Chapter 5 Specific Energy 5.1.

Introduction The total energy of a channel flow referred to datum is given by,
H = z+ y+ V2 2g

(5.1)

If the datum coincides with the channel bed at the cross-section, the resulting expression is know as specific energy and is denoted by E. Thus, specific energy is the energy at a cross-section of an open channel flow with respect to the channel bed. The concept of specific energy, introduced by Bakmeteff, is very useful in defining critical water depth and in the analysis of open channel flow. It may be noted that while the total energy in a real fluid flow always decreases in the downstream direction, the specific energy is constant for a uniform flow and can either decrease or increase in a varied flow, since the elevation of the bed of the channel relative to the elevation of the energy line, determines the specific energy. Specific energy at a cross-section is,
E = y+ V2 Q2 = y+ 2g 2 gA2

(5.2)

Here, cross-sectional area A depends on water depth y and can be defined as, A = A(y). Examining the Equ. (5.2) show us that, there is a functional relation between the three variables as,

f ( E , y, Q) = 0

(5.3)

In order to examine the functional relationship on the plane, two cases are introduced. 1. Q = Constant = Q1 → E = f (y, Q1). Variation of the specific energy with the water depth at a cross-section for a given discharge Q1. 2. E = Constant = E1 → E1 = f (y,Q) Variation of the discharge with the water depth at across-section for a given specific energy E1.

1

Prof. Dr. Atıl BULU

5.2. Constant Discharge Situation

Since the specific energy,
V2 Q2 E = y+ = y+ 2g 2 gA2

Figure 5.1. Specific energy diagram

For a channel of known geometry, E = f (y, Q). Keeping Q = constant = Q1, the variation of E with y is represented by a cubic parabola. (Figure 5.1). It is seen that there are two positive roots for the equation E indicating that any particular discharge Q1 can be passed in a given channel at two depths and still maintain the same specific energy E1. The depths of flow can be either PR = y1 or PR` = y`1. These two possible depths having the same specific energy are known as alternate depths. In Fig. (5.1), a line (OS) drawn such that E = y (i.e. at 450 to the abscissa) is the asymptote of the upper limb of the specific energy curve. It may be noticed that the intercept P`R` and P`R represents the velocity head. Of the two alternate depths, one (PR = y1) is smaller and has a large velocity head while the other (PR`= y`1) has a larger depth and consequently a smaller velocity head. For a given Q, as the specific energy is increased the difference between the two alternate depths increases. On the other hand, if E is decreased, the difference (y`1 – y1) will decrease and a certain value E = Ec, the two depths will merge with each other (point C in Fig. 5.1). No value for y can be obtained when E < Ec , denoting that the flow under the given conditions is not possible in this region. The condition of minimum specific energy is known as the critical flow condition and the corresponding depth yc is known as critical depth. At critical depth, the specific energy is minimum. Thus differentiating Equ. (5.2) with respect to y (keeping Q1 constant) and equating to zero,
dE Q 2 dA = 1− 13 × =0 dy gA dy

2

Prof. Dr. Atıl BULU

But, dA Tdy = = T = Top width, width of the channel at the water surface dy dy Designating the critical flow conditions by the suffix (c), Q12Tc =1 gAc3 (5.4)

Equ. (5.4) is the basic equation governing the critical flow conditions in a channel. It may be noted that the critical flow condition is governed solely by the channel geometry and discharge. Other channel characteristics such as the bed slope and roughness do not influence the critical flow condition for any given Q. If the Froude number of the flow is defined as,
Fr = V A g T

(5.5)

Q12Tc Q = 1 → 1 = Vc 3 gAc Ac Vc2 2 = 1 → Frc = 1 → Frc = 1 Ac g Tc

(5.6)

The critical flow corresponds to the minimum specific energy and at this condition the Froude number of the flow is unity.

Referring to Fig. (5.1), considering any specific energy other than Ec, (say ordinate PP` at E = E1) the Froude number of the flow corresponding to both the alternate depths will be different from unity as y1 or y`1 ≠ yc. At lower limb, CR of the specific energy curve is the supercritical flow region.
y1 < yc → V1 > Vc → Fr1 > 1.0

The upper limb CR` is the subcritical flow region,
′ ′ ′ y1 > yc → V1 < Vc → Fr1 < 1.0

3

Prof. Dr. Atıl BULU

2 For a rectangular channel. E = y+ Q2 2 gB 2 y 2 q= Q = Discharge per unit width B q2 E = y+ 2 gy 2 dE q2 = 1− 3 = 0 dy gy q2 3 = yc g yc = 3 q2 g q2 3 = yc g (5. Atıl BULU .7) Emin q2 = yc + 2 gyc2 y3 2 yc2 Emin = yc + Emin = 1. Dr. and T = B. A = By.9) 4 Prof.Rectangular Cross-Section T=B y Figure 5.8) 3 gyc yc Q Q q = = = Vc = Ac Byc yc Vc = gyc (5.5 yc (5.

5 = q = yc ⎜ ⎜ B + 2 y ⎟ Sc ⎟ B n ⎝ c ⎠ is calculated from Equ. (5. Atıl BULU . Dr.5 Q = AV = Byc ⎜ n ⎜ B + 2 yc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Q 1 ⎛ Byc ⎞ 0. (5. Vc2 Q2 Ec = yc + = yc + 2g 2 gAc2 Ec = yc + 5 gm 2 yc 2 × 2 × g × m 2 × yc4 5 Prof.11) The specific energy at critical water depth.10) 2my 1 m θ y Figure 5. 1 ⎛ Byc ⎞ ⎟ Sc0.4).10).Critical slope for the critical water depth yc. Triangular Channel 23 23 (5. Q 2Tc =1 gAc3 5 Q 2 Ac3 m3 yc6 m 2 yc = = = 2 g Tc 2myc and T = 2my ⎛ 2Q 2 ⎞ yc = ⎜ ⎜ gm 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 15 (5. A = my 2 By Equ.3 For a triangular channel having a side slope of m horizontal: 1 vertical.

