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Parastoo Sadeghi

Department of Information Engineering

Research School of Information Sciences and Engineering

The Australian National University

Week 10, Lecture 19, 3 October 2006

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 0

Outline

• Multicarrier modulation (MCM) basics

• Discrete Multitone (DMT) modulation

• Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)

This is still an active research topic.

We cover the basic ideas...

You will see that the basic concept is simple!

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 1 / Lecture 19

Main Reference

• Chapter 6 of Lee and Messerschmidtt, Digital Communications, Third

Edition, 2004

• Please do not request it from the library, or you may not have your future

lecture notes!

• You will be asked only what is covered in the notes

• The colour pictures are taken from either:

• Tutorial on the web: http://www.complextoreal.com

• Tutorial on the web: http://www.iec.org/online/tutorials/ofdm/topic04.html

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 2 / Lecture 19

Applications of Multicarrier Modulation

• DMT: for Wireline, such as ADSL, VDSL

• OFDM: for Wireless, IEEE 802.11a, The IEEE 802.16 WirelessMAN Standard

for Broadband Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks, HDTV, HIPERLAN/2

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 3 / Lecture 19

The Idea

• In MCM, we split the data into diﬀerent streams and transmit using separate

sub-carriers

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 4 / Lecture 19

Why Do We Need to Do That?

• Data may be lost in one or two sub-carriers, but we do not lose the whole

stream

• A clever way to combat frequency-selective channels (either wireline or

wireless)

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 5 / Lecture 19

An Example

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 6 / Lecture 19

The Multicarrier Modulation Idea (1)

• Suppose we have a ﬁxed channel bandwidth W.

• We are free to increase signal dimensionality N if we simultaneously increase

symbol interval T.

• Intuitively we are compensating for reduced symbol rate by increasing the

number of symbols per symbol interval.

• How do we choose the set of orthogonal pulses as we increase T?

• One solution: make the bandwidth of each pulse on the order of 1/2T,

satisfying Nyquist rate.

• Then place them at diﬀerent non-overlapping centre frequencies.

• As T and N increase, this will make only a small portion of the channel

transfer function over narrower and narrower bandwidth aﬀect each pulse

transmission.

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 7 / Lecture 19

The Multicarrier Modulation Idea (2)

• Eventually, for suﬃciently large T the channel transfer function will be

constant over the bandwidth of each pulse.

• Therefore, ISI for each pulse will be insigniﬁcant.

• By proper MCM system design, we can cleverly avoid ISI.

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 8 / Lecture 19

What is Multicarrier Modulation?

• Multicarrier modulation is the generic term used for any orthogonal pulse

amplitude modulation (OPAM) where the orthogonal pulses are roughly

localized in the frequency domain.

• It includes, as special cases, frequency division multiplexing (FDM) and

orthogonal FDM (OFDM) and discrete multitone transmission (DMT)

• Now what is orthogonal pulse amplitude modulation (OPAM)?

• Based on our knowledge of modulation, we should be able to understand

OPAM very easily and then move on to MCM.

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 9 / Lecture 19

Orthogonal Pulse Amplitude Modulation (OPAM) (1)

• Assume that we have a set of N orthogonal basis functions or pulse shapes

{g

n

(t) : n = 0, · · · , N −1}.

• Amplitude modulate each pulse shape with a diﬀerent symbol a

(n)

k

from an

alphabet of size M symbols and send all the pulses simultaneously

• We get OPAM as follows (k shows symbol interval index)

s(t) =

∞

k=−∞

N−1

n=0

a

(n)

k

g

n

(t −kT)

. ¸¸ .

one combined symbol

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 10 / Lecture 19

Orthogonal Pulse Amplitude Modulation (OPAM) (2)

• At each symbol interval of duration T, N (sub) symbols are simultaneously

transmitted using N distinct pulses.

• Because the pulse shapes are orthogonal, the superposition of pulses at the

receiver can be sorted out by using a bank of matched ﬁlters.

• s(t) is the complex-valued baseband envelope of the transmitted signal as

x(t) =

_

(2)Re{s(t)e

j2πf

c

t

}

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 11 / Lecture 19

Orthogonal Pulse Amplitude Modulation (OPAM) (3)

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 12 / Lecture 19

Spectral and Power Eﬃciency of OPAM

• The bandwidth requirement is

W = N/T

(For each orthogonal pulse shape we need W

1

= 1/T bandwidth.)

• We have M

N

possibilities for each transmitted symbol.

