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12 Ancient History - Mark Royters

Pompeii and Herculaneum Assessment Task 1

Part 1 - Introduction............................................................................................................................ 1 Part 2 - Plans and Streetscapes ........................................................................................................... 3 Part 3- The Economy ........................................................................................................................... 4 Part 4 - Social Structure ...................................................................................................................... 6 Part 5 Political Life............................................................................................................................ 8 Part 6 Everyday Life and Leisure Activities .................................................................................... 11 Part 7 Public Buildings .................................................................................................................... 13 Part 8 Religion ................................................................................................................................ 15 Glossary of Terms.............................................................................................................................. 17 Map of Campania .............................................................................................................................. 18 Plan of Pompeii ................................................................................................................................. 19 Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................... 20

Part 1 - Introduction
Discussion Although the great eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79AD occurred many years ago, it leaves behind it a huge question just why did so many people perish in Pompeii as a result of the eruption? The answer is far from simple and lies within in the various primary and secondary sources regarding the eruption. The major source concerning the eruption however exists in the form of two letters written from Pliny the Younger to the great Roman historian Tacitus. Although written many years after the eruption itself, a fact which must always be remembered when analysing them, the letters contain a great deal of detail as Pliny was able to observe the eruption from his home in Misenum just 32km away from Vesuvius. One of the first clues as to why so many perished due to the eruption can be found in Plinys second letter, when he is outlining the typical reaction to the pre-emptive volcanic activity. Pliny states There had been tremors for many days previously, a common occurrence in Campania and no cause for panic. This provides insight into why the citizens did not heed the early warning signs and hence were trapped by the final eruption; it shows that the citizens did not view Mount Vesuvius with reverence, and simply treated its volcanic activity as everyday occurrences. Plinys great detail of the eruption, when it finally occurred, reveals more information as to why the eruption was so deadly. Early on in his first letter, Pliny describes the eruption as being a giant cloud filled with whiteand dark patches of dirt and ash rising high into the sky like a pine tree *supported+ on a very long trunk which spread some branches. This description, as analysed in the secondary sources written by Haraldur Sigurdsson, reveals that the eruption was not a standard magmatic eruption but rather a much more deadly Plinian eruption (appropriately named after Pliny). The categorisation of this eruption as Plinian, as well as the further descriptive detail of the eruption by Pliny, reveals that the nearby residents of Pompeii would have been immobilised and trapped by the giant cloud of ash and pumice that fell on their town less than half an hour after the eruption hence rendering many of the residents unable to evacuate. Sigurdssons work on the eruption of Vesuvius also reveals the different ways in which Pompeii and Herculaneum were destroyed, and the reason for this. Sigurdsson breaks down the eruption into eight key phases and, taking into account the combined written, scientific and geographical evidence, outlines how each of these phases affected Pompeii and/or Herculaneum. The first two phases of the eruption, the giant cloud of pumice and ash, only affected Pompeii as the town was situated downwind of Vesuvius and as mentioned above would have trapped many of the citizens in the doomed town. Herculaneum wasnt affected till many hours when it was hit by the first three surges and flows from Vesuvius. These surges completely covered the town however the citizens were unaffected by the terrible cloud plaguing Pompeii so many would have been able to leave before this stage. The forth to sixth flows made it to Pompeii as well as Herculaneum and would have covered the many citizens trapped after the ash and pumice fall. It was these different stages that reached both towns that led to the different ways in which they were destroyed.


Research Although often overlooked due to the giant eruption that followed it seventeen years later, the earthquake of 62AD drastically changed the town of Pompeii for better or for worse. It not only did a great deal of physical damage but also did a great deal of social damage and, according to the excavator Amedeo Maiuri, caused a major social and economic transformation in the city. In terms of evidence of the physical impact of the earthquake, the two major sources are the archaeological finds of repair work on many buildings, and a letter written by Seneca the Elder, a prolific Roman writer and philosopher. Physical evidence of repair work uncovered at Pompeii reveals the great and widespread damage of the earthquake. Fiorelli was the first archaeologist to properly reveal the damage of the earthquake as his systematic and stratigraphic approach uncovered extensive repair work on the foundations of many buildings shaken down by the earthquake. Further work carried out by Spinazolla and in particular Maiuri, who was trying to find evidence to support his Crisis Theory, revealed even more extensive damage incurred on roads, large public structures, housing roofs and statues by the earthquake. The extent of the physical damage in Pompeii is best summarised by Seneca who states that the earthquake lowered Pompeii to the ground1. In terms of social damage, the majority of evidence comes from Maiuris secondary source publications in which he argues his Crisis Theory, a hypothesis that the earthquake created a critical period of social and economic reform. Maiuri believed that the earthquake created a kind of social vacuum in which wealthy patricians left the town leaving behind a motley crowd of enriched merchants, second hand dealers, bakers, fullers, decayed patricians and thrusting industrialists dabbling in politics.2 If this reshuffling of class is to be believed, some critics believe Maiuris long and lavish work to be lacking in detail and scientific evidence, than it would have completely changed the social backbone of Pompeii.