828 = 0.30 m and y2 = 0.30 → Fr1 = 0.63 m Froude number.482 2 × 9.1: A rectangular channel 2. Calculate the alternate depths and corresponding Froude numbers. (5.50 m wide has a specific energy of 1.63 → Fr 2 = 0.50 y2 = 0.34243 1.50 = y + 6.Ec = yc + yc = 1.631.67 →Supercritical flow 0.50 2 × y 2 0. Atıl BULU .50 = y + y2 Solving this equation by trial and error. By A A g B T 6.828 = 32 Fr = y 2.48 0.48 m3/sec.13) Example 5.828 = 1. Solution: From Equ. E = y+ V2 Q2 = y+ 2g 2 gB 2 y 2 1.12) The Froude number for a triangular channel is.81 y g Fr = V = Q = Q By gy y1 = 1.25 yc 4 (5. the alternate depths y1 and y2 are obtained as.50 m when carrying a discharge of 6.301. Fr = V g A T = g V my 2 2my Fr = V 2 gy (5.2).50 y 9.56 → Subcritical flow 1.50 6 Prof.81× 2. y1 = 1. Dr.

and c) Sc if n = 0.018 1 Sc 2 = → S c = 0.2: The 500 triangular channel has a flow rate Q = 16 m3/sec.839 = 4.40 × 0. Dr.37 m b) Critical velocity is. b) Vc.40 m sec Ac 4.839 2 y c = 2. ycot500 y 1000 ycsc500 Solution: This is an easy cross-section because all geometric quantities can be written directly in terms of depth y.838 2 3 7 Prof. Compute a) yc.018.00474 0.71 c) Critical slope for this discharge is. Q 2Tc =1 gAc3 Q 2 2 y c cot 50 0 g y c2 cot 50 0 5 yc = ( ) 3 =1 2Q 2 2 × 16 2 = g cot 2 50 0 9. P = 2 y csc 50 0 A = y 2 cot 50 0 T = 2 y cot 50 0 R= A y 2 cot 50 0 1 = = y cos 50 0 0 P 2 y csc 50 2 a) The critical flow condition should satisfy.81× 0. Ac = y c2 cot 50 0 = 2.37 × cos 50 0 = 0. Atıl BULU .Example 5. Vc = 1 23 12 Rc S c n 1 Rc = y c cos 50 0 = 0.50 × 2.71m 2 Vc = Q 16 = = 3.838 2 3.37 2 × 0.

B = 2.0 m3/sec in the following channels. 8 Prof.10 = 1. Dr.4). (5. Atıl BULU . What is the specific energy of the flow? What is the value of the alternate depth to the existing depth? Solution: V1 = Q 5. Figure 5.…) as in Fig. the specific energy curves moves right since the specific energy increases with the discharge.60m 2 2 × 9. b) Triangular channel.33 m sec A1 1. B = 2.50 V12 1.5. 5.5 y2 ) 0. y2 ≈ 0. 3.41m.204 = 1.332 = = 0.60m 2g y2 + y2 + By trial and error.4.3: A flow of 5.5.50 m.0 m. V12 = 1. m = 0. a) Rectangular channel.50 × 2. c) Trapezoidal channel.0 = = 1.0 m.Example 5. 2. m = 1.60 2 y2 The specific energy diagram can be plotted for discharges Q = Qi = constant (i = 1.4: Calculate the critical depth and the corresponding specific energy for a discharge of 5.50 + 0. Specific energy for varying discharges Example 5.62 E1 = y1 + For the alternate depth. As the discharges increase.0 m3/sec is passing at a depth of 1.81× (2.10m 2 g 19.50 through a rectangular channel of width 2.02 = 1.

Atıl BULU .0 2 (2.83 ⎠ ⎝ Ec = 1.715 = 2.81 3 By trial and error.5m3 / sec/ m B 2.86 = 1.502 ⎞ yc = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎜ g ⎟ ⎜ 9.0 + 1.27 2 = 0.715 + 9 Prof. ⎛ 2Q 2 ⎞ yc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ gm 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 15 ⎛ 2 × 5.0 + 1.83 = 2.25 × 1.29m b) Triangular channel From Equ.5 × yc ) yc = (2.715) × 0.0 = = 2.5 yc ) 9.62 Ec = 0.Solution: a) Rectangular channel q= Q 5.0 2 ⎞ yc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 9.98m 19.0 + 2 ×1.5 × 0.52 ⎟ = 1.0 = 2.20m 2 Vc = 5 . yc = 0.20 Ec = yc + Vc2 2g 2.11). Dr. (5.0 13 13 ⎛ q2 ⎞ ⎛ 2.81× 0.29m c) Trapezoidal Channel A = (B + my ) y 15 T = (B + 2my ) Q 2 Ac3 = g T 3 Q 2 (B + myc ) yc = (B + 2myc ) g 3 3 5.5 yc = 1.27 m sec 2.81 ⎟ = 0.715m Ac = (2.5 × 0.86m ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Ec = 1.25 yc = 1.

273 = By trial and error.12 152 (B + 1.6) Q 2 Ac3 = g Tc Ac = (B + 1.Example 5.5: Calculate the bottom width of a channel required to carry a discharge of 15. a) Rectangular.8)3 (B + 3. if the channel cross-section is.5 × 1.8) × 1.12m3 / sec/ m B = Bottom width = b) Trapezoidal Cross-Section The solution in this case is by trial and error.20 m.203 = 4.6) 5. Discharge-Depth Curve For a given specific energy E1 = constant. Tc = (B + 2 × 1.14) Plotting the variation of discharge with the water depth. Atıl BULU . Solution: a) Rectangular cross-section The solution for this case is straightforward.2) × 1.81× 1. Dr.81 3 13. E1 = y + Q2 2gA2 Q = A 2 g (E1 − y ) (5.0 m3/sec as a critical flow at a depth of 1. and b) Trapezoidal with side slope of 1.64m 4.5 × 1.2 = (B + 1. (B + 1.3. 10 Prof.535 m.2) = (B + 3.2 15.0 = 3. B = 2. yc = 3 q2 3 → q = gyc g yc = 9.23 = (B + 3.8) × 1.6) 9.5 horizontal: 1 vertical.

14) with respect to y and equating it zero while keeping E = constant.17) This is the same as Equ. 11 Prof.5. (5.15).15) Q2 = E1 − y 2 gA2 Tdy × 2 × (E1 − y ) = A (5.16) dy Substituting Equ. T × 2 × Q2 =1 2 g × A3 Q 2Tc =1 3 gAc (5. Atıl BULU . Variation of discharge with water depth The condition for maximum discharge can be obtained by differentiating Equ. ⎞ ⎛ dA dQ A ⎟=0 = 2g ⎜ E1 − y − ⎜ dy dy 2 E1 − y ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ dA A E1 − y = dy 2 E1 − y dA =T dy and Q = 2 g (E1 − y ) A (5. Dr.4) and hence represents the critical flow conditions.16) to (5.y Subcritical Hydrostatic y=E1 E=E1=constant yc Supercritical 0 Q=Qmax Q Figure 5. (5. Hence. the critical flow condition also corresponds to the maximum discharge in a channel for a fixed specific energy. (5.

