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the steps being those It is Hindu not \ of religion. is by nature free to exercise this faculty. And as a consequence even the preliminary stages are mistaken by the ignorant for philosophy though the last alone is specifically so called. which is a rational enquiry regarding all that is known to exist. theology including scholasticism. each to abruptly at the very end. in the past. is acquired only gradually. the attainment of which is thought to be so hard. the extent to which one's Buddhi or reasoning power admits. yet it is not introduced Every one. it was treated not as a separate subject but as a part of philosophy. "It is like Brahmavidya Brakmavidya. or knowledge of Brahman. by means of Buddki (reason). . Though philosophy or Viclmra comes last. All these are comprehended by the term Vedanta. when he finds anything supremely difficult to achieve or " This understand. because it is then that one is able to devote oneself exclusively to a pursuit of the highest or the most comprehensive Truth. mysticism and philosophy including science. Men's knowledge of science having been in its infancy.FOREWORD a matter of general knowledge that a infrequently exclaims. at whatever stage one may be.

which is also characterized as Mahadhi or Mahabuddhi (great or supreme reason) elsewhere (Mandiikya Karika. . And the best method of freeing the mind from its inaccurate ways of thinking is to imbue it as fully as possible with the scientiIt is therefore only one who possesses fic spirit. as Vedanta itself admits its highest Truth (Atman or Brahman) cannot be reached by any path other than that of Buddhi (reason) and unless the Buddhi is sharper than the 'Edge of a razor' (Kath. 4. IV. Up. IV.e. Ill. Ill. Mund. modern mental outlook is pre-eminently scientific owing to the great progress that science has made. 11). Up. 21). 89). helped to so clarify the mind as to enable it to reason most correctly. 19. 12 and III. Contrariwise. where Manas and Chitta are used in the sense of Buddhi in Vedantic a clear knowledge is of its who able to make they are declared to be the highest means of attaining such knowledge (Bri/i. it is expressly Up. Further. stated that neither religion.. of enquiry that would be fit to highest means enter upon the study of Vedantic philosophy. For. The Gita also supports it in several places (vide X.. IV. 10 and VI. 1. 14).. 9. Up. which was not an end in itself. theology nor mystic practice is in itself of value in the absence of literature.. But such discipline is almost The impossible under present conditions..viii FOREWORD In the past. methods and results reason (Buddhi} the i. and Kath. rigorous Yogic (mystic) discipline.

23 and Mund<* III.. and deed. the difficulty of the nature of the study of Vedanta as a whole. 1. How then. 24. Recognizing. purity of life. The aim of every one should be to reach this supreme level of Buddhi. can attain this Atman by means of intelligence.. 1 8). Up. refer to the same topics of importance. theology or mysticism in which one believes.) In a word.6> III. by correct knowledge. by one's Hfe (Brahmacharya) constantly prac- tised.FOREWORD ." 14 The Vedanta says " None who has : (Kath. and not the rational. and point to . or whose mind is not at rest. some of the leading authorities on it have written a number all of manuals of introduction.'M^^. comprehending thought. most men attain is only the theological (based on authority) or the mystic (based on intuition). Though these -treatises cover the same ground. is such high order of Buddhi to be reached and how so much of patience to be commanded? not turned away from bad conduct. Some have not the patience to pursue il to the Therefore. 1 1 1. 4. II. by continued enquiry.) This Atman by of austerity. the highest stage to which end. it may be asked. is the foremost requisite for sharpening the Buddhi. Up. though one may feel satisfied with the religion. chastity is obtainable by love vi truth. whose mind is not collected. IK Bi*ddhi(vide Kvth. word. therefore. whose senses are not under control.



the same goal, yet they differ from each other in their approach to the subject. Since these manuals are meant to lead those in the lower

stages to rational (Buddhi), i.e., philosophic they largely cover the enquiry (Vichara), the religious, theological and preliminary, i.e.,

mystic stages of Vedanta, indicating directly or indirectly the way to the final, i.e., the All of rational means of attaining the goal. them rely on the authority of Vedic Revelation and mystic or Yogic ecstasy of Samddki. But
still higher into realms of pure Reason, is evidently reserved for more advanced enquiry.

the philosophy, which rises


The importance of DTg-DT$ya Viveka as aid to the study of Vedanta has been well pointed out by the learned Swami Nikhilanandaji
in his


to this





of this





mystic or

Brahman is Yogic Samadhi

After this state is attained, (Concentration). one can see Brahman wherever one turns one's
eyes. "


Yatra yatra mano yati tatra tatra Samadhayaha " " With the disappearance of the attachment
to the

galite vijnate


body and with the
Self, to


of the

whatever object the mind is Supreme directed one experiences Sam&dhi" Problems such for instance as how to make sure that after we attain Samadhi whatever we




Supreme Being or Brahman and not
are matters beyond the scope of



this small treatise.

Viveka being very short,


necessarily compresses much information into a small space. Detailed explanations are indis-

Swami Nikhilanandaji has spared pensable. no pains to make not only the English rendering accurate, but also the notes exhaustive
and scholarly, which will be found to be immense help to those who wish to proceed


a higher study of Vedantic philosophy. The Swami's great literary merits are already so well and so widely known that this work of his needs little introduction from laymen like me. It is a time-honoured belief, a
belief as old as the oldest Upanishads, that Vedantic Truth- is best taught by those that live but not by those that merely talk it. it,

Bhagavan Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, the
Real Mahatma' of the late Prof. Max Miiller, was one such rare and great teacher. And the Vedantic works that are published by the revered Order of Sannyasins founded by such a Guru have so great a spiritual charm that they make these works most welcome to all
earnest seekers after Truth.





DTg*Dr&ya Viveka,

as the



an inquiry into the distinction of the Seer (Dyya\ an inquiry (DTg) and the Seen which is of the utmost importance for the


understanding of the higher Vedanta PhiloThe other name by which this treatise sophy. is known is Vakya Suddka ascribed to Sankaracharya, which is also the name of a DTg-DTfya Viveka has commentary on it. been acknowledged as a Prakarana treatise of the Vedanta Philosophy, i.e., a book which, though confined to a particular aspect of the subjectthe identification of Jiva and Brahman, by followThe special ing a particular line of argument. feature of this book is its detailed description of the various kinds of Samadhi (Concentration), the importance of which is always acknowledged by the students of Vedanta. It has also given three theories, necessarily empirical in chaof the racter, Jiva conception regarding matter,






(embodied being). This small book of forty-six Slokas,
excellent vade






study of higher

Sixteen of the Slokas from Dfg Viveka, from 13 to 31 with the exception DfSya are found in a minor of 14, 21 and 28>


Panchadai. inscription dated 1340 A. ascribes the book to VidyaVritti Prabhakara. We probably wrote. Brahmananda Bharati.D. does from the Upanishad in question. it is found that Ananda Jnana. ranya. states that Harihara I. one of the commentators. the ruler of Vijayanagar* and his brothers made grants of land to Bharati Tirtha for the maintenance of the Sringeri An . which. salutes in the colophon Sanka- Nischaladasa. Three names are generally associated with the authorship of the book. Therefore the Upait seems to us that the author of nishad has borrowed these Slokas from DT* DT$ya Viveka. called Tirtha. the celebrated author of are led to think that the book was written Brahmananda Bharati by Bharati Tirtha. that he was the head of the Math from 1328 to some Vakya authorities hold.D. was a Jagad Guru of the Sringeri Math founded by SankaThe old records of the Math state racharya. a 1380 A. would indicate the importance of the book. as commentary Bharati Suddha. nishad.xiv INTRODUCTION called It the Saraswati Rahasyopanot seem probable that the author of DTg-DT&ya Viveka wrote a treatise of forty-six stanzas borrowing sixteen from another Neither of the two commentators has book. if true. acknowledges In some manuBharati Tirtha as its author. mentioned these sixteen Slokas as quotation Upanishad. another scripts commentator. in his racharya as its author. the teacher of Vidyaranya.

Drg-Dr&ya Viveka. book. the erudite Sanskrit scholar of Benares.INTRODUCTION Math. One is by Brahmananda Bharati and the other by Ananda Jnana or into Anandagiri. Probably Bharati xv Tirtha was also known Bharati as Ananda Bharati Tirtha. will be of considerable help to those who wish to pursue the higher study Vedanta Philosophy. we understanding by the have given. The book has been translated The Bengali translation several languages. follows a method which may be called rational in that it attempts to discuss by employing a method which logic as the is method of Agreement and Disagreement or the method of Anvaya known in The Vyatireka of the Indian Nyaya system. in dealing with certain aspects of the subject-matter. extensive notes mainly collected . besides the of the words of the text and its running translation. it is hoped. and a porof Panchadasi. Tirtha is associated with the authorship of DrgDf&ya Vivekcii Vaiyasikanyayamala. tion Vaiyasikanydyamala is of the great help to the student in understanding of Sankaracharya on the Brahmacommentary sutra. of For the meaning of facility average student. There are two commentaries extant of Drg-Dr$ya Viveka. has been admirably done by Babu Durgacharan Chattopadhyaya. to whom we are obliged for much of the information given in this introduction.

noble father is well known that His Highness encouraged Swami Vivekananda to proceed to this book with at his Asrama 1 the Parliament of Religions held in Chicago. which we have consulted while translating the treatise. an event which has raised India in the estimation The of the whole of the civilized world. Sanskrit and Bengali editions of the book. The Telugu. have not always the same reading. We have not followed in toto any of these editions* But Our reading be supported by one or the other books we have consulted. Sri Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV.xvi INTRODUCTION from the two commentaries mentioned above. Maharaja's deep knowledge of philosophy. besides his remarkable acquaintance with modern science has made him one of the most cultured and respected of India's rulers. H. Sri Ramakrishna owes its present position of Mysore It usefulness to his sympathy and generosity. Malayalam. . Eastern and Western. Maharaja of Mysore. English. will of the wish to take this opportunity to express our sense of deep gratitude to H. for so kindly permitting us to associate We name. THE AUTHOR.

mind 1 is its perceiver.mind's modifications Witness ^^T: (are) perceived *TT#J (is) the perceiver 3 but f (it) is not ^<^frf verily ^^ perceived.( DRG-DR^YA VIVEKA) ll ^ If ^ form ^4 (is) perceived 5P3R eye ^ (is) perceiver ?T^ that ^[4 (is) perceived wre mind ?^ (is) perceiver sftlrR*. The form 1 3 is 2 r> modifications Self) is is verily is Witness) 6 But It 7 perceiver. not perceived (by any other). perceived and the eye It (eye) is perceived and the is its perceiver. perceived and the Witness (the the (the The direct and immediate knowledge of Atman or Self is the means to the attainment of Liberation. The mind with its 1. The understanding of the meaning ^of the great Yedic statement '* That thou art " ( cPc^WST ) enables one to- 2 .

