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Part Number: MDNA*R3*Z*Z*Z*SM-NAS120-WBK Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation
August 2008
Linear Static, Normal Modes, and Buckling
Analysis Using MD Nastran R3 and Patran
2008r1
NAS120 Course Notes
MSC.Software Corporation
Europe
MSC.Software GmbH
Am Moosfeld 13
81829 Munich, Germany
Telephone: (49) (89) 43 19 87 0
Fax: (49) (89) 43 61 71 6
Corporate
MSC.Software Corporation
2 MacArthur Place
Santa Ana, CA 92707 USA
Telephone: (800) 345-2078
Fax: (714) 784-4056
Asia Pacific
MSC.Software Japan Ltd.
Shinjuku First West 8F
23-7 Nishi Shinjuku
1-Chome, Shinjuku-Ku
Tokyo 160-0023, JAPAN
Telephone: (81) (3)-6911-1200
Fax: (81) (3)-6911-1201
2
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Legal Information
MSC.Software Corporation reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information contained in this
document without prior notice. The concepts, methods, and examples presented in this text are for illustrative and
educational purposes only, and are not intended to be exhaustive or to apply to any particular engineering problem or
design. MSC.Software Corporation assumes no liability or responsibility to any person or company for direct or indirect
damages resulting from the use of any information contained herein.
Copyright © 2008 MSC.Software Corporation. All Rights Reserved. This notice shall be marked on any reproduction of
this documentation, in whole or in part. Any reproduction or distribution of this document, in whole or in part, without the
prior written consent of MSC.Software Corporation is prohibited.
The MSC.Software corporate logo, Adams, Dytran, Easy5, Fatigue, Laminate Modeler, Marc, Mentat, MD Nastran, Patran,
MSC, MSC Nastran, Mvision, Patran, SimDesigner, SimEnterprise, SimManager, SimXpert and Sofy are trademarks or
registered trademarks of the MSC.Software Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. NASTRAN is a
registered trademark of NASA. All other trademarks belong to their respective owners.
3
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTENTS
4-57 Workshop 4 “Stadium Truss”
3-40 Workshop 3 “Editing a Nastran Input File”
2-50 Workshop 2 “Simply Supported Beam”
1-37 Workshop 1 “Landing Gear Strut Analysis”
4-48 Post Processing CROD Results
4-19 The CROD Element
4-5 MD Nastran Element Library
3-22 The Nastran Input File
3-19 Patran-Nastran Workflow and Files
3-3 Patran GUI
2-48 FEM References
2-22 Key Concepts in FEM
2-7 What is the Finite Element Method?
2-3 Engineering Methods
1-32 Company Information
1-12 Case Study: Landing Gear Strut
1-9 What is Patran?
1-4 What is MD Nastran?
1-3 Course Objectives
Case Study: Stadium Arched Roof Truss 4.0
Basics of MD Nastran and Patran 3.0
Introduction to the Finite Element Method 2.0
Overview 1.0
Page Section
4
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTENTS
5-109 Workshop 8 A-C “Tension Coupon”
7-105 Element Distortion
6-82 Workshop 7 “Tapered Plate”
5-153 Workshop 6 “Bridge Truss”
5-59 Workshop 5 “Coordinate Systems”
7-52 Loads
7-45 Single Point Constraints
7-29 2-D Elements
7-19 Meshing
6-76 Post Processing CBEAM Results
6-50 Fields
6-31 The CBEAM Element
6-19 Material Properties
5-149 Post Processing CBAR Results
5-142 Multiple Subcases
5-68 The CBAR Element
5-48 Grid Points
5-34 Coordinate Systems
5-3 Introduction to Geometry
Case Study: Aircraft Wing Rib 7.0
Case Study: Traffic Signal Pole 6.0
Space Station Truss 5.0
Page Section
5
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTENTS
10-134 Workshop 12 “RBE2 vs. RBE3”
10-40 Workshop 11 “Spacecraft Fairing”
9-104 Workshop 10 “Support Bracket”
8-71 Workshop 9 A-B “2 ½ D Clamp”
7-127 Workshop 8 D “Composite Tension Coupon”
Case Study: Aircraft Wing Rib cont. 7.0
7-110 Analysis of Composite Materials
Case Study: Intercooler Structure 8.0
8-9 Solid Geometry
8-14 The CHEXA Element
8-34 Post Processing Solid Element Results
8-68 Solid Elements
10-82 Rigid Body Elements
10-41 0-D Elements
10-6 Groups and Lists
9-87 Axisymmetric Elements
9-64 Mesh Density Control
9-51 Viewports
9-11 Importing Geometry
9-6 Model Simplification Methods
Case Study: Car Design 10.0
Case Study: Scuba Tank 9.0
Page Section
6
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTENTS
15-33 Workshop 17 “Glued Contact”
15-33 Workshop 16 “3D Contact”
14-92 Workshop 15 “Parasolid Modeling”
13-36 Workshop 14 “Buckling of a Submarine Pressure Hull”
12-43 Workshop 13 “Normal Modes of a Rectangular Plate”
Units 11.0
11-3 Units in MD Nastran
Case Study: Communications Tower 12.0
12-3 Normal Modes Analysis
Case Study: Submarine Pressure Hull - 3D 13.0
13-3 Linear Buckling Analysis
Parasolid Modeling 14.0
14-3 Parasolid Modeling Tools
Linear Contact 15.0
15-3 Linear vs. Nonlinear Analysis
15-9 Contact Bodies
15-14 Contact Detection
15-25 Plate Contact Case Study
Page Section
7
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTENTS
17-18 Good Modeling Practice
17-10 AutoSPC
17-3 Minimum Recommended Model Checks
16-75 Create Tool
16-69 Report Tool
16-66 Animations
16-62 Graph Tool
16-54 Cursor Tool
16-49 Marker Tool
16-32 Fringe Tool
16-18 Deformation Tool
16-6 Quick Plot Tool
Model Checkout 17.0
Results Postprocessing 16.0
Page Section
8
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S1-1
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 1
OVERVIEW
S1-2
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S1-3
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COURSE OBJECTIVES
● Learn the basic features in MD Nastran
● Data structure
● Element library
● Linear static, normal modes, and buckling analyses
● Learn the basic functionalities in Patran
● Build finite element models (pre-processing)
● Evaluate analysis results (post-processing)
● Become familiar with solving engineering problems in an integrated
Patran/Nastran environment through hands-on training
● Students will work through a number of workshop problems in class
with assistance from the instructor
● Simple workshop problems designed to introduce basic concepts
● Real-world workshop problems designed to lead the students through
engineering problems from beginning to end
S1-4
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WHAT IS MD NASTRAN?
● MD Nastran offers multidiscipline simulation capabilities
based on proven technologies and industry leadership of
over four decades.
● In addition to the analysis capabilities of MSC Nastran, MD
Nastran offers key capabilities that drive efficiency and
streamline processes:
● Broad Analysis Capabilities - Supports key engineering disciplines that
provide the basis for a superior multidiscipline simulation system
● Integration - Unparalleled support for interaction between multiple disciplines
in simulations that facilitates true multidisciplinary analysis
● Optimization - Multidisciplinary optimization capabilities with combined sizing,
shape, and topology optimization, special constraints and response functions
across disciplines
● High Performance Computing - Optimized for parallel and 64-bit
supercomputing environments
S1-5
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WHAT IS MD NASTRAN?
● This course primarily covers basic features that are common
to both MD Nastran and MSC Nastran.
● Some course material uses the enhanced functionality of MD
Nastran, while the majority of the course may be completed
using either MSC Nastran or MD Nastran.
S1-6
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WHAT IS MD NASTRAN?
● MD Nastran is a general-purpose finite element analysis
program capable of solving a wide variety of engineering
problems, including:
● Linear static analysis
● Static analysis with geometric and material nonlinearity
● Transient analysis with geometric and material nonlinearity
● Normal modes analysis
● Buckling analysis
● Direct and modal complex eigenvalue analysis
● Direct and modal frequency analysis (including random analysis)
● Direct and modal transient analysis (including response
spectrum analysis)
S1-7
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WHAT IS MD NASTRAN? (Cont.)
● MD Nastran Capabilities (Cont.)
● Linear cyclic symmetry analysis (including static, normal
modes, buckling, and direct frequency response)
● Linear and nonlinear steady-state heat transfer
● Linear and nonlinear transient heat transfer
● Aeroelasticity
● Substructure analysis (superelements)
● Design sensitivity and optimization
● Acoustics
● Composite material analysis
● P-element analysis
● Rotor Dynamics
S1-8
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WHAT IS MD NASTRAN? (Cont.)
● MD Nastran is
● Extensively documented (including online encyclopedia)
● Extensively tested
● Continually enhanced with new capabilities
● Highly efficient in using modern numerical analysis techniques
● Used extensively by aerospace, automotive, energy,
biomedical, civil, and other industries
S1-9
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WHAT IS PATRAN?
● Patran is a CAE pre- and post-processing software
package. It consists of the following major
components:
● User-Friendly Graphical User Interface
● Powerful Geometry Import, Export, and Creation
● Robust Meshing Algorithms
● Fast Results Visualization and Reporting
● Extensive Analysis Code Preferences
S1-10
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKFLOW IN PATRAN
● The Main Menu
2 - Import Geometry
1 - Select Analysis Code
2 - or Build Geometry
3 - Create
Analysis Model
5 - Evaluate and Publish
Analysis Results
4 - Perform the
Analysis
S1-11
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLVING A TYPICAL ENGINEERING
PROBLEM
● The following case study demonstrates how to use
Patran and MD Nastran in a typical engineering
application
S1-12
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: LANDING GEAR STRUT
● The design team has created a nose landing gear strut
design for the new fighter jet. Determine if the landing
gear strut has been designed properly to withstand the
landing load.
S1-13
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: LANDING GEAR STRUT (Cont.)
● Design Specifications
● Material: Steel
● E = 30 x 10
6
psi
●  = 0.3
● Landing load = 7,080 lb
7,080 LB
S1-14
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STEP 1 - CREATE DB AND SET ANALYSIS
PREFERENCE
Open a new database in
Patran.
Select MD Nastran and
Structural Analysis for this case
study.
S1-15
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STEP 2 - IMPORT OR BUILD GEOMETRY
● The user can import or build geometry in Patran:
● Import geometry models from CAD systems:
● CATIA
● Pro/ENGINEER
● Unigraphics
● EUCLID 3
● I-DEAS
● Import geometry models in standard formats:
● STEP
● Parasolid xmt
● ACIS
● IGES
● STL
● VDA
● Build the geometry directly in Patran
S1-16
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STEP 2 - IMPORT OR BUILD GEOMETRY (Cont.)
● For this case study, the landing gear strut geometry
model is available as a parasolid xmt file.
● Import this model directly into Patran.
S1-17
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STEP 2 - IMPORT OR BUILD GEOMETRY (Cont.)
Import the landing gear strut geometry.
S1-18
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STEP 2 - IMPORT OR BUILD GEOMETRY (Cont.)
● The landing gear strut geometry is imported.
S1-19
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STEP 3 - CREATE ANALYSIS MODEL
Next, create the analysis model:
Create a finite element mesh
Apply boundary condition
Apply loading
Create material properties
Create element properties
S1-20
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STEP 3 - CREATE ANALYSIS MODEL (Cont.)
Create the finite
element mesh.
S1-21
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STEP 3 - CREATE ANALYSIS MODEL (Cont.)
Constrain the hub
cylinder at the
bottom of the
strut.
S1-22
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STEP 3 - CREATE ANALYSIS MODEL (Cont.)
Apply 7,080 lb to
the upper face of
the strut.
S1-23
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STEP 3 - CREATE ANALYSIS MODEL (Cont.)
Define a material
property for the
landing gear strut.
S1-24
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STEP 3 - CREATE ANALYSIS MODEL (Cont.)
Create an
element property
for the landing
gear strut.
S1-25
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STEP 4 - PERFORM THE ANALYSIS
Submit the model to
MD Nastran to
perform a linear
static analysis.
S1-26
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STEP 5 - EVALUATE ANALYSIS RESULTS
Review .f06 file
a. Verify that the
analysis has
completed
successfully.
b. Review warning
messages.
c. Review analysis
results.
S1-27
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STEP 5 - EVALUATE ANALYSIS RESULTS
Read the analysis
results into
Patran.
S1-28
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STEP 5 - EVALUATE ANALYSIS RESULTS (Cont.)
Plot displacements
and stresses.
S1-29
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STEP 6 - PUBLISH ANALYSIS RESULTS
Publish a stress
summary report.
S1-30
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STEP 6 - PUBLISH ANALYSIS RESULTS (Cont.)
Under File/Images
or Results/Create/
Quick Plot:
Create static,
animated, and vrml
images for reports
and presentations.
S1-31
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SUMMARY OF PATRAN-NASTRAN WORKFLOW
Patran
MD Nastran
MD Nastran
Pre-Processing
● Import/create geometry
● Create finite element mesh
● Apply boundary condition
● Apply loads
● Create material properties
● Create element properties
● Submit model to solver
Solver
● Solve for displacements
● Compute strains
● Compute stresses
Post-Processing
● Deformation plots
● Stress fringe plots
● Reports
S1-32
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COMPANY OVERVIEW
● The MSC.Software Corporation has been supplying
sophisticated computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools
since 1963.
● MSC.Software is the developer, distributor, and
supporter of the most complete and widely-used
structural analysis program in the world, MD Nastran.
● MSC.Software is also the developer, distributor, and
supporter of the state of the art CAE analysis program,
Patran.
● Patran is an open architecture, pre and post processor
for all major finite element analysis (FEA) software,
including MD Nastran and Marc.
S1-33
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WHERE TO GO FOR HELP
● The MSC Technical Support Hotline 1-800-732-7284
is staffed Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
● Email support:
● mscpatran.support@mscsoftware.com
● mscnastran.support@mscsoftware.com
● Website support at www.mscsoftware.com/support
S1-34
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WHERE TO GET TRAINING
● MD Nastran and Patran seminars are held worldwide
● Locations, dates, and descriptions of all scheduled
classes can be found at
www.mscsoftware.com/support/msc_institute
● MSC also conducts cost-effective in-house seminars
at clients’ facilities. These seminars can be tailored
to meet clients’ specific needs.
● Contact the MSC Institute at 1-800-732-7211
S1-35
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN SEMINARS
● Following Patran seminars are offered
● PAT301 - Introduction to Patran
● PAT302 –Patran for Advanced Users
● PAT304 - Introduction to Patran Command Language (PCL)
● PAT312 - Thermal Analysis Using Patran Thermal
● PAT318 - Durability and Fatigue Life Analysis Using MSC Fatigue
● PAT325 - Introduction to Laminate Modeler
● PAT328 - New Features in Patran
S1-36
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MD NASTRAN SEMINARS
● Following MD Nastran seminars are offered
● NAS101 – Basic MD Nastran Linear Static and Normal Modes Analysis
● NAS102 – MD Nastran Dynamic Analysis
● NAS103 – MD Nastran Nonlinear Analysis
● NAS104 – MD Nastran Thermal Analysis
● NAS105 – Practical Finite Element Modeling Techniques Using MD Nastran
● NAS106 – MD Nastran Superelement Analysis
● NAS107 – Design Sensitivity and Optimization in MD Nastran
● NAS108 – New Capabilities in MD Nastran
● NAS110 – DMAP and Database Applications in MD Nastran
● NAS111 – MD Nastran Aeroelastic Analysis
● NAS113 – Analysis of Composite Materials with MD Nastran
● NAS115 – Fluid-Structure Analysis in MD Nastran
● NAS116 – Practical Dynamic Analysis with MD Nastran
● NAS120 – Linear Static and Normal Modes Analysis Using MD Nastran and Patran
● NAS122 – Dynamic Analysis Using Patran and MD Nastran
● NAS123 – MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL600) Analysis
● NAS125 – Stochastic Simulation Using MSC Robust Design
S1-37
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
● Perform Workshop 1 “Landing Gear Strut
Analysis” in your exercise workbook.
S1-38
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-1
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 2
INTRODUCTION TO THE
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
S2-2
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-3
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Engineering Analysis
Classical Methods
Numerical Methods
Closed-form
Approximate
Finite Element
Finite Difference
Boundary Element
METHODS FOR SOLVING ENGINEERING
PROBLEMS
● As shown below, the finite element method is one of
several methods for solving engineering problems
S2-4
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
METHODS FOR SOLVING ENGINEERING
PROBLEMS (Cont.)
● Classical Methods:
● Closed-form solutions are available for simple problems such as
bending of beams and torsion of prismatic bars
● Approximate methods using series solutions to governing
differential equations are used to analyze more complex
structures such as plates and shells
● The classical methods can only be used for structural problems
with relatively simple geometry, loading, and boundary
conditions
S2-5
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
METHODS FOR SOLVING ENGINEERING
PROBLEMS (Cont.)
● Numerical Methods:
● Boundary Element Method
● Solves the governing differential equation for the problem with
integral equations over the boundary of the domain. Only the
boundary surface is meshed with elements.
● Finite Difference Method
● Replaces governing differential equations and boundary conditions
with corresponding algebraic finite difference equations.
S2-6
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
METHODS FOR SOLVING ENGINEERING
PROBLEMS (Cont.)
● Numerical Methods (Cont.)
● Finite Element Method (FEM)
● Capable of solving large, complex problems with general geometry,
loading, and boundary conditions
● Increasingly becoming the primary analysis tool for designers and
analysts
● The Finite Element Method is also known as the Matrix Method of
Structural Analysis in the literature because it uses matrix algebra
to solve the system of simultaneous equations.
S2-7
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WHAT IS THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD?
● The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a numerical
approximation method. It is a method of investigating
the behavior of complex structures by breaking them
down into smaller, simpler pieces.
● These smaller pieces of structure are called
elements. The elements are connected to each other
at the nodes.
● The assembly of elements and nodes is called a finite
element model. The piston head shown in the next
slide is an example of a finite element model.
S2-8
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SAMPLE FINITE ELEMENT MODEL
Element
Sample Finite Element Model
Node
S2-9
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FINITE ELEMENTS
● Finite elements have shapes which are relatively easy to
formulate and analyze. The three basic types of finite
elements are beams, plates, and solids.
Beam
(1D)
Plate
(2D)
Solid
(3D)
S2-10
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ONE DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS
● 1D beam elements are used to model long, slender
structural members, as demonstrated in this
communications tower finite element model.
S2-11
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
TWO DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS
● 2D plate elements are used to model thin structural
members such as aircraft fuselage skin or car body
S2-12
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THREE DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS
● 3D solid elements are used to model thick
components such as the piston head shown below:
S2-13
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
BUILDING A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL
● The Finite Element Method approximates the
behavior of a continuous structure with a finite
number of elements.
● As one increases the number of elements (and
hence, decrease the size of the elements), the results
become increasingly accurate, but the computing
time also increases.
● Patran provides numerous modeling tools to help the
user build finite element models with the right
balance between accuracy and model size.
S2-14
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
HOW DOES FEM WORK ?
● Basic Approach
● A given problem is discretized by dividing the original
domain into simply shaped elements.
● Elements are connected to each other by nodes.
X
Y
Z
S2-15
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
HOW DOES FEM WORK ? (Cont.)
u
x
u
y
u
z
u
z
u
y
u
x
Three translations (u
x
, u
y
, u
z
)
Three rotations (q
x
, q
y
, q
z
)
{u} = displacement vector
= { u
x
u
y
u
z
q
x
q
y
q
z
}
● Each node is capable of moving in six independent
directions: three translations and three rotations. These
are called the degrees of freedom (DOF) at a node.
S2-16
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
HOW DOES FEM WORK ? (Cont.)
● The relationship between an element and its surrounding nodes
can be described by the following equation:
[ k ]
e
{ u }
e
= { f }
e
● The elemental stiffness matrix [ k ]
e
is derived from geometry,
material properties, and element properties.
● The elemental load vector { f }
e
describes the forces acting on the
element.
● The displacement vector { u }
e
is the unknown in this equation. It
describes how the nodes are moving as a result of the applied
forces.
[ k ]
e
{ u }
e
= { f }
e
Elemental Equation
S2-17
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
HOW DOES FEM WORK ? (Cont.)