19) Variation of discharge with the water depth is known as Koch parabola.18) Maximum discharge for the critical water depth is.6b) (a) (b) Figure 5. E1 = y + Q2 q2 = y+ 2 gB 2 yc2 2 gyc2 q = 2 g × yc × E1 − y c Taking derivative with respect to y.Rectangular Cross-Section For a given specific energy E = E1. ⎞ ⎛ yc dq ⎟=0 = 2 g ⎜ E1 − yc − ⎜ dy 2 E1 − y ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ y ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ E1 − yc − c ⎟ = 0 2⎠ E1 − yc ⎝ E1 = 3 2 yc → yc = E1 2 3 2g (5. (Fig. Atıl BULU . Dr. (E-y) and (q – y) diagrams for the rectangular channel 12 Prof.6. 5.5 g 32 (5. q = 2 g × yc × E1 − y c qmax = 2 g × yc × qmax = 2 g × yc × 3 yc − yc 2 yc 2 q max = g × ( y c ) 1 Qmax = By c .

where a long channel of mild slope (S0 < Sc) is connected to a long channel of steep slope (S0 > Sc).6: Find the critical water depth for a specific energy head of E1 = 1.20m 1.50 = 1. c) Trapezoidal channel. 13 Prof.50 = y c + By trail and error.Example 5.00m 3 b) Triangular channel Ec = 1. uniform subcritical flow at normal depth.25 y c = 1.0.10 m. m = 1. the liquid depths in the reach of channel upstream from these points.5.50m yc = 1. At the upstream of the channel. (5.0 m.4. are known as controls since their occurrence governs. B = 2. yc = 1.5 m in the following channels: a) Rectangular channel. 5.25 c) Trapezoidal channel Ec = yc + Vc2 Q2 = yc + 2g 2 gAc2 A Q 2 Ac3 = → Ec = yc + c 2Tc g Tc 1.50m 2 1. Dr. Occurrence of Critical Depth (2. Solution: a) Rectangular channel Ec = 3 y c = 1. The most obvious place where critical depth can be expected is in the situation in Fig. or controls.7). Those points feature a change from subcritical to supercritical flow.0 + 2 y c ) The analysis of open channel flow problems usually begins with prediction of points in the channel at which the critical depth yc will occur. b) Triangular channel.0 m and m = 1.50 × 2 yc = = 1. B = 2.0 + yc )yc 2(2. Atıl BULU .

Figure 5. 5. With the energy line fixed in position at the reservoir surface level and.7 When a long channel of steep slope discharges into one of mild slope (Fig. Figure 5. Under these conditions a hydraulic jump will form whose location will be dictated by the details of slopes. Dr. roughness. With a gate closed (position A). the depth of water on the crest will be yA. yc. which yields. a relation between head and discharge may be obtained by substituting yc = 2H/3 (Equ.y01.8) in Equ. that the flow occurring without gates is maximum.7).9). and the discharge will be zero. and C have outlined the upper portion of the q-curve. it follows that points A. but the critical depth will be found within the hydraulic jump. These two uniform flows will be connected by a reach of varied flow in which at some point the depth must pass through the critical water depth. with a decrease in depth from yA to yB. For flow over weirs. will occur.8). and at the downstream a uniform supercritical flow at a smaller normal depth. This process will continue until the gate is lifted clear of the flow (C ) and can therefore no longer affect it. (Fig. and the depth on the crest is the critical depth. B. giving constant specific energy. can be expected. (Chapter 6……). therefore. y02. (5.8 The occurrence of critical depth on overflow structures may be proved by examining the flow over the top of a broad-crested weir equipped with a movable sluice gate at the downstream end and discharging from a large reservoir of constant surface elevation. giving point A on the q-curve. With the gate raised to position B. channel shapes. 5. normal depths will occur upstream and downstream from the point of slope change. 5. a discharge qB will occur. Atıl BULU . 14 Prof.

c Δy V1 y1 y2 y Figure 5.1.20) Figure 5. (Fig. 1.4.10 5. 4. Atıl BULU . The critical water depth occurs a short distance (3 to 4 yc) upstream from the fall for rectangular channels and the fall depth (yb) is 72% of the critical depth.9 Another occurrence of the critical water depth is the free outfall from a long channel of mild slope. Wave Propagation Velocity c is the wave propagation velocity (celerity) on a flowing water with velocity V1. Characteristics of Subcritical and Supercritical Flows 5.10) Figure 5. Dr. 11 15 Prof. 5.1.⎛ 2H ⎞ q = gy = g ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ 3 ⎠ 3 c 3 (5.

Dr. Equ. c2 y + Δy − y = 2 2g ⎛ y ⎞ 1− ⎜ ⎜ y + Δy ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ c2 Δy ( y + Δy ) = 2 g ( y + Δy )2 − y 2 2 c2 Δy y 2 + 2 yΔy + Δy 2 = 2 2 g y + 2 yΔy + Δy 2 − y 2 Neglecting Δy2 values. (5. then the wave stays still and the steady state conditions may be applied. ( ) c 2 Δy y 2 + 2 yΔy ≅ 2g 2 yΔy ⎛ Δy ⎞ y 2 ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ y ⎟ c ⎠ ≅ ⎝ 2g 2y 2 ( ) 16 Prof. in which Δy = Wave height. V12 V22 y1 + = y2 + 2g 2g (a) For rectangular channels.21) may be written as.If we take the celerity c equal but opposite to the flow velocity V1. (a). Atıl BULU .21) If y1 = y then y2 = y+Δy and V1 = -c . Writing the energy equation between cross-sections 1 and 2 and neglecting the energy loss for a horizontal channel. q = V1 y1 = V2 y2 V2 = V1 y1 y2 Substituting this relation to Equ. V2 V2 ⎛ y ⎞ y1 + 1 = y2 + 1 × ⎜ 1 ⎟ 2g 2 g ⎜ y2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 V12 ⎡ ⎛ y1 ⎞ ⎤ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ = y2 − y1 2 g ⎢ ⎜ y2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ 2 V12 y −y = 2 12 2g ⎛y ⎞ 1− ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜y ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ (5.