Mind The sense organs. But the Self is the ultimate Seer because no other seer is known to exist. objects to the mind are products of Avidya which Hence they also partake itself is insentient (^^r). The is subject matter of the first sloka explained in detail in the following : The . of the nature objects. With Ahamkara. and Perceivet scious Self. 6 5 etc. " The Atman or the innermost Self is the // ultimate perceiver. The first five slokas in the treatise explain the significance of 4 Thou'. ears etc. If a perceiver of the Atman is sought.2 DRG-DR&YA VIVEKA " realise the goal of life. the enquiry will end in what is known as a All entities from the gross regressits ad infinitum. at that time. aTWWWT W^Sf!^ "fa*. The knowledge of the Knower is never absent. In a state of deep sleep the sense organs do not perceive anything because the mind. Ptrceiver sense because it 4 3 2 the organs of perception The eye is is itself perceiver only in a relative perceived by the mind. unless the mind is attached to them. 1 Form The word implies all all objects of sense perception. Chitta. cannot perceive their objects. -This includes Buddhi. ceases to function. of insentiency. Therefore they are subjective character of some of these is only relative. Eye It stands for such as nose. VV}) . 44 The mind is controlled by the con" Comp. My mind 7 was elsewhere I did not see. The meaning of art' is correctly grasped by understanding 7 That thou the sense of the words contained in the statement.

. sees them. gross. stick. subtle. itself remaining one and the same. Change is stant. yellow. The characteristic of the Seer is unchangeability. tout their perceiver is constant. etc. is a unity..D$G-D$$YA V1VEKA II ll R II on account such distinctions as short. gross. their changes. yellow. long etc. change but the rope is con- The one characteristic changeability. on the other hand. doubt. 3^ or the seen. etc. namely. The objects change The appearances. falsely imagined in a rope. like the snake etc. as is the case with the snake. The different objects appear. The forms (objects of perception) as various on account of such distincappear tions as blue. of blue. of the objects is their possible only in things which are imagined with reference to a substratum. short. to the objects. the eye is the perceiver. long The eye. as distinct from one another. perceived with as perceiver. These garland etc. no is the perceiver. are objects of The forms perception which That which is constant and changeless are varying. srRTT^ifir various ^wr forms the eye tjCTT as one *fjfa perceives. water-line. They all belong to one With reference category. But they are because the eye. . subtle. 2. ideas are subject to change.

. . 3. the tongue etc. are respectively perceivers with reference to their several objects. * ' IV Mind. yet it becomes the object of perception The eye is subject to in its relation to the mind. Though the nose. This applies to the other sense-organs as well. The mind knows the changes because it is a unity. skin. the skin. the mind is blindness. sharpness able to cognize because it is a unity. indicated in the following sloka : is is . ^rwg as blindness. is perceived through) Though the eye is the perceiver in respect of the various forms. on account of its changeable an object and its perceiver is the mind. etc. also like other sense-organs.D$G-D$$YA VIVEKA III The nature* is eye. and the sense-organs are objects of perception. skin etc. ness. changes which are perceived by the mind for it is the mind that thinks I am blind etc. of the eye as or dullness. ^ also ^ this * sfteq-^r applies. This characteristics Such also applies to (whatever the ear. yet they themselves are Hence. the mind is perceiver perceived by the mind. This an object perceived by another. dullness and sharpcharacteristics of the eye *R: mind a unity ^m^ cognizes to ears.

because it (Consciousness) is a unity. understanding. The list of the states or functions of the mind has (1-5-3). states or Others Other functions of the mind are enumerated in the Aitareya Upanhhctd (8-2). 4. Consciousness illumines (such other 1 mental states as) desire determination 2 and . and non-belief. 1 3 Karma and the Steadiness The mental power which is sustains a man even 5 while he etc. modesty.VIV&KA : II II Consciousness determination and doubt of faith tpfaft steadiness v s&r*n desire srersRfc faith and want ?>. belief 1 3 I Desire Desire for the satisfaction of sensual plccisure. Faith Faith in the existence of God. and its opposite modesty fr: understanding and such others tprarr unified *ft: fear ^*rr<fa qro^ illumines. Because of its changeable nature. physically or otherwise tired. constancy 4 and its opposite. been adopted from Brhadaranyaka Upanishad V That the mind undergoes all these changes is known to all. cloubt. 2 Determination Determining the nature result of of ob- jects directly perceived by a sense-organ. the mind is an object of . fear and 5 others.

e. . Otherwise no one will be aw'are of such non-existence.. These become states. sciousness or Self. distinct in nature. unified in though Con- \ frrr II ^ II This (Consciousness) T s^T% does not does not set ire increase *r ^rftr f s^cTH does not undergo decay * farfa) does not of itself f^TTKT shines *w on the undergo other hand T%?TT without snw aid (of other means) ^F^TR other objects Hm?i illumines. 3 nor set . Conare perceived by Consciousness. All entities from the empirical ego to the gross object perceived ' have a previous non-existing state. all these states besciousness perceives cause it is a unity. This cannot be predicated of Consciousness as it is the Witness of even previous non-existence. coming into existence of an entity previously non-existent. 1 It is the eternal Witness of all Neither rise Rising means birth. it 5 mines everything else without any other decay. rise ^ ^ w 5. because their appearance and disappearance are cognized by consciousness. i. 2 ' suffer illu- aid. 2 1 This Consciousness does neither rise 4 nor does it not increase It does .D$G-D$$YA VIVEKA is the perperception and Consciousness This is because all these changes ceiver. Being self-luminous. Conscion$ness internal changes.

Everything else -Ail perceived entities. "it shin- It is (K<tfha Ufani*had o-lS)^ ing.*. though possible for relative entities. cannot be predicated of Consciousness. No disappearance or destruction can be cognized without a conscious Witness. growth (ffe). the perceived entity.. birth existence (3?F%c^). Every perceived entity of the empirical world possesses six characteristics. those entities which have parts. existing entity. But Consciousness has none of the characteristics of a By negating birth and decay. of the nature of mind (mental . its means disappearance of an becoming non-existent again This state..DRG-DR&YA VIVlKA 3 * 7 Set ' Setting i'. VI in the Buddhi (intelligence) sjfNrcf: reflection of of entering Consciousness on account *TR appearance (of specific knowft: *r^r happens intelligence (underledge) 3 and Hs^r of two kinds fercfi is standing) wrr other TTSPT one wr^ is 3?f?T%: egoity ^rf. viz. change ). all else shines" because there is nothing else to illumine the Atman : it is self-luminous. " Comp. four other characteristics are also negated in ConGrowth and decay are only possible for sciousness. without parts.^^w^ faculties). Does not etc. 4 decay ( STT^q" ) and destruction ( 5TF5T ). But Consciousness is ).

the other as 2 3 . is the subject to various modifications. The modification which makes and endows it with agency is known as Ahamkrii or Ahamkara or egoism. on account of its association with Consciousness. 2 Buddhi Buddhi or Dhlh or intelligence is internal organ which etc. has no manifestation. object and (3f^). according to different functions. Luminosity The Conscious Self though self-luminous. will etc. This reflecthe tion endows Buddhi with the power 3 of perceiving objects. appears to be endowed with agency. The is inner organ. The Buddhi. These and the mind. But its appearance as subject. The Atman appears as Buddhi when associated with Antahkarana. it.. Another modification is known as memory consisting of various faculties by means of which external objects The Buddhi. When Consciousness is reflected in undergoes two main modifications. though insentient (sre") (being the product of 3U%3U) appears as conscious on account of the association of consciousness or >Uman with it. means of perception is possible on account of the reflection of Consciousness (f%^) in it. by itself. is insentient are perceived. The ego implies a subject are^the ego Two kinds it Buddhi (3T?3>rT) as well as its its mind (3tcT:3ROT). known . because from the absolute standpoint there is no other object But on account of the superimposition of ignorance (3T%sj[) a modification appears known as mind (3TcT:3RQf) which which can be manifested by Consciousness. Buddhi appears 1 One mind 1 is Intelligence (Buddhi) is of two kinds designated egoity (^tff^O.VIVEKA on in to possess luminosity account of the reflection of Consciousness 6.

But they are insentient.DRG-DR&YA VIVEKA as volition and doubt (SRtiQ. wise) the ^ the identity TOq. opinion 3??*PR egoism identification consciousness 3?^ \^ body has attained. with the itself with The body 3 having been ego (which identified . faculty VII According to the first sloka. they appear to be conscious. There- doubt arises as to their power of This doubt is solved by the cognition.ffik^ that like ball and the heated iron to owing 7. In the opinion of the wise. sloka which says that though the following mind etc. are insentient. yet on account of the reflection of Consciousness (f%^) in them. iron ball. Hence knowledge of objects is possible for them. fore a !: of the reflection is and egoism identity of fire (of the cTH anr. determining and the faculty of memory (f%xf). the identity of the reflection (of Consciousness) and of ego 2 is like the identity of the fire and the (heated) 3 has already identified the reflection of Consciousness) 4 passes for a conscious entity. the eye and the mind have been described as seers with respect to their several objects of perception.

Therefore there is no separate identification with the sense-organ. the case of a red-hot iron ball.10 1 D$G-DR$YA VIVEKA Ego It is associated with the notion of subject. becomes completely identified with 2 In fire and and they cannot be separated from each other. This which identifies itself of Consciousness with the insentient Ahamkara is what is known as Jiva or embodied being. coming contact with ego. The identification of the . movement etc. Identity iron appear to be identified with each other. because it is the innermost essence of all. the appearance Consciousness (srsn^FT^l) imparts . in Similarly the reflection of Consciousness. respectively natural ^*fcf due to past Karma srifhsF^f ^ and due to ignorance %fir<* of three kinds (^fct is). 1 ego with the reflection of Consciousness. The body includes the places where the sense-organs are located. it reflection 4 That is. ness. of sentiency to all objects from egoism to the gross body. the body and the 8. VIII Now entities : is identification of described the nature of the Ahamkara with different of the ego <n^Rr identification with the reflection of Conscious- body and Witness ^WffiC. 3 Body Which is otherwise inert and insentient. are Conscious enlity ascribed to the body on account of this identification.

