and rock mass is the integral part of rock engineering studies. “The use of some form of standard procedures provides rock engineers to determine the quality objectively” Such as ISRM SUGGESTED METHODS produced by the ISRM Commission on Testing Methods for rock testing and characterization since 1978 (Hoek & Bray. Single set WHY WE DETERMINE IN SITU STRESS? The basic reasons for in situ stress determination Engineering analyses require boundary conditions. if required. There is a source of recommended procedures for use in contracts. The results obtained by different organizations on rocks at different sites can be compared in the knowledge that “like is being compared with like”.

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