24) A wave generated on a flowing water will propagate to the downstream also with a velocity equal to (c – V) and to the downstream with (c + V). The generated wave will be seen in the entire flow surface. (5. Fr = V Flowvelocity = >1 c Celerity Flow velocity > Celerity (5. for subcritical flows.c≅ ⎛ Δy ⎞ gy ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 12 (5. (5. Fr = V Flowvelocity = <1 c Celerity Flow velocity < Celerity (5. The celerity equation is then. a generated wave will propagate only in the downstream direction. If the wave is on a flowing water. That is why subcritical flows is also called downstream controlled flows.25) Since flow velocity is greater than the wave celerity. Generally Δy/y may be taken as zero. c = gy (5. a) Subcritical Flows Froude number for rectangular or wide channels is. Dr. c and flow velocity. 17 Prof. Fr = V gy Since celerity c = gy . b) Supercritical Flows The Froude number for supercritical flows for the same channel.23) The waves generated on a still water with water depth y will propagate to all directions with the celerity derived and given by Equ.23).22) Equ. Atıl BULU .22) is valid for shallow waters. resultant velocity of the celerity. That is why supercritical flows are called upstream controlled flows. V will be taken as the absolute velocity.

Dr. then the flow is supercritical otherwise it is subcritical. Transitions in rectangular channels are presented here. the water surface which was at P at section 1 will come down to point R at section 2. 5. Thus the specific energies at sections 1 and 2 are. E2 = y 2 + V22 Q2 = y2 + 2 2g 2 gB 2 y2 (5. (5.Case study: Generating waves by throwing a stone to flowing water may be used to know if the flow is subcritical or supercritical for practical purposes. Let the flow be subcritical.11) a smooth hump of height ΔZ is built on the floor.5. Channel with a Hump a) Subcritical Flow Consider a horizontal. Atıl BULU . 5. Since there are no energy losses between sections 1 and 2. The depth y2 will be given by.27) 18 Prof. Channel transition with a hump Since the flow is subcritical. frictionless rectangular channel of width B carrying discharge Q at depth y1.26) 2g E2 = E1 − ΔZ Figure 5.5. 12. the water surface will drop due to a decrease in the specific energy. The principles are equally applicable to channels of any shape and other types of transitions.1. Transitions The concepts of specific energy and critical energy are useful in the analysis of transition problems.13). 5. At a section 2 (Fig. V2 E1 = y1 + 1 (5. In Fig. If the generated waves propagate only in the downstream direction. construction of a hump causes the specific energy at section to decrease by ΔZ.

Dr.30) Recollecting the various sequences.e.13.e. 5. at the critical condition. (5. the critical depth. and.29) At section 2 the flow will continue at the minimum specific energy level. (5. With further increase in the value of ΔZ.13). If this modified depth is represented by y1`. (Fig. when 0 < ΔZ < ΔZmax the upstream water level remains stationary at y1 while the depth of flow at section 2 decreases with ΔZ reaching a minimum value of yc at ΔZ = ΔZmax. y1 will change to y1` while y2 will continue to remain yc. y2 = yc = critical depth.13) that as the value of ΔZ is increased. i. Q2 E1 − ΔZ = E2 = Ec = yc + 2 gB 2 yc2 ′ (5. E1 − ΔZ max = E2 = Ec = yc + Q2 2 gB 2 yc2 (5. At this condition. Specific energy diagram for Fig. 19 Prof. ′ ′ E1 = y1 + Q2 2 gB 2 y1 `2 (with E`1>E1 and y`1>y1) (5. ΔZmax. The minimum depth is reached when the point R coincides with C. At this point the hump height will be maximum. From Fig. the depth at section 2.12) It is easy to see from Fig. (5. y2 = yc. Atıl BULU . The upstream depth has to increase to cause and increase in the specific energy at section 1.Figure 5. and E2 = Ec = minimum energy for the flowing discharge Q. i. will decrease.28) The question may arise as to what happens when ΔZ > ΔZmax. for ΔZ > ΔZmax . y2.13) it is seen that the flow is not possible with the given conditions (given discharge). The condition at ΔZmax is given by the relation.

(5.15).12). (5.The variation of y1 and y2 with ΔZ in the subcritical regime can be clearly seen in Fig. (5. At a certain cross-section a small. (5.14).15.50 m sec → = = 0. Variation of y1 and y2 in subcritical flow over a hump b) Supercritical Flow If y1 is in the supercritical flow regime.10 m is proposed to be built. In Fig. Atıl BULU .13) shows that the depth of flow increases due to the reduction of specific energy. y2 increases to reach yc at ΔZ = ΔZmax. Variation of y1 and y2 in supercritical flow over a hump Example 5.13) point P` corresponds to y1 and point R` to depth at the section 2.40 V12 1. Figure 5. Fig.50 2 V1 = = 1. Dr. It will decrease to have a higher specific energy E1`by increasing velocity V1. Solution: Let the suffixes 1 and 2 refer to the upstream and downstream sections respectively as in Fig.14. Figure 5. smooth hump with a flat top and a height 0. the depth over the hump y2 = yc will remain constant and the upstream depth y1 will change.62 q= 20 Prof.0 m and carries a discharge of 4. (5.60 m. The variation of the depths y1 and y2 with ΔZ in the supercritical flow is shown in Fig.115m 1. Neglect the energy loss. For ΔZ > ΔZmax .0 2.60 2 g 19.80 m3/sec with a depth of 1. 4.40m3 / sec/ m 2 . Calculate the likely change in the water surface.80 = 2. Up to the critical depth.7: A rectangular channel has a width of 2.

