Mapping a Process

Understanding y g your p processes

Why map your process?
The flowcharts in procedures and quality manual show how the process should be. Process mapping is the detailed be mapping of the real process. Process maps: • Bring clarity to complex processes • Highlight non-value adding activities • Start the process of thinking about improvements

Versions of a map Any Process Has At Least Three Versions What You THINK It Is What It ACTUALLY Is Hidden work What it SHOULD Be What the procedure says What the operator does What the future state can be Map what it really is not what you think it is! p y y .

S.What actually happens – Spaghetti Diagram Part no 3102336 V.F. STORES • •• VERT SHAPER 12008 Team: • .T. INSP. HEAT TREAT LATHE 4400 • • 2 • DISTANCE OF PARTS INTERNAL EXTERNAL TOTAL 116 490 606 METRES F.P.T. .D. M. 4295-01 4295-02 4295-03 MARKING WASH SPAG GHETTI DIAGRAM Area: RAW MAT'L • • DEBURRING BENCH • • 3 2 • FINAL INSP.P.I .I. • • • 2 • GRINDER 3220 2 PAINTING J&S 3148 FADAL 5139 • • BLAST • • H.

230 M QC distance  =    400 M Production Area Lead time =    5 days . Prod’n m/c Material store Material store Material cart 2. Prod’n  m/c Material cart Q QS Material distance  = 1.What actually happens – Spaghetti Diagram Goods Inwards Warehouse 1.

SIPOC Diagram Suppliers Inputs Process Outputs Customers •External External •Internal •Materials Materials •Services •Information Process •Materials Materials •Services •Information •External External •Internal Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 • A simple form of process map used to get an overview of a process • Can be seen as a cell of a larger map .

Process Mapping The map lists every step that is involved in the delivery of the product/service. Input Operation Output End Operation Operation Use hierarchical maps to p drill down into the detail Decision Start  process Decision Operation Operation No Yes Input Operation No Yes Output End Operation Operation Decision Start  process Decision Operation Operation No Yes Input Operation No Yes Output End Operation Operation O ti Decision Start  process Decision Operation Operation No Yes Input Operation No Yes Output End Operation Operation . There may be more than  There may be more than one input! Start  process Decision Operation No Yes No Yes Decision Operation There may be more than one  There may be more than one output throughout the process.

Example Process Mapping Symbols p pp g y BLUE Activity TAN File GREEN Transportation WHITE Document YELLOW Inspection GREY Computer Connector Information Requirements PINK Delay GREY YELLOW ORANGE Decision .

communicate with those affected and monitor effectiveness. JIT. TPM etc Standardise the process.The Process Mapping Process Identify the process to be mapped. time. 5Y’s. people. Poka Yoke. Identify & eliminate waste in the process. 5Y’s 5W1H etc Solve . Brainstorm. area.use 7 wastes. ff Start over . distance. Implement new process and communicate e. flow type. t For each step record :operation name/ purpose. SMED.g. Map the total order fulfilment process. quantity. Id .use 5S 5S. a product or service through a specific distribution route. department.

Activity/Task Process Mapping PROCESS FLOW ANALYSIS CHART B PROCESS: A PLAYER: PHASE: C CURRENT D CHANGES E PROPOSED # Activities Tasks .

Order processing. designs. 1. Improvement ideas. 3. . 2 Physical transformation e g Materials logistics e. purchasing 2.Value Stream Mapping (VSM) What is a value stream? • A fl Any flow of information and/or materials and/or id fi f ti d/ t i l d/ ideas throughout and enterprise. Intellectual property e. Materials.g. project management VSM is an advanced form of process mapping. Information management e.g.g.

flow through all departments ORGANISATION UNIT DEPARTMENT A FUNCTION FUNCTION FUNCTION INPUTS ACTIVITY FROM SUPPLIERS DEPARTMENT B FUNCTION FUNCTION ACTIVITY ACTIVITY ACTIVITY ACTIVITY ACTIVITY ACTIVITY Product/ Service Product/ Service Product/ Service TO CUSTOMERS ACTIVITY ACTIVITY ACTIVITY ACTIVITY ACTIVITY ACTIVITY ACTIVITY ACTIVITY .Value stream .