Paraphrased translation from Quaestiones Naturales, VI

2 Maiuri A (1942). L'ultima fase edilizia di Pompei


Part 2 - Plans and Streetscapes

Discussion In its first years of operation, the organization of the Pompeii site was confusing, convoluted and downright impractical. It wasnt until the appointment of Giuseppe Fiorelli as inspector of excavations in 1860 that this system was given a complete overhaul. In tune with his vision of a systematic digging approach, Fiorelli came up with and implemented a consistent numbering and naming system to be used all over the Pompeii site. This new system divided the topography of the entire site (including areas that still had to be excavated) into nine regions (regiones), each of which contained 22 town blocks (insulae), which themselves contained numbered entrances to houses and shops. This new grid system was immediately beneficial, as it made site plans much simpler and easier to draw up and made the location of individual sites far simpler. By far the most important characteristic of the system however was its impact on the approach to excavation carried out at Pompeii. Until Fiorelli and his grid system, excavation was random and unstructured, with digs being made wherever archaeologists believed they would find something of interest. The implementation of Fiorellis grid system heralded in a new era of systematic excavation in which specific teams of archaeologists worked along the lines of the roads. Without Fiorellis grid system it may have been many years before proper, logical excavations began at Pompeii and as a result it remains one of the most important archaeological advancements to take place at the site. A true testament to its importance is the fact that it is still used today. Research The towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum were very public places and hence roads and streetscapes became an integral part of everyday life. The cleverly planned streets of Pompeii and Herculaneum connected all of the different sections of town together and would have allowed residents easy access to and from the various public buildings located all over town, such as the amphitheatre, baths, temples and most importantly the forum. Streets also played a large commercial role as all of the major streets were lined on either side by various tabernae (shops) such as bakeries, taverns and brothels. The construction of the various roads in Pompeii and Herculaneum was carefully thought out and represents the ingenious town planning that took place in Roman towns. All of the major streets were intricately paved and were flanked on either side by raised sidewalks for wealthy residents to walk along, as the middles of the streets were usually filled with mucky water and garbage. Streets also featured pedestrian crossing areas were stepping stones were strategically placed to allow wealthy residents to cross without stepping in the street muck. Many streets also contained small white stones mixed in with the larger stones to enable people to see the road in darker conditions. Due to the popularity of the streets public fountains were built at most of the street intersections, complete with intricately sculptured headstones, to provide residents with water. The width of the different streets also varied depending on the relative volume of pedestrian and wheeled traffic that they were expected to accommodate. All of these intricacies of the streets reveal the highly important role they played in everyday life for a Pompeian or Herculaneum resident. 3|Page

Part 3- The Economy

What have excavations revealed? Excavations of wine bars and taverns (cauponae) in Pompeii and Herculaneum have revealed that the high regard in which they were held in Pompeian and Herculaneum as well as broad Roman society. Although they could be found all over town, the majority of wine bars and taverns were found near the entrance gates assumedly so visitors and merchants could have easy access to Pompeiis wine (which was held in high regard). Taverns were also clustered around the amphitheatre, showing the large role wine played in the entertainment and enjoyment of people. Graffiti found nearby the taverns, for example Cheers! We drink like wineskins and Suavis demands full wine jars further emphasize this idea. Like the excavation of taverns, the excavation of brothels has revealed the importance of prostitution also in typical Pompeian life. The major brothels found in Pompeii are located in the so called public area of Pompeii in the vicinity of the Forum and other buildings such as the Commitium, Market and Temple of Jupiter. This prime location is perfect evidence of the existence of brothels as a major part of Pompeian society. Other primary evidence however suggests that some wealthier classes of people were disapproving of brothels. A sign found at the front of the House of Julia Felix (a wealthy landowner) gives the letters S. Q. D. L. E. N. C which is an acronym for i quis domi lenocinium exerceat ne conducito. In English, this sentence translates to Let no one apply who keeps a brothel The excavation of mills and bakeries have revealed that bread was one of the major food sources for Pompeian and Herculaneum citizens. There have been approximately 30 bakeries (pistrina) identified in Pompeii alone, which shows the great demand for bread in Pompeii. Each bakery had three or four lava stone mills for refining the grain, a hard table for kneading the dough and a brick oven for cooking the final loaf. A few bakeries also had adjoining stores so they could sell a variety of different baked goods rather than just bread. A baker named Sextus Felix for example specialized in different sized cake making, as revealed in a piece of promotional graffiti found in Herculaneum, *Felix makes cakes for] twenty five bronze baking pans of various sizes Discussion There were two different markets in Pompeii, both located on either side of the Forum. The bigger of the two was the Macellum which specialized in the sale of fish and meat as well as fruit and vegetables. It was located on the north-eastern side of the Forum so that its high levels of walking traffic would not directly walk through and interfere with the proceedings at the Forum. The Macellum was made up of a large arcaded courtyard and was surrounded by a series of small shops. In the centre of the courtyard was a large covered market area (a tholos) and it contained a pool for live fish. The main activities that would have taken place here were the cleaning, filleting and selling of fish as well as the making of garum and the sale of a variety of meats such as lamb, beef, veal, pork and poultry. Other activities that would have taken place here would have been the eating of sacrificial banquets, the auction of products and the exchange of money. The market on the other side of the forum was much smaller and served as a market for the sale of dried cereals and pulses (olitorium) to both individuals and bakeries.