615m q 2 ⎛ 2.715m At section 2.615 m. E 2 = E1 − Δz E 2 = 1.615 = y 2 + Solving by trial and error gives. Fr1 = 0.5 × 0.837 = 1.40 2 2 9. estimate the water surface elevation on the hump and at a section upstream of the hump.7.5 y c 2 = 1.81× 2 × y 2 1.115 = 1.50 m.715 − 0. Dr. The specific energy at section 1 is.837m =⎜ yc = 3 g ⎜ 9.60 + 0. E1 = 1.60 The upstream flow is subcritical and the hump will cause a drop in the water surface elevation.81 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Ec = 1. if the height of the hump is 0. Atıl BULU . Δy = 1.50 = 0. The drop at water surface elevation is. The depth y2 is calculated by solving the specific energy equation.48 m.5 y c = 1.215m Ec 2 = 1.81× 1.837 m.837 = 1.Fr1 = V1 gy1 = 1. Solution: From Example 5. y2 = 1. E1 = 1.02m Example 5. Hence y2 > yc and the upstream depth y1 will remain unchanged.8: In Example 5.10 = 0.7.5 × 0.26m 13 The minimum specific energy at section 2 is Ec2 = 1. E2 = y 2 + V22 2g 2.715 − 0.26 m < E2 = 1.26m 21 Prof.40 2 ⎞ ⎟ = 0.60 − 1.38.48 − 0. and yc = yc2 = 0. Available energy at section 2 is.50 = 1.10 = 1.38 9.715 m. E 2 = E1 − ΔZ = 1.

The minimum specific energy required at section 2 is greater than E2.80 Fr1 = 1 = = 2. Figure 5.40 2 = 1.215 m). (5.648 m. Solution: 6.4 4. Hence. Calculate the height of a flat topped hump required to be placed at a section to cause critical flow.8 2 V1 = = 4. the available specific energy at that section.50 = 1.67m 2g 22 Prof.76 ′ y1 2 Solving by trial and error and selecting the positive root gives.294 = 1.8 m sec → = 1.76 ′ 19.1 times the upstream velocity head. the depth at section 2 will be at the critical depth.50 m.62 V 4.16 Example 5.62 × y1 2 0. Atıl BULU .9: A rectangular channel 2. (Ec2 = 1.0 = 2.26 m.81× 0.17 = 1.50 + 1.50 m wide carries 6. y’1 = 1.16). Dr.76m ′ 2 gy1 2 2.5 2. The upstream depth y1 will increase to a depth y1’ such that the new specific energy at the upstream section 1 is.26 + 0. Water surface profile is shown schematically in Fig.17m 0.5 19. The energy loss due to the obstruction by the hump can be taken as 0. y’1 > y2. E1′ = Ec 2 + ΔZ ′ y1 + ′ y1 + ′ y1 + ′ y1 + V1′ 2 = Ec 2 + ΔZ 2g q2 = 1.26 m > E2 =1.0 m3/sec of flow at a depth of 0. Thus E2 = Ec2 = 1.17 gy1 9.4m 3 / sec/ m 2.50 q= E1 = y1 + V12 = 0.

48 < 1 (Subcritical flow) 9. Dr. E1 − E L = y 2 + V22 + ΔZ 2g Where EL = Energy loss. E L = 0.84 + 0.0 = 1. ΔZ= Height of the hump.62 E 2 = E1 − ΔZ = 1.50 = 0.50 m/sec velocity and a depth of 1 m. 2.10 m.12 = 0.12m 2g 1.84 V2 = = = 0. a depression is expected in the water level over the hump and a higher subcritical Froude number at the crest. the specific energy levels are.42m = 2 2g 2 2 2g By the energy equation between sections 1 and 2.10: Water flow in a wide channel approaches a 10 cm high hump at 1.81 V2 E 2c = 1.5 y c = y c + c 2g yc = 3 Vc2 y c 0.115m 2g 19.40 2 = 0. if ΔZ is not too large. Solution: a) Froude number at the upstream of the hump is.17 m = 0.0 For subcritical approach flow. Estimate a) The water depth y2 over the hump and b) The hump height that will cause the crest flow to be critical.67 − 0.84m = y 2 9. Atıl BULU .50 2 + y1 = + 1.29m Example 5.10 V12 = 0.115 − 0.015m E1 = 23 Prof.42 + ΔZ ΔZ = 0.81× 1. With ΔZ = 0.10 = 1.10 × 1. V12 1. Fr1 = V1 gy1 = 1.Since the critical flow is desired at section 2.

17). The first solution is the searched solution. 0.015 y 2 + 0.115 = 0 3 2 2 2 There are three real roots: y = 0.859 m. Atıl BULU 24 . and -0.31) 2g 1.015 y 2 + =0 19. y2 (subcritical) = 0.859 − 0.10 = 0. Δh = y1 − y 2 − ΔZ Δh = 1.62 3 2 y 2 − 1.296 m.0 − 0.859 m The water surface level has dropped by. With y1 in meters.17 V1 y1 = V2 y 2 → V2 = E1 = E 2 + ΔZ y1 + V1 y1 y2 V12 V2 = y 2 + 2 + ΔZ 2g 2g V12 − ΔZ 2g V22 V 2 y2 = y2 + 1 1 2 2g 2 gy 2 E 2 = y1 + E2 = y2 + V12 y12 y − E2 y + =0 (5.451 m. Figure 5.041m Prof. Dr. The third (negative) solution is physically impossible.50 2 × 12 3 2 y 2 − 1. The second (smaller) solution is the supercritical condition for E2 and is not possible for this subcritical hump. (5.The physical situation is shown on a specific energy plot in Fig.

min = 1.0 9. Atıl BULU .45 m sec 0.5 m 2 sec E 2.min 3 3 ⎛ q2 ⎞ = Ec = yc = × ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎜ g ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 13 13 3 ⎛ 1 .1.0 − 0.612 − 0.5 × 1 = 1.612m → V2 = Fr 2 = 2.75 m sec y2 0. the surface level at the critical flow has dropped by.918 = 0.17).5 2 ⎞ ⎟ Ec = × ⎜ 2 ⎜ 9.50 × 1. Subcritical Flow in a Width Constriction Consider a frictionless horizontal channel of width B1 carrying a discharge Q at a depth y1 as in Fig. Transition with a Change in Width 5.60 9. (5.2.197m y 2 = y c = 0.5. Dr.612 For this hump.5.5 = 2. the specific energy at section is equal to the specific energy at section 2. b) For critical flow in a wide channel .17). Since there are no losses involved and since the bed elevations at sections 1 and 2 are the same.81 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 0.115 − 0.75 = 0. q = Vy = 1.V2 = V1 y1 1.612 1.81× 0. Δh = y1 − y 2 − ΔZ max Δh = 1. ΔZ max = E1 − E 2.191m 5.45 = 1.2.197 = 0.918m Therefore the maximum height for frictionless flow over this hump is. 25 Prof.859 V2 gy 2 = Fr 2 = 1. (5. These flow conditions are shown in Fig.81× 0. At a section 2 channel width has been constricted to B2 by a smooth transition.0 = = 1.859 Downstream flow over hump is subcritical.