Ignorance the real nature of is ' Consciousness * called here ^ffcf (delusion) which * without beginning and cannot be described as or Real This identification of the Ahamkara (ego) with the Witness (*T[$fT%tF3r) is based only upon This identification can be removed ignorance ($TTfcf). The ego manifests itself under the influence of this Therefore this identification reflection. 3 is called from this Karma The ego body according Birth in a identifies itself with a particular to its past acts. " " I know identification is. IX the different identifications of the Ahamkara come to an end is thus How described : . only by knowing the real nature this The experience resulting from ** " I am or exist of Consciousness. namely. Unreal '. The experience resulting natural or innate. of Ignorance. particular body is always determined by Karma. natural. identification is. The experience " " I am man is resulting from this identifi(3Tf *T3^:). 2 3 due to (past) Karma. virtuous or otherwise. cation 4 is.VIVEKA II Witness are of three kinds. 4 respectively. (3?f SfRfft). moment the Natural The reflection of Consciousness and the ego (Ahamkara) come into existence. and due to ignorance. they become identified with each other. sloka 6. 1 2 Rgo See ante.

1 Other two. 1 Which etc. an end owing to the complete wearing out of the effects of Karma its identification with the ego automatically * . come existence 2 DJCS not etc. The mutual identification of the ego 1 and the is reflection of Consciousness. That is. The moment the ego (3^R) and the reflection of Consciousness into they identify themselves with each other. they can never separate themselves from each other so long as they are taken It is like the reflection of the sun in the to be real. 5 taken to be real. 9. The identifications of the ego with the body and the Witness Wearing out etc. which 2 does not cease so long as they are natural. when the water pot ceases to be. water in The reflection disappears only itself from the water. The other two identifications 4 disappear after the wearing 5out of the result of Karma and the attainment of the knowledge of the highest Reality respectively. The reflection can never separate a pot.VIVEKA of the mutually related (ego and the reflection of Consciousness) s^t: of those that are taken to be real tffsrg? natural (flWcwrer of the identification) 3 certainly frifa: annihilathe other two WOTT^ tion snfer is not possible of the (result of) Karma with the wearing away srturw and enlightenment SOTK^ respectively Ref^r ^ disappear. The identification of the ego with the body is due to the past Karma whose effect is seen in this body that lasts till the Karma continues But when the body comes to to produce its effects.

full (manifestation) state (wfcf . disappears in Brahman. Therefore it is destroyed by identify Hence Ahamkara can no longer with the Witness after enlightenment. when it three kinds of identification described above disappear simultaneously when the Jiva realizes itself as Brahman. only by the attainment of Knowledge. The X Now is ^described the world-bound nature of the At man as well as its associations with the three states. becomes the half manifestation of the ego ^fr fJfarcrnl: SHI in dream (*RT% waking : is) 5 but *n: is). c with (srffrr) Attainment etc.ceases. (3TKR) and Knowledge. The identification of the ego the Consciousness (SRMfcfW?) is due to error which is destroyed effects. of swoon This phenomenon is also observed at the time and deep sleep when the effects of Karma are temporarily suspended. which are itself possible only when the ego identifies with the body : II ?o ii deep sleep ^l^Rsfr when (thethought of) ego disappears %?: the body also 3T%cT*n unconscious wrs. itself Knowledge its (^H) Ahamkara ignorance destroys or the ego is the also effect of ignorance.

The result of past Karma. horses and roads). Full manifestation In the waking state the ego experiences the gross external objects by means of its 3 . : Dream state In the dream state the ego does not perceive any object external to itself. " (Therefore he who has crossed that bank) if blind. Comp. the objects seen and the act of seeing which constitute the dream experiences are only the mental modifications of the ego. ceases to be wounded if afflicted.14 10. though they appear during the dream state as outside the body horses. The ego in this state does not identify itself with the body. no no roads (but he himself creates chariots. The state in which there is the half manifestation of the ego is called the dream state 2 and the full 3 manifestation of the ego is 1 the state of waking. Therefore we become unconscious of our " s body in that state.*' The dream experiences. when (the 1 thought of) ego disappears the body also becomes unconscious. Disappears The ego merges itself in the causal ignorance which is characterised by the nonapprehension of empirical objects. ceases to be blind if wounded. DfG-D$$YA VIVEKA In the state of deep sleep. then. The seer. ceases to be afflicted. are known to be only modifications of the mind from the standpoint of the waking state. 2 Compare "There are no (real) chariots in that state.'' . This state in which there is no perception of duality is called the state of deep sleep. Therefore from the waking standpoint the dream state is only a partial manifestation of the ego. of the seer. is not noticed. " (^f.

11. experience covering both ego and non-ego in the waking condition. is seen only XI How the experiences of the waking and dream states are but the modifications of mind is described now : the inner organ that is nothing but a modification (ir%0 faTcT^rSftRT identity with the reflection of Consciousness ^TFTCTT having attained ^w in dream ^WTT: ideas imain the state srlr: with gines waking the sense-organs to ^f|: external respect ^ ^i^ i%q^i^ objects 3OT3Rt imagines. inner organ (mind) which is 2 itself but a modification (l%0 identifying itself with the reflection of Consciousness 3 imagines (various) ideas in the dream. constitute the entire world of experience are both cogIn dream it is the mind nized in the waking state. 1 The 1 stuff This comprises mind (Jf^). intellect (H% ) an d egoism Inner organ : . And the same inner organ (identifying itself with the 4 body) imagines objects external to itself in the waking stale with respect to the sense-organs. mind(fan:). alone of the sleeper which appears both as the ego and Therefore the full manifestation of the the non-ego.DRG-DR&YA VIVEKA 15 The ego and the non-ego which internal organs.

1 Subtle body This is the same as the Antahis called lingam* because it enables the This or the embodied being to realise Biahman.the identification of the heat 3 (fire) with the iron ball.. mind (*W^[) and intellect . tiency attains f&fr wi the material cause of mind and of the nature of insenthe three states subtle STRRT is born W*re dies. similarly sf^m 12. Ideas The ideas of the ego well as their mutual relationship. The subtle^ body which is the 2 material cause of the mind and egoism is one 4 3 and of the nature of insentiency. five organs of knowledge.is 2 D$G-D$SYA VIVEKA Identify It is like . The dream experiences which have the same nature as the waking ones are known The waking to be internal only in the wakmg state. It moves in the three states and is born and it dies. XII The real is nature of the inner organ thus described : fipra ?wr II ? R II egosm TB one *&i&w. viz. 4 and the non-ego as ImaginesWe remember oiir dream experiences the waking state. Jiva subtle body has been described in other Vedantic karana and texts as composed of seventeen parts.organs of perception. five . experiences are also mere ideas or thoughts of the in perceiving mind. five modifica- tions of prana.

The identification with the three states as well as birth. can be predicated of the ego only and not of Atman or Self who is unassociated with these conditions. though from the Like empirical standpoint they appear as different. which done H \\ u . It cannot be described either as real or unreal. what cause ? Brah- man. cannot create The its best way : to describe Maya is is to in explain the following sloka two aspects. causal relations. This Maya is extremely illusive. The is its all question arises. 4 XIII is The existence of the material world a matter of indubitable experience. which is beyond it. Therefore the scriptures as the cause of the appearpostulate Maya ance of the universe. It is because the Ariahkarana is the modification of the Avidya which is of the nature It appears as sentient on account of of insentiency. the water and the wave the Antahkirana (HWIT'O and the ideas which manifest themselves as powers of knowwhich are ledge and activity ($TR3n% and T%3ri3TT% () on ly 1% 3 or the modifications of the mind) are identical. Nature etc. its identification with the reflection of Consciousness Moves etc.D$G-D$YA VIVEKA 2 17 and the One -The subtle body karfina are really one and identical. death etc.

Taijasa and of waking. 2 Subtle body parts. really : ti ? 11 . 1 Prajna. ence of this aspect of Maya that the non-dual Brahman appears as the manifested manifold. This body consists of See ante. associated with the experiences dream and deep It is. universe. can be seen from the following sloka which describes the true nature of creation That Brahman is. Two of dicated powers. under the influagain. sleep. are pre1 Maya. those of projecting and The projecting power creates 2 from the subtle body to the gross everything veiling. seventeen XIV the relative standpoint. From speaking. viz.. Brahman is pointed out as the cause of the universe because the mind seeks a cause.18 DRG-DZ&YA VIVEKA of ^faCT two projecting (creating) and veiling without doubt (ztfa exists) T%lrren%: powers ff from the subtle projecting power fosrf^ ^T^I^ universe *ro^ world &R{ body to the (gross) creates . Maya f^mfrarerc of the nature of 13. undoubtedly. This leads one to think of the pure Protecting and attnbutelebs Atman to be Viswa. sloka 12. not the cause.

the manifesting of creation wi is called. of perceived in the perceptual world. are not separate from the -ocean. and disappears 5 in. manifold cannot be based on an Absolute negation. because all these are made of the same stuff Like etc. 7 Manifesting This manifestation is projecting power of Maya which man from the causal standpoint. illustration is for the purpose indescribable nature of creation. Brahman.Consciousness-Bliss and which is the same as Brahman.and 5 which is Existence. is The manifesting 4 known 1 as creation. *r^rro^sRn??TT and forms 14. every appearance has a positive substratum. Forms That which is expressed by a name.DRG-D. 4 Entity the Reality is not a void or negation as The appearance of the Buddhists contend. which are nothing but the modifications of the mind. names and forms are mere forms of thought as Both can be understood by the analysis of names and forms experienced in dream. In empirical experience. efe'. in the ocean. bubbles etc. The illusion of names and forms appears from. These are not positive attributes Existence etc. waves. 1 all names forms" in the entity of all names. like the foams etc. Brahman. 2 3 is due to the potential in Brah- Names By which things are designated. showing Foams. This of the . which cannot be described by word or Words etc.R$YA VIVEKA of the nature of 19 Brahman sft^nrar- in the entity which is Existence-Consciousness-Bliss arwfr in the ocean ^TT%^ like foams etc. can describe only what is thought.