Archaeologists have found Indices Nundinarii (market calendars) which reveal that market days were held in Pompeii on every Saturday. At these market days, peddlers and local farmers would have set up temporary stalls from which to sell their products. Research Coinage was a very important part of the Pompeian and Herculaneum economies as they were highly commercial towns and hence needed large amounts of currency. Due to the wide variety of different products and prices bought by citizens, Campanian towns had six different types of coins each worth different values in order to pay for different products. The coins used, in order from least expensive to most expensive, were quadrans, asses, dupondii, sestertii, denarii and aureus. Because most Pompeian and Herculaneum shops were market style establishments, barter was a key characteristic of nearly all purchases. Pompeii was also renowned for its large amount of commercial transactions, most of which were run through the Basilica. These commercial transactions also featured large amounts of bartering and haggling as both parties tried to secure the best possible deal for themselves. As found inscribed onto a wall in Pompeii, Profit is joy. Fishing was another important part of the towns economies due to their close proximity to the Campanian coastline. Although unprocessed fish was sold to citizens of both towns, mainly in markets, the most popular use for fish was the manufacture of Garum (fish sauce), which was a vital ingredient in ancient Roman cooking. Garum became a major part of Pompeiis exports and over time the town became renowned for its garum. As stated by Pliny, no other liquid apart from unguents has come to be more highly valued. Because of the high profit in garum exporting, fishing in both towns became a large part of the economy and was a highly profitable profession.


Part 4 - Social Structure

Role of Eumachia Although born female into a humble family, Eumachia is remembered as one of the most prominent figures of Pompeii and is a testament to the social mobility that was possible at Pompeii. Originally born into a relatively unknown family, Eumachia inherited a small fortune from her father Lucius Eumachius who became wealthy through his manufacturing of bricks. She used this new found wealth to marry a successful vintner and hence became a part of one of Pompeiis oldest families, the Numistrii Frontones. Using her high social status, Eumachia was able to attain the position of a public priestess to the Cult of Venus (the patron goddess of Pompeii) and the patroness of the Fullers guild (one of Pompeiis most significant industries). Eumachia, with the help of her son Marcus Numistrius Fronto, also funded the construction of an impressive building next to the forum, assumedly to be used as the headquarters for the Fullers guild. An inscription uncovered on the side door of the building leading out onto the Street of Abundance reads, Eumachia, daughter of Lucius, a public priestess, in her own name, and in the name of her son, Murcus Numistrius Fronto, made the chalcidicum, the crypta and the porticus with her own money and dedicated the same to Concordia Augusta and to Pietas. Because of her kind deeds, Eumachia was held in very high regard by the people of Pompeii, a fact which was emphasized through the discovery of a grand statue of Eumachia. Found at the rear ambulatory of her building, the statue depicts Eumachia in the veiled form of a priestess and features an inscription that roughly translates to Eumachia, daughter of Lucius, public priestess of Pompeian Venus. The statue is a fantastic visual representation of the role that Eumachia played in Pompeii and the social mobility she was able to achieve. Discussion Whilst social division wasnt as extreme as at many other Roman towns, it still occurred at Pompeii with different classes living very different day-to-day lives. Pompeiis population was divided into three very broad categories, slaves, freed slaves and freeborn, with different social hierarchies occurring in each of these categories. The everyday lives of slaves would have been the worse and they were treated with no respect and had no control over their own lives; their only purpose was to serve their masters. (More detail about the treatment of slaves in the next section). The next social category was freed slaves and was comprised of former slaves who had been able to achieve manumission either through the accumulation of enough wealth or the approval of their masters. The number of freed slaves appeared to grow rapidly in the 1st century AD, with many of them becoming wealthy and influential. The majority of freed slaves entered the professions of crafts, trade and commerce and hence would have dominated their everyday lives. Many freed slaves also ended up spending their lives running the small shops, workshops, bars and taverns that were built into many of the rich citizens houses. The highest social category was freeborn and the everyday lives of people in this category would have been the greatest. Like the majority of freed slaves, many freeborns were engaged in some form of commerce. As stated by historian Michael Grant, commerce served as a leveller in 6|Page