At section 1. i. the maximum discharge intensity for a given specific energy (critical flow condition) will prevail. Figure 5.19. q2 > q1.18. Dr. Thus. If B2 is made smaller.e. E2 = E1 and q = q2. Specific energy diagram for Fig. the discharge intensity q2 = q2max. in subcritical flow the depth is y2 < y1. Atıl BULU . Transition with width constriction It is convenient to analyze the flow in terms of the discharge intensity q = Q/B.19) drawn with the discharge intensity.18) 26 Prof. The limit of the contracted width B2 = B2min is reached when corresponding to E1. q1 = Q/B1 and at section 2. (5. Since at section 2. point P on the curve q1 corresponds to depth y1 and specific energy E1. then q2 will increase and y2 will decrease. Since B2 < B1. In the specific energy diagram (Fig. 5. point P will move vertically downward to point R on the curve q2 to reach the depth y2.V12 Q2 E1 = y1+ = y1 + 2g 2 gB12 y12 E2 = y 2 + V22 Q2 = y2 + 2 2 2g 2 gB2 y2 Figure 5. q2 = Q/B2.

the maximum discharge intensity consistent E1. The new specific energy will ′ E1′ = y1 + Q2 ′ 2 g (B12 y1 2 ) be formed which will be sufficient to cause critical flow at section 2. y2 = yCm = 2 EC 3 2 2 EC min = E1 3 3 13 (5.5 yc 2 2g 13 13 Since B2 < B2min . The upstream depth will have to increase to y1`.20).32) For a rectangular channel. yc2 > ycm. yc2 will be larger that ycm. be possible with the given upstream conditions. the depth section 2 is not constant as in the hump case but increases as y1` and hence E1` rises. 27 Prof. (5. Thus even though critical flow prevails for all B2 < B2min . Dr. It may be noted that the new critical depth at section 2 for a rectangular channel is. therefore. Atıl BULU . The variation of y1.At the minimum width.34) 8 gE13 If B2 < B2min.33) Q2 3 gycm 3 ⎛ Q2 ⎞ yc = ⎜ 2 ⎜B g⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 2 min ⎠ → B2 min = B2 min Q2 ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎟ = ×⎜ g ⎜ 2 E1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 27Q 2 B2 min = (5. the discharge intensity q2 will be larger than qmax. y2 = ycm = critical depth. y2 and E with B2/B1 is shown schematically in Fig. yc = Since E1 = ECmin. The flow will not. at critical flow. E1 = EC min = ycm + 2 2 g (B2 min ) ycm 2 Q2 (5. ⎛ Q2 ⎞ ⎛q ⎞ yc 2 = ⎜ 2 ⎟ = ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜g⎟ ⎜B g⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 V Ec 2 = yc 2 + c 2 = 1.

it is observed that the upstream water surface elevation is not affected by the conditions at section 2 till a critical stage is first achieved. for B2 ≥ B2min . Dr.5. a reduction of the flow width and hence an increase in the discharge intensity cause a rise in depth y2. the upstream water depth is constant and for all ΔZ > ΔZmax the upstream depth is different from y1.2.21. Variation of y1 and y2 in subcritical flow in a width constriction 5.2. y2 and E with B2/B1 in supercritical flow regime is indicated in Fig. Figure 5. Variation of y1 and y2 in supercritical flow in a width constriction 5. (5.3. As the width B2 is decreased.2. The variation of y1. Supercritical Flow in a Width Constriction If the upstream depth y1 is in the supercritical flow regime. At section2.20. in the case of the width constriction.5. In Fig. the upstream depth y1 is constant.19). Any further reduction in B2 causes the upstream depth to decrease to y1` so that E1 rises to E1`. Choking In the case of a channel with a hump. and also in the case of a width constriction. the upstream depth undergoes a 28 Prof.21). Thus in the case of a hump for all ΔZ ≤ ΔZmax .Figure 5. Similarly. R` moves up till it becomes critical at B2 = B2min . point P` corresponds to y1 and point R` to y2. Atıl BULU . while for all B2 < B2min . critical depth yc` corresponding to the new specific energy E1` will prevail. (5.

Q = B1V1 y1 V1 = Q 15.0 V1 2.0 + = 2.23m 2g 19.0 = = 2. choked conditions are undesirable and need to be watched in the design of culverts and other surface drainage features involving channel transitions. Dr.50 m and b) 2.50 m wide conveys a discharge of 15. Thus all cases with ΔZ > ΔZmax or B2 < B2min are known as choked conditions.0 gy1 Fr1 = The upstream flow is subcritical and the transition will cause a drop in the water surface.5 = 2.81× 1.62 Let B2min = minimum width at section 2 which does not cause choking.10: A rectangular channel is 3.0 m3/sec at a depth of 2.81× 2.change.14 2 = 2 . It is proposed to reduce the width of the channel at a hydraulic structure. Assuming the transition to be horizontal and the flow to be frictionless determine the water surface elevations upstream and downstream of the constriction when the constricted width is a) 2.14 = = 0.63m 29 Prof.23 = 1.0 m.5 ⎛ Q2 ⎞ Q2 → B2 min = ⎜ 3 ⎟ y = 2 ⎜ gy ⎟ gB2 min ⎝ c⎠ 3 c B2 min ⎛ 15.0 2 ⎞ =⎜ ⎜ 9. Ec min = E1 = 2.49m 3 3 0.23m yc = 2 2 Ec min = × 2.20 m.48 9. Obviously. Solution: Let suffixes 1 and 2 denote sections upstream and downstream of the transition respectively. Example 5. This onset of critical condition at section 2 is a prerequisite to choking. Atıl BULU . E1 = y1 + V12 2.14 m sec B1 y1 3.5 × 2.493 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 0.