● Next, the elemental stiffness matrices are assembled into a
global stiffness matrix. The loads are also assembled into a
global load vector. This results in the following matrix equation
for the overall structure:
[ K ] { u } = { F }
[ K ] { u } = { F }
[ k ]
e
{ u }
e
= { f }
e
Elemental Equation
Global Equation
S2-18
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
HOW DOES FEM WORK ? (Cont.)
● Next, apply the boundary condition to the model (constrain the
model). Mathematically, this is achieved by removing rows and
columns corresponding to the constrained degrees of freedom
from the global matrix equation.
Boundary Condition
[ K ] { u } = { F }
Global Matrix Equation
with boundary condition
applied
S2-19
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
HOW DOES FEM WORK ? (Cont.)
● Finally, the global matrix equation is solved to determine the
unknown nodal displacements.
● Element strains and stresses are then computed from the nodal
displacements.
Deformation Plot Stress Fringe Plot
S2-20
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Summary of the finite element method:
HOW DOES FEM WORK ? (Cont.)
Assemble loads into a global load vector {F}
Represent continuous structure as a collection of
discrete elements connected by nodes
Derive element stiffness matrices from
material properties, element properties, and geometry
Assemble all element stiffness matrices into a
global stiffness matrix [K]
Apply boundary conditions to constrain the
model
Solve the matrix equation [K] {u} = {F} for
nodal displacements
Compute strains and stresses from
displacement results
S2-21
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
TYPES OF FINITE ELEMENT METHODS
● There are two different types of finite element methods - the
displacement method and the force method. In both methods,
equilibrium, compatibility, and stress-strain relations are used to
generate a system of equations that represent the behavior of the
structure.
● In the displacement method, the grid point displacements are the
basic unknowns in the system of equations.
● In the force method, the member forces are the basic unknowns in
the system of equations.
● Both methods can be used to solve structural problems. The
displacement method is used by most modern finite element codes,
including MD Nastran.
S2-22
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
KEY CONCEPTS IN FEM
● The Displacement Method
● Formulation of the Element Stiffness Matrix
● Matrix Assembly and Decomposition
S2-23
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE DISPLACEMENT METHOD
● All structural engineering analyses must satisfy the
following three general conditions:
1. Equilibrium of forces and moments:
EF = 0, EM = 0
2. Strain-Displacement relations (also called compatibility of
deformations): ensures that the displacement field in a
deformed continuous structure is free of voids or discontinuities
S2-24
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE DISPLACEMENT METHOD (Cont.)
3. Stress-Strain relations (also called constitutive relations):
● For a linear material, the generalized Hooke’s law states
{o} = [E] {c}
where {o} = { o
x
o
y
o
z
t
xy
t
yz
t
zx
}
{c} = { c
x
c
y
c
z
¸
xy
¸
yz
¸
zx
}
[E] = 6 x 6 matrix of elastic constants
S2-25
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE DISPLACEMENT METHOD (Cont.)
● These three conditions can be used to generate a system of
equations in which the displacements are unknown.
● The stiffness matrix [K] is used to relate the forces acting on the
structure and the displacements resulting from these forces in the
following manner:
{F} = [K] {u}
where {F} = forces acting on the structure
[K] = stiffness matrix [k
ij
], where each k
ij
term is the
force of a constraint at coordinate i due to a unit
displacement at j with all other displacements
set equal to zero
{u} = displacements resulting from {F}
● Boundary conditions are applied to prevent rigid body motions,
and the system of linear equations is solved for the unknown {u}.
S2-26
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FORMULATION OF THE ELEMENT
STIFFNESS MATRIX
● A key step in the displacement method is the
formulation of the element stiffness matrix
● Each element in a finite element model is represented
by an element stiffness matrix [K]
e
● A single-rod case study is used to demonstrate the
element stiffness matrix formulation for a rod element
S2-27
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: ROD ELEMENT STIFFNESS
MATRIX
● Consider an elastic rod of uniform cross section A and
length L under axial load.
● Axial translations u
1
and u
2
are the only displacements
at grid points 1 and 2. Thus, this element has two
degrees of freedom.
F
1
F
2
X 1 2
u
1
u
2
L
X = 0
A
S2-28
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Step 2: Relate strain to displacements
● Assume that the rod changes length by an amount AL due to
the axial load. The strain in the rod is
● Step 1: Satisfy static equilibrium
CASE STUDY: ROD ELEMENT STIFFNESS
MATRIX (Cont.)
F
2
F
1
– =
c
x
AL
L
-------
u
2
u
1

L
----------------- = =
(1)
(2)
F
x
¿
F
1
F
2
+ 0 = =
E
S2-29
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Step 3: Relate stress to strain
● Step 4: Relate force to stress
CASE STUDY: ROD ELEMENT STIFFNESS
MATRIX (Cont.)
(3)
(4)
o
x
Ec
x
=
P
A
----
o
x
1
F
1
A
------ – =
o
x
2
F
2
A
------ =
o =
and
S2-30
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Step 5: Relate force to displacement
● Substitution of Equations 2 and 3 into Equation 4 yields
CASE STUDY: ROD ELEMENT STIFFNESS
MATRIX (Cont.)
F
1
– o
x
A Ec
x
A
EA
L
--------
u
2
u
1
– ( ) = = =
F
1

AE
L
--------
u
2
AE
L
--------
u
1
– =
F
2
EA
L
--------
u
2
EA
L
--------
u
1
– =
or
similarly,
EA EA
(5)
(6)
S2-31
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
{F} = [K]
e
{u}
● Equations 5 and 6 represent two linear equations with
two unknowns. Rewrite them in matrix form:
CASE STUDY: ROD ELEMENT STIFFNESS
MATRIX (Cont.)
F
1
F
2
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
EA
L
--------
1 1 –
1 – 1
u
1
u
2
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
(6)
or
[K]
e
where [K]
e
= [k
ij
], the known 2x2 rod element stiffness matrix
{F} = vector of known applied forces
{u} = vector of unknown displacements
S2-32
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The method used in the previous case study to derive
the rod element stiffness matrix is called the direct
method or the stiffness method. This method works
well for simple elements such as rods and beams.
● For more complex 2D and 3D elements, the
variational method is used
● The variational method is also known as the Rayleigh-Ritz
method.
● Assumed element shape functions and energy principles are
used to derive the element stiffness matrices.
● The variational method is covered in detail in text books on
the finite element method. A list of reference books on the
finite element method is included at the end of this section.
FORMULATION OF THE ELEMENT
STIFFNESS MATRIX
S2-33
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The stiffness matrix for a rod element under torsion is
shown below:
ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF ELEMENT
STIFFNESS MATRIX
T
1
T
2
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
GJ
L
-------
1 1 –
1 – 1
u
x1
u
x2
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
[K]
e
T
1
T
2
X 1 2
u
x1
L
X = 0
J
u
x2
S2-34
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The stiffness matrix for a beam element under in-plane
shear and bending is shown below:
ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF ELEMENT
STIFFNESS MATRIX (Cont.)
P
y1
M
z1
P
y2
M
z2
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
2EI
L
3
---------
6 3L 6 – 3L
3L 2L
2
3L – L
2
6 – 3L – 6 3L –
3L L
2
3L – 2L
2
y
1
u
z1
y
2
u
z2
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
{P} [K] {u}
e
F
S2-35
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY
● The following case study demonstrates the assembly
of the the individual element stiffness matrices and the
solution to the entire problem.
X = 0
X
u
1
, F
1 u
2
, F
2
1
2 3
u
3
, F
3
L
2
L
1
P
S2-36
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.)
● Write the following element stiffness equations based
on the previous derivation of stiffness matrix for a rod
element:
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
2
1
1
1 1
1
1 1
1
1 1
1
1 1
2
1
u
u
L
A E
L
A E
L
A E
L
A E
F
F
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
3
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2 2
3
2
u
u
L
A E
L
A E
L
A E
L
A E
F
F
[K]
1
[K]
2
S2-37
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.)
● Rewrite the stiffness matrices in simpler terms:
| |
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
1 1
1 1
k k
k k
K
1
| |
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
2 2
2 2
2
k k
k k
K
1
1 1
1
L
A E
k =
2
2 2
2
L
A E
k =
where and
S2-38
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.)
● Assemble the two stiffness matrices by superposition.
The resulting matrix is called the global stiffness matrix.
| |
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
1 1
1 1
1
k k
k k
K
| |
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
2 2
2 2
2
k k
k k
K
( )
Global Stiffness Matrix [K]
S2-39
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.)
● Apply external loads to the structure
F
1
= -P F
2
= 0 F
3
= 0
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷ + ÷
÷
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
3
2
1
2 2
2 2 1 1
1 1
u
u
u
k k 0
k k k k
0 k k
0
0
P
S2-40
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.)
● Next, impose the boundary condition
● The right end is fixed, so u
3
= 0. This is achieved by discarding
row 3 and column 3 from the global stiffness matrix.
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷ + ÷
÷
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
3
2
1
2 2
2 2 1 1
1 1
u
u
u
k k 0
k k k k
0 k k
0
0
P
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦÷
2
1
2 1 1
1 1
u
u
k k k
k k
0
P
S2-41
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.)
● Now, solve the matrix equation
● One way to solve this equation is to multiply both sides by the
inverse of [K]
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦÷
2
1
2 1 1
1 1
u
u
k k k
k k
0
P
or {F} = [K] {u}
[K]
-1
{F} = {u}
● In actual practice, inverting the stiffness matrix to solve the system
of equations is highly inefficient. MD Nastran uses a more efficient
matrix decomposition procedure rather than the matrix inversion
method.
S2-42
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.)
● Inversion of the [K] matrix requires that [K] be square
and that det[K] = 0 (i.e. nonsingular).
● If rigid body motion or mechanisms are not prevented
(constrained), the structure is unstable and the stiffness
matrix will be singular.
● Always remember that MD Nastran is working in a 3-D
space when considering rigid body motion. Therefore,
the set of constraints you apply must be able to prevent
any possible rigid body motion in 3-D space.
S2-43
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.)
Example of Inadequate
Constraints
Example of Adequate
Constraints
S2-44
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The same procedure used for the two-rod model can be
extended to a general structure such as the aircraft
structure shown below:
● The two highlighted stringer elements are represented
by the two element stiffness matrices developed in the
previous case study.
Element 100
Element 200
PROCEDURE FOR GENERAL STRUCTURES
S2-45
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The stiffness characteristics of the rest of the aircraft are obtained by
assembling the individual element stiffness matrices to the global
stiffness matrix using the same procedure as used in the two-rod
model.
k
1
-k
1
0
-k
1
(k
1
+ k
2
) -k
2
0 -k
2
k
2
Stiffness contributions from
the rest of the aircraft
N x N
PROCEDURE FOR GENERAL STRUCTURES
(Cont.)
S2-46
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Rule of thumb for computer resources (CPU time) used
by MD Nastran for a problem with “N” DOF
● Overhead (~ constant)
● Stiffness matrix assembly (~ N)
● Solution cost ( ~ N
2
)
● Data recovery ( ~ N)
PROCEDURE FOR GENERAL STRUCTURES
(Cont.)
S2-47
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
OTHER APPLICATIONS OF FINITE ELEMENT
METHOD
● In general, the finite element method can be applied to
any continuum described by partial differential
equations.
● Example: Steady-state heat conduction
● Replace the structural stiffness matrix with the matrix of thermal
conductivities
● Single DOF at each node (temperature)
● Other fields
● Fluid flow/wave propagation
● Electromagnetics
● Dynamics
S2-48
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
REFERENCES
V. Adams
Building Better Products with Finite Element Analysis
OnWord Press, 1999
K. J. Bathe
Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis
Prentice-Hall, 1982
R. D. Cook
Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis
John Wiley & Sons, 1989
R. H. MacNeal
Finite Elements: Their Design and Performance
Marcel Dekker, 1994
S2-49
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
REFERENCES (Cont.)
NAFEMS
A Finite Element Primer
Department of Trade and Industry, UK, 1986
J. S. Przemieniecki
Theory of Matrix Structural Analysis
McGraw-Hill, 1968
B. A. Szabo and I. Babuska
Finite Element Analysis
John Wiley & Sons, 1991
O. C. Zienkiewicz
The Finite Element Method
McGraw-Hill, 1994
S2-50
NAS120, Section 2, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 2 “Simply Supported Beam” in your
exercise workbook.
S3-1
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 3
BASICS OF
MD NASTRAN AND PATRAN
S3-2
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S3-3
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE
● The Patran GUI for the Windows and Unix
platforms are shown in the following slides.
Except for the color scheme and icon
arrangements, the two GUIs are basically
identical.
● The course material will be presented using the
Windows GUI.
S3-4
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WINDOWS GUI
S3-5
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
UNIX GUI
S3-6
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE MAIN MENU
Menu Bar
Tool Bar
History Window
Command Line
Status Icon
● Static Green indicates Patran is
waiting for user input
● Rotating Blue indicates Patran is
performing a process which can
be stopped immediately with the
abort icon
● Rotating Red indicates that
Patran is performing a process
which cannot be interrupted
Application Buttons
S3-7
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE MAIN MENU (Cont.)
File Save
Print
Copy to Clipboard
Undo - will undo last command
Abort - Stops operation in progress
Reset Graphics
Refresh Graphics
Display and Viewing Icons
S3-8
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE VIEWPORT
Display Mode
Current Group
Current Viewport
Database Name
S3-9
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
APPLICATION FORMS
Action
Object
Method
Select Menu
(Filter Buttons)
S3-10
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
APPLICATION FORMS (Cont.)
Toggle button is an on/off
switch
Select databox is used to
enter data
Data can be inserted by
placing the mouse at the
desired location, clicking
the left mouse button,
and typing in the desired
data
Existing text can be
edited
“...” suffix denotes that a
subordinate form will open up
upon clicking the button
Apply causes action to execute
Hyphens indicate action can be
undone only immediately after
its execution
Slide bar assigns a value to associated variable
Control icon allows the switching between different actions.
In this example, the icon can be set to highlight or split.
Causes the content of a form to reset back to default values;
the default values may be constant or can change
S3-11
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ENTITY PICKING
● Picking is performed in two ways:
● Keyboard entry into a databox
● Graphical picking with the mouse
S3-12
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ENTITY ID SYNTAX
All points Point 1:#
Signifies an axis with first point representing the
base and the second determining the direction
{[ ][ ]}
< > signifies a vector definition <R T Z>
Mathematical operations like division are possible to
determine the individual components
[1, 2, ‘-64.0/20.0‘]
y = the z coordinate of point 5
When a point is referenced the letter “p” can be
dropped
[1, zp5, 3]
[1, z5, 3]
Individual coordinates can reference existing
entities, such as x = the x coordinate of node 28
[xn28, 1, 2]
Square brackets signifies coordinate specification [x y z]
Combinations of entity ID syntax is possible (face 2
of solids 1 through 10)
Solid 1:10.2
References an entity associated with a higher order
one (i.e. edge 1 of surface 3, that is similar to a
curve)
Surface 3.1
Different forms for delimiters: space, “,” and “/” Curve 1 2, 3/ 4
Points 1 through 9 by 2 Point 1:9:2
Refers to points 1, 2, and 3 Point 1 2 3
Description Syntax
S3-13
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ENTITY GRAPHICAL PICKING
● Individual and collective entity picking is
controlled by the Picking option under
Preferences.
● For Single Entity Picking, a portion of the
selected entity must be within the physical
limits of the cursor.
● For Centroid Single Picking, the closest entity
to the location of the cursor will be picked.
● Additional tools are available to aid the
process of picking, such as Cycle picking.
● The Preselection Settings highlight the Entity
and Label (ID #) of the entity before you
select it.
S3-14
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CURSOR PICKING
● Single Entity
Move the cursor to the entity label/centroid and press
the left mouse button
● Multiple Picking
Hold down the shift key and select the entities
with the left mouse button
Shift
S3-15
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CURSOR PICKING (Cont.)
Ctrl
● Rectangle Picking
(Click & Drag)
● Polygon Picking
“Click”
“Click”
You can also
select this icon
from the select
menu
Note: To complete your selection, double-click the left mouse button
S3-16
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Deselect
● Cycle Picking
Move the cursor to the entity’s label/centroid and
click on the right mouse button
Picking an entity underneath another, or that is
close to other entities. Once the cycle picking
window appears, make the selection from the
window.
CURSOR PICKING (Cont.)
S3-17
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MANIPULATING THE MODEL FOR
VIEWING
Click on one of these icons, then drag
with the middle mouse button
XY Rotate
Z Rotate XY Translate
Zoom
S3-18
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN ONLINE HELP
● Two ways to use on-line help
● Use the drop-down help menu to get topical help or help
via the world wide web
● Press the “F1” key to get context sensitive help on a
form in question
S3-19
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN-NASTRAN WORKFLOW AND FILES
Patran
Patran
MD Nastran
MD Nastran
Solver
K u = F
● Solve for u
● Compute strain
● Compute stress
.bdf
.xdb
.op2
.db
.ses
.db.jou
.f04
.f06
.log
Pre-Processing
● Import/create geometry
● Create finite element mesh
● Apply boundary condition
● Apply loads
● Create material properties
● Create element properties
● Submit model to solver
Post-Processing
● Deformation plots
● Stress fringe plots
● Reports
S3-20
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
BASIC PATRAN FILES
One per model. Record of all PCL commands
from database creation to present.
Concatenated session files. EXTREMELY useful
for rebuilding a database.
Journal File .db.jou
A Session File is opened at Patran start-up
and it is closed when you quit Patran.
Session File .ses
One per model Database .db
Comments File Type File Extension
S3-21
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
BASIC MD NASTRAN FILES
Used by Patran for post processing. Results File .xdb
Used by Patran for post processing. Results File .op2
Contains a time history of job execution. Execution Summary File .f04
Operating System Log File .log
This is the main Nastran output file. It contains
the results of your analysis such as displacements
and stresses. It is in ASCII format so it can be
viewed in any text editor. It also contains
warning messages, error messages, and diagnostic
messages to help the user evaluate the quality of
the analysis results.
Results File .f06
Contains model definition. Popular extensions are
.bdf and .dat
Input File .bdf
Comments File Type File Extension
S3-22
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE MD NASTRAN INPUT FILE
● The two files which contain the finite element model
definition are
● The Patran database file
● The Nastran input file
● The Nastran input file is useful in a number of ways:
● Can be viewed and edited in any text editor
● Can include comments to document modeling assumptions
and changes
● Allows the user to add entries which are not supported in
Patran
● Useful in debugging a model
S3-23
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ORGANIZATION OF THE NASTRAN INPUT
FILE
● The Nastran input file is arranged in five sections:
Nastran Statement
Nastran Statement
File Management Section
File Management Section
Executive Control Section
Executive Control Section
Case Control Section
Case Control Section
Bulk Data Section
Bulk Data Section
CEND
BEGIN BULK
ENDDATA
Optional Sections
Required Sections
Required
Delimiters
ID A,B
Optional
Delimiter
S3-24
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NASTRAN INPUT FILE SECTIONS
● Nastran Statement – Used to modify system
defaults. Not needed in most runs.
● File Management Section – Allocates files, controls
restarts and database operations
● Executive Control Section – Solution type, time
allowed, program modifications, and system
diagnostics
● Case Control Section – Requests Output and
selects Bulk Data items such as loadings and
constraints to be used
● Bulk Data Section – Model definition, loadings, and
boundary conditions
S3-25
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NASTRAN INPUT FILE DELIMITERS
● The delimiters are
● ID A,B First statement in Executive Control
Section (optional)
● CEND End of Executive Control Section,
beginning of Case Control Section
● BEGIN BULK End of Case Control Section, beginning of
Bulk Data Section
● ENDDATA Last entry in the input file
SAMPLE MODEL
S3-26
E = 30x10
6
psi  = 0.3 A = 4.0 in
2
J = 1.27 in
4
NAS120, Section 3, January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S3-27
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NASTRAN INPUT FILE OF SAMPLE MODEL
ID TRUSS,SAMPLE
SOL 101
TIME 5
CEND
TITLE = SAMPLE INPUT FILE
SUBTITLE = TRUSS STRUCTURE
LOAD = 10
SPC = 11
DISP = ALL
ELFORCE = ALL
SPCFORCE = ALL
BEGIN BULK
$
$ GRID POINTS DESCRIBE THE GEOMETRY
$
GRID 1 0. 0. 0.
GRID 2 0. 120. 0.
GRID 3 600. 120. 0.