5 day 0.3 8 3 hrs 8 hrs 4 days 0.5 day 1 day 4 hrs 0.Value Stream Map – Current State Pre Prod’n L/T 4.5% C/O = 2 hrs OEE = 50% Rel 98% x10 Push I 10 days P/T 2‐6 P/T 2 6 hrs Yield 99.5 day 1 hrs Where are the problems? .3 days Pre Prod’n P/T 8.3 day Purchase Enter Order IN x3 10 jobs Job folder PO Suppliers Raw material x3 L/T 15‐20 days Small items x50 L/T 5 days Cutting fluids x2 Cutting fluids x2 L/T 3 days Manual P/T = 4‐12 hrs L/T 3‐4 days Rel 90% 20 items per job BizSys P/T 10‐30 min L/T 4‐8 hrs 4‐8 hrs Rel.5 hrs Inventory & WIP 44 days Prod’n L/T 6 days Prod n Prod’n P/T 7 hrs 3 day 2 hrs 0. 98% 10 orders/day x1 IN 5 jobs Order & spec Customers Revenue £10 m/yr Avg 10 orders per  day Invoice L/T 10 days PPM 500 20 days  lead time Schedule Sprea dsheet dh t Pay Suppliers IN BizSys P/T 15 min L/T 60 days P/T 15 min Order x1 IN IN Invoice BizSys P/T 15 min L/T 1 day I invoice /day Rel 99% Collect cash x1 IN BizSys P/T 0‐60 min L/T 45 days Payment x1 x1 daily 1 week Job folder When all matls matls’ are available BOL Receipt Manufacture IN 3 jobs Assemble Pack & Ship FIFO I 3 days P/T 1‐3 hrs P/T 1 3 hrs Yield 99.3 days y Order to cash process time 16.3 days First pass yield  99.8% PPM 2000 Rel 98% x25 1 day P/T 1 hr P/T 1 h Rel 100% I x5 I 30 days 0.3% Quality 2000 ppm Order to cash lead time 55.3 hrs 0.5 day FIFO Order to ship lead time 10.

3 8 3 hrs 8 hrs 4 days 0.8% PPM2000 Rel 98% x25 1 day P/T 1 hr P/T 1 h I x5 I 30 days 0.Value Stream Map – Current State Pre Prod’n L/T 4.3 days y Order to cash process time 16. 98% 10 orders/day x1 IN 5 jobs Order & spec Customers Revenue £10 m/yr Avg 10 orders per  day Invoice L/T 10 days PPM 500 20 days  lead time Kaizen JIT Schedule Sprea dsheet dh t Pay Suppliers P/T 15 min Order x1 IN IN Invoice BizSys P/T 15 min L/T 1 day I invoice /day Rel 99% Collect cash x1 IN BizSys P/T 0‐60 min L/T 45 days Payment x1 IN BizSys P/T 15 min L/T 60 days x1 daily 1 week Job folder When all matls matls’ are available BOL Receipt Manufacture IN 3 jobs Assemble Pack & Ship FIFO I 3 days P/T 1‐3 hrs P/T 1 3 hrs Yield 99.5 day 0.3% Quality 2000 ppm Order to cash lead time 55.3 hrs 0.3 days Pre Prod’n P/T 8.5% C/O = 2 hrs OEE = 50% Rel 98% x10 Push Kaizen JIT I 10 days P/T 2‐6 P/T 2 6 hrs Yield 99.5 day 1 day 4 hrs 0.5 day 1 hrs Use lean and six-sigma to solve problems .3 days First pass yield  99.5 day FIFO Kaizen SMED Six-sigma Quality Rel 100% Order to ship lead time 10.5 hrs Inventory & WIP 44 days Prod’n L/T 6 days Prod n Prod’n P/T 7 hrs 3 days 2 hrs 0.3 day Purchase Enter Order IN x3 10 jobs Kaizen VSM Job folder PO Suppliers Raw material x3 L/T 15‐20 days Small items x50 L/T 5 days Cutting fluids x2 Cutting fluids x2 L/T 3 days Manual P/T = 4‐12 hrs L/T 3‐4 days Rel 90% 20 items per job BizSys P/T 10‐30 min L/T 4‐8 hrs 4‐8 hrs Rel.