society3. The higher classes of freedmen had a network of social ties and relationships, the most important of which was the patron/client relationship. In this relationship a client was supported politically, socially, economically and legally by a patron, in return for political support. The discrepancies between the rich and the poor freedmen were greater in some aspects of life than others. The public baths for example had no form of class system, with the rich and the poor sharing the facilities together, whilst the theatre had a rigid class system, where the seating was divided into different sections for different social classes. In the last few years of Pompeii, the boundaries between the different social classes seemed to loosen, allow for easier social mobility and movement. Research Although often overlooked, slavery was a large part of Pompeian and Herculaneum society and slaves, although they wouldnt have known it, played a big role in the two towns. Evidence found in both towns has revealed the many different types of slaves that existed and this in turn shows the heavy reliance on slaves in nearly all parts of Pompeian and Herculaneum life. The major categories of slave were; domestic (urban) slaves, agricultural slaves, public slaves, business slaves and religious slaves (though only in certain religions). Various pieces of evidence found at Pompeii and Herculaneum show that the treatment of slaves varied greatly within each category. Excavations in Pompeii have revealed that some rural villas and wine/oil presses had relatively nice living quarters for slaves and yet excavators also found a agricultural slave chained by both legs at the Villa of the Mosaic , showing that no one had bothered to release him at the time of the eruption. The only slaves that appeared to have been treated fairly on the whole are those in the business category, as they were the smartest of the slaves. Tablets found at Murecine just outside Pompeii depict records that were written through the collaboration of a slave and his master, showing the close relationship that was necessary between a business slave and his master. Social hierarchy also existed within slave groups, with educated male slaves being the most privileged. If a slave reached a high enough social position, they could afford for themselves to be manumitted (or alternatively manumitted by their masters). Manumitted slaves were able to assume their masters named and they became known as a freedman or libertinus. A libertinus was completely free, however many liked to retain a link with their former master in a relationship of gratitude and loyalty. Many freedmen went on to become successful business owners in Pompeii and Herculaneum.

Grant. M (2001). Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii and Herculaneum. Phoenix Press.


Part 5 Political Life

Main Features of the Constitution Because both Pompeii and Herculaneum were under Roman influence, their basic laws were heavily influenced by the main features of the Roman system of government and its constitution. The major political features of Pompeii and Herculaneum were: Voting although voting was considered to be a major part of Pompeian and Herculaneum society, only freeborn male citizens over the age of 25 could be a part of the peoples assembly vote. Women and freedmen were not allowed to be a part of the assembly and hence were not allowed to vote (although women were allowed to support political candidates) Elections - Elections for the various councils were held in March each year, with the representatives beginning their year long term in July Census A census was held every five years and presided over by the two elected Quinquennales Odro Decurionum There was a council known as the Decurion Council or Odro Decurionum (the senate) made up of 100 magistrates from the wealthy classes, the most distinguished citizens. They controlled public finances, construction and religion. Decurions Four officials were elected to run the town. Two of them were senior magistrates (duumvi) and presided over elections, were in charge of finance and the law and represented the Decurion council. The other two officials were junior magistrates (Aediles) and managed the basic running of the towns (looked after public buildings, water supply, sanitation, street markets etc)

These political features of the towns are identical to the features of the Roman constitution detailed in Polybius The Histories (under the section The Constitution of the Mid Republic), which shows that the legal systems of both towns were based almost entirely on the Roman constitution. Discussion All of the primary sources documenting political life reveal the great role that politics played in Pompeian and Herculaneum society and the high regard in which it was held. Because of this great importance and value placed on politics, the senate became one of the key parts of Pompeian and Herculaneum politics as it was the political council of the town, the one and only body that acted for and on behalf of the town. This great importance of the senate meant that its 100 members must truly be the most distinguished and worthy citizens in the town. Although not considered to be the lowest of people, certain professions such as actors, gladiators and innkeepers were viewed as inferior compared to the wealthy members of society, they were viewed as inferior. Actors and gladiators were viewed as simply being cheap entertainers, people who worked to provide the rich with entertainment. They had a lack of public honour, they were