Creation Vedanta explains the origin of the universe by saying that it is the unfolding of Brahman through Its inscrutable power. because no separate universe can be conceived of. or as the sleeping man appears to be living in a dream world. or as the ocean appears in the form of foams. from the Sruti we know Brahman as separate from the world. As the rope appears in the form of the snake. etc. . solid.20 as water. because we do make a distinction between theocean and the waves. as the Sruti" says. which. the material and efficient cause of the world. DgG-D$$YA VIV&KA Again. Again. so also Brahman appears in the form of the From the causal standpoint. extended in time and This appearance of the universe as sepaspace. they are not identical with the ocean. waves etc. XV Now of is described the veiling power Maya: other power (of Maya) within ^spRft: ($w) (the distinction) between the seer and the seen (objects) wft: outside ^ alsoafra&fc (3l5) (the distinction) between Brahman and the created universe amtfifir conceals *n this power ^fawf of the phenomenal universe T 3TTO 5TT%: the cause (w% is). is not of the nature of Existence-Consciousness-Bliss. Brahman is both world. Similarly the manifested manifold is not separate from Brahman. called Maya. according to the Sruti. etc. 1 rate from 7 Brahman is due to Maya. which we perceive to be gross.

Non-dual Brahman alone is and always exists. The appearance of the manifold is due to the veiling power of Maya which conceals the real non-dual nature of Brahman anii e1c t This From neither creation . But the veiling power of Maya does not enable us to see the distinction and there3 The. it is the relationiess Atman. ante. mind.DgG-DR$YA VIVEKA 15. But through the veiling power of Maya It seems to have identified with names and forms and thus appears as objects of enjoyment. by identifying itself with the gross and the subtle body. Phenomenal This is a mere that of silver in the mother-o'-pearl. The Sakshin is distinct from the perceived objects. power (STTTR) is the cause of the phenomenal universe. 21 The other 1 power (of Maya) conceals the distinction between the perceiver 2 and the 3 perceived objects which are cognized within the body as well as the distinction between Brahman 4 and the phenomenal 5 universe which is perceived outside (one's own This body). It It includes everything from the empirical Objects the gross body. 6 5 appearance like the highest standpoint there is nor dissolution. 4 Brahman Brahman is said to be of the nature It- of self Existence-Consciousness-Bliss. is Perceiver of the 1). sense-organs etc. sloka considers itself as the enjoyer etc. Witness (lJT$fT) which immediate perception of "I" (see the cause ego to fore the Sakshin appears to have identified itself with the empirical ego. power 2 It (the veiling power) of is known as the Avarana Sakti Maya. Really speaking.

One cannot be conceived of without simultaneously. XVI is the cause of the appearthe universe has already been The question now arises what is stated. For. (object). is just like perceiving dream objects with which the From the sleeper at that time is in no way connected. (That of ^r (physical) subtle body) f%Ri^T^T^*n^iri: on account of its . the author of this treatise makes here a departure. 3*cT: in immediate w ith the proximity few the subtle body body tfffl related HIM shines.g2 D$G-Dg$YA VIVEKA It presents the appearance of the variegated universe. Though it is a custom with the Vedantic writers to describe the veiling power (Avarana Sakti) as prior to the projecting power (Vikshepa Sakti). the effects of both are seen. the Avarana Sakti cannot be said to precede the Vikshepa Sakn or rtce vosa. the nature of Jiva who suffers by the law of transmigration ? It is the illusory characteristic of the universe that is described below with a view to discuss later on the That Maya of ance : real nature of Jiva : 3*31 fllfff f&T ii \\\\ the Witness. sense-organs etc. subjective standpoint a man becomes a world-bound creature on nccount of the identification of the seer with the mind. the other. Ignorance is* of the distinction between the subject and the object the cause of one'* sufferings in the world. Strictly speaking.

on account of its being affected by the leflection of Consciousness. pointing to liberation. deathless. The following stanza removes this doubt by showing that the idea of the embodied self is falsely superimposed upon the Sakshin or the Witness.D$G-Dg$YA VIVEKA ness s^T^rffR^: 2 being affected by the reflection of Consciousempirical subtle sfan embodied self becomes. But immutable and without attributes. therefore no liberation is necessary self is A There is no third entity for whom for it. through superimposition tfifafa in the Sakshin am also . 16. Therefore scriptures become futile. Again the Sakshin is ever free. bitthless. The embodied unreal and hence liberation is not possible for it. die and be re born etc. n of this ?vs (the empirical self) *ffac4 the nature of being a Jiva STRRRJ. enjoyer etc. this Jiva that appears to the Sakshin or Atman is XVII doubt arises here. The body (Lingam) which Witness(Sakshin) exists in close proximity to the identifying itself with the gross body becomes 1 the embodied empirical self. can be prescribed. the scriptures. aq. 1 Empirical self It is that Jt is which thinks itself as the agent.

With the disappearance of the 4 (between the veiling power. through false identification. *f% the difference *n% having become 17. 1 This is due to the pro- 2 Sakshin Thereby the Witness appears as the world-bound Jiva* 3 Also Though the Sakshin is ever free from all taint of worldliness. character of an embodied self 1 appears through false superimposition in the 2 Sakshin also". False supfrtmpositton jecting powers of Maya. clear ^ that (the idea of being Jiva). appears to have become the Jiva. . XVIII As in the case of the subject itself the Sakshin. a?wr% disappears. Distinction Through Knowledge one realizes that the Sakshin is ever free from worldliness and is the eternal seer and all other ideas. the distinction seer and the object) becomes clear and with it the Jiva character of the Sakshin (Witness) dis5 The appears. trom the empirical ego to the body.24 -DRG-D%$YA VIVEKA appears Wim of the veiling power 5 but f^RSTOT by the annihilation. 5 4 Disappears This is possible only through Knowledge which one acquires from the study and the understanding of the scriptures. so also Brahman appears to be identified with the objective universe. Hence scriptures are not futile. are mere objects and hence negatable.

Brahman appeals to possess these attributes and to be manifold.. XIX that veiling power is destroyed. 4 as endowed with the attributes of 18. growth. birth.D$G-D$$YA VIVEKA 25 5W Scoffer *R*flIST ftft cmr similarly TT I H U \\ which ^rra: power of 'Brahman and phenomenal universe ^? distinction srric^ concealing mfo exists 3&zm through Brahman ftScK^ as being of its influence % the nature of modification STTORT appears. decay Under the influence of Maya. and annihilation. the distinction between Brahman and the universe becomes clear and to When phenomenal then the changes etc. Brahman. through the in2 fluence of the power that conceals the distinc3 tion between It and the phenomenal universe. identified with the world. 2 and Power The real concealing power is of Maya It is 3 // The nature of Brahman that without attributes. 1 appears change. with reference to the individual self. attributed disappear. m. Brahman . 1 Similarly As in the case of the Witness the object. existence. 4 Attributes The six attributes of the manifested change. 1 Similarly.

/ etc. the distinction between Brahman and the phenomenal universe 2 becomes clear with the disappearance of the 3 Therefore change is perceived veiling power. Whose essential characteristics are birth. With etc. following the methods of agreement and difference. that the word ("Thou" in the Vedic statement. II in this case also 3?nr%?fT^T with the destruction of Brahman distinction power ffjRnHrr. In the foregoing stanzas we have seen. Brahman ^i%^ ever change 19. In 1 this case also. of and the phenomenal universe 5r^: T%*m% becomes clear era: therefore the veiling fro*: ^f in the phenomenal universe 5T change exists not swfa in exists). 3 2 Change etc. growth.-k$ in the case of the individual self. The *' Thou " and attributes generally associated with "That" are mere appearances and hence unreal.26 DRG-D$$YA VIVEKA II I*. but never in Brah- man. 1 /. "That Thou "&" Art '0 indicates the Witness (Sakshin) which is immuindicates table and changeless arid that the word "<Tc Brahman which is unrelated to the phenomena. in the phenomenal universe. . As the result of the knowledge of the non-dual Brahman. decay etc.

f[% all ^ af^rq^ 20.. 1 attractiveness. teristics of Next two Names and forms are the chief charac Maya. form belong world. XXI is The meaning of the preceding sloka made clearer in the following by the of methods agreement and difference : . cognizabilily. 2 pond 3 to Sat. viz. the first three name. to Brahman and the next' 1 two to the Cogmzabihty Belong fo etc. That which makes one aware of the existence of an object. Every existence. 1 and 2 entity has five characteristics. Of these. Chit.DQG-DR&YA VIVEKA 27 XX shown and "That": is Now the identity of " Thou "' II Ro || (it) exists (it *TTirr cognizable) fo4 is) (becomes (it) shines dear ^f form *m name these five aspects (characterize W?I?R the first three (are) every entity). These three characteristics corresand Ananda. r characteristics of Brahrnan ^^ the next two ^^1 characteristics of the universe.

Consciousness and Bliss are equally 1 present in the Akasha (ether). But one should concentration (Samadhi) in order practise to strengthen this conviction. there exists the common substratum whose nature is Existence-Consciousness-Bliss (Absolute). Names and forms make 2 one differ from the other. water and earth as well as in gods. 21. Names and forms are characteristics of the individual and hence relative. have these common Make etc. Therefore Brahman is identical with the Jiva. 2 XXII Thus following the methods of agreement and difference. we get the implied " " ri meaning of "a*" ("That") and (" Thou ") which points to the Satchidananda Brahman. These are the universal characteristics. All objects such as a pot. 1 Equally etc. common features ^IJTORT forms and names differ. water and earth ^fiwwroi^g in gods. fire.28 D$G-D$$YA VIVEKA in the Akasha (ether). etc. We distinguish one object from another only by their names and forms. animals and men etc. air. The attributes of Existence. Even after the negation of names and forms. fire. a picture features. air. animals and men *TT%^ra^T: (the attributes of) Consciousness and Bliss affiwr: Existence. The methods of Samadhi are described below : .