GRID 4 600. 0. 0.
$
$ TRUSS MEMBERS MODELED WITH ROD ELEMENTS
$
CROD 1 21 2 3
CROD 2 21 2 4
CROD 3 21 1 3
CROD 4 21 1 4
CROD 5 21 3 4
$
PROD 21 22 4. 1.27
MAT1 22 30.E6 .3
FORCE 10 4 1000. 0. -1. 0.
SPC1 11 12 1 2
SPC1 11 3456 1 2 3 4
ENDDATA
Executive
Control
Case Control
Bulk Data
Comments start
with a dollar sign
S3-28
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE BULK DATA SECTION
● The Bulk Data Section contains all data
necessary for describing a structural model
● Each item described in the Bulk Data section is
called an Entry
● The Bulk Data entries are not required to be input
in any order
FORMAT OF BULK DATA ENTRIES
● Each Bulk Data entry has a specific pre-defined format and
purpose (described in the MD Nastran Quick Reference Guide,
Section 5)
● Shown below is the CROD entry description from the Quick
Reference Guide:
S3-29
NAS120, Section 3, January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S3-30
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FORMAT OF BULK DATA ENTRIES (Cont.)
● Each line contains 80 columns
● A Bulk Data entry may span multiple lines
● There are three data formats
● Integer
● Real
● Character String
● Each field in a particular entry has a required data
format. See the Quick Reference Guide for the
correct format.
S3-31
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FORMAT OF BULK DATA ENTRIES (Cont.)
● Following representations of the real number 123.4
are numerically equivalent and acceptable to MD
Nastran:
● Real numbers must be entered with a decimal point.
Integers must be entered without a decimal point.
123.4 1.234+2 1.234E2 12.34E+1
0.1234E3 .1234E3
S3-32
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FIELD FORMAT
● Each Nastran input file line contains 80 columns.
There are three field formats for entering data in these
80 columns:
● Small Field Format
● Large Field Format
● Free Field Format
S3-33
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FIELD FORMAT (Cont.)
● Small Field Format
● Each line is divided into 10 fields
● Each field is 8 columns wide
456 9.0 8.6 7.5 10 GRID
 8   8   8   8   8   8   8   8   8   8 
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
FIELD FORMAT (Cont.)
● Large Field Format
● A high degree of accuracy is required in some MD Nastran
applications. The large field format is used when the small field
format does not provide enough significant digits.
● An asterisk after the keyword signifies large field format.
GRID* 10 7.5 8.6 *GRID10
*GRID10 9.0 456
S3-34
NAS120, Section 3, January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S3-35
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FIELD FORMAT (Cont.)
● Free Field Format
● Fields are separated by commas or blanks (commas are
strongly recommended)
● To skip a field, use two commas in succession
● Integer numbers or character strings with more than eight
characters cause a fatal error
● Real numbers with more than eight characters are rounded off
and will lose some precision
Example:
GRID,10,,7.5,8.6,9.0,,456
S3-36
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTINUATION ENTRIES
● Many input entries require more than one line of input
● If this is the case, then “continuation” entries must be
used.
● Continuation entries may be generated automatically
when the entries are in sorted order. The parent entry
may be blank in columns 74-80 (field 10), and the
continuation entry may be blank in columns 2-8 (field 1).
For small field entries, the first column of the continuation
entry may be blank or contain a + symbol. For large field
entries, the first column of the continuation entry must
contain a * symbol.
S3-37
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTINUATION ENTRIES (Cont.)
● Input rules
● Unless you use automatic generation, a (+) or (*) is required in
column 1, field 1 of a continuation entry. The remaining contents in
field 1 of a continuation entry must be identical to the entry in field
10 (columns 2 through 8) of the parent entry (or the preceding
continuation entry).
● Any entry in the first column of field 10 on the parent entry is
ignored by the continuation entry
● Small field and large field continuation entries may be used
together in defining a single data item entry
● An example of the use of continuation is shown in the next
slide
S3-38
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTINUATION ENTRIES (Cont.)
● Two methods of entering a MAT8 entry with continuation
are shown below:
● Method 1
● Method 2
+M101
+M101
+M102
+M102
S3-39
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GENERAL INPUT FORMAT RULES
● Input data items in fields 1 and 10 must be left
justified. Input data in fields 2 through 9 do not have
to be left or right justified.
● Error results if data extends beyond its field into
another field.
● Input data items must not have any embedded
blanks.
● All real numbers, including zero, must contain a
decimal point.
● Many fields have default values. If these fields are
left blank, the default values will be used (See the
Quick Reference Guide).
S3-40
NAS120, Section 3, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 3 “Editing a Nastran Input File” in
your exercise workbook.
S4-1
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 4
STADIUM ARCHED-ROOF TRUSS
S4-2
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 4
STADIUM ARCHED-ROOF TRUSS
S4-3
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Topics covered in this section:
● MD Nastran Element Library
● Creating nodes and 1D Elements
● The MD Nastran CROD element
● Post-processing 1D element results
SECTION 4
STADIUM ARCHED-ROOF TRUSS
S4-4
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Problem Description
● The final design of a new support structure for the center field
scoreboard of a baseball stadium is almost complete. The
architect has an exposed, overhanging, arched-roof truss in
her design. An electric billboard will be hung from this truss.
You are asked to analyze the design of the arched-roof truss
to ensure that it can support the weight of the scoreboard.
● Analysis Objectives
● Determine stress levels in the truss members under loading.
The maximum stress must be below the yield point of the
truss material.
● Determine the maximum vertical displacement of the
structure. The architect has specified that the maximum
vertical movement of the scoreboard should not exceed 0.25
inch.
CASE STUDY:
STADIUM ARCHED-ROOF TRUSS
S4-5
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The MD Nastran element library contains over 50
finite elements
● Zero-dimensional
● One-dimensional
● Two-dimensional
● Three-dimensional
● Scalar
● Axisymmetric
● Rigid
● Heat transfer
● Fluid-structure
● P-version
● Contact
● “GENEL” user-supplied element
MD NASTRAN ELEMENTS
S4-6
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COMMONLY USED MD NASTRAN ELEMENTS
Scalar
Elements
1-D
Elements
2-D
Elements
3-D
Elements
Rigid
Elements
CONM2
0-D
Elements
CBUSH
CELASi
(i=1,2,3,4)
CROD
CONROD
CTUBE
CBAR
CBEAM
CBEND
CQUAD4
CQUAD8
CTRIA3
CTRIA6
CQUADR
CTRIAR
CSHEAR
CHEXA
CPENTA
CTETRA
RBAR
RBE2
RBE3
RSSCON
Axisymmetric
Elements
CTRIAX6
CTRIAX
CQUADX
S4-7
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING ELEMENTS IN PATRAN
● Two methods for creating elements in Patran:
1. Mesh geometry to generate elements
2. Create elements by connecting nodes
Method 1 Method 2
S4-8
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● For this case study, Method 2 will be used to directly create
nodes and connect the nodes to create elements
● There are five identical planar truss assemblies supporting the
roof. Only one truss assembly will be created.
● The table below shows the location of truss joints. Use this table
to create the nodes.
CREATING TRUSS NODES AND ELEMENTS
S4-9
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Input location for node 1
CREATING NODES
S4-10
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING NODES (Cont.)
Repeat the process
until all 13 nodes
have been created
S4-11
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING ELEMENTS
Input element connectivity
for element 1
S4-12
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Repeat the process until all 24
elements have been created
CREATING ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S4-13
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The Patran BAR2 element corresponds to a family of two-noded
Nastran elements:
● The specific element type will be specified later when creating the
element properties.
CREATING ELEMENTS (Cont.)
Scalar
Elements
1-D
Elements
2-D
Elements
3-D
Elements
Rigid
Elements
CONM2
0-D
Elements
CBUSH
CELASi
(i=1,2,3,4)
CROD
CONROD
CTUBE
CBAR
CBEAM
CBEND
CQUAD4
CQUAD8
CTRIA3
CTRIA6
CQUADR
CTRIAR
CSHEAR
CHEXA
CPENTA
CTETRA
RBAR
RBE2
RBE3
RSSCON
Axisymmetric
Elements
CTRIAX6
CTRIAX
CQUADX
S4-14
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Creating Material Properties
● The architect has selected steel tubing as the
construction material.
● The material properties are as follows:
● E = 30 x 10
6
psi
● v = 0.3
● Tensile yield strength = 36 ksi
CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES
S4-15
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a material named steel
CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S4-16
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Input material properties
CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S4-17
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Following are the most commonly used one-dimensional
elements in MD Nastran:
● CROD, CONROD, CTUBE: Pin-ended rod (4 DOFs)
● CBAR: Prismatic beam (12 DOFs)
● CBEAM: Straight beam with warping (14 DOFs)
● CBEND: Curved beam or pipe (12 DOFs)
SELECT THE 1-D ELEMENT TYPE
S4-18
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● For this case study, the primary load path in the truss
members is axial. Assume the bending moments are
negligible.
● Select the MD Nastran CROD element to model the
truss members.
● The truss members have the following physical
properties:
● 6.0 inch diameter tubing
● 0.25 inch wall thickness
● A = t/4 *(6.0
2
-5.5
2
) = 4.516 in
2
● J = t/32 *(6.0
4
-5.5
4
) = 37.398 in
4
SELECT THE 1-D ELEMENT TYPE (Cont.)
S4-19
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● General features of the CROD element are:
● Connected by two nodes
● Two force components:
● Axial force P
● Torque T
● Displacements components:
● u
i
and u
i
● Straight, prismatic member
● The element stiffness matrix contains only terms for axial and
torsional degrees of freedom
P T
A
T P
B Xe
THE CROD ELEMENT
S4-20
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Element connectivity is defined on the Nastran CROD entry
Field Contents
EID Element identification number
PID Identification number of PROD property entry
G1,G2 Grid point identification numbers of connection
points, where G1 = grid point at End A and
G2 = grid point at End B
7 1 1 23 CROD
G2 G1 PID EID CROD
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
THE CROD ELEMENT (Cont.)
S4-21
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Element property is defined on the Nastran PROD entry
Field Contents
PID Property identification number
MID Material identification number
A Cross-sectional area
J Torsional constant (equals to polar moment of
inertia for circular cross sections)
C Coefficient to determine torsional stress
NSM Nonstructural mass per unit length (Real)
37.398 4.516 1 1 PROD
NSM C J A MID PID PROD
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
THE CROD ELEMENT (Cont.)
S4-22
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Solid Circular Section
● Hollow Circular Section
● Solid Square Section
● Solid Rectangular Section
● Calculation of torsional constant J for some
typical cross sections
J
1
2
---tr
4
=
2r
J
1
2
---t r
o
4
r
i
4
– ( ) =
r
o
r
i
J 2.25a
4
=
2a
J ab
3
16
3
------ 3.36
b
a
--- 1
b
4
12a
4
------------ –
\ .
|
| |
– =
2b
2a
THE CROD ELEMENT (Cont.)
S4-23
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a 1D Rod property
named circular_rod
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTY FOR THE
TRUSS
S4-24
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Input element properties
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTY FOR THE
TRUSS (Cont.)
S4-25
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTY FOR THE
TRUSS (Cont.)
Select application region
S4-26
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Click Add to send
selection to the
collector box
below and click
Apply to create the
element property.
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTY FOR THE
TRUSS (Cont.)
S4-27
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Material Record : steel
$ Description of Material : Date: 06-May-02 Time: 09:25:28
MAT1 1 3.+7 .3
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : circular_rod
PROD 1 1 4.516 37.398
CROD 23 1 1 7
● A snap shot of the MD Nastran input file for this problem,
showing how the connectivity entry, the property entry,
and the material entry are linked together:
ELEMENT-PROPERTY-MATERIAL CHAIN
REFERENCE
S4-28
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Creating Loads and Boundary Conditions
● The truss assembly is bolted down at the base.
● The billboard weighs 2,500 pounds, which is supported
by five truss assemblies. Each truss assembly,
therefore, supports 500 pounds of weight.
CREATING LOADS AND BOUNDARY
CONDITIONS
S4-29
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a boundary
condition named
fixed
CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
S4-30
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Constrain all six degrees
of freedom
CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S4-31
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
Select the base of the truss
S4-32
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating the
boundary condition
CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S4-33
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a second
boundary
condition to
constrain DOFs
not connected to
any element
CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S4-34
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Constrain the
T3 and R3
degrees of
freedom
CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S4-35
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
Select the rest
of the truss
S4-36
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating
the boundary
condition
CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S4-37
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Click here first, then drag the
middle mouse button to rotate the
model
Rotate the model
to get a better view
CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S4-38
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a load named force
CREATING LOADS
S4-39
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING LOADS (Cont.)
Input -500 lbs in the y direction
S4-40
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the application region
CREATING LOADS (Cont.)
S4-41
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating the load
CREATING LOADS (Cont.)
S4-42
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The pre-processing phase of the analysis process is
now complete. The next step is to send the model to
MD Nastran to perform the numerical analysis.
CASE STUDY WORKFLOW
Solver
MD NASTRAN
PATRAN
Pre-Processing
PATRAN
Post-Processing
S4-43
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP AND SUBMITTAL
Select linear static analysis and
submit the analysis job to MD
Nastran
S4-44
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP AND SUBMITTAL (Cont.)
Status window reports job progress
S4-45
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● After MD Nastran completes the analysis, the
analysis results are ready to be post-processed.
CASE STUDY WORKFLOW
Solver
MD NASTRAN
PATRAN
Pre-Processing
PATRAN
Post-Processing
S4-46
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● There are two types of Nastran results files: the .op2 file and the
.xdb file
● When the .op2 file is read into Patran, it becomes a permanent part of
the database.
● When the .xdb file is read into Patran, it is attached to the database
temporarily and becomes detached when the Patran database is
closed.
truss.op2
truss.db
truss.db +
truss.op2
truss.xdb
truss.db
truss.xdb
truss.db
TWO TYPES OF RESULT FILES
S4-47
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ATTACH THE XDB FILE
By default, Patran
requested for a
.xdb file when the
job was submitted
to Nastran.
Attach the .xdb file
to Patran.
S4-48
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Evaluate the analysis results
● Examine the maximum vertical deflection. The
allowable deflection is 0.25 inch.
● Examine the truss member stresses. The
requirement is 36 ksi (material yield strength)
POST PROCESS THE RESULTS
S4-49
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLOT DEFORMATION
Plot the deformation
Max y disp = 0.018 in < 0.25 in
S4-50
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● By default, Patran averages the stresses at a
node from neighboring elements and plots this
average stress value.
● By switching off the averaging option, the true
maximum axial stresses in the truss members
are displayed.
PLOT STRESSES
S4-51
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the averaged axial stresses
PLOT STRESSES (Cont.)
S4-52
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLOT STRESSES (Cont.)
Plot the un-averaged axial
stresses
S4-53
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Open the .f06 file with a text editor
● Check the total applied load against the total reaction load
Total applied load
Total reaction load
REVIEW THE .f06 FILE
S4-54
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Examine the constraint forces to verify that the boundary condition
has been applied correctly:
REVIEW THE .F06 FILE (Cont.)
S4-55
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Review the displacements and rod element stresses
REVIEW THE .f06 FILE (Cont.)
S4-56
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Analysis Summary:
● Maximum deflection of 0.018 inch is below the 0.25
inch requirement
● Maximum axial stresses:
● Tensile Stress = 226 psi
● Compressive Stress = -268 psi
● The strength margin of safety is high
● Effects such as dynamic loading and buckling will be
discussed at a later part of the course.
CASE STUDY ANALYSIS SUMMARY
S4-57
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 4 “Stadium Truss” in your exercise
workbook.
S4-58
NAS120, Section 4, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S5-1
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 5
SPACE STATION TRUSS
S5-2
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S5-3
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 5
SPACE STATION TRUSS
● Topics covered in this case study:
● Part 1: Modeling
● Introduction to Geometry
● Transform Geometry
● Organize the model using Groups
● Mesh control
● Coordinate systems
● Part 2: 1D Finite Element entities
● NASTRAN CBAR element
● Definition of 1D element properties
● Part 3: Analysis and Results
● Multiple Subcases
● Postprocessing 1D data
S5-4
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Problem Description
● The preliminary design of a Space Station truss segment is
complete. The truss assembly carries a number of critical
components used for navigation, communication, and heat
rejection. This truss segment will be launched on the Space
Shuttle and assembled in space to other truss segments. You
are asked to analyze the design of the truss segment to
ensure that it can survive the launch and on-orbit loading
events.
● Analysis Objectives
● Determine stress levels in the truss members under loading.
The maximum stress must be below the yield point of the
truss material.
CASE STUDY:
SPACE STATION TRUSS
S5-5
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PART 1: MODELING
● In this section of the workshop, we will learn about:
● Modeling Geometry in Patran
● Types of Geometry
● Meshing Options for each type of geometry
● Organizing models using Groups
● Coordinate Systems in Patran and Nastran
● Nastran Grid Point entries
● Equivalent Terminology in Patran and Nastran
S5-6
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Getting started on the Space Station truss analysis:
● For the previous case study, no geometry was
used.
● Nodes were directly created by entering xyz coordinates
● Rod elements were created by connecting the nodes
● This method works well for simple models
● In general modeling situations, the structure is too
complex to be modeled using the previous
method. The more common method is to create
or import the geometry first, then mesh the
geometry to generate the finite element model.
CASE STUDY:
SPACE STATION TRUSS
S5-7
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
X
Y
Z
9
Y
Z
X
GEOMETRY BUILDING BLOCKS IN PATRAN
Point (cyan)
● A point is a zero-dimensional CAD entity. It
represents a location in space.
● Patran creates points automatically when
constructing curves, surfaces, and solids
● Points are created at vertices, e.g. surface
vertices (“corners”)
● It is not always necessary to construct entities
starting with their points, e.g. surface from points
S5-8
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GEOMETRY BUILDING BLOCKS IN PATRAN
Curve (yellow)
● A curve is a general vector function of the
single parametric variable ç
1
. It can have
many types of mathematical forms:
(X,Y,Z) = function ( ç
1
)
● A curve has:
● Two points, with one at each end
● A parametric coordinate (ç
1
) whose domain is
from 0.0 at P1 (its origin) to 1.0 at P2
● Meshing a curve produces bar elements
ç
1
P2
ç
1
P1
P(ç
1
)
Z
Y
X
Z
X
Y
5
Bar Element
S5-9
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GEOMETRY BUILDING BLOCKS IN PATRAN
Simple Surface (green)
● There are two types of surface:
● Simple - Green
● Complex (general trimmed) - Magenta
● A simple surface is a general vector
function of the two parametric variables
ç
1

2
:
(X,Y,Z) = function (ç
1

2
)
● A simple surface has:
● 3 or 4 bounding edges
● A parametric origin and parametric
coordinates whose domains are from 0 to 1
● A simple surface with 3 visible edges has a
fourth edge that is degenerate
12
P2
P1
P4
P3
ç
2
ç
1
ç
2
ç
1
Z
Y
X
Z
X
Y
P(ç
1

2
)
S5-10
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MESHING A SIMPLE SURFACE
● Meshing a simple surface produces 2-D elements
Tria mesh
Quad mesh
S5-11
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GEOMETRY BUILDING BLOCKS IN PATRAN
Complex Surface (magenta)
● A complex or general trimmed surface (magenta) has more
than 4 edges and can have interior cutouts
● Not defined parametrically (ç
1
, ç
2
not used)
● It is a “trimmed” parametric surface
Outer boundary
Inner boundaries
S5-12
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MESHING A COMPLEX SURFACE
● Meshing a complex surface produces 2-D elements
Quad mesh
Tria mesh
S5-13
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ç
1
ç
2
ç
3
P
8
P
7
P
6
P
4
P
3
P
2
P
1
P
5
P (ç
1
, ç
2
, ç
3
)
GEOMETRY BUILDING BLOCKS IN PATRAN
Simple Solid (blue)
● There are two types of solid:
● Simple - Blue
● Complex - White
● Simple solid
● Vector function of three parametric variables
ç
1
, ç
2
, ç
3
● A simple solid has:
● 4 to 6 bounding faces
● Parametric origin and coordinates whose
domains are from 0 to 1
● A simple solid with 4 to 5 visible faces
has some degenerate faces
S5-14
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MESHING A SIMPLE SOLID
● Meshing a simple solid produces solid elements
Hex mesh
Wedge mesh
Tet mesh
S5-15
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GEOMETRY BUILDING BLOCKS IN PATRAN
Complex Solid (white)
● Complex Solid
● Can have an arbitrary number of faces which define the solid
boundary. It is called a boundary representation (B-rep)
solid.