infamia4. Likewise innkeepers were viewed as inferior members of society who worked simply to provide comfort for wealthy members of society. Public statues uncovered at Pompeii and Herculaneum provide insight into the types of people that were highly regarded and coveted in these ancient societies. The majority of statues found were of religious figures such as the statues of Apollo in the Temple of Apollo, however archaeologists have also uncovered statues of great emperors, political leaders and other high class figures. The best example of this can be found in the Herculaneum Basilica, where archaeologists found grand statues of Augustus and Claudius as well as other members of the imperial family such as Livia, Antonia (mother of Claudius), Flavia and Domitia Longina (Empress and wife of Domitian). Another notable statue in Herculaneum is that of politician Marcus Nonius Balbus. The inscription under the statue reads To Marcus Nonius Balbus, praetor, proconsul, patron, from the entire Council of the people of Herculaneum in recognition of his merits. These statues show that the citizens of both towns viewed great politicians and leaders in the same regard as religious figures. This idea is further supported by the Imperial Cult, a religion entirely built around worshipping the genius of the Emperor. Actors, gladiators and innkeepers were infamia, never seen in such high regard as these political figures and hence werent considered worthy to represent the town at the Senate, as they were not seen as being a part of the 100 most distinguished citizens in the town. Their status as infamia excluded not only from Senate membership but also many of the other legal benefits of being a Roman citizen. Research As outlined above, politics played a huge role in Pompeian and Herculaneum life and because of this there a huge number of primary sources found at Pompeii and Herculaneum that document political life. The most revealing of these sources however are graffito and frescoes as they provide a more personal insight into political life in the towns. Running for candidacy was a major part of political life in Pompeii and Herculaneum, and political propaganda was a big part of an electoral campaign. In Pompeii alone, archaeologists have found more than three thousand electoral inscriptions, most of which are dated from the final year of Pompeii meaning that old inscriptions were constantly erased and replaced with new ones. All of these inscriptions are propaganda messages, urging Pompeiis citizens to vote for a particular candidate. The inscriptions are written in variety of different ways, some from a personal perspective; I ask you to elect Gaius Julius Polybius aedile. He gets good bread and I ask you elect Epidius Sabinushe is worthy and others from groups of people; The worshippers of Isis unanimously urge the election of Gnaeus Helvius Sabinus The petty visitors thieves support Vatia. Some of the inscriptions also seem to make a mockery of all the propaganda, suggesting that not all citizens supported the great emphasis placed on electoral campaigns, for example I wonder, O, wall, that you have not fallen in ruins from supporting the stupidities of so many scribblers. Although historians cannot be entirely sure, many frescoes that have been uncovered also appear to be electoral propaganda. Many of the frescoes appear to depict politicians in the act of performing good deeds or socializing with everyday citizens of Pompeii. One fresco found in a bakery seems to

Hallet. J & Skinner. M (1997). Roman Sexualities


depict a politician giving bread to average citizens. This could very likely be the politician Gaius Polybius who was mentioned above as getting good bread. Although a very different primary source to graffito and frescoes, the public buildings in Pompeii and Herculaneum can also be used to document political life. The immense size and intricacy of the Fora in both towns, as well as their positioning in the social centres of both towns further emphasize the great extent to which political life permeated Pompeian and Herculaneum life. Another primary source used to document political life are the grand statues of politicians and leaders found in both towns. As outlined in the previous section, the uncovering of public statues of politicians mixed in with statues of religious figures show the high regard in which politicians were viewed by the general public.

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Part 6 Everyday Life and Leisure Activities

Research Spectacle was a great part of Pompeian society and as a result of this Pompeii was renowned for its gladiatorial shows, so much that they attracted great publicity and had very high attendance rates by not only Pompeian citizens but also citizens from neighboring towns. Tensions in the Campania region were high however after the Social War (91-88BC) and as a result of this brawls and riots often broke out at big events. The biggest riot to occur in the amphitheatre took place in 59AD between Pompeian and Nucerian citizens and this prompted Emperor Nero to close it for ten years. The best source of information on the closing of the amphitheatre comes from Tacituss Annals, a secondary source, in which he states About this time [AD 59] there was a serious fight between the inhabitants of two Roman settlements, Nuceria and Pompeii. It arose out of a trifling incident at a gladiatorial show....During an exchange of tauntscharacteristic of these disorderly country townsabuse led to stone-throwing, and then swords were drawn. The people of Pompeii, where the show was held, came off best. Many wounded and mutilated Nucerians were taken to the capital. Many bereavements, too, were suffered by parents and children. The emperor instructed the senate to investigate the affair. The senate passed it to the consuls. When they reported back, the senate debarred Pompeii from holding any similar gathering for ten years. Illegal associations in the town were dissolved; and the sponsor of the show and his fellow-instigators of the disorders were exiled." The riot was celebrated by many Pompeian citizens as a sign of strength and power and used it to assert their towns dominance. A piece of graffiti bragging about the riot was found in the House of the Dioscuri and reads Campanians, you perished with the Nucerians in our victory Types of Sport and Entertainment The main types of sport available to the citizens of Pompeii and Herculaneum were; the various different Ludi games held in the palaestra (for example the Ludi Iuventus Youth Games), athletics, swimming, wrestling, javelin, discuss throwing, gladiatorial contests, wild animal hunts and circus games (the most popular being chariot racing). The importance of sport to the citizens of Pompeii and Herculaneum is emphasizes through the enormous size of the main palaestras in both towns, as well as the discovery of various bronze statues of athletes with physically impressive bodies. The main types of entertainment apart from watching many of the sports mentioned above were; theatrical performances such as traditional dramas, oscan farces, mimes and pantomimes, public executions and the recreation of sea battles. The grand size and design of the Pompeian and Herculanuem amphitheatres and theatres are greatly indicative of the large emphasis placed on entertainment by the citizens of both towns. As mentioned above, the entertainment in Pompeii was so spectacular that residents from neighboring towns travelled to Pompeii to watch. Public Baths in Pompeii Bathing was a popular activity in Pompeii as they were an enjoyable social activity as well as an opportunity to satisfy not only the well-being of the body, but also of the spirit5. Four bath complexes (thermae) have been uncovered at Pompeii so far: The Stabian Baths, the Forum Baths,