54m ⎜ g ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ Ec 2 = 1.82 m 2 m 2. The depth at section 2 = y2 = yc2. q2 = 15.0 = = 4.31 = y1 + Solving by trial and error and selecting positive subcritical flow depth root. The upstream depth y1 will increase to y1`.68 = 2.5 × 1.29 2 ′ 2 × 9.81× y1 2 0.938 ′ y1 2 ′ E1′ = y1 + ′ 2.81 ⎟ = 1.5 13 13 ⎛ 6. Dr. Depth at section 2 = y2 = yc2.50 m B2 = 2.31 = y1 + ′ 2.5 yc 2 = 1.50 m < B2min = 2. Atıl BULU .20 m.0 = 6 m 2 sec 2.52m At upstream section 1.50 V1′2 q2 ′ = y1 + 1 2 ′ 2g 2 gy1 4.822 ⎞ yc 2 = ⎜ ⎜ 9.0 = 6.5 × 1.a) When B2 = 2.63 m and hence choking conditions prevail.5 yc 2 = 1.54 = 2. 30 Prof. new upstream depth = y1`.0 2 ⎞ ⎛ q2 ⎞ yc 2 = ⎜ 2 ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 9.20 13 ⎛ 6.10m b) When B2 = 2.29 m 2 sec B1 3. q2 = 15.31m At the upstream section 1: E1′ = Ec 2 = 2.68m ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Ec 2 = 1.81 ⎟ = 1.31m q1 = Q 15. As B2 < B2min choking conditions prevail. ′ y1 = 2.

in any combination.29 m 2 sec ′ y1 + ′ y1 + q12 = 2. Dr. The transitions in supercritical flow are different and involve suppression of shock waves related disturbances.35m [Note that for the same discharge when B2 < B2min (i. Example 5.938 = 2. contraction or expansion of channel width. provision of a hump or a depression.0 Fr1 = 1 = = 0.52 ′ y1 2 Solving by trial and error. the basic dependence of the depths of flow on the channel geometry and specific energy of flow will remain the same. Analyze the water surface elevations in the transitions when a) ΔZ = 0. ′ y1 = 2.0 m sec 4× 2 V 2 .45 gy1 9. However.81× 2.2.12: A discharge of 16. Many complicated transition situations can be analyzed by using the principles of specific energy and critical depth. 5. Solution: Let the suffixes 1 and 2 refer to the upstream and downstream sections respectively. there may be various degrees of loss of energy at various components. under choking conditions) the depth at the critical section will be different from yc = 1.52 ′ 2 gy1 2 0. In subcritical flow transitions the emphasis is essentially to provide smooth and gradual changes in the boundary to prevent flow separation and consequent energy losses. V1 = 16 = 2.5.E1′ = Ec 2 = 2.e.0 m3/sec flows with a depth of 2. In addition. the appropriate depth to give subcritical flow is. At a downstream section the width is reduced to 3.52m q1 = 4.20 m and b) ΔZ = 0. General Transition A transition in general form may have a change of channel shape.0 m wide.0 31 Prof.49 m and depends on the value B2].0 m in a rectangular channel 4.35 m. Atıl BULU .4. At the upstream section.50 m and the channel bed is raised by ΔZ.

50 13 13 V12 = 2.00m > Ec 2 = 1.58 m.0 = = 4.20 m. y1. Dr.20 = 2.064 = 2.00m 2 y2 Hence when ΔZ = 0.20 = 0.58m 1.58 − 0.00 m and y2 = 1. y2 + y2 + V22 + ΔZ = E1 2g 4.94m Hence the depth y2 > yc2 and the upstream depth will remain unchanged at section 1.29m ⎟ ⎜ g ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3 3 Ec 2 = y c 2 = × 1. The drop in water surface is.57 m 2 sec B2 3.57 2 = 2.62 × y 2 y2 + Solving by trial and error.20 = 2.20m 2 g 19.00m 2 19.20 − 0.20 − 0. y 2 = 1.0 2 = = 0. q2 = Q 16.The upstream flow is subcritical and the transition will cause a drop in the water surface elevation. Atıl BULU .29 = 1.81 ⎟ = 1.00 − 1. E2 = Available specific energy at section 2 E 2 = E1 − ΔZ = 2. Δh = 2.20m 2g ⎛ q2 ⎞ ⎛ 4. y1 = 2.20 = 2.57 2 ⎞ yc 2 = ⎜ 2 ⎟ = ⎜ ⎜ 9.94m 2 2 c) When ΔZ = 0. V12 2.62 E1 = y1 + For the transition cross-section 2.0 + 0.22m 32 Prof.20 m.

35 = 1. Dr.0 2 × y1 2 0.815 = 2. y2 = yc2 = 1.10 m and y2 = yc2 = 1. Hence.29 m If the new depth is y1’.0 2 = 1.c) When ΔZ = 0.94m Hence the contraction will be working under the choked conditions.35 ′ 19.29 m 33 Prof. ′ y1 + ′ y1 + ′ y1 + Q2 = Ec 2 + ΔZ ′ 2 gB12 y1 2 16.20 − 0.94 + 0. The depth of flow at section 2 will be critical with. when ΔZ = 0.62 × 4. The upstream depth will therefore rise by 0. y1’ = 2.29m ′ y1 2 ′ y1 = 2. Atıl BULU .35 m.35 m.85m < Ec 2 = 1. E2 = Available specific energy at section 2 E 2 = 2. The upstream depth must rise to create a higher to energy.10 m due to the choked condition at the constriction.10m By trial and error.

c) Friction losses are neglected. γy12 2 Since. velocity distributions are uniform and the pressure distribution over the cross sections are hydrostatic. Atıl BULU . the following assumptions are made. Energy Line hL V22/2g V1 /2g 2 V2 y2 V1 y1 Figure. Hydraulic Jump Momentum equation will be applied to the control volume taken at the hydraulic jump section for a unit width perpendicular to the control volume. b) Before and after the hydraulic jump.Hydraulic Jump If the flow at the upstream of a cross section is subcritical (y1<ycr) but supercritical (y2>ycr) at the downstream of that cross section. − 2 γy2 2 = ρqV2 − ρqV1 q = V1 y1 = V2 y2 → V2 = q q . the transition from subcritical flow to the supercritical flow will be abrupt with a jump called Hydraulic Jump. a) Rectangular channel with horizontal bottom slope. V1 = y2 y1 γ = ρg ⎛ q2 q2 ⎞ 2 − y2 = ρ ⎜ 2 y2 − 2 y1 ⎟ ⎜y y1 ⎟ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎛ ⎞ g ( y1 − y2 )( y1 + y2 ) = q 2 ⎜ 1 − 1 ⎟ = q ( y1 − y2 ) ⎜y ⎟ y1 y2 2 ⎝ 2 y1 ⎠ ρg (y 2 1 ) y1 y2 ( y1 + y2 ) = 2q 2 2V12 y12 = g g ⎛ y ⎞ 2V 2 y 2 y12 y2 ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ = 1 1 ⎜ y1 ⎟ g ⎝ ⎠ Prof. Dr. In the mathematical derivation of hydraulic jump.