● Complex solids can be either Patran native B-Rep or
parasolid B-Rep
S5-16
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MESHING A B-REP SOLID
● Meshing a B-rep solid produces solid elements
Tet mesh
S5-17
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Topological entities are subcomponents of the basic geometry entities
TOPOLOGICAL ENTITIES
Vertex
Edge
Face
Solid
● All topological entities can be cursor selected to perform PATRAN
functions. For example
● Solid 1.4 specifies face number 4 of solid 1 which is a surface
● Surface 2.3 specifies edge number 3 of surface 2 which is a curve
S5-18
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING THE SPACE STATION GEOMETRY
S5-19
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a group called bulkheads
CREATING A GROUP
S5-20
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Input 7 point locations
-64.740 -30.675 0 6
0 0 0 7
-64.740 30.675 0 5
64.740 -30.675 0 4
64.740 30.675 0 3
0 -81.200 0 2
0 81.200 0 1
Z Y X
CREATING POINTS
S5-21
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create 12 curves for one bulkhead
CREATING CURVES
S5-22
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Make 5 copies of the bulkhead
geometry
X=100
X=100
X=100
X=100
X=120
TRANSFORMING THE CURVES
S5-23
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Delete
unnecessary
curves and points
from front and
rear bulkheads.
FINISH CREATING THE BULKHEAD
GEOMETRY
S5-24
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a new
group called
longerons.
Groups are an
effective tool to
organize your model
and are covered in
greater detail in
Section 10.
CREATING A NEW GROUP
S5-25
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create geometry for the
longerons
CREATING THE LONGERON GEOMETRY
S5-26
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a new group
called diagonals
CREATING A NEW GROUP
S5-27
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create geometry for all
diagonal members
CREATING THE DIAGONAL GEOMETRY
S5-28
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The truss geometry will next be meshed to generate
nodes and elements.
● There are two ways to control the element size
Mesh seeds or Global edge length
MESHING THE GEOMETRY
S5-29
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING A NEW GROUP
Create a new group called FEM
S5-30
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Set up a mesh
seed of 12
elements per
curve to control
the mesh density
on the 4 diagonal
members in the
longest bay
SETTING UP MESH SEEDS
S5-31
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Next mesh all the
curves with a global
edge length of 20 in
MESH THE TRUSS GEOMETRY
S5-32
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTING MESH
Coarser global
mesh controlled by
global edge length
Finer local mesh
controlled by mesh
seeds
S5-33
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Equivalence the model
to merge coincident
nodes
EQUIVALENCE THE MODEL
S5-34
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COORDINATE SYSTEMS IN PATRAN
● Coordinate systems are used in the
construction and transformation of geometry
S5-35
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COORDINATE SYSTEMS IN PATRAN (CONT.)
● Coordinate systems are also used to define the
direction of loads and boundary conditions
S5-36
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COORDINATE SYSTEMS IN PATRAN (CONT.)
● Coordinate systems can also be used to define
the analysis coordinate system of a node
S5-37
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING COORDINATE SYSTEMS
● There are three types of coordinate systems:
Rectangular, Cylindrical, and Spherical
● There are many ways to create coordinate systems:
S5-38
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● MD Nastran Coordinate systems are used to
● Define locations of grid points in space
● Orient each grid point’s displacement vector
● Coordinate systems in MD Nastran:
● Basic Coordinate System - Implicitly defined reference
rectangular coordinate system (Coordinate System 0).
Orientation of this system is defined by the user through
specifying the components of grid point locations.
● Local Coordinate Systems - User-defined coordinate
systems. Each local coordinate system must be related
directly or indirectly to the basic coordinate system. The six
possible local coordinate systems are:
● Rectangular CORD1R
● Rectangular CORD2R
● Cylindrical CORD1C
● Cylindrical CORD2C
● Spherical CORD1S
● Spherical CORD2S
MD NASTRAN COORDINATE SYSTEMS
S5-39
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● MD Nastran Local Coordinate Systems:
● The CORD1R, CORD1C, and CORD1S entries define a local
coordinate system by referencing the IDs of three existing grid
points.
● The CORD2R, CORD2C, and CORD2S entries define a local
coordinate system by specifying the vector components of three
points. This is the format used by Patran.
● All angular coordinates are input in DEGREES. All rotational
displacements associated with these coordinates are output in
RADIANS.
MD NASTRAN COORDINATE SYSTEMS (Cont.)
S5-40
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Rectangular Local Coordinate System (X, Y, Z)
Point A = local coordinate system origin
Point B = reference point for z axis direction
Point C = reference point in the x-z plane
Point P = grid point defined in local rectangular system
(u
x
, u
y
, u
z
) = displacement components of P in local system
MD NASTRAN RECTANGULAR COORDINATE
SYSTEM
S5-41
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Cylindrical Local Coordinate System (R, u, Z)
Point A = local coordinate system origin
Point B = reference point for z axis direction
Point C = reference point in the x-z plane
Point P = grid point defined in local cylindrical system
(U
r
, U
u
, U
z
) = displacement components of P in local system
MD NASTRAN CYLINDRICAL COORDINATE
SYSTEM
S5-42
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Spherical Local Coordinate System (R, u, |)
Point A = local coordinate system origin
Point B = reference point for z axis direction
Point C = reference point in the x-z plane
Point P = grid point defined in local spherical system
(U
r
, U
u
, U
|
) = displacement components of P in local system
MD NASTRAN SPHERICAL COORDINATE
SYSTEM
S5-43
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MD NASTRAN COORDINATE SYSTEM ENTRIES
S5-44
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
DISPLAY OF COORDINATE SYSTEM 0
Coordinate system 0
is always displayed at
the lower left-hand
corner of the viewport
The tick mark
represents the origin
of the coordinate
system 0
S5-45
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CORD1X VS. CORD2X ENTRIES
● By default, coordinate systems are
translated into MD Nastran CORD2X
entries
● If Coordinate Frame Coordinates in the
Translation Parameters form is set to
reference nodes, then CORD1X is
translated where applicable
S5-46
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NESTED COORDINATE SYSTEMS
● Creating nested coordinate systems
● By default, the nested relationship is lost during
translation to MD Nastran
● If nested coordinate system is desired, the
Coordinate Frame Coordinates in the
Translation Parameters form needs to be set to
reference frame.
S5-47
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a rectangular
coordinate system which
will be used later to
define the direction of
the applied load
CREATE A RECTANGULAR COORDINATE
SYSTEM
Point 16
Point 23
Point 17
S5-48
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
●Grid points are used to specify:
● Structural geometry
● Degrees of freedom of the structure
● Locations of points at which displacements are
constrained or loads are applied
● Locations where output quantities are to be calculated
GRID POINTS
S5-49
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Each grid point is capable of moving in six
directions. These are called degrees of freedom
(DOF).
DOF1 = T
1
= u
1
= translation in direction 1
DOF2 = T
2
= u
2
= translation in direction 2
DOF3 = T
3
= u
3
= translation in direction 3
DOF4 = R
1
= u
1
= rotation in direction 1
DOF5 = R
2
= u
2
= rotation in direction 2
DOF6 = R
3
= u
3
= rotation in direction 3
1
2
3
4
5
6
DEGREES OF FREEDOM
S5-50
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● For each grid point, all six degrees of freedom must
be accounted for:
● Think in terms of 3D even if the problem is only 1D or 2D.
● Any un-used DOF must be constrained
1
2
3
4
5
6
DEGREES OF FREEDOM (Cont.)
● The NASTRAN GRID entry is show below:
Field Contents
ID Grid point identification number
CP Identification number of coordinate system in which
the location of the grid point is defined (integer > 0 or
blank; default = basic coordinate system)
X1, X2, X3 Location of grid point in coordinate system CP (real)
CD Identification number of coordinate system in which displacements, degrees of freedom, constraints, and
solution vectors are defined at the grid point (integer > 0 or blank; default = basic coordinate system).
PS Permanent single-point constraints associated with grid point (any of the digits 1-6 with no embedded blanks)
This method of constraining a structure is not recommended.
SEID Superelement ID
THE NASTRAN GRID ENTRY
S5-51
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright© 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
● Each GRID entry refers to two coordinate systems
● The coordinate system in field 3 is used to locate the grid point.
This is called the positional coordinate system.
● The coordinate system in field 7 establishes the grid point
displacement coordinate system which defines for the given grid
point the directions of displacements, degrees of freedom,
constraints, and solution vectors.
THE NASTRAN GRID ENTRY (Cont.)
S5-52
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright© 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S5-53
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The grid point displacement coordinate system is also known as the
output coordinate system because all grid point results
(displacements, grid point forces, etc.) are generated and output in
this coordinate system.
● The union of all displacement coordinate systems is called the global
coordinate system.
● The grid point displacement coordinate system:
THE GRID POINT DISPLACEMENT
COORDINATE SYSTEM
Coordinate System 5
(cylindrical)
GRID POINT EXAMPLE
Grid points 10 and 20 are located on the aircraft fuselage as show below.
The GRID entry uses coordinate system 5 to define the location of the two
points and uses coordinate system 0 to define the grid point displacements.
Basic coordinate system 0
GRID POINT EXAMPLE
S5-54
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright© 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
Coordinate System 5
(cylindrical)
Suppose we are interested in displacements and forces in the fuselage radial
and tangential directions. We can accomplish this by changing field 7 of the
GRID entries from coordinate system 0 to coordinate system 5.
Basic coordinate system 0
GRID POINT EXAMPLE (Cont.)
S5-55
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright© 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S5-56
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Examples of how the grid point displacement
coordinate system is used
CONSTRAINTS
SPRINGS
RIGID
ELEMENTS CLEARANCE
USING THE GRID POINT DISPLACEMENT
COORDINATE SYSTEM
S5-57
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● There are two ways to create grid points in PATRAN:
● Directly create the grid point
● Mesh the geometry
Equivalent to grid point
in MD Nastran
Equivalent to the
displacement coordinate
system in MD Nastran
Equivalent to the
positional coordinate
system in MD Nastran
CREATING A GRID POINT IN PATRAN
S5-58
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Equivalent Terminology in NASTRAN and
PATRAN:
NASTRAN PATRAN
Grid Points Nodes
Basic Coordinate System Global Coordinate System
Global Coordinate System None
Displacement Coordinate
System
Analysis Coordinate System
Positional Coordinate System Reference Coordinate System
NASTRAN AND PATRAN TERMINOLOGY
S5-59
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 5 “Coordinate Systems” in your
exercise workbook.
S5-60
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PART 2: 1D FINITE ELEMENT ENTITIES
● In this section of the workshop, we will learn about:
● Types of 1D elements available in Nastran
● Selection of appropriate elements for modeling tasks
● The Nastran CBAR element
● Bar Offsets
● Element coordinate systems
● Definition of 1D element properties
● Orientation for Bar and Beam elements
● Display of element cross section
● Manual input of sectional properties
S5-61
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Now back to the case study. Let’s create material
properties.
● Aluminum 7075-T7351 plate and bar stock has been selected
for the truss.
● The material properties are as follows:
● E = 10 x 10
6
psi
● v = 0.3
● Tensile yield strength = 45 ksi
CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES
S5-62
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a material named
al_7075
CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-63
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Input material
properties
CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-64
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Considering load paths in the truss assembly
● The truss members must carry axial and lateral loads
due to the way they are loaded. Shear and bending
moment will develop in the members as they are
loaded laterally at locations between the truss joints as
shown below. We must select an element type that is
capable of resisting the shear forces and moments.
LOAD PATH IN TRUSS
P
M
S5-65
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Following are the most commonly used one-
dimensional elements in NASTRAN:
● ROD Pin-ended rod (4 DOFs)
● BAR Prismatic beam (12 DOFs)
● BEAM Straight beam with warping (14
DOFs)
COMMONLY USED 1-D ELEMENTS
S5-66
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Guidelines on 1-D element selection:
● In general, select the simplest element which gives you the
correct load path. More complex elements will still do the job,
but may give you a lot of unwanted output.
● If only an axial load or torsional load is to be transmitted in an
element, then the CROD or CONROD element is the best
choice.
● If shear and moment are to be transmitted in an element, then
the CBAR is the easiest element to use.
● Use the CBEAM element instead of the CBAR element for the
following reasons:
● Variable cross-section
● The neutral axis and shear center are not coincident
● The effect of cross-sectional warping on the torsional stiffness is
significant
● The mass center of gravity and shear center are not coincident
● The effect of taper on the transverse shear stiffness (shear relief) is
significant
ELEMENT SELECTION
S5-67
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● For this problem we will use the CBAR element
due to its ability to transmit shear force and
bending moment.
● The CBEAM element has additional capabilities
which we don’t need for this problem. The use
of CBEAM will be demonstrated in the next
section.
ELEMENT SELECTION (Cont.)
S5-68
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Connected to two grid points
● Formulation derived from classical beam theory
(plane sections remain plane under deformations)
● Includes optional transverse shear flexibility
● Neutral axis may be offset from the grid points
(internally a rigid link is created)
● Principal moment of inertia axis need not coincide
with element axis.
● Pin flag capability used to represent slotted joints,
hinges, ball joints, etc.
● General Features of the CBAR Element
THE CBAR ELEMENT
S5-69
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● General limitations on CBAR:
● Straight, prismatic member (i.e., properties do not vary along the
length).
● Shear center and neutral axis must coincide (therefore, not
recommended for modeling channel or angle sections).
● The effect of cross-sectional warping is neglected.
● Displacement Components:
● Six degrees of freedom at each end.
● Force components:
● Axial force P
● Torque T
● Bending moments about two perpendicular directions M
1
and M
2
● Shears in two perpendicular directions V
1
and V
2
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-70
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● CBAR element entry:
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-71
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● CBAR element entry:
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-72
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● CBAR element entry:
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● CBAR element coordinate system
● Defined by the orientation vector V
● Orients input cross-sectional properties
● Orients output forces and stresses
● Orients pin flags
x
x
z
z
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-73
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright© 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S5-74
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CBAR Element Coordinate System
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
CBAR Element Coordinate System with Offsets
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-75
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright© 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S5-76
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Following are two examples of when you might define the CBAR element
coordinate system orientation vector V with each of the two available options
(G0 or X
1
, X
2
, X
3
).
If you are representing stringers on a fuselage with CBAR elements, your input will
be minimized by using the G0 option to define the element coordinate system
orientation vector V.
Example 1
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-77
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Example 2
To specify the orientation of the legs of a tripod modeled with CBAR
elements as shown, it would be most efficient to use the components of
a vector (X
1
, X
2
, X
3
) to define the orientation vector V since the
orientation of each of the legs is unique.
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-78
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● CBAR Offsets
●The ends of the CBAR element can be offset from the Grid Points
(GA, GB) by specifying the components of offset vectors W
A
and W
B
on
the CBAR entry.
●The offset vector is treated as a rigid link between the grid point and
the end of the element.
●The element coordinate system is defined with respect to the offset
ends of the bar element.
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-79
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Thin sheet
Stiffeners
Grid Points
● Bar Offset Example
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
Centroid of
Stiffener
Offset
S5-80
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● The OFFT field
● OFFT is a character string code that describes how the
offset and orientation vector components are to be
interpreted.
● By default (string input is GGG or blank), the offset vectors
are measured in the displacement coordinate systems at
grid points A and B and the orientation vector is measured in
the displacement coordinate system of grid point A.
● At user option, the offset vectors can be measured in an
offset coordinate system relative to grid points A and B, and
the orientation vector can be measured in the basic system
as indicated in the following table:
S5-81
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● The OFFT field (Cont.)
S5-82
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The user specifies DOF’s at either end of the bar element that
are to transmit zero force or moment. The pin flags PA and PB
are specified in the element coordinate system and defined in
fields 2 and 3 of the optional CBAR continuation.
● CBAR Pin Flags
Example: Pin flag
applied to rotational
DOF at this end of
CBAR creates a
hinged joint.
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-83
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● CBAR Element Properties entry:
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-84
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● CBAR Element Properties entry (cont.)
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-85
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● CBAR Element Properties entry (Cont.)
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-86
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright© 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-87
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright© 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
● Shear Factor K
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-88
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright© 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-89
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright© 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S5-90
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Alternative CBAR Element Properties entry:
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-91
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● PBARL cross-section types
S5-92
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● PBARL cross-section types
S5-93
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● PBARL cross-section types
S5-94
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● PBARL cross-section types
● BAR element internal forces and moments
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-95
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright© 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
● BAR element internal forces and moments
THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
S5-96
NAS120, Section 5, March 2007
Copyright© 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S5-97
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CBAR
CBEND
CBEAM
Create properties for the
CBAR element
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES
S5-98
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● For the Space Station truss segment, there are
two types of cross-sections:
● The longerons and bulkhead members carry large axial
and bending loads and are made of heavy I-beam
sections.
● The diagonal members carry less loads and are made of
lighter I-beam sections.
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-99
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Heavy Section
6” x 6”
T
f
= 0.500 in T
w
= 0.25 in
Light Section
6” x 6”
T
f
= 0.375 in T
w
= 0.190 in
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-100
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Post the longerons and
bulkheads
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-101
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a property
for the longerons
and bulkheads
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-102
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the material
created earlier
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-103
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Enter the
orientation vector
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-104
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select a section
from the Beam
Library
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-105
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Enter dimensions for the I-
beam section and type in a
section name
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-106
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Click
Calculate/Display
to compute
section properties
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-107
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Click OK to accept
the cross-section
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-108
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Click OK to accept all the
physical properties
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-109
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select all curves
representing
longerons and
bulkheads
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-110
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Add to the application
region box and apply
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-111
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● It is important to always verify that the CBAR
cross section is oriented in the correct direction.
● Since a cross section from the beam library was
used, PATRAN now has enough information to
display the cross section in 3D space.
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-112
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Display -
Loads/BC/Elem.
Props…
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-113
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Change from 1D line
display to 3D Display
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-114
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Post the FEM group
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-115
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The CBAR elements are
now displayed as 3D
members
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-116
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zoom in to verify
that the I-beams
are oriented
correctly
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-117
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Shade the I-beams
Shaded
Hidden Line
Wireframe
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-118
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Post the diagonals
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-119
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a second
property set for the
diagonal members
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (cont.)
S5-120
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● There are two ways to define section
properties in PATRAN:
1. Create a cross section using the Beam Library
a. Standard shape
b. Arbitrary shape
2. Compute the cross sectional properties first and
enter them directly into PATRAN.
● For the diagonal members, we will use Method
2 to demonstrate how to directly enter cross
sectional properties.
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-121
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Using equations from a handbook such as
Roark, the following cross sectional properties
have been calculated:
Diagonals
6” x 6”
T
f
= 0.375 in T
w
= 0.190 in
A = 5.497 in
2
I
1
= 37.94 in
4
I
2
= 13.50 in
4
J = 0.224 in
4
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-122
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select material and enter
orientation vector
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-123
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Enter A, I1, I2, J
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-124
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Enter stress recovery points
and click OK to accept
properties
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-125
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select curves
representing the
diagonal members
and apply
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-126
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Since the cross-sectional properties for the diagonals
were entered directly into PATRAN, PATRAN can not
provide a 3D display of the I-beam cross section
● However, Patran can display an equivalent rectangular
section.
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-127
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Post the FEM group
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-128
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Another way to verify
the orientation of
cross sections is to
display the element Y
axis
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-129
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● A snap shot of the NASTRAN input file for this problem
shows how the connectivity entry, the property entry,
and the material entry are linked together.
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S5-130
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PART 3: ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
● In this section of the workshop, we will learn about:
● Definition of loads and boundary conditions
● Creation of Loadcases
● Subcases created from Loadcases
● Submit Analysis
● Post-process 1D results
This section wraps up
the workshop by
completing the
simulation of the
space station truss.
S5-131
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Boundary Conditions
● The truss segment is tied down at 6 points in the
Space Shuttle cargo bay during launch. Once on
orbit, it is deployed and attached to neighboring truss
segments.
● For simplicity, we will only analyze the truss on-orbit
configuration. For this configuration, assume the
neighboring truss assemblies are massive enough to
provide fixed boundaries for the two ends of our truss
segment.