Grant. M (2001). Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii and Herculaneum. Phoenix Press.

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the Central Baths and the Sarno Baths. Males and females bathed separately either in different sections or at different times of the day if there was no room for the latter. Excavations of the thermae at Pompeii have revealed that all four were made up of the following elements; a vestibule (exercise yard), an apodyterium (changing and waiting room), a frigidarium (room with a circular cold bath), tepidarium (warm room), a laconicum (sweating room) and a caldarium (hot room with a rectangular heated bath and a large circular basin). As well as simply taking a bath, visitors to the thermae could engage in sport and other physical exercise, listen to musical and poetic performances, arrange business deals, and visit the attached gardens and libraries. Some historians such as Michael Grant also believe that sexual activities took place at the baths, despite the attempted gender segregation, and they cite graffiti such as *the masseur is+ accused of taking liberties with women+ and pimps and prostitutes began to make a nuisance of themselves as evidence.

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Part 7 Public Buildings

List of Temples The main temples in Pompeii, along with their significant features are: Temple of Apollo Located on the western side of the forum, frequently remodeled, stands on a high podium Temple of Venus Located behind the Basilica and near the Marine Gate, built twice and destroyed twice, in the process of its third reconstruction in 79AD Doric Temple located in the southern part of the Triangular Forum, reconstructed several times during Samnite Period but abandoned during Roman Age, foundation built up in a series of broad, high steps Temple of Vespasian /Sanctuary of the Genius of Augustus - Located on the eastern side of the Forum, in the process of being rebuilt in 79AD,magnificent marble altar Temple of Isis Entrance located on the southern side of the Via del Tempio dlside, built in 2nd century BC, reconstruction after earthquake financed by freedman Numerius Popidius Ampliatus after his son Celsinus Temple of Fortuna Augusta Located at the corner of the Via del Foro and Via della Fortuna, built by duumvir Marcus Tullius and dedicated to Fortuna Augusta, had no portico (assumedly destroyed in earthquake and not replaced) Temple of the Lares Publici Located on the eastern side of the forum, argument over when it was built, large open and central court Temple of Asclepius/Temple of Jupiter Meilichius- Located at the junction of the Via del Tempio di Iside and the Via Stabina, built 2nd century BC, impressive tufa altar in centre of courtyard Temple of Jupiter Located on and forms a major part of the northern side of the Forum, built in a prostyle form, large podium 37x17m standing 3m high built in opus incertum style,

The only two possible temples in Herculaneum are located in the Sacred Area, a large area built over vaulted boat houses and located to the west of the Terrace of M.Nonius Balbus. The two temples and their significant features are: Temple dedicated to Venus Located towards the centre of the Sacred Area, complete restoration after earthquake, cella raised on a podium and fronted by a pronaos Temple dedicated to Vulcan, Neptune, Mercury and Minerva Located towards the left hand end of the Sacred Area, complete restoration after earthquake, also had its cella raised on a podium and fronted by a pronaous Other building remains (possibly temples) found in Sacred Area, purpose not yet determined

Research Although technically Pompeii and Herculaneum were Roman towns, they were both greatly influenced by Egyptian culture and especially Greek culture. Whilst Greek influence can be found in many different parts of Pompeian and Herculaneum society, the biggest influences can be found in the public buildings of the towns. All of the public buildings are at least partially built in Greek architectural styles and contained Greek decorations such as frescoes and statues as well as traditional Roman decorations. 13 | P a g e