y2 1 = 1 + 8 Fr12 − 1 y1 2 ( ) (2) The ratio of flow depths after and before the hydraulic jump (y2/y1) is a function of the Froude number of the subcritical flow before hydraulic jump. ⎛ V2 ⎞ ⎛ V2 ⎞ ΔE = E1 − E2 = ⎜ y1 + 1 ⎟ − ⎜ y2 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2g ⎟ ⎜ 2g ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 ⎛V V ⎞ ΔE = ( y1 − y2 ) + ⎜ 1 − 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2g 2g ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Prof. 2 ⎛ y2 ⎞ y ⎜ ⎟ + 2 − 2 Fr12 = 0 ⎜y ⎟ y1 ⎝ 1⎠ Solution of this equation and taking the positive sign of the square root gives. Dr. Atıl BULU . Fr = V gy Equation (1) takes the form of.Multiplying both side of the above equation with (1/y13) yields. ⎡ 2 ⎛ y ⎞ 2V 2 y 2 ⎤ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ = 1 1 ⎥ × ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎢ y1 y2 ⎜ y1 ⎟ g ⎦ ⎜ y1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ y2 ⎛ y ⎞ V2 ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ = 2 1 (1) y1 ⎜ y1 ⎟ gy1 ⎝ ⎠ Since for rectangular channels. Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipater If we write the difference of the specific energies before after the hydraulic jump.

γw = Specific weight of water = 9. Dr. Atıl BULU . y1 y2 ( y1 + y2 ) = 2q 2 g q2 1 = y1 y2 ( y1 + y2 ) 2g 4 Putting this equation to Equation (3). q = Vy → V1 = q q . V2 = y1 y2 ΔE = ( y1 − y2 ) + 1 ⎞ q2 ⎛ 1 ⎜ 2 − 2 ⎟ (3) ⎜y 2 g ⎝ 1 y2 ⎟ ⎠ It has been derived that.81 kN/m3 Q = Discharge (m3/sec) ΔE = Energy dissipated as head (m) N = Power dissipated (kW) Prof.Since. ΔyE = ( y1 − y 2 ) + (y2 − y2 ) 1 y1 y 2 ( y1 + y 2 ) 2 2 2 1 4 y1 y 2 2 1 ( y1 + y 2 ) ( y 2 − y1 ) ΔE = ( y1 − y 2 ) + 4 y1 y 2 4 y y ( y − y 2 ) + ( y1 + y 2 ) ( y 2 − y1 ) ΔE = 1 2 1 4 y1 y 2 2 ΔE = ΔE = ( y2 − y1 )[− 4 y1 y2 + ( y1 + y2 )2 ] 4 y1 y 2 ( y2 − y1 )( y2 − y1 )2 4 y1 y 2 The analytical equation of the energy dissipated with the hydraulic jump is. ΔE = ( y2 − y1 )3 4 y1 y2 (4) The power lost by hydraulic jump can be calculated by. N = γ wQΔE Where.

2q 2 = gy1 y2 ( y1 + y2 ) (5) Since for rectangular channels. Atıl BULU . ycr = 3 q2 g 3 q 2 = gycr Equation (5) can be written as.6y2 Smetana equation Page equation Physical explanation of Equations (2) and (4) gives that.2y2 Safranez equation L = 5(y2 – y1) Bakhmetef equation L = 6(y2 – y1) L = 5. a) If Fr1 = 1 → y2 = 1 → ΔE = 0 (critical flow) y1 b) If Fr1 > 1 → y2 >→ ΔE > 0 y1 (hydraulic jump) c) If Fr1 < 1 → y2 < 1 → ΔE < 0 (Energy gain is not possible. 3 2 ycr = y1 y2 ( y1 + y2 ) ⎛ 1 ⎞ If multiply both sides with ⎜ 3 ⎟ . Transition from y1 supercritical to subcritical flow is with gradual water surface profile) Physical Explanation of Critical Flow It has been derived that. ⎜y ⎟ ⎝ cr ⎠ 2= 2 y12 y2 y1 y2 + ycr ycr (6) Prof.Some empirical equations were given to calculate the length of hydraulic as. L = 5. Dr.

50 m. Y2 = 2 ycr ycr 1 Y2=y2/yc 1 The physical explanation of this curve gives. If the flow is subcritical at downstream when passing through critical water depth it should be in supercritical at the downstream and vice versa. Y2 > 1 → Y1 < 1 y2 > ycr → y1 < ycr and Y2 < 1 → Y1 > 1 y2 < ycr → y1 > ycr The regimes of the flows should be different when passing through a critical flow depth. Y1=y1/yc y y1 . find out the length of the hydraulic jump. For. Example: If the Froude number at the drop of a hydraulic jump pool is 6 and the water depth is 0. Y1 = Equation (6) takes the form of. Prof. Calculate the power dissipated with the hydraulic jump if the discharge on the spillway is 1600 m3/sec.Defining as. Y12Y2 + Y1Y22 − 2 = 0 The curve of this equation. Dr. Atıl BULU .

6 × 4 = 22. Dr.5 × 4 4 y1 y2 = 5.81 × 1600 × 5.Solution: Using the equation of the ratio of water depths.6 × y2 = 5. ΔE = ΔE = ( y2 − y1 )3 (4 − 0. N = γ wQΔE N = 9. L = 5.5m L = 6( y2 − y1 ) = 6 × (4 − 0.5) = 17.8m (Safranez) (Bakhmetef) (Smetana) (Page) L = 5( y 2 − y1 ) = 5 × (4 − 0. Energy dissipated as head.4 m for design purposes. y2 1 = y1 2 y2 y1 ( 1 + 8Fr − 1) 1 = ( 1 + 8 × 6 − 1) = 8 2 2 1 2 y2 = y1 × 8 = 0.36m The power dissipated with the hydraulic jump. The length of the hydraulic jump will be taken as L = 22.4m It is preferred to be on the safe side with the hydraulic structures.5) = 21m L = 5.5)3 4 × 0. Therefore.2 × y2 = 5. the longest result will be chosen.2 × 4 = 20. Atıl BULU .5 × 8 = 4m The length of hydraulic jump by different equations.36 N = 84131kW Prof.

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