LOADS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
S5-132
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Applied Loads
● There are a number of on-orbit loading events including
Space Shuttle docking loads, assembly loads, and EVA
(Extravehicular Activity) loads. For this case study, we will
focus on the EVA push-off load of 200 lb produced by an
astronaut while working on the Space Station.
LOADS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
S5-133
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a boundary
condition named
fixed_ends
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
S5-134
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Constrain all six
degrees of
freedom
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S5-135
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select two ends
of the truss
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S5-136
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish applying
the boundary
condition
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S5-137
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The EVA push-off load can be applied anywhere on the truss
segment by an astronaut. Let’s apply the 200-lb force on a
diagonal member in the longest truss bay.
CREATE LOADS
S5-138
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a load
named
EVA_Load
CREATE LOADS (Cont.)
S5-139
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Apply a 200 lb
force normal to
the diagonal
member using
the coordinate
system created
earlier.
CREATE LOADS (Cont.)
S5-140
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the application
region
CREATE LOADS (Cont.)
S5-141
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating
the load
CREATE LOADS (Cont.)
S5-142
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MULTIPLE SUBCASES
● A structure may experience different loading scenarios. It may
also be constrained differently during different phases of usage.
● A good example of this is the space station.
● During launch, the space station segment is attached at several
hardpoints inside the shuttle cargo bay. The design driver is the
severe launch vibration environment.
● When in orbit, the space station segment is attached to other
segments at its two ends. The launch loads are now absent.
Thermal loading, EVA loads, and shuttle docking loads become
more important loading events.
● All these launch and on-orbit loading events can be applied using
the MD Nastran Subcases.
● Each MD Nastran Subcase can contain loads, boundary
condition, and output requests.
S5-143
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MULTIPLE SUBCASES (Cont.)
● A Subcase is created in Patran using the Load Case form as
shown on the next page.
● Use the Assign/prioritize form to add or remove loads and
boundary conditions to the load case.
● Once the load case is created, it is activated by selecting it in
the Subcase Select form.
S5-144
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING THE SUBCASE
S5-145
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SELECTING THE SUBCASE
S5-146
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE SUBCASE ENTRIES
● A sample Nastran input file showing multiple subcases
S5-147
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Perform linear
static analysis
PERFORM ANALYSIS
S5-148
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Attach the xdb
file
ATTACH RESULTS
S5-149
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot deformed
shape and
averaged stresses
PLOT RESULTS
S5-150
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot un-averaged
stresses
PLOT RESULTS
S5-151
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Examine the .f06 file for element stresses
Minimum
Combined
Maximum
Combined
EXAMINE RESULTS
S5-152
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Examine the .f06 file for element forces
EXAMINE RESULTS (Cont.)
S5-153
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 6 “Bridge Truss” in your exercise
workbook.
S5-154
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S6-1
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 6
TRAFFIC SIGNAL POLE
S6-2
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 6
TRAFFIC SIGNAL POLE
S6-3
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 6
TRAFFIC SIGNAL POLE
● Topics covered in this case study:
● Material properties
● NASTRAN CBEAM element
● Fields
S6-4
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Problem Description
● A traffic signal pole supports the signal at one end and is
attached to the vertical pole at the other end. It has a
circular tube cross section. The loading on the signal pole
is 200 lbs.
● Analysis Objective
● Determine stresses in the pole due to traffic signal loading.
The maximum stress must be below the yield point of the
pole material.
CASE STUDY:
TRAFFIC SIGNAL POLE
S6-5
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Traffic signal pole specifications
● Length: 20 ft
● Cross section: circular tube
● Outer radius: 4” tapering down to 3”
● Inner radius: 3.5” tapering down to 2.5”
● Material: Steel with 50,000 psi yield strength
SECTION 6
TRAFFIC SIGNAL POLE
S6-6
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the signal
pole geometry
CREATE SIGNAL POLE GEOMETRY
S6-7
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Examine the
parametric
direction for the
curve
CREATE SIGNAL POLE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S6-8
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Methods for Creating Curves
WORKING WITH CURVES
S6-9
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Methods for Creating Curves
WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont.)
S6-10
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Methods for Creating Curves
WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont.)
S6-11
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Other Actions for Curves
WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont.)
S6-12
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Editing Curves
WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont.)
S6-13
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Showing Curves
WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont.)
S6-14
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Transforming Curves
WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont.)
S6-15
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Associate/Disassociate Curves
● You can only associate curves to curves or
surfaces which are within the global model
tolerance
● Associated curves may be used to guide the
interior meshing of an entity through mesh
seeding
● Curves can be associated with other curve
and surface types of geometry
WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont.)
S6-16
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Now, mesh the curve to generate grid points and
elements
● Use mesh seeds to control the mesh
MESHING THE GEOMETRY
S6-17
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create uniform
mesh seeds
MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S6-18
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Mesh the curve
to create 1D
elements
MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S6-19
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Creating Material Properties
● So far in the case studies, we have been
creating isotropic materials such as steel
and aluminum
● Patran supports a number of material
types as shown in the next slide
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
S6-20
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Various composite material models ● Composite
3-Dimensional anisotropic (MAT9) ● 3D Anisotropic
2-Dimensional anisotropic (MAT2) ● 2D Anisotropic
3-Dimensional orthotropic material (MAT9) ● 3D Orthotropic
2-Dimensional orthotropic material (MAT8) ● 2D Orthotropic
Isotropic structural material (MAT1) ● Isotropic
● Material Types
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-21
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
● The creation of isotropic materials is covered in this section.
● The creation of composite materials is covered in a later
section
S6-22
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Material Property Definitions
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-23
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Material Property Definitions (Cont.)
Homogeneous Material properties are independent of the location
within the material
Isotropic Material properties do not change with the
direction of the material
The three properties needed to completely
describe an isotropic material are E, , and G
(shear modulus). Only two are independent.
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-24
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● There are two ways to create
material properties in PATRAN
● Manual Input
● Externally Defined
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-25
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
How to create an
isotropic material
by manual input
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-26
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● NASTRAN entry for isotropic materials
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-27
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Create material properties for this case study
● Following properties are given for the signal post material:
● E = 29 x 10
6
psi
●  = 0.3
● Yield strength = 50 ksi
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-28
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create an
isotropic material
named steel
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-29
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.)
Define material
strength
properties
Note that Linear
Elastic and Failure
properties must be
input separately and
you must click Apply
after specifying each
constitutive model.
S6-30
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SELECT ELEMENT TYPE
CBAR
CBEND
CBEAM
S6-31
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● CBEAM Element Overview
● Connected to two grid points
● Force components:
● Axial force P
● Shear forces in 2 planes V
1
and V
2
● Bending moments in 2 planes M
1
and M
2
● Total torque T
● Warping torque T
w
● Displacement components:
● u
i ,

i
, and
THE CBEAM ELEMENT
S6-32
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● CBEAM Element Overview (Cont.)
● The CBEAM element includes all capabilities of the
CBAR element plus several optional capabilities that
include:
● The cross-sectional properties may be specified at up
to nine interior points and also at both ends
● The neutral axis and shear center axis need not be
coincident
● The effect of cross-sectional warping on the torsional
stiffness
● The effect of taper on the transverse shear stiffness
(shear relief)
● The nonstructural mass center of gravity can be offset
from the shear center
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-33
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The CBEAM Entry
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-34
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The CBEAM Entry (cont.)
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-35
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The CBEAM Entry (cont.)
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-36
NAS120, Section 6,January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S6-37
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The CBEAM Element Properties
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-38
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
● The CBEAM Element Properties
S6-39
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
● The CBEAM Element Properties
S6-40
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
● The CBEAM Element Properties
● Shear Relief Coefficients S1 and S2
● The shear relief coefficient accounts for the fact that in a
tapered flanged beam the flanges sustain a portion of the
transverse shear load. This situation is illustrated below:
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-41
NAS120, Section 6,January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S6-42
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Shear Relief Coefficients S1 and S2 (Cont.)
● The value of the shear coefficient for a tapered beam
with heavy flanges that sustain the entire moment load
may then be written as
● See the MD NASTRAN Reference Manual for further
details on the shear relief coefficients.
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
● Cross-Sectional Warping – Coefficients CW(A), CW(B)
● A twisting moment m is applied to a beam and the beam twists
● For a beam with a circular cross section, plane sections remain
plane after twisting
● For a beam with a non-circular cross section, plane sections do
not remain plane, but warp. This behavior is described by the
differential equation below:
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-43
NAS120, Section 6,January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
● Cross-Sectional Warping – Coefficients CW(A), CW(B)
● The first term in the equation is called the twisting torque. The second
term in the equation is called the warping torque. m is the total torque.
● In order to model the warping effect, the user must enter the warping
coefficients on the PBEAM entry and specify two scalar points on the
CBEAM entry.
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-44
NAS120, Section 6,January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
● Neutral Axis Offset from Shear Center (N
1
, N
2
)
● The N1 and N2 fields on the PBEAM entry allow the user to specify the
neutral axis offset from the shear center.
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-45
NAS120, Section 6,January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
● The CBEAM properties can be alternatively specified using the
PBEAML entry.
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-46
NAS120, Section 6, December 2004
Copyright 2004 MSC.Software Corporation
● CBEAM element internal forces and moments
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-47
NAS120, Section 6,January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
● CBEAM element internal forces and moments in plane 1 and
plane 2
THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.)
S6-48
NAS120, Section 6,January 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S6-49
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Use the CBEAM element
● The outer radius of the pole tapers from R = 4.0” to R = 3.0”
● The inner radius of the pole tapers from R = 3.5” to R = 2.5”
MODELING THE TAPERED SIGNAL POLE
S6-50
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The linearly varying outer and inner radii of the
beam will be modeled by using Fields.
● Fields in PATRAN are used to define variations in
● Loads
● Boundary Conditions
● Material Properties
● Element Properties
● There are three types of fields:
● Spatial Fields
● Non Spatial Fields
● Material Property Fields
● Use Spatial Fields to model the beam tapers in
this case study.
FIELDS
S6-51
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a field for
the taper in beam
outer radius from
4” to 3”
CREATING FIELDS
S6-52
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a
second field for
the taper in
beam inner
radius from 3.5”
to 2.5”
CREATING FIELDS (Cont.)
S6-53
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Verify the two
fields by plotting
them
CREATING FIELDS (Cont.)
S6-54
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create 1D
element
properties
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES
S6-55
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Input properties
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-56
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the steel
material created
earlier
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-57
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Enter the beam
orientation
vector
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-58
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the
circular tube
section from the
Beam Library
and name it
“circular tube
section”
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-59
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Enter R1 and
R2 by selecting
the fields
created earlier
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-60
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select curve 1
and click
calculate/display
to show cross
section at one
end of curve
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-61
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Slide the
parametric location
dial from End A to
End B and click
Calculate/Display
to view cross
section at the other
end of curve
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-62
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select OK to
accept the beam
library section.
Select OK to
accept the input
properties.
Click Apply to
create the
element property.
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-63
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
Change from 1D to 3D
display to visually
inspect the cross
section
S6-64
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
3D display of
tapered beam
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S6-65
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the
boundary condition
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION
S6-66
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Constrain all six
degrees of freedom
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION (Cont.)
S6-67
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the end point
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION (Cont.)
S6-68
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating the
boundary condition
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION (Cont.)
S6-69
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a
concentrated force of
200 lbs downward
CREATE LOADS
S6-70
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Apply the force to the end of
the beam
CREATE LOADS (Cont.)
S6-71
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The load is
applied.
CREATE LOADS (Cont.)
S6-72
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Set up a static
analysis run in
NASTRAN
PERFORM ANALYSIS
S6-73
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Set up the output
request:
Select Subcases
Select the Default
subcase
Select Output
Requests
Select Element Forces
to add this to the
Output Request Box
OK, Apply, and Cancel.
REQUEST FOR ADDITIONAL OUTPUT
S6-74
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Click Apply to
submit the job to
MD NASTRAN
PERFORM ANALYSIS (Cont.)
S6-75
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Read the MD
NASTRAN results
into PATRAN
ATTACH RESULTS
S6-76
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the
deformation
PLOT RESULTS
S6-77
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the maximum
combined axial and
bending stresses. Plot it
again with averaging
domain set to none.
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
S6-78
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the minimum
combined axial and
bending stresses.
Plot it again with
averaging domain
set to none.
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
S6-79
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The maximum stress according to PATRAN is 2,307
psi. Compare this to the NASTRAN .f06 file shown
below:
EXAMINE THE f06 FILE
S6-80
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Use the NASTRAN element force output from the .f06 file
to compute stresses by hand.
Axial Stress f
a
= P/A = 0 psi
Tens. Bending Stress f
b
= MC/I = 48000(4.0)/83.203 = 2,307.6 psi
Comp. Bending Stress f
b
= MC/I = 48000(-4.0)/83.203 = -2,307.6 psi
● The computed stresses do agree with the NASTRAN
stress output in the previous slide.
EXAMINE THE f06 FILE (Cont.)
S6-81
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY SUMMARY
● Traffic signal pole stresses based on preliminary finite
element analysis are well below the yield point of the material.
● Further analysis may consider different types of loading and
crippling of circular cross section.
S6-82
NAS120, Section 6, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 7 “Tapered Plate” in your exercise
workbook.
S7-1
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 7
AIRCRAFT WING RIB
S7-2
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 7
AIRCRAFT WING RIB
S7-3
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 7
AIRCRAFT WING RIB
● Topics covered in this case study:
● PATRAN 2D Geometry
● Meshing 2D Geometry
● Controlling the mesh
● NASTRAN Plate and Shell Element Definitions
● Importing CAD Geometry
● Midsurface Extraction for 2D Modeling of Solids
● Loads and Constraints
● Post Processing 2D analysis results
S7-4
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Problem Description
● We are tasked with analyzing a wing rib, which is part of the wing
structure of a light aircraft.
● The wing rib is attached to the front and rear spars and wing
skins.
● In this particular load case, the rib is undergoing shear and we
are going to look at the stress around the cutout lightening holes.
Wing Rib
Front Spar
Rear Spar
CASE STUDY:
AIRCRAFT WING RIB
S7-5
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Wing Rib
● We are going to simplify the analysis by assuming that the front
spar loads the rib in shear and that the rear spar is effectively
built in.
● The loading will have been determined by assessment of the air
loads and inertia loads.
● The geometry is simplified by ignoring the curvature of the rib
edges.
CASE STUDY:
AIRCRAFT WING RIB (Cont.)
S7-6
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
E = 10.0 x 10
6
lb/in
2

= 0.33
7075 –T73 Aluminum
10”
20”
31”
X
X
Fully
Fixed
Loading
60 lb
f
/in
t=0.063”
Centerline
18”
40”
R=4”
22”
R=3”
R=5”
CASE STUDY:
AIRCRAFT WING RIB (Cont.)
S7-7
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Analysis Objectives
● Determine stress levels in the rib skin under shear loading.
The maximum stress must be below the yield stress of the
rib material.
● Determine the maximum vertical displacement of the rib.
The aeroelastics department has specified that the
maximum vertical movement of the rib should not exceed
0.100 inch.
CASE STUDY:
AIRCRAFT WING RIB (Cont.)
S7-8
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY:
AIRCRAFT WING RIB (Cont.)
● Wing Rib Geometry has been modeled in a CAD program
● Rib is a very thin solid, which we prefer to model with 2D elements
S7-9
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Getting started on the wing rib analysis in PATRAN:
● Ignore the cutouts initially and create a simple
surface in Patran to introduce the idea of Surface
Geometry Creation
● Initially, we will create a basic geometric surface on which
we will later create the mesh
● This type of surface is a ‘Green’ surface
● Later, we will import the CAD Geometry and create
and mesh a more complex surface.
CASE STUDY:
AIRCRAFT WING RIB (Cont.)
S7-10
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Simple PATRAN Surfaces (Green)
● A surface is a general vector function of two
parametric variables
● A surface is characterized by:
● A set of bounding curves
● A parametric origin and two parametric variables
( and )
● A surface can have the same curvature as a
curve
● Display lines can be turned on to visualize the
interior curvature
CREATING GEOMETRY
S7-11
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● A Simple Surface (Green) has 3 or 4 edges
● A simple surface with 3 sides is degenerate
● A simple surface can be meshed with either the Iso
Mesher (Mapped) or Paver Mesher
Simple Surface
IsoMesh (mapped mesh)
Geometry
Elements
CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S7-12
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● A General Surface (Magenta) may have more than 4 edges
and can have inner boundaries (holes)
● It is also called a Trimmed Surface
● General surfaces can only be meshed with the Paver Mesher
● General surfaces can be optionally decomposed into simple
surfaces to allow meshing with IsoMesh (Mapped) Mesher
General (Trimmed)
Surface
Paver Mesh
Geometry
Elements
CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S7-13
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create two curves
using the xyz
method
First Curve:
Origin 0,0,0
Vector 0,9,0
CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S7-14
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.)
Second Curve:
Origin 40,0,0
Vector 0,11,0
S7-15
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.)
Create the surface
S7-16
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.)
Make the bottom half of
the rib by Mirroring
Surface 1
S7-17
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Surface 2 is created
CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S7-18
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The Mirror reflection Plane
was set up using:
Coordinate System 0
Direction 2 (the y axis)
Coord 0.2
The Offset was 0.0 so the
Plane lies on y=0.0
We reversed the new
surface so that subsequent
meshing keeps consistent
orientation
CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S7-19
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Elements Menu
Create the mesh
on Surface 1 and 2
MESHING THE GEOMETRY
S7-20
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
Use the IsoMesh Meshing Method
Elements will be Quad4 type
Global Edge Length is 2 inches for
the Elements in the mesh
S7-21
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● When meshing surfaces or solids, IsoMesh divides the surfaces or
faces into groups of parallel edges called Mesh Paths
● Mesh Paths are used by IsoMesh to determine the number of elements
per edge for elements along a specific path. The number of elements
per edge is based on the following priority:
● Mesh Seeds
● Adjoining meshed regions that are topologically congruent (surface 1 and 2)
● Global Edge Length (set to 2 inches)
MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S7-22
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
A portion of the mesh is shown:
Elements 1 to 120 are on Surface 1
Elements 121 to 240 are on Surface 2
Nodes on the common
boundary must be
Equivalenced
MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S7-23
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
After Equivalencing, the mesh is now
continuous and without cracks. The
redundant nodes have been deleted.
S7-24
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● So far, we have created quad4 elements. The PATRAN
quad4 element is the generic term for a family of four-
noded elements which include the following:
● Thin Shell Elements (will be used here)
● Bending Panel Elements
● 2D Solid Elements
● Membrane Elements
● Shear Panel Elements
● The specific element type will be specified later when we
create the element physical properties.
MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S7-25
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Creating Material Properties
● The Designer has selected aluminum 7075-T73 sheet
as the construction material.
● The material properties are as follows:
● E = 10 x 10
6
psi
●  = 0.33
● Tensile Yield strength = 50 ksi
● Shear Ultimate Strength = 65 ksi
● The data is input using the Materials Menu as before.
CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES
S7-26
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Creating Element Physical Properties
● For this application, we are going to use the Thin Shell
Element type. This is a specific application within the
generic PATRAN “quad4” designation.
● Define this specific type by selecting Thin Shell in the
Element Properties Menu.
● Then, define the physical Properties relevant to the
Thin Shell:
● Thickness - .063 in
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES
S7-27
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
Property Menu
Create a 2D Shell
property named rib_web
Link to Material
Input Thickness
Apply to Surfaces 1 and
2
S7-28
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Question:
● Why do we apply the Element Physical Properties to the
Surfaces?
● Answer:
● The Physical Properties are then associated to the Surface
– any Elements associated to the Surface via Meshing will
automatically be associated to the Physical Properties.
● If we re-mesh the Surface, the Physical Properties will
automatically get associated with the new Elements.
CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S7-29
● Two-Dimensional Elements Overview
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS
NAS120, Section 7, December 2007
Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation
S7-30
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● A plate is a structural element with one small dimension and two
large dimensions.
● A thin plate is one in which the thickness is much less than the
next larger dimension (roughly 1/15)
● For linear analysis, MD Nastran plate elements assume classical
engineering assumptions of thin plate behavior:
● The deflection of the midsurface is small compared with the thickness
● The midsurface remains unstrained (neutral) during bending. (This
applies to lateral loads, not in-plane loads.)