 98% 10 orders/day x1 IN 5 jobs Order & spec Customers Revenue £10 m/yr Avg 10 orders per  day I 5 days 20 days  lead time Suppliers Raw material x3 L/T 15‐20 days Small items x50 L/T 5 days Cutting fluids x2 Cutting fluids x2 L/T 3 days Invoice L/T 10 days PPM 500 Schedule Sprea dsheet dh t Pay Suppliers IN BizSys P/T 15 min L/T 60 days P/T 15 min Order x1 IN IN Invoice BizSys P/T 15 min L/T 1 day I invoice /day Rel 99% Collect cash x1 IN BizSys P/T 0‐60 min L/T 45 days Payment x1 x1 daily 2/week Job folder When all matls matls’ are available BOL Receipt Manufacture IN 3 jobs 1 day P/T 1‐3 hrs P/T 1 3 hrs Yield 99.8% PPM 200 Rel 98% 5 days 0.5 day 1 day 4 hrs 0.3 days First pass yield  99.5 day 1 hrs .3% Quality 200 ppm Order to cash lead time 52.5 day 0.5% C/O = 10 mins OEE = 70% Rel 98% I I 1 day Assemble FIFO Pack & Ship 1 day P/T 1 hr P/T 1 h Rel 100% x10 K P/T 2‐6 P/T 2 6 hrs x25 I x5 I Super market small items FIFO Kanban Yield 99.Value Stream Map – Future State Pre Prod’n L/T 2.5 day Order to ship lead time 6.5 hrs Inventory & WIP 8 days Prod’n L/T 4 days Prod n Prod’n P/T 7 hrs 1 day 2 hrs 0.3 day Purchase Enter Order IN x1 10 jobs Job folder PO MRP P/T = 2‐4 hrs L/T 1‐2 days Rel 99% 20 items per job BizSys P/T 10‐30 min L/T 4‐8 hrs 4‐8 hrs Rel.3 days Pre Prod’n P/T 3.3 3 3 hrs 3 hrs 2 days 0.3 hrs 0.3 days y Order to cash process time 11.

5 day 1 hrs .5 days First pass yield  99.9% Yield 99 9% PPM 50 C/O = 10 min OEE = 85% Rel 99.9% Quality 50 ppm Order to cash lead time 17.9% P/T 1 hr P/T 1 h Rel 100% I x3 I Super market small items 2 days Order to ship lead time 2.5 days y Order to cash process time 9 hrs Inventory & WIP 4 days Prod’n L/T 1.5 days Prod n Prod’n P/T 5 hrs 1 day 4 hrs 0.Value Stream Map – World Class Pre Prod’n L/T 1day Pre Prod’n P/T 3 hrs 1 day 3 hrs Blanket orders Orders cell ERP P/T = 2‐4 hrs L/T 1 day Rel 99% 20 items per job x1 Online order entry Customers Revenue £10 m/yr I 5 days 10 days  lead time Suppliers Raw material x3 L/T 5‐10 days Small items x50 L/T 5 days Cutting fluids x2 Cutting fluids x2 L/T 3 days Standardised parts Avg 10 orders per  day Invoice Order L/T 10 days PPM 500  Invoice Pay Suppliers IN BizSys P/T 15 min L/T 14 days Collect cash x1 IN BizSys P/T 0‐60 min L/T 14 days Payment IN BizSys P/T 15 min L/T 1 day I invoice /day Rel 99% x1 x1 Weekly schedules daily daily Lean Cell Receipt BOL Sequenced production OXOX 1 day P/T 3‐5 hrs I Delivery x25 FIFO 1 day Sequenced q pull ball system Yield 99.