• This translates into log

2

(M

N

) bits per symbol

• The best spectral eﬃciency is (in bits/second/Hertz)

η =

_

log

2

(M

N

)/T

_

/W =

log

2

(M

N

)

WT

=

N log

2

(M)

N

= log

2

(M)

• So the spectral eﬃciency is independent of N

• The power eﬃciency is also independent of N. Why?

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 13 / Lecture 19

MCM: The First Set of Orthogonal Pulses

g

n

(t) = 1/

_

(T)e

j2πnt/T

w(t), n ∈ {0, · · · , N −1}

• where w(t) is a rectangular pulse of duration T.

• Let’s verify the orthonormality

ρ

m,n

=

_

T

0

g

n

(t)g

∗

m

(t)dt = 1/T

_

T

0

e

j2π(n−m)t/T

dt =

_

1, m = n

0, m = n

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 14 / Lecture 19

Frequency Domain Representation of G

n

(f)’s

• w(t) is a rectangular pulse of duration T ↔ W(f) a sinc function in

frequency domain with the ﬁrst zero crossing at f = 1/T (A in the ﬁgure)

• e

j2πnt/T

in g

n

(t) causes W(f) to be frequency shifted to W(f −n/T)

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 15 / Lecture 19

MCM: A Better Set of Orthogonal Pulses (1)

• A major advantage of MCM will be that it can be implemented with low

cost by applying a discrete time signal to an ideal D/A converter.

• The pulses g

n

(t) cannot be generated in this way. Why?

• Solution: Pass g

n

(t) through an A/D and bandlimit it ﬁrst (controlled

aliasing)

• Then pass the bandlimited signal through a D/A. We get

˜ g

n

(t) = 1/

_

(N)

N−1

k=0

e

j2πnk/N

p(t −kT/N), n ∈ {0, · · · , N −1}

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 16 / Lecture 19

MCM: A Better Set of Orthogonal Pulses (2)

• where p(t) is an ideal unit-energy reconstruction ﬁlter for a sample rate of

N/T:

p(t) =

_

T

N

sin(πNt/T)

πt

• MCM based on ˜ g

n

(t) is called DMT in the context of DSL applications and

OFDM in the context of wireless applications.

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 17 / Lecture 19

Frequency Domain Representation of

˜

G

n

(f)’s

• So it is clear that ˜ g

n

(t) is bandlimited.

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 18 / Lecture 19

What Happens with the New Pulses g

n

(t)

• The one-shot OPAM transmitter sends:

s(t) =

N−1

n=0

a

(n)

˜ g

n

(t)

• Substituting ˜ g

n

(t) from previous slides and changing the order of summation

we get

s(t) =

N−1

k=0

_

1

√

N

N−1

n=0

a

(n)e

j2πnk/N

_

. ¸¸ .

k−th inverse DFT coeﬀ

p(t −kT/N)

• where the item in the brackets is the k-th inverse DFT coeﬃcient of

{a

(0)

, a

(1)

, · · · , a

(N−1)

}, let’s call it s

k

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 19 / Lecture 19

New Elegant Representation!

s(t) =

N−1

k=0

s

k

p(t −kT/N)

• This is an interpolation of {s

(0)

, s

(1)

, · · · , s

(N−1)

} with the ideal interpolation

ﬁlter p(t)

• Important: MCM signal s(t) can be generated by a cascade of IFFT and a

D/A convertor with a sample rate of N/T

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 20 / Lecture 19

At the Receiver

• We receiver r(t), pass it through a ﬁlter matched to ˜ g

n

(t). After a few

manipulations we see that

y

n

=

1

√

N

N−1

k=0

r

k

e

−j2πnk/N

,

• where r

k

is the k −th output of an ideal A/D converter

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 21 / Lecture 19

Combating ISI with a Cyclic Preﬁx (1)

• ISI destroys the orthonormality of pulses, but we can restore this property by

losing a bit of eﬃciency and adding cyclic preﬁx at the transmitter

• Let h

k

be the k-th coeﬃcient of discrete-time channel impulse response.

• We assume that the memory of the channel is µ: h

k

= 0 for k > µ. We also

assume that µ ≤ N.

• We can write the following convolution

r

k

=

N−1

i=0

h

i

s

k−i

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 22 / Lecture 19

Combating ISI with a Cyclic Preﬁx (2)

• If we take FFT of the received signal, we are taking FFT of the above linear

convolution.

• Unfortunately, FFT of linear convolution of r does not break into the product

of FFT’s of h and s.