● The normal to the midsurface remains normal to the midsurface during
bending
● Two-Dimensional Elements Overview (Cont.)
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S7-31
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Plate and shell elements (except CQUADR and CTRIAR)
have no stiffness in the normal rotational (drilling) degrees
of freedom.
● Two-Dimensional Elements Overview (Cont.)
No stiffness in the drilling
degrees of freedom
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.)
● CQUADR and CTRIAR plate elements have stiffness in
the drilling degrees of freedom.
S7-32
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● For V2001
● PARAM, K6ROT, 0. is the default for all linear solution
sequences
● PARAM, K6ROT, 100. is the default in nonlinear solution
sequences
● PARAM, SNORM, 20., is the default
● For V2004 and later
● PARAM, K6ROT, 100. is the default for all solution
sequences
● PARAM, SNORM, 20., is the default
● Commonly used parameters for plate and shell
elements
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS
S7-33
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Element connectivity is defined on the NASTRAN CQUAD4 entry, looking
at Element 1 in our rib:
22 23 2 1 1 1 CQUAD4
ZOFFS THETA
or MCID
GRID4 GRID3 GRID2 GRID1 PID EID CQUAD4
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
T4 T3 T2 T1 TFLAG
CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 23 22
CQUAD4 2 1 2 3 24 23
CQUAD4 3 1 3 4 25 24
CQUAD4 4 1 4 5 26 25
CQUAD4 5 1 5 6 27 26
.bdf file extract
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S7-34
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Field Contents
EID Element identification number (integer>0)
PID Identification number of a PSHELL or PCOMP
property entry
G1,G2,G3,G4 Grid point identification numbers of connection
points. (All interior angles of this element must be
less than 180.)
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S7-35
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Field Contents
Theta Material property orientation specification. If real or blank,
specifies material property orientation angle in degrees. If
integer, material x-axis orientation is along projection onto
the plane of the x-axis of the specified coordinate system.
T1,T2,
T3,T4 The continuation entry is optional. If supplied, it describes
the membrane thickness of the element at grid points G1
through G4 (real  0., not all zero). If not supplied, then T1
through T4 is set equal to the value of T on the PSHELL
data entry.
Z
OFFS
Offset from the surface defined by the grid points to the
element reference plane in the element coordinate system.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S7-36
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MID4 Z2 Z1
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1 1 .063 1 1 PSHELL
NSM TS/T MID3 12I/T3 MID2 T MID1 PID PSHELL
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
● Element physical property is defined on the NASTRAN
PSHELL entry
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : rib_web
PSHELL 1 1 .063 1 1
$
CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 23 22
CQUAD4 2 1 2 3 24 23
CQUAD4 3 1 3 4 25 24
● We will ignore the other terms for now
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S7-37
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Field Contents
PID Property identification number (integer >0)
MID1 Material identification number for membrane behavior
(integer > 0 or blank)
T Plate or membrane thickness
MID2 Material identification number for bending behavior
(integer > 0 or blank, MID2 = -1 represents plane strain)
Note: The default for MID2 is not to include bending
stiffness. For most models, MID2 should not be blank
12I/T
3
Normalized bending inertia per unit length (real or blank,
default = 1.0). The default value is correct for solid,
homogeneous plates.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S7-38
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Field Contents
MID3 Material identification number for transverse shear
behavior (integer > 0 or blank)
TS/T Transverse shear thickness divided by membrane
thickness (default = .833333). The default value is
correct for solid, homogeneous plates.
NSM Nonstructural mass per unit area (real)
Z1, Z2 Stress recovery distances for bending (real, default Z1
= -1/2 thickness, Z2 = +1/2 thickness)
MID4 Material identification number to define coupling
between membrane and bending deformation
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S7-39
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Referenced Material Records
$ Material Record : aluminum
$ Description of Material : Date: 09-Oct-00 Time: 11:49:27
MAT1 1 1.+7 .33
● A snap shot of the NASTRAN input file for this problem,
showing how the connectivity entry, the property entry,
and the material entry are linked together:
………
CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 23 22
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : rib_web
PSHELL 1 1 .063 1 1
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S7-40
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Applying Boundary Conditions and Loads
● The Rear Spar is assumed fully built in
● A vertical load of 60 lbs force per inch is applied at the
Front Spar
LOADS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
S7-41
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Loads/BCs
Create a boundary
condition named
fixed
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION
S7-42
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION (Cont.)
All six degrees
of freedom are
fixed.
S7-43
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION (Cont.)
Select the left
side of the rib
S7-44
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating
the boundary
condition
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION (Cont.)
S7-45
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● We can see visually that PATRAN has applied
these constraints – but how is this written to a
NASTRAN bdf file?
● We do this via SPC’s.
● A single-point constraint (SPC) is a constraint
applied to one or more components of motion at
selected grid points.
● There are two forms of the data input, differing
only in convenience:
● SPC - not supported by PATRAN
● SPC1 - supported by PATRAN
SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS
S7-46
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : fixed
SPC1 1 123456 1 22 43 64 85 106
127 149 150 151 152 153 154
● Grids 1, 22, 43, …… 153, 154 are
selected
● DOF 123456 are selected
● The SPC set is given a SET ID –
number 1 in this case.
SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
S7-47
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
106 85 64 43 22 1 123456 1 SPC1
G6 G5 G4 G3 G2 G1 C SID SPC1
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
154 153 152 151 150 149 127
G14 G13 G12 G11 G10 G9 G8 G7
● SPC1 entry format:
SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
S7-48
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● These constraints are selected by the SPC Case
Control request
● Constraints are only applied if requested
● The set of constraints applied may be different for
each SUBCASE
● BE CAREFUL - if SPC and SPC1 entries are used,
they are not applied unless specifically requested in
Case Control
SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
S7-49
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● SPCs are specified in the output coordinate
(displacement) system of the grid point at which
they are defined. Remember that the grid point
output coordinate system is defined in field 7 of the
GRID entry
● This can be used to advantage – an example
follows in a later section
● It is also a major source of error as the constraint
will act in the sense of the orientation of the output
coordinate system
SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
S7-50
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Uses of SPCs include:
● Support a structure (apply constraints)
● Apply symmetric or antisymmetric boundary
conditions by restraining the DOFs that must have
zero values in order to satisfy symmetry or
antisymmetry
● Remove degrees of freedom unconnected or weakly
coupled to the structure
● Remove degrees of freedom not used in the
structural analysis (e.g. out-of-plane DOFs for a 2-D
analysis)
● Apply zero or nonzero enforced displacements to
grid points
SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
S7-51
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Constraints can be defined as:
● Permanent - defined on GRID entry (Not supported in
PATRAN)
● User-selected - done in Case Control with SPC=SID. Defined in
the Bulk Data on SPC, SPC1, or SPCD entries
● Automatic - PARAM,AUTOSPC,YES
● Reaction forces at SPC’d grids (termed forces of single-
point constraint), may be obtained by including the
Case Control request SPCFORCES=ALL
SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
S7-52
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
DISTRIBUTED LOAD
Create a Distributed
Load named force
Remember, this is a
load/unit length
S7-53
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Input -60 lbs in
the f1 direction
DISTRIBUTED LOAD (Cont.)
S7-54
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
DISTRIBUTED LOAD (Cont.)
Select the
application region
S7-55
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating
the load
DISTRIBUTED LOAD (Cont.)
S7-56
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● We need to be careful with the application of the
Distributed Load.
● It is a running load, or load per unit length
● In our case, Total Load = 60 lb
f
/in x 22in
= 1320 lb
f
● The direction of f1 f2 f3 is parametric, based on the
orientation of the edge
f2
f1
f3
y
z
x
DISTRIBUTED LOAD (Cont.)
S7-57
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● We can see visually that PATRAN has applied these loads – but
how is this written to a NASTRAN BDF file?
● We do this via FORCE data entries.
THE FORCE ENTRY
S7-58
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Distributed Loads of Load Set : force
FORCE 1 21 55.0000 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 42 55.0000 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 42 54.9999 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 63 54.9999 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 63 54.9999 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 84 54.9999 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 84 55.0000 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 105 55.0000 0. -1. 0.
● Grids 21, 42, 63, 84, 105, etc. are selected
● A value of 55.0 is applied per grid* (There are 24
grids equally spaced and a total load of 1320 lb
f
)
● A vector of < 0. -1.0 0. > is used
● The FORCE set is given a SET ID – number 1 in
this case
* Rounding causes 54.9999 in the translator
THE FORCE ENTRY (Cont.)
S7-59
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
0.0 -1.0 0.0 55.00 21 1 FORCE
Z1 Y1 X1 F CID GID SID FORCE
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
● The FORCE can be applied in any Coordinate
System – here, we use default 0
● Beware as the Force Magnitude is multiplied by
the vector resultant
● FORCE entry format
THE FORCE ENTRY (Cont.)
S7-60
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Distributed Loads of Load Set : force
FORCE 1 21 55.0000 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 42 55.0000 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 42 54.9999 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 63 54.9999 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 63 54.9999 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 84 54.9999 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 84 55.0000 0. -1. 0.
FORCE 1 105 55.0000 0. -1. 0.
..etc ...
● The application of the FORCE to the grids can appear confusing as
data is repeated – this is a valid way for NASTRAN to have a loading
distribution on QUAD4 elements which is kinematically equivalent to
a constant load.
1
1
2
2
2
2
Uniform 10
THE FORCE ENTRY (Cont.)
S7-61
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● We have now completed the pre-processing phase
of the analysis process. The next step is to send it
to NASTRAN to perform matrix analysis on the
model.
Solver
PERFORM ANALYSIS
MD NASTRAN
PATRAN
Pre-Processing
PATRAN
Post-Processing
S7-62
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PERFORM ANALYSIS (Cont.)
Select linear
static analysis
S7-63
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PERFORM ANALYSIS (Cont.)
Status window
reports job
progress
S7-64
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● After NASTRAN completes the analysis, we are
now ready to read the results back into PATRAN.
ACCESS ANALYSIS RESULTS
Solver
MD NASTRAN
PATRAN
Pre-Processing
PATRAN
Post-Processing
S7-65
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ACCESS ANALYSIS RESULTS (Cont.)
Read in the xdb file
S7-66
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Post Processing the Results
● Examine the maximum vertical deflection. The
allowable deflection is 0.100 inch.
● Examine the rib tensile stresses and shear stresses.
● Must be below 50 ksi in tension (material yield strength)
● Must be below 65 ksi in shear (material ultimate
strength – requires a 1.5 load factor)
POST PROCESS RESULTS
S7-67
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the deformation
Max y disp = 0.0987 in < 0.100 in
POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-68
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the averaged
x direct stresses
Max x stress = 18,900 lbs/in
2
POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-69
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the averaged xy
stresses
Max absolute xy stress = 1,930 lbs/in
2
POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-70
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.)
Plot the averaged Von-Mises
stresses
Max Von Mises stress = 17,100 lbs/in
2
S7-71
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
POST PROCESS RESULTS (CONT.)
● 2-D element stresses are
computed at Z1 and Z2
positions.
● By default stresses at the Z2
position are selected for
display in Patran.
● For this rib problem, set the
position to Z1 and examine
the stresses.
● The Z1 results are identical to
the Z2 results since there is
no bending in this problem.
S7-72
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Analysis Summary:
● Maximum deflection of 0.0987 inch is below the 0.100 inch
requirement.
● Maximum axial stresses:
● Tensile Stress = 18,900 psi at upper rear spar
● Compressive Stress = -18,900 psi at lower rear spar
● Margin of safety >2
● Maximum Shear Stress:
● Shear Stress = 1,930 psi in center of panel in negative sense
● Margin of safety >2
● Overall check Von Mises:
● Max Von Mises = 17,100 psi – appears to be dominated by x direction
direct stresses
POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-73
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Manual Check:
● Maximum axial stresses at Rear Spar:
● Equiv bending section I = b*d^3/12
= .063*18.0^3/12
= 30.618 in^4
● Moment at Rear Spar = 1320*40 lb
f
in
= 52800 lb
f
in
● Stress at Rear Spar = M*y/I
= 52800*9.0/30.618
= 15,520 psi
● Maximum Shear Stress:
● Median Cross Sectional Area = .063*20
= 1.26 in^2
● Shear Stress = 1320/1.26
= 1047 psi
POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-74
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● By default, PATRAN averages the stresses at a node
from neighboring elements and plots this average
stress value.
● By switching off the averaging option, the true
maximum stresses in the quad4 elements are
displayed.
● We will use this to check stress gradients in the top
rear spar attachment point.
POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-75
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Standard fringe from QuickPlot Element Averaging OFF in Fringe
● The Element at the top rear spar attachment point is seeing a
steep stress gradient. We would need to take care when
drawing conclusions about local stress levels here.
● Otherwise, the gradients are very similar.
POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-76
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Full Rib Idealization
● We now decide to do a more realistic analysis of the rib,
which includes the cutouts.
● We could use a variety of methods to draw the geometry in
Patran or add the holes to the existing simple surface, but
we’ll demonstrate importing geometry from a CAD file.
● The geometry we will import is a solid, but we want to do 2D
modeling, so we will extract the midsurface of the solid.
RIB WITH CUTOUTS
S7-77
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
File Menu
Import the existing
CATIA V5 Model
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-78
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
One Solid was
imported.
S7-79
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Extract a midsurface from the solid
geometry.
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-80
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Delete the solid
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-81
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
We now have our complex
(Magenta) surface.
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-82
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
Elements Menu
Create the mesh
on Surface 1
S7-83
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
Use the Paver Meshing Method
Elements will be Quad4 type
Global Edge Length is 2 inches for
the Elements in the mesh
S7-84
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Global Edge Length of 2
dominates wherever possible
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-85
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Paver Mesher
● Used with all surfaces
● trimmed (magenta)
● simple (green)
● When meshing surfaces, the Paver starts at the boundary
and gradually moves towards the interior
● To Add More Control
● Mesh seeding controls element generation along seeded
curves
● Paver recognizes hard points and curves added to a surface
by association
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-86
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Rib Cutout Model
● Global Edge Length is good for areas away
from stress concentrations
● Mesh Density is poor around holes and in
ligaments (thin regions of material)
● To Add More Control
● Mesh Seed around the holes, say,
16 elements per 180 degrees
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-87
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● To Rebuild a Mesh
● Either - create the mesh again and you will
be prompted to delete the old mesh
● Or - Use Delete Mesh
● To Change or Add Mesh Seed
● You will need to delete the existing Mesh
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-88
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Here we delete the mesh and
Mesh Seed all 3 hole edges
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-89
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
This improves the mesh, but we
wish for a more regular array of
elements around the cutouts
S7-90
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
We go back to Geometry to create
additional concentric curves to guide the
mesh.
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
Click Draw Direction Vector and
Reverse Direction to select the
radially outward direction
S7-91
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Now, translate the edges by a constant offset
value of 0.5 inch.
This creates a set of
concentric curves
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-92
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
The association is shown
by a triangular marker
The curves are now associated
to the surface.
S7-93
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The curves are seeded and
then the surfaces re-meshed
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
S7-94
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The final mesh is accepted with:
• a global edge length 1.7
• further concentric lines associated
• extra lines associated
RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.)
Extra Lines
S7-95
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● For Paver Mesher, the number of elements per edge
are based on the following priority:
● Mesh Seeds
● Adjoining meshed regions that are topologically congruent
● Even number of elements along the boundary
● Global edge length
THE PAVER MESHER
S7-96
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Comparison of Paver and IsoMesher
High Degree of User-Control
Selection of smoothing
algorithms
Surface must be 3 or 4 sided
If not, must decompose
Will not mesh to interior
hard geometry
Limited User-Control
“Pac Man” Algorithm
Any Surface
Can mesh arbitrary
n-sided surfaces
Can mesh to interior hard
geometry
Mixed-element mesh can be generated by
both algorithms (Quad/Tri)
Both methods will match adjacent mesh
IsoMesh Paver
THE PAVER MESHER (Cont.)
S7-97
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The Rib is now complete as before
● Create Material Property
● Create Physical Property
● Apply Loads and Boundary Conditions
● Equivalence
● Analyze
RIB WITH CUTOUTS
S7-98
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the deformation
Max y disp = 0.148 in > 0.100 in
PLOT RESULTS
S7-99
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the averaged
x direct stresses
Max x stress = 20,400 lbs/in
2
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-100
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the averaged xy
stresses
Max absolute xy stress = 8,890 lbs/in
2
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-101
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the averaged von Mises stress
Also, plot the un-averaged von Mises
stress
Compare the average stress with un-
averaged stress. These two values
should be close to each other for a good
mesh.
Max von Mises stress = 22,000 lbs/in
2
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
S7-102
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Analysis Summary:
● Maximum deflection of 0.148 inch is above the 0.100 inch
requirement. If we include Rib Caps and Spar Attachment
Flange, then we would expect the deflection to be within
limits.
● Maximum axial stresses:
● Tensile Stress = 20,400 psi at upper rear spar
● Compressive Stress = -20,400 psi at lower rear spar
● Margin of safety >2
● Maximum Shear Stress:
● Shear Stress = 8,890 psi in center of panel in negative sense
● Margin of safety >2
● Overall check von Mises:
● Max von Mises = 22,000 psi – appears to be dominated by x
direction direct stresses
ANALYSIS SUMMARY
S7-103
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Manual Check:
● Maximum axial stresses at Rear Spar (as before):
● Equiv bending section I = b*d^3/12
= .063* 18.0^3/12
= 30.618 in^4
● Moment at Rear Spar = 1320*40 lb
f
in
= 52800 lb
f
in
● Stress at Rear Spar = M*y/I
= 52800*9.0/30.618
= 15,520 psi
● Maximum Shear Stress – reduced area
● Median Cross Sectional Area = .063*12
= 0.756 in^2
● Shear Stress = 1320/0.756
= 1746 psi
ANALYSIS SUMMARY (Cont.)
S7-104
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
We have a poorly shaped element in
the mesh. By setting stress averaging
off, we can see the influence of that
element.
ANALYSIS SUMMARY (Cont.)
S7-105
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CHECKING ELEMENT DISTORTION IN
PATRAN
● MD Nastran performs a number of element
distortion checks. For a complete description of
element distortion checks performed by MD
Nastran, please refer to the MD Nastran Linear
Static Analysis User’s Guide.
● It is good practice to check the quality of the finite
elements before running the MD Nastran job.
● Patran has a number of element distortion checks
shown in the next slide.
S7-106
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CHECKING ELEMENT DISTORTION IN
PATRAN (Cont.)
S7-107
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CHECKING ELEMENT DISTORTION IN
PATRAN (Cont.)
● Within each element type, specific element
distortion tests can be made and the results
are displayed in a fringe plot.
● For example, verification tests for the Quad
element include Aspect Ratio, Warp, Skew,
and Taper.
S7-108
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WING RIB ELEMENT DISTORTION PLOT
● The quad element aspect ratio plot is shown below:
S7-109
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISES
Perform Workshop 8A “Tension Coupon” in your
exercise workbook.
Perform Workshop 8B “Tension Coupon” in your
exercise workbook.
Perform Workshop 8C “Tension Coupon” in your
exercise workbook.
S7-110
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS
● The following slides provide a brief introduction to the
analysis of composite materials.
● Please attend the NAS113 Analysis of Composite
Materials with MD Nastran course for a more
comprehensive treatment of composite analysis.
S7-111
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Typically a ply is a flat group of fibers imbedded in a
matrix.
● The matrix is usually an isotropic material that holds
the fibers together.
● In a ply called a tape, the fibers are unidirectional.
● In a ply called a cloth, the fibers are woven at 0 and
90 degree directions.
PLY DEFINITION
S7-112
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Fiber:
● Unidirectional in tape
● Direction is the 1 axis of the
ply coordinate system
● Matrix:
● Glue that holds fibers together
● Matrix direction is the 2 axis
● 90 degrees to the 1 axis
● Material properties are:
● 2D orthotropic material in
Patran
● MAT8 in Nastran
TAPE PLIES
S7-113
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MAT8 BULK DATA ENTRY
● Defines the ply orthotropic properties.
● Elastic properties are E1, E2, NU12, G12, G1Z, G2Z.