8 Heart Heart is pointed out.BRG-DR&YA VIVEKA 29 : \\ ^ \\ (to) name and form 5 two OT^ being indifferent ^rf^^R^rRqr: Satchidananda 3rf|: f^ ^r (*RO being devoted to either in the heart. indifferent to name- and form and being devoted to Satchidananda". Concentration Concentration or Samadhi means the one-pointedness of the mind by which the student feels his steady identity with Brahman. through the help of any concentration can be practised external object. Names and forms areimpermannte. deep sleep. 5 Having etc. STSRT or outside *f^r always *wrf3r concentration ^ft^ 22. 2 Satchtdanauda all This (e5^n^f)of objects. because they appear and disappear. 1 Having become should practise. yet they are negatable as found is the implied meaning characteristics of Existence. are worthy of concentration. being permanent. Outside 4 That is. Therefore these aspects alone. for the facility of concentration. such as & . as distinguished from names and forms. one should always practise concentration 3 either within the heart 1 4 or outside. as the seat of Paramatman. The Consciousness and Bliss are universal and therefore they form the common features of the substratum of all objects comprehended by "That" and "Thou". Though names and forms give the direct meaning (^pEZJTST) of "That'* and "Thou" in (?4).

image or any other symbol.30 D$G-D$$YA VIVEKA word. Concentration within the heart is described in the three following : \\\\\\ in in which the ideas are present. 23. These two of concentration are meant for different . 1 .temperaments. modes XXIII Samadhi with its twofold division is described in the following seven stanzas. 2 Savikalpa Samadhi is again divided into two classes. sound. which ideas do not exist ffe (to be practised) within the heart (?fa) ferlR: of swrfa: concentration tion in two kinds *rfo*7: 3*m%: concentrawhich ideas are present s^rssfig^Fr according to its association with a cognizable object or with a sound (as an object) 5*f: again firm (are) ol two kinds. Savikalpa In this Samadhi. Two kinds of Samadhi to be pracin the heart (within one's self) are known tised 1 as Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. according to its association with a cognizable object or a sound (as an object). knowledge and the known. This is the initial step in the practice of concentration. the practitioner concentrates his mind on Brahman without completely losing such distinctions as the knower.

centred in the mind WJTOI: etc. 1 2 Desire See an!e etc. desire S^T: (cognizable) objects %?R Consciousness cJc*w%^R as their Witness ^T%^ should sspngftss. the Witness the mind and . 4 This is what is called Savikalpa Samadhi associated with (cognizable) objects. 4 Because its of the presence of Atman. makes himself free XXIV Now is described the Samadhi (Savikalpa) in which concentration is associated with an object.DRG-DR&YA VIVEKA 2 31 Nirvikalpa In this Samadhi the practitioner from all thought of distinctions. modifications are seen to be active. knowledge and the known. as the knower. mind as in got nothing to do with Because they are the modifications the disappearance deep_ sleep. centred' mind are be treated as (cognizable) objects. they have is. Meditate on Consciousness 8 as their Witness. . that Witness of all these mental modifications. y 4.. Desire to 1 objects srifoeTO: in 2 combined with which ideas are in the etc. meditate are this (is) cognizable present *wfa: concentration. Consciousness It means Atman. Centred of the of the mind. They disappear with Atman. Therefore. 24.

jChit and natural characteristics of Atman. (relative) knowledge and ignorance etc. eternal and permanent. XXV is described a higher kind of Samadhi. Existaflfrr: unattached I) ^sw self-luminous ence-Consciousness-Bliss free (is) from duality 3fl%T am ?% are this associated with words ^f^Fra: *wfa: Savikalpaka Samadhi. Atman is also unattached to virtue and \ice. But think of the Atman as your real nature. Comp. I am unattached. weal and woe. This sort of concentration is always associated with Then the an object of thought. with which some sound Savikalpa Now (object) is associated: *HW^. duality. of) from kind ExistenceMTonsciousness4 3 and free self-luminous This is known as the (other 2 Savikalpa Samadhi associated with sound 1 (object). 2 Ananda are the Unattached Unrelated to Chitta or mind whose functions are seen as desire.'' .32 DRG-DZ&YA VIVEKA : Whenprocess of the meditation is this ever any thought appears in the mind. Sat. Existence etc. volition etc. take it to be an object and be indifferent to it. "S "This Purusha is unattached. The object which is an idea appears and disappears. 25Bliss.

which are foreign to Atman. is." etc. I am. There is only a current of self-consciousness. TpfiSwifert^ 44 (3T. XXVI Now is described the higher concentration free from all ideas whatsoever : <5 but ^Tg^jRT^i^i^ on account of com- plete absorption in the bliss of realization of the Self ^T^T^T both the perceived objects and sounds OT^T being indifferent to T%^rcffei^N^ like a flame in a place free from wind. am unattached. Such ideas as. S. T%T%"^T: : absorption free from (subject-object) ideas. Comp. (That Brahman) ** hearing/' * unseen but seeing. unheard but Thou couldst not see the Seer of sight. 4 * one without a second. Nothing else exists besides the _ Atman. verily.D$G-D$$YA VIVZKA 3 33 existence of Atman canSelf-luminous The never be doubted even when the relative objects are absent as in deep sleep. V*-<n) "* is & felt 73%:" (f. V^)* He is. are present in this Samadhi. the innermost Self"." Free from etc. V. 4 . While practising I er thinks.'' this concentration the practitionthe Witness. because Atman is one and without a second and it has no parts and it is not of the nature of n " insentiency. The object of his meditation is the non-dual Sejf free from the ideas of desire etc. This sort of concentration is called Savikalpaka as it is not " fiee from ideas altogether. Compare " 3?g 5? (I. 14 S.

1 Mind etc. Desires etc. mind becomes free from all distractions which is the icsult of attachment to sense-objects." 11 These are associated with concentraSamadhi. Through the constant practice of the Savikalpa Samadhi. account etc. Both etc. becomes competent to practise Nirvikalpa Samadhi in which the mind becomes steady like the unflickering Jiame of a candle kept in a windless place. 2 Compare *lcT As a lamp in a spot unsheltered from the wind. . does not flicker. Therefore he. then.34 DRG-DR&YA VIV^KA 26. even such has been the simile used for a Yogi of subdued mind. are the " " etc. practising concentration in the Self. 3 tion in the Savikalpa 4 On " means The word Anubhuti. ". Comp. But The Nirvikalpa Samadhi is here distinguished from the Savikalpa Samadhi as described in the foregoing slokas. But 1 the Nirvikalpa Samadhi is that in 2 which the mind becomes steady like the (unflickering flame of a) light kept in a place free from wind and in which the student becomes both 3 objects and sounds on account of his complete absorption in the bliss indifferent 4 to of the realization of the Self. are J am unattached cognizable objects and sound (objects) or ideas. " " Self Highest Consciousness or in the text.

"He the Rasa." This Samadhi is characterized by the absence of the knowledge of the subject-object relationship. are stopped and the practitioner experiences the Highest Bliss. means the Supreme Self or the Comp. 85 I bow to that innermost (Subjective) Self. infinite. as it were. VvM). Another meaning of the word is coming trom all directions (su) of bliss." it The word Avesa means complete absorption. birthincomprehensible. is said to be Asamprajnata Samadhi that is dear unto the Yogis. can any one become blessed. because in the . tor only after perceiving a flavour flavour. created by Mahat etc. the embodiment of Bliss and the background of the World. Compare Fffi " The mind. "^r^T: l**rMfaW is *T3TF%" (ft S. Or may mean the 'manifestation' of the Supreme Bliss * ' .in the heart as the index of success in the Savikalpa Samadhi. Apparently it is like that state of calmness and tranquillity which pervades a stone. The Nirvikalpa Samadhi is the highest kind of concentration in which the practitioner realises his In this Samadhi the functions of the mind real Self. with the utter quiescence of modifications conferring upon one Supreme Bliss. and painted by ignorance (Maya)/' The word * Rasa ' nature of the Highest Bliss.VIVEKA " less. Still another (Slifcr) meaning is the 'possession' i.e. by the bliss of self-realization and can no longer control himself. the practitioner becomes possessed.

After this discrimination. speedy for the extremely energetic. no feeling of not knowing the Self. Compare Success is II . because in the Nirvikalpa Samadhi one becomes identified with the ever-Conscious Atman.'* Nirvikalpa Samadhi which is identical with the Highest Knowledge can be attained only as a result of discrimination between the real and the unreal. 16). but which is not characteiized by _swoon or deep sleep is admitted as the real nature of Atman. Compare "The state in which all desires completely disappear which is (quiescent) like the interior of a stone." In this Samadhi one becomes free from all thoughts or ideas but infilled with Supreme Bliss. which gives upeven the qualities and comes from the Knowledge of (the real nature of) the Purusha. Comp. Samadhi Pada. Comp. Sutra. extreme non-attachment. the student becomes indifferent to everything of the lelative world. The Nirvikalpa Samadhi no knowledge of is exists difference between deep sleep and is that in the former state there but in the latter there Self.36 DZG-DR&YA V1VEKA Nirvikalpa Samadhi the mind stops its functioning." "That is This Samadhi come established 44 is in possible only for him who has becomplete renunciation. But it should not be mistaken for stupor or deep sleep in which state alone one experiences absence of duality.

DRG-DRSYA VIVE KA '* . can also be practised with the help of any object in the external world. con- centration is possible tf: that (Samadhi) ^JTI^TT^ Erom the Pure Existence (which is Brahman) the separation of names and forms. First kind etc. By such concentration one can realise the nature of Brahman and creation. 5 (Brahman). Samadhi the name and form are separated 4 from 27. kind of Samadhi is possible 2 with the help of any external object as it is 3 In that with the help of an internal object. XXVII By the practice of Samadhi described above the practitioner realises his own Self which is of the nature of Existence-ConBut this concentration sciousness-Bliss. Brahman and Self are identical n ?vs ii as in the heart sn^^rsfa in the external as well 11%^ *GPR& ^gfr in any object region whatsoever arra of the first kind swrftwRi. first The 1 what 1 is Pure Existence i. sky. having nothing inside and outside it is just like a full pitcher placed in the sea.e. the help of an object theJSavikalpa Samadhi with . 37 It is just like an empty pitcher placed in the and again. full (of water) both inside and outside.

external* objects. as the sun etc. 3 Internal etc. namely. has three unchangeable aspects. Every object. The practitioner should concentrate his mind on Pure Existence which is the same as Brahman and dissociate himself from the changing aspects of name and form. xxvin Now is described the other kind of Savikalpaka Samadhi (^igr%[) associated with sound (object) to be practised with the help of an external object : \\\t\\ of the same nature (always) and unlimited (by time. as we have seen. Existence.38 2 D$G-D$$YA VIVEKA External By concentration on such Such as desire etc. space etc. Separated Names and forms on account of appearance and disappearance are negatable. This is done by concentration on the Satchidananda factor of an entity. Similar concentration can be practised with the help of an external object also. We and forms.) ^ftr^WF^asfdr characterised by Existence-Consciousness-Bliss entity (flfam that is Brahman) 5% . Visibility. and AttracThe two other changing aspects are names tiveness. their 4 Pure Existence The Existence object can never be negated. 5 aspect of an tration have seen in the 24th stanza that concencan be practised with the help of an object perceived internally.