• It only would, if we had circular convolution

• Let’s write the circular convolution of s and h

x

k

=

N−1

i=0

h

i

s

(k−i)

N

• where (.)

N

is modulo-N operator.

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 23 / Lecture 19

Combating ISI with a Cyclic Preﬁx (3)

• Let H

n

/

√

N denote the n-th FFT coeﬃcient of {h

k

}

• With this notion and taking FFT of both sides, we get

X

n

= H

n

a

(n)

• With a modiﬁcation to the modulation format, we can make the ordinary

linear convolution equal to circular convolution.

• To see this, let’s write x

0

:

x

0

=

N−1

i=0

h

i

s

(0−i)

N

= h

0

s

(0)

N

+ h

1

s

(0−1)

N

+· · · + h

µ

s

(0−µ)

N

= h

0

s

0

.¸¸.

√

+h

1

s

N−1

+· · · + h

µ

s

N−µ

. ¸¸ .

?

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 24 / Lecture 19

Combating ISI with a Cyclic Preﬁx (4)

• So we see that in order for x

0

to be equal to the linear convolution of h

and s, we need to append the last µ samples of sequence s to the start of

sequence s:

s

−i

= s

N−i

, 1 ≤ i ≤ µ

• {s

−µ

, · · · , s

−1

} is called cyclic preﬁx

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 25 / Lecture 19

Cyclic Preﬁx Representation (1)

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 26 / Lecture 19

Cyclic Preﬁx Representation (2)

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 27 / Lecture 19

Beneﬁts of Cyclic Preﬁx

• The receiver needs to discard the ﬁrst µ observations corresponding to the

cyclic preﬁx, which also eliminates the ISI from the previous signaling interval

• It will base its decisions on the FFT of the remaining samples {r

0

, · · · , r

N−1

}

• Although {s

−µ

, · · · , s

−1

} do not convey information, they make receiver

implementation easy, and remove ISI, because

y

n

= H

n

a

(n)

• So neglecting noise, the n-th received symbol is the n-th transmitted symbol

scaled by the complex channel gain H

n

.

• There is no interference from other pulses.

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 28 / Lecture 19

Disadvantages of Cyclic Preﬁx

• The beneﬁts come at the price of reduced throughput

• Out of the N + µ transmitted symbols, only N convey information, leading

to a rate loss of

η =

µ

N + µ

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 29 / Lecture 19

Other MCM Disadvantages

• For large N, the distribution of the transmitted OPAM signal approaches a

Gaussian distribution.

s(t) =

∞

k=−∞

N−1

n=0

a

(n)

k

g

n

(t −kT)

. ¸¸ .

one combined symbol

• This leads to large peak to average power ratio

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 30 / Lecture 19

System Block Diagram

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 31 / Lecture 19

Outline

• Multicarrier modulation (MCM) basics • Discrete Multitone (DMT) modulation • Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) This is still an active research topic. We cover the basic ideas... You will see that the basic concept is simple!

ENGN4536

Modern Wireless Communication Systems

1 / Lecture 19

Main Reference

• Chapter 6 of Lee and Messerschmidtt, Digital Communications, Third Edition, 2004 • Please do not request it from the library, or you may not have your future lecture notes! • You will be asked only what is covered in the notes • The colour pictures are taken from either: • Tutorial on the web: http://www.complextoreal.com • Tutorial on the web: http://www.iec.org/online/tutorials/ofdm/topic04.html

ENGN4536

Modern Wireless Communication Systems

2 / Lecture 19

such as ADSL.11a. HDTV. VDSL • OFDM: for Wireless. HIPERLAN/2 ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 3 / Lecture 19 .16 WirelessMAN Standard for Broadband Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks.Applications of Multicarrier Modulation • DMT: for Wireline. IEEE 802. The IEEE 802.

we split the data into diﬀerent streams and transmit using separate sub-carriers ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 4 / Lecture 19 .The Idea • In MCM.

Why Do We Need to Do That? • Data may be lost in one or two sub-carriers. but we do not lose the whole stream • A clever way to combat frequency-selective channels (either wireline or wireless) ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 5 / Lecture 19 .

An Example ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 6 / Lecture 19 .

satisfying Nyquist rate. • Intuitively we are compensating for reduced symbol rate by increasing the number of symbols per symbol interval. ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 7 / Lecture 19 . • How do we choose the set of orthogonal pulses as we increase T ? • One solution: make the bandwidth of each pulse on the order of 1/2T .The Multicarrier Modulation Idea (1) • Suppose we have a ﬁxed channel bandwidth W . • We are free to increase signal dimensionality N if we simultaneously increase symbol interval T . this will make only a small portion of the channel transfer function over narrower and narrower bandwidth aﬀect each pulse transmission. • As T and N increase. • Then place them at diﬀerent non-overlapping centre frequencies.