● Allowables are Xt, Xc, Yt, Yc, S.
● Use STRN=1.0 if allowables are in units of strain.
● F12 is for the Tsai-Wu failure theorem.
● Thermal coefficients of expansion are A1 and A2.
● The MAT8 TREF reference temperature is not used since it is overridden by the PCOMP TREF.
● Density is RHO.
● The MAT8 GE structural damping is not used since it is overridden by the PCOMP GE.
● The example below is typical for a graphite/epoxy tape.
1.3-4 1.0+6 1.0+6 1.0+6 0.35 2.+6 20.+6 1 MAT8
RHO G2Z G1Z G12 NU12 E2 E1 MID MAT8
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1.25+4 1.2+4 1.1 +4 1.2+5 1.3+5 4.5-6 -2.3-7
S Yc Yt Xc Xt TREF A2 A1
.bdf file extract
STRN F12 GE
mat8, 1, 20.+6, 2.+6, 0.35, 1.0+6, 1.0+6, 1.0+6, 1.3-4,+
+, -2.3-7, 4.5-6,, 1.3+5, 1.2+5, 1.1+4, 1.2+4, 1.25+4
S7-114
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN 2D ORTHOTROPIC
Materials:
Create/ 2d Orthotropic/
Manual Input
Material Name
Input Properties
Linear Elastic
Apply
Input Properties
Failure
Apply
Note that Linear Elastic
and Failure properties
must be input
separately with an
Apply between and
after.
S7-115
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COMPOSITE MATERIAL
● Stack of plies
● Each ply has a different
direction, material, and
thickness
● Composite properties are
calculated in the material
coordinate system (Xm, Ym,
Zm)
● Zm is the same as the element Z axis (Ze)
● Right hand rule of grid ordering, G1,G2,G3,G4
● Xm is in the direction of the 0 degree ply
● Positive angles are defined by right hand rule
around Zm
S7-116
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PCOMP BULK DATA ENTRY
● Defines the composite layup.
0.0 HILL 5000.0 1 PCOMP
LAM GE TREF FT SB NSM Z0 PID PCOMP
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
YES 45.0 0.0054 1 YES 0.0 0.0054 1
SOUT2 THETA2 T2 MID2 SOUT1 THETA1 T1 MID1
90.0 0.0054 1
etc. SOUT3 THETA3 T3 MID3
● Z0 is composite offset.
● Use default = -(composite thickness)/2
● NSM is nonstructural mass
● SB is allowable interlaminar shear stress
● Put as Bonding Shear Stress in Patran 2D
Orthotropic Material
● Required for failure indices
● FT is the ply failure theorem
● Required for failure indices
● TREF is reference temperature
● Overrides TREFs on ply MAT8s
● GE is element damping
● Overrides GE on ply MAT8s
● LAM is layup options
● MIDi is ply material ID
● MAT8 ID
● Ti is ply thickness
● THETAi is ply angle
● SOUTi is data recovery option
S7-117
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PCOMP BULK DATA ENTRY (cont.)
● The example composite below is an 8 ply layup, symmetric
about it’s centerline, with an equal number of plies in each of the
0, +45, 90 degree directions.
.bdf file extract
PCOMP, 1,,, 5000., HILL
, 1, .0054, 0., YES
, 1, .0054, 45., YES
, 1, .0054, -45., YES
, 1, .0054, 90., YES
, 1, .0054, 90., YES
, 1, .0054, -45., YES
, 1, .0054, 45., YES
, 1, .0054, 0., YES
S7-118
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Materials:
Create/ Composite/
Laminate
To create a ply, click on
a ply material in
Existing Materials.
Repeat for each of the
plies
Enter Thickness for all
layers: 0.0054 in the
box under Input Data
<return>
Click on first cell in
Orientation column
Enter Orientations: 0 45
–45 90 90 –45 45 0 in
the box under Input
Data.
Apply
PATRAN COMPOSITE
S7-119
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CQUAD4 BULK DATA ENTRY
● Defines the composite plate.
● Material coordinate system
can be defined one of two
ways:
● MCID – (integer) - ID of a user
defined coordinate system who’s
X-axis is projected onto the
element to define the element’s
material coordinate system’s X-
axis. This along with the Z-axis of
the element coordinate system
defines the material coordinate
system.
● THETA – (real) - an angle
between the G1G2 vector of the
element and the X-axis of the
material coordinate system. The
positive sense of this angle is the
right hand rule direction around
the element’s Z-axis.
99 4 3 2 1 1 1 CQUAD4
ZOFFS THETA
or MCID
G4 G3 G2 G1 PID EID CQUAD4
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
CQUAD4, 1, 1, 1, 2, 5, 4, 99
CQUAD4, 1, 1, 1, 2, 5, 4, 25.0
S7-120
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN COMPOSITE PROPERTIES
Properties:
Create/ 2D/ Shell
Property Set Name
Option: Laminate
Input Properties
Click on Mat Prop
Name Icon to
select the material
Click on coord. sys.
for projection to
material coord. sys.
OK
Select elements
Apply
S7-121
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN MATERIAL COORD. Z-AXIS
Elements:
Verify/ Element/
Normals
Draw Normal Vectors
Apply
S7-122
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN MATERIAL COORD. X-AXIS
Properties:
Show
Material Orientation
Apply
S7-123
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GRID 1 0. 0. 0.
GRID 2 0. .5 0.
GRID 3 0. 1. 0.
GRID 4 .5 0. 0.
GRID 5 .5 .5 0.
GRID 6 .5 1. 0.
GRID 7 1. 0. 0.
GRID 8 1. .5 0.
GRID 9 1. 1. 0.
$
SPC1,1,1235,1
SPC1,1,135,2,3
$
FORCE 1 3 500. 0. 1. 0.
FORCE 1 6 500. 0. 1. 0.
FORCE 1 6 500. 0. 1. 0.
FORCE 1 9 500. 0. 1. 0.
FORCE 1 7 250. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 8 250. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 8 250. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 9 250. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 7 250. 0. 1. 0.
FORCE 1 8 250. 0. 1. 0.
FORCE 1 8 250. 0. 1. 0.
FORCE 1 9 250. 0. 1. 0.
$
CORD2R, 99,, 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 1.
, 0., 1., 0.
ENDDATA
SOL 101
CEND
TITLE = Composite Workshop Chapter 2 - Sample Composite Input
SPC = 1
LOAD = 1
DISP = ALL
STRESS =ALL
$
BEGIN BULK
PARAM, POST, -1
$
PCOMP, 1,,, 5000., HILL
, 1, .0054, 0., YES
, 1, .0054, 45., YES
, 1, .0054, -45., YES
, 1, .0054, 90., YES
, 1, .0054, 90., YES
, 1, .0054, -45., YES
, 1, .0054, 45., YES
, 1, .0054, 0., YES
MAT8, 1, 2.+7, 2.+6, .35, 1.+6, 1.+6, 1.+6
,,,,130000., 120000., 11000., 12000., 12500.
$
CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 5 4 99
CQUAD4 2 1 2 3 6 5 99
CQUAD4 3 1 4 5 8 7 99
CQUAD4 4 1 5 6 9 8 99
$
NASTRAN INPUT FILE
.dat file extract
● The single ply per line format on PCOMP continuation fields allows easier
cutting and pasting of plies
S7-124
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S T R E S S E S I N L A Y E R E D C O M P O S I T E E L E M E N T S ( Q U A D 4 )
ELEMENT PLY STRESSES IN FIBER AND MATRIX DIRECTIONS INTER-LAMINAR STRESSES PRINCIPAL STRESSES (ZERO SHEAR) MAX
ID ID NORMAL-1 NORMAL-2 SHEAR-12 SHEAR XZ-MAT SHEAR YZ-MAT ANGLE MAJOR MINOR SHEAR
0 1 1 2.55820E+05 2.81603E+04 2.73019E+04 0.0 0.0 6.74 2.59049E+05 2.49319E+04 1.17058E+05
0 1 2 4.96222E+05 1.19674E+04 -2.69492E+03 0.0 0.0 -0.32 4.96237E+05 1.19524E+04 2.42142E+05
0 1 3 -3.72387E+04 4.79000E+04 2.69492E+03 0.0 0.0 88.19 4.79852E+04 -3.73239E+04 4.26546E+04
0 1 4 2.03163E+05 3.17071E+04 -2.73019E+04 0.0 0.0 -8.83 2.07406E+05 2.74647E+04 8.99705E+04
0 1 5 2.03163E+05 3.17071E+04 -2.73019E+04 0.0 0.0 -8.83 2.07406E+05 2.74647E+04 8.99705E+04
0 1 6 -3.72387E+04 4.79000E+04 2.69492E+03 0.0 0.0 88.19 4.79852E+04 -3.73239E+04 4.26546E+04
0 1 7 4.96222E+05 1.19674E+04 -2.69492E+03 0.0 0.0 -0.32 4.96237E+05 1.19524E+04 2.42142E+05
0 1 8 2.55820E+05 2.81603E+04 2.73019E+04 0.0 0.0 6.74 2.59049E+05 2.49319E+04 1.17058E+05
0 2 1 2.20297E+05 -1.59550E+04 9.95088E+03 0.0 0.0 2.41 2.20715E+05 -1.63734E+04 1.18544E+05
0 2 2 9.15727E+04 -7.28449E+03 -2.31267E+04 0.0 0.0 -12.54 9.67154E+04 -1.24272E+04 5.45713E+04
0 2 3 -1.02861E+05 5.81209E+03 2.31267E+04 0.0 0.0 78.47 1.05290E+04 -1.07578E+05 5.90535E+04
0 2 4 -2.31585E+05 1.44826E+04 -9.95088E+03 0.0 0.0 -87.69 1.48844E+04 -2.31987E+05 1.23436E+05
0 2 5 -2.31585E+05 1.44826E+04 -9.95088E+03 0.0 0.0 -87.69 1.48844E+04 -2.31987E+05 1.23436E+05
0 2 6 -1.02861E+05 5.81209E+03 2.31267E+04 0.0 0.0 78.47 1.05290E+04 -1.07578E+05 5.90535E+04
0 2 7 9.15727E+04 -7.28449E+03 -2.31267E+04 0.0 0.0 -12.54 9.67154E+04 -1.24272E+04 5.45713E+04
0 2 8 2.20297E+05 -1.59550E+04 9.95088E+03 0.0 0.0 2.41 2.20715E+05 -1.63734E+04 1.18544E+05
0 3 1 -5.90459E+04 1.03837E+04 8.14704E+03 0.0 0.0 83.40 1.13269E+04 -5.99891E+04 3.56580E+04
0 3 2 1.11984E+05 -1.13646E+03 9.35916E+03 0.0 0.0 4.70 1.12753E+05 -1.90558E+03 5.73294E+04
0 3 3 -4.72039E+04 9.58604E+03 -9.35916E+03 0.0 0.0 -80.88 1.10887E+04 -4.87066E+04 2.98976E+04
0 3 4 1.23826E+05 -1.93411E+03 -8.14704E+03 0.0 0.0 -3.69 1.24352E+05 -2.45970E+03 6.34056E+04
0 3 5 1.23826E+05 -1.93411E+03 -8.14704E+03 0.0 0.0 -3.69 1.24352E+05 -2.45970E+03 6.34056E+04
0 3 6 -4.72039E+04 9.58604E+03 -9.35916E+03 0.0 0.0 -80.88 1.10887E+04 -4.87066E+04 2.98976E+04
0 3 7 1.11984E+05 -1.13646E+03 9.35916E+03 0.0 0.0 4.70 1.12753E+05 -1.90558E+03 5.73294E+04
0 3 8 -5.90459E+04 1.03837E+04 8.14704E+03 0.0 0.0 83.40 1.13269E+04 -5.99891E+04 3.56580E+04
0 4 1 8.79761E+04 9.55942E+01 1.42040E+04 0.0 0.0 8.96 9.02149E+04 -2.14316E+03 4.61790E+04
0 4 2 1.69212E+05 -5.37626E+03 -5.88892E+03 0.0 0.0 -1.93 1.69411E+05 -5.57467E+03 8.74926E+04
0 4 3 -1.08326E+05 1.33180E+04 5.88892E+03 0.0 0.0 87.23 1.36024E+04 -1.08610E+05 6.11062E+04
0 4 4 -2.70896E+04 7.84613E+03 -1.42040E+04 0.0 0.0 -70.44 1.28923E+04 -3.21357E+04 2.25140E+04
0 4 5 -2.70896E+04 7.84613E+03 -1.42040E+04 0.0 0.0 -70.44 1.28923E+04 -3.21357E+04 2.25140E+04
0 4 6 -1.08326E+05 1.33180E+04 5.88892E+03 0.0 0.0 87.23 1.36024E+04 -1.08610E+05 6.11062E+04
0 4 7 1.69212E+05 -5.37626E+03 -5.88892E+03 0.0 0.0 -1.93 1.69411E+05 -5.57467E+03 8.74926E+04
0 4 8 8.79761E+04 9.55942E+01 1.42040E+04 0.0 0.0 8.96 9.02149E+04 -2.14316E+03 4.61790E+04
NASTRAN PLY STRESS OUTPUT
● Printed in the f06 file if STRESS=ALL or STRAIN=ALL Case Control
Commands are used.
.f06 file extract
S7-125
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN PLY OUTPUT REQUEST
Analysis:
Analyze/ Entire
Model/ Full Run
Translation
Parameters/ OP2
Subcases/ Create
Output Requests/
Advanced/ Element
Stress
Ply Stresses
OK
Apply
S7-126
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN PLY STRESS RESULTS
S7-127
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Perform Workshop 8D “Composite Tension Coupon” in your
exercise workbook.
Perform Workshop 18 “Stiffened Plate” in your exercise workbook.
EXERCISE
S7-128
NAS120, Section 7, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S8-1
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 8
INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE
S8-2
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S8-3
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Topics covered in this case study:
● Creating 3D Geometry
● Meshing 3D Geometry
● Controlling the mesh in 3D
● Nastran Solid Element Definitions
● Post Processing the 3D analysis
SECTION 8
INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE
S8-4
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Problem Description
● The task is to analyze an Intercooler Design. The Intercooler
is pressurized and cooled by a fluid on the inner face of its
thick wall. Hot fluid passes through holes running inside the
wall.
● For the initial analysis, we will only consider the mechanical
loading. We will consider the combined thermal loading in a
later case.
CASE STUDY:
INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE
S8-5
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Intercooler – assumptions
● We simplify the analysis by assuming that a 30 degree
segment is able to represent the full 360 degree structure.
● We will set up constraint boundary conditions to achieve
this.
CASE STUDY:
INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE (Cont.)
S8-6
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Analysis Objectives
● Determine stress levels in the intercooler under
pressure loading. The maximum stress must be
below the yield stress of the intercooler material.
CASE STUDY:
INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE (Cont.)
S8-7
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Basic Intercooler Idealization
●No cooling holes
SIMPLIFIED INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE
S8-8
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Getting started on the Intercooler analysis
● We will introduce the idea of Solid Geometry Creation.
● The simple type of Solid Geometry in PATRAN is a ‘Blue’
Solid. We will use this.
SIMPLIFIED INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE
(Cont.)
S8-9
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● A PATRAN Solid can be:
● Blue - Parametric
● White - Boundary Representation
● In our case, we will build a
Parametric Solid (Blue)
● Vector function of three
parametric variables (x1, x2, x3)
● Parametric solids are meshed with
the IsoMesh (Mapped) mesher (Hex,
Wedge, or Tet elements)
SOLID GEOMETRY
S8-10
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE GEOMETRY
Geometry Menu
Create a local cylindrical
Coordinate system -
number 1 - to help in the
construction.
Construct 2
points in this
system at
100,0,0 and
130,0,0
S8-11
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Construct two
curves by
revolving the
two points in
the cylindrical
coordinate
system.
Note the Axis
definition 1.3
and the angle
definition.
CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S8-12
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Construct
a green
surface
from
these two
curves
CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S8-13
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
Extrude the
surface to form
the geometric
solid, using the
local axis
system.
S8-14
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MESH THE GEOMETRY
Use Isomesh and
Hex8 Element
Type
This results in
NASTRAN 8-
Noded CHEXA
Elements.
S8-15
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Set up Material Properties as before
Steel: E = 209E9  = 0.3
Then, assign Physical Properties.
S8-16
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Element connectivity is defined on the NASTRAN
CHEXA entry, looking at Element 1 in our intercooler:
74 73 7 8 2 1 1 1 CHEXA
G6 G5 G4 G3 G2 G1 PID EID CHEXA
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
79 80
G8 G7
CHEXA 1 1 1 2 8 7 73 74
80 79
CHEXA 2 1 2 3 9 8 74 75
81 80
CHEXA 3 1 3 4 10 9 75 76
82 81
ELEMENT CONNECTIVITY
.bdf file extract
S8-17
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
0 1 1 PSOLID
FCTN ISOP STRESS IN CORDM MID1 PID PSOLID
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
● Element physical property is defined on the
NASTRAN PSOLID entry
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : wall
PSOLID 1 1 0
ELEMENT PROPERTIES
.bdf file extract
S8-18
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Material Record : steel
$ Description of Material : Date: 26-Oct-00 Time: 14:47:56
MAT1* 1 2.09+11 .3
*
● A snap shot of the NASTRAN input file for this problem shows how
the connectivity entry, the property entry, and the material entry are
linked together.
………
CHEXA 1 1 1 2 8 7 73 74
80 79
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : wall
PSOLID 1 1 0
ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.)
S8-19
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● An interesting feature of the solid elements in Nastran,
such as the CHEXA, is that each grid only has:
● 3 translational Degrees of Freedom (DOF’s)
● No rotational DOF’s
● We must be very careful to account for this when we
mix element types, or apply constraints to the solid type
elements.
SOLID ELEMENTS
S8-20
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
We want to apply
theta direction
constraints to the
two ‘cut’ faces of the
segment.
This will mean each
face is free to slide
radially.
S8-21
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Theta Direction Constraint on Theta = 0
Remember – only translational DOF’s for solids
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S8-22
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Theta Direction Constraint on Theta = 30
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S8-23
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Question –
● We have applied constraints on faces theta 0 and theta 30
● Are these sufficient to enable us to carry out the analysis?
● Think about how these components of constraints map to the
basic x y z system of the model and remember that ALL
possible Degrees of Freedom need to be considered.
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S8-24
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Answer –
The translational constraints in the theta 0 and theta 30 planes map to
constraints in the x and y directions only of the basic coordinate system.
These constraints can take out translational movement in basic system x and y.
They will also take out rotations of the structure about the basic system x y and
z axes by providing couples.
They will not constrain the model in basic system z – or indeed the local
cylindrical z which maps directly.
So, we must add a z direction constraint.
As we are not loading in the z (axial) direction, we can choose just one grid as
the datum.
To load in the z direction, we would need to consider an appropriate constraint
set:
● either build in the base or top
● or apply a reflective symmetry constraint
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S8-25
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
We specify a Node by using the FEM filter.
The z translation of the basic Coord
system is constrained.
S8-26
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : plane1_th
SPC1 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6
73 74 75 76 77 78 145 146
147 148 149 150 217 218 219 220
.......
1085 1086 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158
1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 1230
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : plane2_th
SPC1 3 2 67 68 69 70 71 72
139 140 141 142 143 144 211 212
213 214 215 216 283 284 285 286
.......
1151 1152 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224
1291 1292 1293 1294 1295 1296
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : datum_z
SPC1 4 3 679
● A snap shot of the NASTRAN input file for this problem,
showing the three defined constraint regions
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S8-27
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Nodes of the Entire Model
GRID 1 100. 0. 0. 1
GRID 2 106. 0. 0. 1
GRID 3 112. 0. 0. 1
GRID 4 118. 0. 0. 1
GRID 5 124. 0. 0. 1
GRID 6 130. 0. 0. 1
GRID 7 99.8867 4.75819 0.
GRID 8 105.879 5.04368 0.
.......
GRID 65 110.215 56.8201 0.
GRID 66 115.548 59.5694 0.