~ . in inferior This Samadhi is similar to the one described Sloka 25. is verily Brahman. The entity which 1 is (always) of the same nature and unlimited (by time. Such uninterrupted reflection is called the inter2 mediate absorption. Which is etc. The only difference is that it is associated with an external (objective) idea whereas the other one is associated with an internal (subjective) idea. *T*TTT%: such uninterrupted reflectioa concentration *fa^ is. the Savikalpaka Samadhi associated with sound (object).DRG-DR&YA VIVEKA tt 39 middle. that is. space etc. Which remains the same.) and which is characterised by ExistenceConsciousness-Bliss. 28. that is. XXIX Now is described the : Nirvikalpaka fol- Samadhi which can be practised by lowing the objective method n from the : experience of Bliss external (to ^ insensibility as in the previous instance objects) . Intermediate Because it is superior to the Samadhi described in the foregoing Sloka and to the Nirvikalpa Samadhi. space etc. immutable in the past. not limited by time. present and future and which is.

is designated as the third 29. Otherwise such concentration. Again. with the Self (subject). on account of the experience" of Bliss. . Brahman. without a substratum. becomes a mere mental abstraction and ends in nihilism. in objective concentration. of the mind (to insensibility 3 external objects) as before. the Self which is the Witness of all mental modifications is identical with Brahman. The 1 The practikind of Samadhi (Nirvikalpaka). 1 Insensibility This in completely absorbed ~ shows that the mind is the contemplation of Brahman. As before As in the case of . 3 " " Experience ledge of Brahman etc. because of its all-pervasive nature. As the knowledge of Brahman is associated with bliss so also the knowledge of Self is accompanied by Bliss Eternal. In the subjective concentration. as indivisible etc. Brahman. Samadhi described Sloka here also the practitioner attains the Nirvikalpaka Samadhi by merging the entire illusory phenomena in Brahman and by being indifferent to the manifested manifold (^3$) and such in the twenty-sixth ideas (a?^:). 4 tioner should uninterruptedly spend his time 5 in these six kinds of Samadhi. the unchanging entity in all is identical the scriptures describe as an Self (subject) is identical with perceived objects. This bliss is due to the know- whom The entity of Bliss. of the same nature Concentration becomes steady like the (tpB?3f:) unfiickering flame of a candle in a place free from wind.40 DRG-DR&YA VIVEKA : the third kind of Samadhi *RT: described 3Ri by the teachers) T^ q^fa: swifafo: by the help of these six kinds of Samadhi T%T^FC always *BT time *nr^ should spend.

a being feels that he is a man. to whatever object. it becomes subsequently quite natural and spontaneous. "It becomes firmly grounded by long. rr^TrT^r 30.VIVE KA 4 41 Samadhi should be Uninterruptedly This practised uninterruptedly for a long time. Then the student realises Brahman everywhere. described above. (*T) (TT. vsv). On account of such attachment to body. *fflTIT7I3. a Brahmin. TfoScT the attachment to the body with the disappearance of TOTc^fa the Supreme Self (MricT (HT%) with the realization of ^^^r^r to whatever objects *R: mind ^TRT goes there ?r?n>w. Following the process of enquiry Jaid down in Vedanta.the mind is directed one experiences Samadhi. "^t^reA^4^^R%ftd1wqftr: " %. the student realises that all . With the disappearance of the attach- ment 1 to the body and with the realization of the Supreme Self. etc.* 1 Attachment etc. three subjective and three objec- tive. constant efforts with great love (for the end " to be attained). XXX As of a result of the constant practice Samadhi. Then only can the practitioner be firmly established in supreme knowledge. a so and so.. 5 Six That is. absorptions (^r^cr are). Cf.

quite spontaneous and natural. as described above. Even the names and forms which appear to the ignorant as devoid of reality are looked upon by the Jnani as ever existent Brahman. \\ Him who all is high and low of the & bv beholding i*pmfrr: is fetters broken flWswr: heart firmer doubts fiteRt are solved . later on. for a long time and with the help of the knowledge of Truth. Samadhi That is. as Brahman. knowing that appearance and disap- pearance are their inevitable nature. He sees everyThe knowledge of Brahman where Brahman only.42 DfG-DgSYA VIVEKA internal entities from the empirical ego to the body are only objects and the subject (Self) is the Witness. by an analysis of the external world he realises that Brah- man is the only permanent entity in the universe. Therefore the practitioner becomes indifferent to the and external objects and fixes his mind on Brahman which is identical with the Self. while names and forms are changing phenomena. tice of which is at first attainable by effort becomes. he ceases to identify himself as attached to the objects. Therefore.H As perceived by the senses. the practitioner realises all objects. internal and external. Internal 2 Objects . XXXI described the result of this supreme realization in the language of the is Now Mundaka Upanishad (2-8) : \\\\ . Similarly. as a result of constant piacYogic Samadhi.

the fetters of the heart are broken. the Brahman alone that exists everywhere. . Comp. But a Jnani who has made misery. This denotes ideas of agency etc. Only the fructescent works of which a man has got his (5tt^*'T3*T). By Him That by realising Brahman throughout 2 the manifested manifold. himself quite free from the body-idea does not feel the effect of any Karma. all 5 doubts are solved and all his Karmas (activi- 1 2 By beholding Him who 3 is high and ties and 1 their effects) beholding wear away. which are falsely superimposed on the Self. continue to produce their result. the doubts regarding the AlUiis Karmas etc*~. 3 non-dual Turlya both in the Fetters etc. Who is high and low signifies Brahma. For him all works and their " effects are non-existent. olvs^). "(But) when he is free of the then neither pleasure nor pain touches him. hunger. But this explanation is offered only from the standpoint of the ignorant who see even a Jnani subject to disease. all 43 works' (and their effects) 4 low. cause and in the effect. All doubts nature of Self. This its result so long as the body lasts. as a result present body. thirst etc. what low is The word high known as cause of the is (q*[) uni- (3^) It signifies the universe etc. s. which are the effects. is. arerftf n^cf ^f&nfoft work yields *2STff:" (ST. This is due to ignorance. * 4 That is.For a Jnani the accumulated works (4f%cT3$r) as well as fresh works (3Tf*nT*rar) do not yield any result. 31. The word verse.D$G-Df$YA VIVEKA His Wffa ^ wear away." body.

44 DRG-DR&YA VIVEKA He who realises Brahman : attains liberation life. The treatise may be said to be ." " grief. 3\ Brah- man/' "srefa^raficf 14 Wl) attains the Highest.following Sruti passages "sra* 14 %5 ^ira" **%" (3. (Maitreyi). verily. 5T. VV-^3) "When the Self only is all this. V-1-v) fearlessness. ^. S. All these have been described in their proper places. You have attained M " ''TTrfW^ ^8ra5T^T%I% (f. -which is the highest objective of Compare the . v-V^X) 44 " thus far goes immortality. s.> beyond "3f^q | 3RcR Oh Janaka 44 ! Simtsfi-r ! (f. The various helps for the attainment of such knowledge have been dealt with as well as the result of the knowledge of identity. becomes TO*" of (I." XXXII We have seen the method prescribed for in this treatise the realization of the Highest Truth. By following this method the student understands the real signifi" " 4< Thou " and ultiand That cance of mately realises that identity. Oh. The knower The knower Brahman 44 of Self goes . vv>) He who knows Brahman. 44 Knowing it (Self) "33RTSSI ^R^TS^ one goes beyond death/' M (f.

as that presented (in the mind) and the third one Consciousness as imagined in There are three conceptions (Consciousness). prana etc. arise is 4S But' a doubt If may still in the mind of the student. embodied being T%iR: should be among them ^rrer: the first one the real nature (of Jiva). The Sakshin considers itself to be Jiva owing to his identification with the Upadhis : limited f%^mm: unreal presentation of Consciousness g^fto: ^sw^cr. In any case. dream (to have assumed the forms of man etc. Sakshin (the Seer) appears to be subject to various Upadhis (limitations) . then He cannot be Brahman. What the nature of Jiva? the Witness (Sakshin) is really Brahman. it is teaching is of no use.DRG-DR&YA V1VEKA completed here. The student will be told in the followslokas that the Jiva in reality is Sakshin ing and identical with Brahman. the Therefore. (is) of Jiva as that limited (by) namely. then He cannot be Jiva. And if He is Jiva.) According to the first theory. necessary to explain to the student the real nature of Jiva.. the third is as imagined in dream ^KT T%iV<*: these three kinds 3fa: fi^r known 32.

thinks of itself as man. however. the Consciousness (Sakshin) appears to be fallaciously presented in the mind and this presentation is known as Jiva. the nature of Jiva is the same as the nature of In dream. always partakes of the qualities of the medium in which it is reflected as the reflection of the sun is seen to be moving etc. mind etc. Atman. or animal etc. the first theory (3ftft3W3:) tells us that the real nature of Jiva is Brahman. Similarly. sense-organ.46 of D$G-DRYA VIVEKA Prana. theory. It is The reflection like the reflection of the sun in water. volition etc. or beggar etc. and thus jegards himself as Jiva. It is like the infinite space (Akasha) portions of which appear to be limited by pots etc. the presentation of Consciousness in the mind partakes of the qualities of the mind. is. one thinks _pf himself as king. Similarly. account of the absence of the knowledge of reality. not accept- XXXIII How (Jiva) is it to ? be identical with is possible for a limited entity the Absolute Brahman This thus explained : 3 ^RPRT: limitation <(illusory) II u n ^rer: w^ but (is) s^lrer what real rfl%?^ in imaginary appears to be is limited TOOT that (Brahman) . such as According to a third agency. through the ignorance of its real nature. on various beings one sees in dream. According to the author of this treatise. desire. god. ed by all This view schools of Vedanta. According to the second theory. with the movement of the water. also.