VSM Symbols External Source Data box FIFO Electronic flow arrow Manual flow arrow Push arrow First in First out stock system Information box Shipment arrow Process boxes Manual x3 x3 IN x jobs Operator (multiples) daily Shipment truck Kanban signal Supermarket store In-box (Information queues) K I x days Inventory & WIP Time line segments OXOX Load levelling system Sequenced pull ball system Time line ends Kaizen Improvement activity .

VSM Measures Measure Takt time Symb Description Takt Customer demand rate (available time/quantity required) Measure Overall equipment effectiveness Reliability Change over time Symb Description OEE Availability rate x production rate x quality rate % Uptime of process % Time to change over process (Last good part to first good part) Lead time L/T Time to complete a batch (= inventory / process rate (Little’s Law)) Rel. C/O Production to delivery ratio P:D Process time Operator cycle time Machine cycle time Value added time Ontime delivery Inventory P/T OCT MCT V/A OTD I Lead time/Delivery time Time to complete one item (=L/T-waiting time) Labour time Machine time Time to change fit. form or function Ontime deliveries/Total deliveries % Equivalent number of days good product in stock Number of times/year stock is turned t ki t d (Inventory days/365) Yield First pass yield Scrap rate Parts per million quality Rework rate Area Handling frequency Operator Distance O t Di t Material Distance Yield FPY 100%-%scrap Product of all yields Scrap Defective parts/Total parts produced % PPM Defective parts/Good parts x 1.000.000 Rewo Parts reworked/Total rk parts produced % Area HF OD MD Area or space used for operation Number of times a part or item is handled Distance operator Di t t travels Distance material travels Stock turns ST Batch size Batch Number of pieces per run .

Divide the work amongst the team – no gaps. Start at the end of the process and work backwards (this way you are less likely to get lost) 6.. Hang up a roll of paper about 1 metre depth along wall ( p (maps can g very long!) get y g) 5. .. Find a room with a large wall space (close to the process if possible) 4.How do we map a process? 1. Decide which process you are going to map and it’s boundaries 2. no duplication – work in pairs Continued. Form a multi-disciplinary team with experience of the process steps (and some that haven’t) haven t) 3.

Use different coloured post-it notes to record each step and its metrics 10. Use lean t l t d i an i 11 U l tools to design improved f t d future state t t 12. Walk the process with the process owner 8. Communicate to relevant people 15. verify it works and redraw th map 13 I th if k d d the 14.. Continue f 1 C from step 1 – continuous improvement . Plan the activities to make the improvements 13. 7. Improve the process. Identify and problem area and areas for improvement 11. Collect the information and metrics on th process 8 C ll t th i f ti d ti the 9.How to map a process continued..

Continued. desk space.Recording Guidelines • • • • Time each process step to accuracy required. • ..g. last step..distance walked to send or receive message. Record what is agreed as most likely time and highlight variability Estimate the distance in consistent units e g metres from e.g. Use previously g process steps p collected data for longer p Note variability and reasons e.g. warehouse/filing space Include isles and tool/equipment space. 10 to 30 mins depending on…. m/c & operator space. (Mail/e-mail/fax .) • Identify the area (space) being used/occupied for each process step e. areas Use factory/office layouts to ensure consistency.

move.. put-down is ‘1’ Record other metrics as required Record inputs and outputs from each process step I x days • • • X • • .. Used to p paper g work out stock & WIP or pieces of p p relating to that value stream Estimate number of parts that the raw material will produce Record and scrap and rework directly or from records Record the number of times a person/or material handling equipment needs to touch or handle the parts/information during that process step – pick-up. • Count the number of parts/items at each location.Recording Guidelines continued.

Example process map Current process C t map Future process map .

Summary • • • • • • • • Identify the VALUE STREAM and its BOUNDARIES RECORD th process and it metrics the d its ti MAP the process on a large flexible surface Identify IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITIES IMPROVE each area Make the Product FLOW At the PULL of the Customer In search of PERFECTION .

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