The biggest Greek architectural influence found in the public buildings at Pompeii and Herculaneum is the use of the Greek architectural orders Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. All of the public buildings in Pompeii and Herculaneum are built using columns with the characteristics of at least one of these orders and some, such as Pompeiis basilica, are built using the columns from all three of these orders. Some of the other main examples of the different styles are the plain Doric columns used in Pompeiis Forum and the 28 Corinthian columns surrounding the Temple of Apollo. The theatres in Pompeii and Herculaneum also represent the strong Greek influence in the towns, as theatres were a key part of all Greek cities. Although the building date of Herculaneums theatre is unknown, archaeologists believe Pompeiis large theatre was originally built in the 2nd century BC in a Hellenistic style6, meaning that it was of Greek origin. At this point in time, theatres werent yet a large part of Roman culture, and few large fixed theatres (with the exception of Pompeys Theatre) existed in purely Roman towns. Pompeiis theatre was remodeled in 65AD and remade into the Greco-Roman style of theatre, suggesting that this could have been when theatres started to become much more prominent in Roman culture. Many of the decorations in Pompeii and Herculanuems public buildings were also very Greek in style, further depicting the great influence of Greek culture in both towns. According to Pliny the Elder, the mosaics and frescoes found the walls of Pompeian houses were simply imitations of famous works by Greek artists. Discussion Fora played a huge role in Roman life and formed a big part of Roman society as they were the heart of commercial and political activities7. Fora represented a marriage of two of the key elements of Roman society, commerce/business and politics. Most Fora also had a Temple of Jupiter located in its northern end (along with other smaller temples), meaning that the forum contained the three key elements of Roman society- commerce/business, politics and religion, truly making it the centre of Roman life. In his architectural treatise, Greek writer Vitruvius emphasises the great importance of Fora to Roman towns when he describes in detail how they must be constructed and how they should operate in all Roman towns; The width must be two thirds of the length, the shape thus being rectangular *the transactions must be held+ under the porticos *using+ money-changers *stalls+. *the overall size must be] proportionate to the size of the population, otherwise there will be a shortage of space, or the forum, too scantily filled, will look empty. This overly detailed superlative description shows the importance of a forum in Roman life, as its construction and operation had to almost perfectly follow this template. The Forum in Pompeii was surrounded by the Municipal Offices, the Basilica, the Temple of Apollo, the Temple of Jupiter, the Macellum, the Temple of the Lares Publici, the Temple of Vespasian, the Building of Eumachia and the Comitium. This cluster of buildings means that on any day, the Forum would be bustling with activity from shopkeepers, stall-holders, merchants, money changers, customers, teachers and students, religious followers and anyone else who just wanted to pay a visit to the town centre. 8

6 7

Chambers, M. et al. (1991). The Western Experience Volume I To 1715, Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill, Inc. Grant. M (2001). Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii and Herculaneum. Phoenix Press. 8 Paraphrased Grant. M (2001). Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii and Herculaneum. Phoenix Press.

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Part 8 Religion
Main Gods Egyptian o Ra o Hathor o Sekhmet o Nut o Geb o Osiris o Seth o Horus o Isis o Anubis o Maat o Amun o Bastet Greek o o o o o o o o o o o o Roman o o o o o o o o o o o o

Zeus Hera Poseidon Hades Hestia Aphrodite Demeter Apollo Artemis Ares Athena Hermes

Apollo Ceres Diana Juno Jupiter Mars Mercury Minerva Neptune Venus Vesta Vulcan

Discussion Religion was of great importance in ancient Roman towns, as the Romans believed all aspects of life were controlled by the gods. Pompeii and Herculaneum were no different and the citizens of both towns prayed, gave offerings and made sacrifices in their various temples to win the favour of the gods and avert disasters. Worship was a crucial aspect of life for both towns and hence the citizens placed a great emphasis on the three main forms of religion State/public religion, household religion and foreign cults. State religion was very much a political affair, as priestly offices were political positions and each citizen had a political duty to scrupulously carry out the correct rituals to the gods (sacrifice and prayer) to ensure prosperity, good luck and protection for the state and its people9. This integration of religion into politics demonstrates the great emphasis placed on it. The major gods worshipped under state religion were The Capitoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva), Hercules, Apollo, Venus and the genius of the emperor. Public ritual was a big part of state religion, with sacrificiums (offering of animals to gods) being carried out by flamens (specific priests) and Augustales on a regular basis. This heavy integration of state religion into social and political life clearly conveys the great emphasise placed on religion by the people of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Household religion or private worship also played a large role in the societies of both towns, with the worship of the lares (protectors of the household), penates (protectors of the stores) and genius of the paterfamilias (generating force occurring in nearly all houses and stores in both towns. Cicero outlined the significance of religion in the home when he said, The most sacred, the most hallowed place on earth is the home of each and every citizen. There are his sacred hearth and his household

Grant. M (2001). Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii and Herculaneum. Phoenix Press.