because it is the . Ordinarily. nature of Brahman. without actions. limitation (3^1^:) is seen to be of the Illusory is 1 What following kinds which it stands. roof etc. Therefore the limitation which appears to be superimposed upon Atman is illusory. for. Sakshin or Self same everywhere and is real. tranquil. are subservient to Atman.DRG-DR&YA VIVE KA on the 47 account of Jivahood (it is) naturally 5TO<* superimposition appears 3 but of the nature of Brahman. JJTO5fr V^) t This is full and that is full. An ITTfir^" (STtfcfare:) is seen to be trimmed elephant (wpt^:) by the But Prana etc. Hence no kind of limitation by Prana etc. 3". appears to be limited (of illusory 2 but that which is real. is 1 Limitation 33. The Jivahood 3 Self) is due to the superimposition of But really it 1 has the the illusory attributes.? This limitation is saicHo be caused by Prana etc. for being themselves of wise with regard to Atman nsentient natur^. ~ Real. be swallowed (3T^t^:) by the snake. cannot act likewill of its care-taker. Atman because A not possible in frog is seen to But prana etc. f*n^^ STRf" (3%. can be predicated of Atman. without activity and '* ever peaceful. RP^Rc5 Cf. : A Or pillar is limited by the ground a part of it is covered (3TT^^) is on by This sort of limitation It is without parts. " without parts. He who Compare "y: sn^rTCRflRfo" (l-^ V^-^) . rules the breath within. cannot act similarly with regard to Self. Ptana ej:c. the nature of the limitation that is superimposed upon Consciousness (Sakshin) which is without parts etc. at all times. the The idea of limitation is illusory. without parts. It is always complete.

sref^w ^RW statements as of the limited Jiva <5*fiT swn with Brahman that is without parts i^Rrf identity ^3' declare *r not with the two other Jivas. The Sakshin may be contended that if is the same as Brahman. Prana etc. It // is etc. Rahu always exists in the firmament. the idea of limitation (Jivatvam) and what limits it (Prana etc. But this contention is refuted thus: Sakshin is not unreal because it is the same as Brahman. is now described : " That Thou Art " such Vedic etc. The following analogy of a scholiast is interesting. Similarly the illusion of limitation and what limits. But the Sakshin always exists. . Similarly Sakshin also becomes an object of perception (Jiva) only in association with egoism. XXXIV That the theory of limitation (a explains in a better way the identity of Jiva and Brahman than the two other theories. the snake idea vanishes: but her feet remain as they are. With the removal of the illusion. considers her feet to be entwined by a snake.) be unreal. through illusion. is removed by Knowledge. A woman wearing anklets.48 3 Z)gG-Df$YA VIVEKA Jivahood The appearance of Jiva is not possible without the association of upadhis. then Sakshin also (what appears to be limited) is unreal. But it cannot be directly perceived except in association with the solar or the lunar disc.

_ man" 2 (siffR 5fr). ' . fire ' mere imagination. But it does not agree with the 5 other two views (of Jiva). . . Vedic statements The four great Vedic statements which summarize the entire teachings of tlv Vedas are (1) "That Thou Art " (cTr?W%) (2) "I A : ' . acr treatise.. ac " as cultivation. . 3TRTT 3?l) (4) "This Atman is Brahman "(Pure) Consciousness is Brn ^. declare 2 the identity of partless 3 Brahman with the Jiva who appears as such from 4 the standpoint of the 'Theory of limitation' (3T^t%^r?:). For. . they have no world or in heaven. spiritual practiT-f.^ * the Vedas.-Various animate and inanimate objects.r t *i T^ of these : appears as Jiva. (3) . .. Pure 4 Conscio^-j ' L^ " From by Theory limited the eiL That of limitation" the Upadhis rp. with Brahma> rev in this .. at surDecfoclusion is The method followed in arriv fa" what is known as *n*n?n*Tc5$nJT' JeT a method in which the / of on both sides are given ir T all el their l(* 1 Js recognized. . of Jiva one in which he apand the other in which .DRG-DR&YA VIVEKA 34. tjty Jivas. Brahman (3T?F " (3?f 5f^TI%f). noticing caieful of*Y^ essence \^\^^ j s chj t or p ure Consr i*i jresenta!3 p fl \ v ^ > ^ 5-rW/cjj Btahman i.eilts' and . .. .. . ^^^o^* 4* ^ o-i rr presentation of the Seik^r . 49 Such Vedic statements 1 as "That Thou Art" etc. theory of limitatk her air water and earth - 5 .e. the Jiva as^ ancj eniOVS 2 J which decla* fA .. ' i .^ n va is. . trade. 5 ~v 7 The other etc. . s \ ifijjare etc. their ^ . . or Avidy J* ' 5 *ature of the objects J / There ar (universe).

appear as the ^nte. with the two other Jivas. he world f^qr^rrf^iWr 5TRT Maya which explai'rfiP has the dou6ie-v??erjt is in 2 and concealment indivisible Brahman. such etc. is nature of Brahman world Prahman) being. >le nature c and the Jiva. lo. * n a f e?IS- . Jivas between an illusory But the two other There cannot be any identity appearance and a real entity. Jiva and theories. for '' . sre?^ Ini agines.50 D$G-D$$YA VIVEKA are illusory. " That Thou Art " v the cause of are told that it (Maya) without parts tr^ri identity *3ye J ^rc ^^T. Brahman can be demonstrated..ai II ^ * II as u oiection wnat-J Maya character id by a and concealment ^W^ in ^^man r TA ^^ JDUt" Udij *F rests ^ ra ^ m Brahman ^^itr ^Ti^^r having concea'. XXXV That the appearance (j of Jiva is due to the limitation (^^:) superimposed upon Brahman is thus described : un rv we to illu ^ *^ ^[fc^J^^lf flW^^faf i Sffi^rat .

Elements Products water and earth. ces etc. spiritual practi- Enjoys 3 Either in this world or in heaven. 36. study of the Vedas. is the nature of Jiva and what the nature of the universe ? again. it is &^ all because the fallacious presentation of Consciousness (f%5WRp. worship. fire. 1 Various sacrifice.of this. therefore it is called Jiva. trade. And all 3 and their consisting of the elements 4 products which are of the nature of the objects of enjoyment.DRG-DR&YA VIVEKA 51 xxxvr is.) located in the Buddhi performs various 1 actions and enjoys 3 this. the nature of the objects of enjoyment *FKt universe ^rra: is called. 4 Various animate and inanimate objects. Ether. is called Jagat (universe). The answer is thus stated : What \\\\\\ located fallacious in Buddhi (mind) of presentation f| Consciousness *&*for: f^the performer the enjoyer ^fftrai of activities HTTRT (^) (as well as) because (cTOT^ therefore) becomes Jiva ^rptrraffi consisting of elements (^p) and their products (*ft%i) ^Tnr^q. . their results. 2 actions Such as cultivation. air.

Compare 2 JOT M frBPRRft SKTOft >. The origin of Maya which producesthe conceptions of time. as a man is in a state of ignorance.52 D$G-DR$YA VI VERA XXXVII of Both Jiva and Jagat are the products Maya hence they are cognized so long . dating from time with3 beginning. Without etc. have (only) empirical existence exist till 4 These and one attains liberation. 37. 5 1 There- These two The Jiva and Jagat. space and causation cannot be proved from the relative or the empirical standpoint. 1 V "Know beginning. It is because we aie in Maya that we cannot know the cause of Maya. ^ 3$ liberation these two *TWc<j<f till one attains be- aRif^rewnw from time without ginning <nwraL i^5?t K*ffi therefore 3^ 1 have only empirical existence both TRRPTO (are) em- pirical (in nature). (rftaT. knowledge and known are possible and the existence of the universe as well as various activities connected with it are possible only through these concepts. out 2 two. fore both are called empirical." 3 both Prakriti and Purusha to be without Empirical In the state of ignorance the ideas of knower. .

preservation and destruction and also waking.s. : universe. VV*) "Their fifteen parts enter into their elements. Compare 53 when one 1 i STW (3. how to possible explain the scriptural passages dealing with creation. one attains liberation." Empirical The Jiva and Jagat are neither real nor illusory (SfTfavufa^). Their deeds and their Self with all his knowledge become all one in the Highest Imperishable. existing from time should is it last till immemorial. They are empirical or phenomenal (2TT^[TR^). XXXVIII The individual if the following doubt arises as weil as the cognized self. The world 'disappears attains liberation or Jnanam. their Devas (the senses) into their (cortesponding) I)evas. dream and deep sleep states? It is thus explained : ftsr located in (associated with) Consciousness as wrongly presented fa$nrr?rof the nature of projection and concealment at first sftwRft the (individual) sleep $ .DRG-DRSYA VIVEKA Till one etc.

is the nature of reality Avidya merges deep sleep or cosmic dissolution Jiva. again. that is. on account of the belief in causality that the mind sees a causal relation between the experiences of the waking and the dream states. said to be associated with Consciousness wrongly presented (in the mind) and of the nature of concealment and projection. Afresh That is. The (in individual self universe whose existence state. itself a creation of Avidya cannot properly be said to be the ground (3Tf9RT) of Avidya. (3T? 3T|F. 1 at first covers the (empirical) individual self 2 and the cognized universe. a state in which not known. in 3 One following of the scholiasts explains the Sloka in the : way Nidra means Avidya. . the Jiva and the Jagat cognized dream which are apparently different from those of the waking state. such expresat the time of . But from common " " I am ignorant experience. The ^ord "imagines" means that they again become Jiva or the Chidabhasa being objects of experience. This Nidra or everything within it (^T^T-SffeT^F^r) sion may be It is used.). g~r new anw covering 38. 2 is perceived in and the the waking This is to show the distinction between and Jagat perceived in the waking state (Vyavaharika) and those of the dream state (PratibhaBut the Jiva sika). Sleep. Individual etc. imagines them afresh at the time of waking. but then imagines them 1 3 dream) afresh.54 self DRG-DZ&YA VIVEKA and the cognized universe but 3***^ imagines.

are illusory or imaginary on account of their non-perception after the attainment of Knowledge. From this analogy it can be said that the entire world of experiences. perceived as real during the state of ignorance.V1VEKA 55* XXXIX Why cognized in " are the Jiva and the Jagat. XL The following three stanzas point out the difference between the Jivas as conceived from (he three standpoints stated above: . 1 Only These objects do not exist during the subsequent waking or clienni states. of their 39. the and the perceived world) are of their having existed only 1 It is during the'pferiod of (dream) experience. imaginary or illusory? ^ TTCT ft these two Jftfttfara tpf rc*RRrr?t on account having existed only during the period of (dream) experience ^1^11%% illusory (&&& are called) f| because *?rcrsf^ for one who has woke up from sleep ^m in (new) dream cRt: of those (Jiva and Jagat) 3?r: again f&ftr: existence r not (seen). as dream. because no one after waking up from clream on account sees those objects when one dreams again. These self perceiving illusory two objects (namely.