The Multicarrier Modulation Idea (2) • Eventually. we can cleverly avoid ISI. ISI for each pulse will be insigniﬁcant. • Therefore. • By proper MCM system design. for suﬃciently large T the channel transfer function will be constant over the bandwidth of each pulse. ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 8 / Lecture 19 .

frequency division multiplexing (FDM) and orthogonal FDM (OFDM) and discrete multitone transmission (DMT) • Now what is orthogonal pulse amplitude modulation (OPAM)? • Based on our knowledge of modulation. ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 9 / Lecture 19 . we should be able to understand OPAM very easily and then move on to MCM. • It includes. as special cases.What is Multicarrier Modulation? • Multicarrier modulation is the generic term used for any orthogonal pulse amplitude modulation (OPAM) where the orthogonal pulses are roughly localized in the frequency domain.

· · · . • Amplitude modulate each pulse shape with a diﬀerent symbol ak from an alphabet of size M symbols and send all the pulses simultaneously • We get OPAM as follows (k shows symbol interval index) ∞ N −1 (n) (n) s(t) = k=−∞ n=0 one ak gn(t − kT ) combined symbol ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 10 / Lecture 19 .Orthogonal Pulse Amplitude Modulation (OPAM) (1) • Assume that we have a set of N orthogonal basis functions or pulse shapes {gn(t) : n = 0. N − 1}.

N (sub) symbols are simultaneously transmitted using N distinct pulses. • Because the pulse shapes are orthogonal. the superposition of pulses at the receiver can be sorted out by using a bank of matched ﬁlters. • s(t) is the complex-valued baseband envelope of the transmitted signal as x(t) = (2)Re{s(t)ej2πfct} ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 11 / Lecture 19 .Orthogonal Pulse Amplitude Modulation (OPAM) (2) • At each symbol interval of duration T .

Orthogonal Pulse Amplitude Modulation (OPAM) (3) ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 12 / Lecture 19 .

Why? ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 13 / Lecture 19 .) • We have M N possibilities for each transmitted symbol. • This translates into log2(M N ) bits per symbol • The best spectral eﬃciency is (in bits/second/Hertz) η= log2(M N ) N log2(M ) = = log2(M ) log2(M )/T /W = WT N N • So the spectral eﬃciency is independent of N • The power eﬃciency is also independent of N .Spectral and Power Eﬃciency of OPAM • The bandwidth requirement is W = N/T (For each orthogonal pulse shape we need W1 = 1/T bandwidth.

m = n 0. • Let’s verify the orthonormality T T ∗ gn(t)gm(t)dt 0 j2π(n−m)t/T ρm. m = n ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 14 / Lecture 19 .MCM: The First Set of Orthogonal Pulses gn(t) = 1/ (T )ej2πnt/T w(t). N − 1} • where w(t) is a rectangular pulse of duration T .n = = 1/T 0 e dt = 1. · · · . n ∈ {0.

Frequency Domain Representation of Gn(f )’s • w(t) is a rectangular pulse of duration T ↔ W (f ) a sinc function in frequency domain with the ﬁrst zero crossing at f = 1/T (A in the ﬁgure) • ej2πnt/T in gn(t) causes W (f ) to be frequency shifted to W (f − n/T ) ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 15 / Lecture 19 .

· · · . We get N −1 gn(t) = 1/ (N ) ˜ k=0 ej2πnk/N p(t − kT /N ). Why? • Solution: Pass gn(t) through an A/D and bandlimit it ﬁrst (controlled aliasing) • Then pass the bandlimited signal through a D/A. • The pulses gn(t) cannot be generated in this way.MCM: A Better Set of Orthogonal Pulses (1) • A major advantage of MCM will be that it can be implemented with low cost by applying a discrete time signal to an ideal D/A converter. N − 1} ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 16 / Lecture 19 . n ∈ {0.

ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 17 / Lecture 19 .MCM: A Better Set of Orthogonal Pulses (2) • where p(t) is an ideal unit-energy reconstruction ﬁlter for a sample rate of N/T: p(t) = T sin(πN t/T ) N πt • MCM based on gn(t) is called DMT in the context of DSL applications and ˜ OFDM in the context of wireless applications.