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gods, there the very centre of his worship, religion and domestic ritual10. This large role of religion in the household further shows the great importance of religion. The final form of religion in Pompeii and Herculaneum was the existence of foreign cults. The huge number of foreign cults adopted in both towns, the most notable of which are the Cult of Isis and the cult of Dionysus/Bacchus, is even more evidence of the great emphasis placed on religion in Pompeii. Research The major aspect of Pompeian life revealed by its tombs is the great importance that was placed on life. The tombs were a constant reminder of the brevity of life and urged the people to make the most of what they had whilst they could. Although there were large amounts of graffiti and other written texts that emphasised the shortness of life, for example Mans life, alas is but a span, so let us live while we can11, nothing sent as strong a message as the tombs the lined the streets leading into Pompeii. The tombs were perfect examples of the unavoidable reality of death. The tombs also emphasise another key aspect of Pompeian life, the great importance placed on social class and wealth. Even after death these elements of Pompeian life were still greatly valued. The detail of each tomb varied from person to person and was a great example of the wealth and social status that had been able to obtain in life. According to historian Michael Grant, tombs varied from the plainest enclosure made of brick, to the most elaborate monument with sculptural decoration. The most impressive tombs constantly reminded passers-by of the achievements of social status of the deceased. The tomb of famous Garum maker Umbricius Scarus for example was designed with a public games theme to constantly remind people of his great sponsorship of the games.

10 11

Cicero, De Domo Sua 41, 109 A speech from Petronius Satyricon

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Glossary of Terms
Pumice Lapilli Mosaics Frescoes Fora Hellenistic A light and porous volcanic rock formed by the solidification of frothy lava Small and solidified fragments of lava ejected from a volcano Pictures or patterns created by the arrangement of small coloured pieces of material Paintings completed on wet plaster on walls or ceilings The centre of political, economic, social, civic and religious life. Relating to a period of Ancient Greek society between the death of Alexander the Great in 323BC and the takeover of the classical Greek heartlands by Rome in 146BC Town blocks in Fiorellis grid system A fermented fish sauce condiment that was widely manufactured in Pompeii and essential in Ancient Roman cooking Clothmakers, dyers and clothing traders A protector, sponsor and benefactor of a client (patron/client relationship) The male head of a household The demonstration of a clients loyalty to his patron Metal workers who specialised in gold and other precious Roman towns The peoples assembly Senior magistrates, presided over elections, carried out decrees of the Decurion council and in charge of justice and finance Junior officials of the Decurion, in charge of managing the day-today running of the town, the upkeep of public buildings, water supply, sanitation, street markets and maintaining general order Four officials elected to run the town A hot food bar First light dishes served at a banquet Main three or four dishes served with wine at a banquet Last dish, dessert, served at a banquet Bareheaded gladiator who carried a fishermans trident, a dagger and a net Large sporting area Central room of a temple where the image of the deity was placed Different seating sections in a theatre or ampitheatre Stage in a theatre for actors to perform on A small household shrine Order of 21 part-time priests to supervise and maintain the Imperial Cult A large graveyard

Insulae Garum Fullers Patronus Paterfamilias Salutatio Goldsmiths Municipium Comitium Duumvir Aediles

Decuriones Thermopolium Gustatio Fercula Mensae Secundae Retarius Palaestra Cella Cavea Scena Lararium Augustales Necropolis

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Map of Campania

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Plan of Pompeii

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Grant. M (2001). Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii and Herculaneum. Phoenix Press. Maiuri. A (1942). L'ultima fase edilizia di Pompei. Republished in Richardson L. (1997). Pompeii: An Architectural History. The Johns Hopkins University Press Senecca. Quaestiones Naturales, VI. Translation retrieved November 27th 2011 from Pliny the Younger, Letters, VI, 16. Translation retrieved November 27th 2011 from Hallet. J & Skinner. M (1997). Roman Sexualities. Princeton University Press Chambers, M. et al. (1991). The Western Experience Volume I To 1715, Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill, Inc. Cicero, De Domo Sua 41, 109. Translation retrieved 4th December 2011 from Raia. A & Sebesta. J (2007). Eumachia Companion. Retrieved 1st December from Fowler R. (2006). Independent Women of Pompeii. Retrieved 4th December from Daily Life in Pompeii (n.d.) Retrieved 5th December from The Amphitheatre at Pompeii (n.d.) Retrieved 1st December from Pompeiis Graffiti (n.d.) Retrieved 1st December from Ancient Pompeii A City Buried by Killer Ash (2010). Retrieved November 27th from Clements P. (n.d.) AD79: Destruction and Rediscovery. Retrieved November 27th from Dyer. H (n.d.) Pompeii: Its History, Buildings and Antiquities Sheppard P (n.d.) Pompeii and Herculaneum: Final Script Retrieved November 27th from Inscriptions in Source Booklet 2 Cyark Pompeii Information (n.d.) Retrieved November 21st from

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