Illusory 40. The world that is perceived in dream. IVorld 3 2 fieal r> Unreal To the Jiva of the waking subject state the entire dream-perceived appears as unreal. ^fan in dream) *m^ other ^ETSFRSJ: empirical unreal (T^fr thinks). the Buddhi. that) 3 few 5% the illusory Jiva thinks 4 3 the illusory world as real but the empirical 5 Jiva thinks (that world) as unreal 1 Imagined in dream. 4 Zs. Jiva (<ra. Because such world exists as long as the dream Jiva exists in dream.. cannot be said to be real. XLI Now is described the nature of experiences of the Paramarthika (Real) Jiva: . in the waking ders himself to be This Jiva is the reflection of Consciousness in state.56 D$G-n$$YA V1VEKA ^: who in (is) sifcWTftra: perceived TnftrwfM) dream) ^: illusory (that is that Jiva fa: he) ^ world ^Tr4 (perceived illusory real *r^cf thinks g but spar. on ac- count of their mutual contradictions. world of and object The dream and the waking experiences. He who 2 is .//^//-/^/-^Vyavciharika Jiva is he who consithe enjoyer etc.

its perceiver. is 2 L He who Empirical Empirical created by Maya. It is because the relative world exists as Jiva. identical with Brah- I ^ n the real Jiva tity with Brahman TrwnShS real 5 but 5T$M idenstt% knows . exists. * See ante. 41. 3 But the real 4 3 Jiva knows it to be unreal. experiences XLII The ed from ParaiYiarthika Jiva as distinguishthe Jivas of the waking and is dream experiences man. The world in of waking experiences present and future. sloka 36. 5 The world Jiva that is the witness of //The state. and its experiences its in the waking are not perceived in Because such world and deep sleep. Real Jiva three states.DRG-DR&YA VIVEKA *: H: 57 empirical ^T*C: Jiva ^I^TT^E empirical *r*r^ world ^f real srwrf sees <rnc*nflN>: the real (Jiva) that) ftrwrr ?f% unreal *T-ar% thinks. he ^ who (is) *n*roftsfc that the empirical 1 Jiva sees this empirical world as real. long as the the Real As existing past.

The Vyavaharika Jiva is he who knows the ego (seer) as distinct from the aggregate of the mind. . " where one does $0t see the other". this causal Self (Saguna Brahman) alone.doefr not see any existence " " than Brahman. The Jiva so long as it does not tinction between the Witness (^) and know the the dis- perceived world (^\) thinks the aggregate of body.. But the Paramarthika Jiva knows identity with.1 Brahman to be (alone) real. and thinks of the world not as real but the creation of the causal He further knows Self ultimately disappearing in it. 1 1 Other He.) when the Self is only all this* 7 Illusory -^^fe the Paramarthika Jiva comes back to the relative plane of Consciousness he knows the world and the reflected Consciousness (Jiva) to be unreal. s other 3j<j/' 2 (f g . (if he sees the other) 2 he knows it to 1>e ffetisory. body and sense-organ etc. The idea of Jiva is due to a false superimposition upon Brahman. as the seer and the object (perceived world) as real. The Brahman does not produce or manifest the world of ego and non-ego. ^y^iy. XLIII-XLIV The following doubt arises The Jivas known as VySvah&rika (experiencer of the waking state) and PrStibhasika : . to be real. mind.58 D$G-Dg$XA VIVZKA other ?r sft$r% doeiPttot see STWC^T as unreal 5 but its ^faffi" sees. senseorgan etc. It is like the superimposition of the snake-idea on the to rope. He does not see the Other. But the Paramarthika Jiva knows this causal relation be unreal. 1 " . v& ^F^c^^IrT (*5T. 42.. <5omp.

Consciousness and Bliss ^r?n<t on account of relation it which 3?3*ffiT (wave) is w as inheres Vyavaharika Jiva 5?gn^f?cf inhere it 5iif^rii%% in the Pratibhasika a^gftT through cfW similarly (argi^fScf inhere). state) on account their being products of Avidya. Up. self" 6-3-2. are insentient by nature. Enterof ing by this living. itself (Chand. earth. As such characteristics of water as sweetness. tfftWT: characteristics of water crfr% in the wave f3^wr inhering m%%%ff in the foam of the substratum 3?ft also *nf&W: the inherent characteristics of Sakshin ^?m-?T: Existence. fluidity and coldness. water. solved : manifested of the the form different is The doubt thus Rffa*m*r% ii 99 n sweetness. 3). nature of a Jivatma and names and forms. 1 and then also in the 52n^flR:% in the . The Brahman fire. Then how can they be described as Jiva ? For Jiva is the same " as the Jivatma as the Sruti says. Jiva 43-44. has entered in into the of Devata (shining element). fluidity and coldness appear to inhere in the waves.DRG-DR&YA (experiencer of the dream.

The characteristics of the substratum appear to inhere in The water appears as waves that which is substrated. To inhere in It is because the Vyavaharika including the perceived universe. 2 Consciousness and Bliss so also Existence. Sakshin is 3 These are the natural characterAs a matter identical with Satchidananda. 2 Existence etc. are the (natural characteristics of Sakshin) which H 4 appear to inhere in the Vyavaharika Jiva on account of through Jiva. according to Vedanta. Again.60 DgG-D$$YA VIVEKA of foams which the waves are the substratum. the same as the quality. Therefore the characteristics of Brahman appear to inhere in the Jiva and the Jagat. 1 it (with Sakshin) and similarly inhere in the Pratibhasika its relation 5 Waves The substratum of waves is water. Brahman there is no Jiva. The substance is. Vyavaharika or Pratibhasika Relation relative relation. . is the illusory appearance (Aropila) falsely superimposed upon Brahman. the Jiva Both Vyavaharika Jiva and the Pratibhasika Jiva include the worlds or the non-egos perceived in the waking and dream states. fl 5 and hence no Pratibhasika Jiva Both the ego and the nonego cognized in dream also have the characteristics of Existence. fluidity and coldness. Jiva. There is no difference between them except in respect of names and forms. the foams. istics (^T^T^^fJF) of of fact. and the waves as foams. 4 or This relation is seen from t'he causal From the standpoint of standpoint. Sakshin or Brahman. waves and water cannot be separated from sweetness. Consciousness and Bliss.

merge in the wave. these characteristics are also found to exist in their antecedent forms. jq with its the disappearance SSRTT: of foam f^sSr craptff: characteristics such the as fluidity etc.DRG-D%$YA VIVEKA 61 XLV of is how the characteristics are superimposed (srsjrcnr) upon the seer and the seen. as water from which they cannot be separated.. water. coldness and sweetness were what constituted water before waves and foams appeared. again with the dis2 appearance 61' the wave in the water. With Foam This is appears as the foam. in the water. Now after the disappearance of wave and foam in the water. '45. Foams etc. They appear from and disappear in water. <TTW% in the wave *$: exist 3U disappearance again T$T these as before ^T> in the water fciBi% exist. Water always exists. as before. ~ 1 an appearance. The of wave Wave is which 8 This is' also an appearance the ultimate substratum. these cha3 racteristics merge. have no existence separate from water. They are nothing but water in another form. Now comes the negation This Atman of this erroneous superimposition. with its the disappearance of the foam 1 (in the wave). As before Fluidity. its characteristics such as fluidity etc. .

in reality. With bhasika 1 When 1 that also disappears (in Sakshin) these characteristics (finally) Pratibhasika Jiva merge This in Sakshin. the same as Brahman. 46. in the water. Sakshin That is. even so with the . the disappearance of the PratiJiva (in the Vyavaharika Jiva) Existence.62 D%G-DR&YA VtVEKA XLVI Now the illustrated the meaning is that we to get from illustration : applied the object errsrfa n ^r ^ n with the disappearance of the Pratibhasika Jiva (sft^R^r: the characteristics of Existence. Existence. Consciousness and Bliss which are imagined to be qualities of Brahman are. Consci- ousness and Bliss mqw in Sakshin <r3wn% merge. disappear therein. As with their fluidity the merging of foam. Brahman which is identical with Self. etc. wave etc. Consciousness and Bliss (which are its characteristics) merge in the Vyavaharika Jiva. 2 Jiva include the worlds perceived by 2 and the Vyavaharika them respectively. Consciousness and Bliss) in the Vyavaharika (empirical) Jiva exist rf?R with the disappearance of that characteristics of Existence.

They appear out of Brahman. They appear out of and disappear in Brahman Brahman or Sakshin. disappear in For names and forms as well as the Brahman. Verily all that exists is Brahman. the present or the future nor in the states of waking. dream or deep The Vyavaharika Jiva and the world that it sleep. They exist only during the period of ignorance. perceives are non-existent before creation and after dissolution. inhere in Brahman and finally disappear in iiiahman. such as Existence etc.DRG-DR&YA VIVEKA Jiva 63 mergence of the Pratibhasika Jiva and the Vyavaharika in Sakshin (that is. As foam and wave have no existence apart from water. so also the entire universe consisting of the ego and the nonego have no existence apart from Brahman. Its existence cannot be denied. . in the past. inhering in them. in Brahman at the time of deep sleep and Mukti respectively) the characteristics. characteristics belonging to them have no other existence apart from Brahman.

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