˜ Frequency Domain Representation of Gn(f )’s • So it is clear that gn(t) is bandlimited. ˜ ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 18 / Lecture 19 .

a(1).What Happens with the New Pulses gn(t) • The one-shot OPAM transmitter sends: N −1 s(t) = n=0 a(n)gn(t) ˜ • Substituting gn(t) from previous slides and changing the order of summation ˜ we get N −1 s(t) = k=0 1 √ N k−th N −1 a(n)e n=0 inverse j2πnk/N p(t − kT /N ) DFT coeﬀ • where the item in the brackets is the k-th inverse DFT coeﬃcient of {a(0). · · · . let’s call it sk ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 19 / Lecture 19 . a(N −1)}.

s(1).New Elegant Representation! N −1 s(t) = k=0 sk p(t − kT /N ) • This is an interpolation of {s(0). s(N −1)} with the ideal interpolation ﬁlter p(t) • Important: MCM signal s(t) can be generated by a cascade of IFFT and a D/A convertor with a sample rate of N/T ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 20 / Lecture 19 . · · · .

k=0 • where rk is the k − th output of an ideal A/D converter ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 21 / Lecture 19 .At the Receiver • We receiver r(t). pass it through a ﬁlter matched to gn(t). After a few ˜ manipulations we see that 1 yn = √ N N −1 rk e−j2πnk/N .

• We assume that the memory of the channel is µ: hk = 0 for k > µ. but we can restore this property by losing a bit of eﬃciency and adding cyclic preﬁx at the transmitter • Let hk be the k-th coeﬃcient of discrete-time channel impulse response. We also assume that µ ≤ N . • We can write the following convolution N −1 rk = i=0 hisk−i ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 22 / Lecture 19 .Combating ISI with a Cyclic Preﬁx (1) • ISI destroys the orthonormality of pulses.

we are taking FFT of the above linear convolution. FFT of linear convolution of r does not break into the product of FFT’s of h and s. • It only would.)N is modulo-N operator. • Unfortunately.Combating ISI with a Cyclic Preﬁx (2) • If we take FFT of the received signal. if we had circular convolution • Let’s write the circular convolution of s and h N −1 xk = i=0 his(k−i)N • where (. ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 23 / Lecture 19 .

• To see this. we get Xn = Hna(n) • With a modiﬁcation to the modulation format. we can make the ordinary linear convolution equal to circular convolution. let’s write x0: N −1 x0 = i=0 his(0−i)N = h0s(0)N + h1s(0−1)N + · · · + hµs(0−µ)N = h0 s0 + h1sN −1 + · · · + hµsN −µ √ ? ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 24 / Lecture 19 .Combating ISI with a Cyclic Preﬁx (3) √ • Let Hn/ N denote the n-th FFT coeﬃcient of {hk } • With this notion and taking FFT of both sides.

we need to append the last µ samples of sequence s to the start of sequence s: s−i = sN −i. s−1} is called cyclic preﬁx 1≤i≤µ ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 25 / Lecture 19 . • {s−µ. · · · .Combating ISI with a Cyclic Preﬁx (4) • So we see that in order for x0 to be equal to the linear convolution of h and s.

Cyclic Preﬁx Representation (1) ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 26 / Lecture 19 .

Cyclic Preﬁx Representation (2) ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 27 / Lecture 19 .

they make receiver implementation easy. which also eliminates the ISI from the previous signaling interval • It will base its decisions on the FFT of the remaining samples {r0. • There is no interference from other pulses. rN −1} • Although {s−µ. because yn = Hna(n) • So neglecting noise. · · · . ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 28 / Lecture 19 . · · · . s−1} do not convey information. and remove ISI. the n-th received symbol is the n-th transmitted symbol scaled by the complex channel gain Hn.Beneﬁts of Cyclic Preﬁx • The receiver needs to discard the ﬁrst µ observations corresponding to the cyclic preﬁx.

Disadvantages of Cyclic Preﬁx • The beneﬁts come at the price of reduced throughput • Out of the N + µ transmitted symbols. only N convey information. leading to a rate loss of µ η= N +µ ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 29 / Lecture 19 .

the distribution of the transmitted OPAM signal approaches a Gaussian distribution. ∞ N −1 s(t) = k=−∞ n=0 one ak gn(t − kT ) combined symbol (n) • This leads to large peak to average power ratio ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 30 / Lecture 19 .Other MCM Disadvantages • For large N .

System Block Diagram ENGN4536 Modern Wireless Communication Systems 31 / Lecture 19 .

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