GRID 67 86.6025 50. 0. 1
GRID 68 91.7986 53. 0. 1
GRID 69 96.9948 56. 0. 1
GRID 70 102.190 59. 0. 1
GRID 71 107.387 62. 0. 1
GRID 72 112.583 65. 0. 1
GRID 73 100. 0. 5.88235 1
GRID 74 106. 0. 5.88235 1
GRID 75 112. 0. 5.88235 1
GRID 76 118. 0. 5.88235 1
GRID 77 124. 0. 5.88235 1
GRID 78 130. 0. 5.88235 1
GRID 79 99.8867 4.75819 5.88235
GRID 80 105.879 5.04368 5.88235
GRID 81 111.873 5.32917 5.88235
● If we look at a sample of the
GRID data for those grids in
the constrained faces, we see
that the Analysis Coordinate
System has been
automatically set to 1 for each
grid.
● It is essential that each grid
preserves this Analysis
Coordinate System in any
further PATRAN modelling,
otherwise, the sense of the
constraint is corrupted.
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S8-28
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The constraints are verified
using a Marker Plot
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S8-29
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE LOADS
The pressure of 100.0 N/m
2
is applied to the inside face.
S8-30
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PERFORM ANALYSIS
Select linear
static analysis
S8-31
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PERFORM ANALYSIS (Cont.)
Status window
reports job
progress
S8-32
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● After NASTRAN completes the analysis, we are
now ready to read the results back into PATRAN.
Solver
ACCESS RESULTS
MD/NASTRAN
PATRAN
Pre-Processing
PATRAN
Post-Processing
S8-33
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The .xdb file is attached, ready to view the results for
post processing.
● We will look at the deformed shape – to confirm correct
boundary conditions.
● We will also look at the stresses to check the magnitude
and sense of the loading.
ACCESS RESULTS (Cont.)
S8-34
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLOT RESULTS
The correct radial nature of
the deformation is shown by a
top view with the deformed
shape shown in dashed
outline
S8-35
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The radial and hoop
stresses can be checked by
looking at stresses relative
to the local cylindrical
system no. 1
hoop
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
radial
S8-36
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
hoop
radial
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
S8-37
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● We can look at radial and/or hoop stresses in a similar
manner by setting up the vector controls.
● Define everything relative to the local coordinate
system 1.
● Switch off the option to plot on the deformed shape.
● Root the base of the vector.
● And choose either of the xx or yy vector components to
plot.
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
S8-38
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
S8-39
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLOT RESULTS (Cont.)
S8-40
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Basic Intercooler Idealization
● No cooling holes
● Alternative Construction:
● Create 2D shells
● Extrude these 2D shells
● No solid geometry created
BASIC INTERCOOLER
S8-41
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Alternative Construction – sweeping
● Create the base surface as before
● Mesh this base surface using 2D shell elements
● Sweep the 2D mesh to form a 3D mesh
● Delete the 2D elements
● This is a powerful technique, but not often feasible in
complex solid geometry.
BASIC INTERCOOLER (Cont.)
S8-42
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Construct a green
surface as before.
CREATE GEOMETRY
S8-43
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Construct a mesh
of quads on the
base surface.
MESH THE SURFACE
S8-44
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Construct the solid
elements by
sweeping the shells.
The vector and
distance are defined
in the main form.
The number of solid
elements are defined
under mesh control.
SWEEP THE ELEMENTS
S8-45
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SWEEP THE ELEMENTS (Cont.)
Clean up the model
by deleting the shell
elements.
An easy way to do
this is by a general
element delete
command, but using
the entity selection
icon to pick only 4-
noded shells.
S8-46
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The model creation and analysis are as before except:
● There is no Patran geometry associated with the solid
elements.
● This means we have to apply loads and boundary conditions
to the FEM.
● We have to apply the Element Physical properties directly to
the group of solid elements.
SWEEP THE ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S8-47
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Therefore, the typical Menu selections are :
CREATE ELEMENT PROPERTIES
Create Physical
Properties:
Pick the
elements directly.
Use the selection
icon to help pick
only solid
elements.
S8-48
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Hidden Line Pick
Create displacement
constraints:
Pick the FEM Filter.
Use the ‘hidden line’
picking option.
Use the polygon
picking option to
capture the correct
region.
Polygon Pick
CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
S8-49
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Advanced Intercooler Idealization
● Introduce cooling holes
● Alternative Construction:
● Create 2D shells
● Extrude these 2D shells
● No solid geometry created
DETAILED INTERCOOLER
S8-50
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Alternative Construction - sweeping
● Create the base surface as before, including the hole
● Mesh this base surface using 2D shell elements
● Sweep the 2D mesh to form a 3D mesh
● Delete the 2D elements
DETAILED INTERCOOLER (Cont.)
S8-51
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the two
start curves as
before.
Then, create
the mid points.
CREATE GEOMETRY
S8-52
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the center
point of the circle
CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S8-53
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
Create the center
circle using 2D
Arc Angles
Method (R=5)
Then, close the
outer boundary
with two curves.
Chain the outer
boundary using
autochain.
Then, create the
trimmed surface.
S8-54
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The 2D base mesh
is constructed in
the same way as
the rib in case
study 4.
Concentric circles
are made from the
center ring, using
a local cylindrical
axis system.
These are mesh
seeded.
Then, the surface
is paver meshed.
MESH THE SURFACE
S8-55
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SWEEP THE ELEMENTS
Construct the solid
elements by
sweeping the
shells as before.
The vector and
distance are
defined on the
main form.
The number of
solid elements are
defined under
mesh control.
S8-56
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Now, apply materials, properties, loads and
boundary conditions as before, but without using
geometry to assist.
● We must use the FEM filter and carefully pick the surface
grids for the displacement constraints.
● Similarly, the internal pressure load is applied to the solid
element faces.
LOADS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
S8-57
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Theta Direction Constraint on Theta = 0
Remember – only translational DOF’s for solids
LOADS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S8-58
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Theta Direction Constraint on Theta = 30
LOADS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.)
S8-59
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Alternative Construction – Advanced Solid
● Create the base surface as before, including the hole
● Copy the base surface to the top
● Create the other bounding surfaces
● Form the Boundary-Representation (B-Rep) Advanced
Solid
● Tet-Mesh the Solid
ALTERNATIVE METHOD
S8-60
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Non-Parametric Solids (White)
● Non-parametric solids have only a surface representation
inside PATRAN
● Boundary representation (B-Rep) solids can be created
● CAD solids are normally accessed as B-Rep solids and
can be meshed using the Auto Tet Mesh algorithm
Solid
Automatic Tet Mesh
ALTERNATIVE METHOD (Cont.)
S8-61
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATE GEOMETRY
The base surface
is created as a
trimmed surface
as before.
S8-62
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The base surface
is translated to
form the top
surface
<0 0 100>
CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S8-63
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The other 5
surfaces are
created (including
the hole).
These are simple
green surfaces.
CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S8-64
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Now the b-rep
solid is complete
CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
S8-65
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Another way to
create the solid is
to extrude the
base surface
directly.
CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.)
<0 0 100>
S8-66
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MESH THE SOLID
Mesh the solid using
TET10 Topology.
Use Global Edge of 2
S8-67
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Summary of Patran Solids:
PATRAN SOLIDS
S8-68
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Commonly used solid elements:
● PENTA (6-15 nodes)
● HEXA (8-20 nodes)
● TETRA (4-10 nodes)
NASTRAN SOLID ELEMENTS
Note Note - - any or all mid any or all mid- -side side
nodes may be deleted nodes may be deleted
S8-69
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● HEXA -
● Recommended for general use. Accuracy degrades when
element is skewed and used in a situation where bending
behavior is dominant. In most modeling situations, it has
superior performance to the other 3D elements.
● PENTA -
● Commonly used to model transition. This element is designed to
behave well as a reasonable thin shell element. If the triangular
faces are not on the exposed surfaces of the shell, it results in
excessive stiffness.
● TETRA -
● Frequently used by automatic mesh generators. The 4-noded
TETRA is not recommended for modeling. The 10-noded
TETRA elements will provide much better accuracy.
NASTRAN SOLID ELEMENTS (Cont.)
S8-70
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Hex versus Tet Meshing
● Convenience and speed of Tet Meshing in a
non 2 ½ D case
● Control and Quality of Hex Meshing
MESHING METHODS SUMMARY
S8-71
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 9A “2 1/2 D Clamp – Sweep Mesher”
in your exercise workbook.
Perform Workshop 9B “2 1/2 D Clamp – Iso Mesher” in
your exercise workbook.
S8-72
NAS120, Section 8, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S9-1
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-2
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S9-3
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Topics covered in this section
● Axisymmetric modeling techniques
● Importing Geometry
● Mesh Density Control
● Perform quality checks on stress results
● Create and manipulate viewports
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-4
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Problem Description
● Scuba tanks are designed to withstand cyclic
pressurization and depressurization loads. They must
also survive loads induced during transportation and
actual service. You are asked to analyze a new scuba
tank design.
● Analysis Objectives
● Determine stresses in the scuba tank under an internal
pressure of 3000 psi. The maximum stress must be
below the yield point of the tank material.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-5
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Getting started on the scuba tank analysis
● The scuba tank is a thick shell structure. We expect the
state of stress to be 3 dimensional in the tank shell. Solid
elements should be used.
● Solid element models tend to get large and take a lot of
CPU time to solve. This is especially true for non-linear or
transient analysis. It is often advisable to simplify the model
in order to speed up the analysis process.
● Several ways to simplify finite element models are
presented next.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-6
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Simplifying Finite Element Models
● Finite element models can be simplified by using a 2D
(planar) representation of a 3D model. There are three
ways to do this:
● Plane Stress
● Plane Strain
● Axisymmetric
● Finite element models can also be simplified by taking
advantage of symmetry. There are two primary types of
symmetry - reflective symmetry and cyclic symmetry.
Symmetry techniques will be presented in detail in the
advanced course.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-7
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The Plane Stress Model
● Assumptions:
● Z stress is zero
● Stresses do no vary through
the thickness
● One way to identify a plane
stress model is to look for
structures in which the
thickness is small compared
to the other two dimensions.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-8
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The Plane Strain Model
● Assumptions:
● Z strain is zero
● The depth of the plane strain
model is large compared to the
cross section.
● Plane strain problems are
common in civil engineering and
are used to model retaining walls
or dams.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-9
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The Axisymmetric Model
● Assumptions:
● The geometry, loads, and
boundary conditions are not a
function of .
● Another way to state this is that
the geometry, loads, and
boundary conditions do not vary
in the circumferential direction.
● Axisymmetry is commonly
used to analyze pressure
vessels and tanks.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK

S9-10
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Simplification of the scuba tank model
● Since the scuba tank is axisymmetric and the pressure
load is axisymmetric, we can simplify the problem
using axisymmetry. We will solve this problem using
two different axisymmetric methods:
1. Build a sector of the tank using 3D solid elements
2. Build the tank cross section using 2D solid elements
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-11
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Creating the geometry for the tank
● A geometry file for the scuba tank generated by a CAD
package is available so there is no need to re-create
the geometry.
● Use File/Import to import the geometry file directly into
PATRAN.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-12
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the file type
to be imported
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-13
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Models created by the following CAD packages
can be imported into PATRAN:
● CATIA
● Unigraphics
● Pro/ENGINEER
● EUCLID 3
● I-DEAS
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-14
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Additional types of geometry files can also be imported
into PATRAN
● ACIS solid geometry files
● Typical file extension is .sat
● Generated by CAD systems such as Autocad, SolidEdge, and
Mechanical Desktop
● Parasolid solid geometry files
● Typical file extension is .xmt
● Generated by CAD systems such as SolidWorks
● IGES geometry files
● Typical file extension is .igs
● Generated by most CAD systems
● STEP geometry files
● Typical file extension is .stp
● Generated by CAD systems such as CATIA
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-15
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The scuba tank geometry file we have is a
parasolid solid geometry model. Let’s import
this file into PATRAN.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-16
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Import the
parasolid model
tank.xmt
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-17
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select Parasolid
xmt options and
select Model Units.
Select Inches. This
converts the units
in the parasolid
model from meters
to inches.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-18
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish importing
the parasolid
model
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-19
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Rotate and shade
the model
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-20
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Break the solid
into two halves
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-21
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Delete half the
tank
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-22
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Break the
remaining tank
into two halves
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-23
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Delete the
upper quarter of
the tank
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-24
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Let’s create a coarse
mesh.
Select Tet10
elements.
Select TetMesh
Parameters and
deselect curvature
check.
Select the solid.
Use a global edge
length of 0.521 to
create one element
through the thickness.
Click Apply.
0.521 in
thick
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-25
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
A relatively
coarse mesh is
created
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-26
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Create Boundary Conditions
● Since the scuba tank is axisymmetric, we need to create
a cylindrical coordinate system to define the symmetry
boundary conditions.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-27
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a
cylindrical
coordinate system
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-28
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a
symmetric
constraint in the
tangential (theta)
direction
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-29
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Constrain
translation in the
theta direction and
select coordinate
system 1 as the
analysis
coordinate system
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-30
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the two
surfaces located
on the planes of
symmetry
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-31
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating the
theta symmetry
boundary
condition
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-32
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select Display-
Loads/BC/Element
Prop to change the
display to show on
FEM only. Also
turn off LBC/Prop
values to simplify
the display.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-33
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Next, create a
symmetry
constraint in the
radial direction.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-34
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Constrain the
radial translation
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-35
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the edge
along the tank
centerline.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-36
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating the
radial constraint.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-37
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a final
constraint in the Z
direction.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-38
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Constrain the z
translation
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-39
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
Select the cylindrical
surface at the valve
interface.
S9-40
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating the
z constraint.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-41
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a pressure load.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-42
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select all the
internal wetted
surfaces.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-43
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating the
pressure load
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-44
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Create the scuba tank material properties
● The tank is made from 17-4 PH stainless steel
forging, heat treated to the H1025 condition.
● E = 28.5 x 10
6
psi
●  = 0.27
● Ultimate strength = 155 ksi
● Yield strength = 145 ksi
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-45
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create an
isotropic material
named 17-4PH.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-46
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a 3D solid
physical property
set for the tank.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-47
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Select the solid
and apply.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-48
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Submit the model to
MD NASTRAN for a
static analysis.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-49
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Read the MD
NASTRAN results
into PATRAN
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-50
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the
deformation
plot.
The maximum
deformation is
0.007 in,
which is
reasonable.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-51
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create 3 additional
viewports to
display the results.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-52
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Tile the 4
viewports.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-53
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Next, let’s plot the stresses
● By default, the solid element stresses are computed
in the basic coordinate system.
● For the scuba tank, we are interested in the radial,
hoop, and axial stresses which are defined in a
cylindrical system. We need to transform the
stresses from the basic coordinate system to the
cylindrical coordinate system no. 1.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-54
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Click the Plot
Options icon.
Select CID and
coordinate
system no. 1.
This transforms
the stresses into
coordinate
system 1.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-55
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the radial
(x component)
stress.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-56
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the hoop
(y component)
stress.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-57
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the axial
(z component)
stress
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-58
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the Von
Mises stress
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-59
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zoom in to the
critical area
near the base
of the tank.
Notice that the
stress gradient
is high through
the thickness
of the tank.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-60
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Turn off stress
averaging.
Notice that the
stress fringes are
“jagged”.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-61
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the stress
jumps at each
node. The
difference
between the
maximum stress
and the minimum
stress at each
node is plotted.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-62
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Scuba tank coarse-mesh model analysis summary:
● The maximum Von Mises stress is 31,600 psi at the base
of the tank near the fillet radius.
● The stress gradient through the tank wall thickness is
high. It ranges from 31,600 psi on the inside wall to about
5,000 psi on the outside wall. This stress gradient is
captured by a single tet10 element through the thickness.
● The un-averaged stress fringe plot is jagged, an indication
that the mesh is too coarse.
● The stress difference plot shows a maximum stress jump
of 15,000 psi. This suggests that the mesh is too coarse in
this area.
● This first scuba tank model was relatively coarse. It
helped us identify the critical area in the tank. We will
now create a second model with a finer mesh in the
critical area.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-63
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a new
database and import
the tank geometry.
Break the solid into
90-degree sectors
as before and
create a cylindrical
coordinate system.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-64
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a point
1” away from the
fillet radius.
Point
163
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-65
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a plane at
this new point.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-66
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Use the plane to
break the solid.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-67
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Mesh the bottom
portion of the
tank with an
element size of
0.125 inch.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-68
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Move to the other
end of the tank.
Create a point
1” away from the
dome/cylinder
transition point
and create a
plane there.
Break the solid
using this plane.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-69
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Mesh the dome
portion of the
tank with an
element size of
0.25 inch.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-70
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Solid 8
Solid 7
Solid 9
Finally, mesh the
cylindrical portion
with an element
size of 0.521 inch.
Under assembly
parameters, turn
on Match Parasolid
Faces to match the
mesh on two
neighboring solids.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-71
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Equivalence the
model
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-72
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Finish creating
loads, boundary
conditions,
material
properties, and
element
properties.
Submit the model
to NASTRAN for
static analysis.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-73
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Read the NASTRAN
results into PATRAN.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-74
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the
deformation plot.
The maximum
deformation of
0.007 inch
agrees with the
coarse model.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-75
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the Von
Mises stress
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-76
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zoom into the
critical area.
The maximum
Von Mises stress
is 29,500 psi.
Notice that there
are 5 elements
through the
thickness in the
critical area.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-77
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Turn off stress
averaging.
The maximum
Von Mises stress
is 30,300 psi
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-78
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the stress
jumps across
nodes.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-79
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Scuba tank fine-mesh model analysis summary:
● The maximum Von Mises stress is 30,300 psi at the base
of the tank near the fillet radius.
● There are 5 elements through the thickness in this critical
area. The stress gradient is represented reasonably well
through the thickness.
● The un-averaged stress fringe plot is relatively smooth,
indicating that the re-meshing effort paid off.
● The stress difference plot shows a maximum stress jump
of 4300 psi. Is further mesh refinement necessary?
● A total of 98,830 nodes and 66,504 elements were used
to model this problem.
● Let’s analyze the tank again using 2D axisymmetric
elements.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-80
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Using 2D Axisymmetric Elements
● This converts a 3D problem into a planar problem by
using 2D elements.
● Only half of the tank cross section is modeled.
● Geometry, boundary condition, and loads must all be
axisymmetric.
● A much finer mesh can be used to solve this problem.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-81
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Open a new PATRAN
database and import the
scuba tank parasolid
model.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-82
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Again break the
solid with the
YZ plane and
delete one of
the resulting
solids.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-83
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Break the solid
with the XZ
plane and
delete one of
the resulting
solids.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-84
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Use Create /
Surface / Extract
with the Face
Option to create a
surface from a face
of the solid that lies
in the XZ plane.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-85
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Delete the
remaining solid,
leaving just the
surface geometry.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-86
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Change the view
by using Viewing
Angles.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-87
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Mesh the surface to
generate triangular
elements with a
global edge length of
0.0625 inch.
The axisymmetric
elements must lie in
the positive x half of
the x-z plane of the
basic coordinate
system with the z axis
as the centerline.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-88
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The use of
planar elements
allowed us to
use a much finer
mesh.
There are now
10 elements
through the
thickness in the
critical area.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-89
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The T2, R1, R2,
and R3 degrees
of freedom are
not used in this
axisymmetric
problem.
Constrain these
unused degrees
of freedom.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-90
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Constrain the
model in the z
direction.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-91
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Apply the z
constraint to the
curve at the valve
interface.
The radial
constraint is
automatically
handled by
NASTRAN.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-92
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create a
pressure load
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-93
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Apply the pressure
to all the internal
curves.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-94
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the material
properties
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-95
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the
axisymmetric
element properties
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-96
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Run the static
analysis.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-97
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Read the results
back into
PATRAN.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-98
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the
deformation plot.
Maximum
deformation is
0.007 inch which
agrees with the
previous two
models.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-99
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the Von
Mises stress.
The maximum
Von Mises
Stress is
29,100 psi
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-100
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Turn off stress
averaging.
The maximum
Von Mises
stress remains
at 29,100 psi
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-101
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Zoom in on the
critical area.
Note that the un-
averaged stress
fringes are
relatively smooth.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-102
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Plot the stress
jumps across
nodes.
The maximum
stress
difference in
the critical
area is near
zero.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-103
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Scuba tank 2D axisymmetric analysis
summary
● The maximum Von Mises stress is 29,100 psi at the
base of the tank near the fillet radius.
● There are 10 elements through the thickness in this
critical area. The stress gradient is represented
reasonably well through the thickness.
● The un-averaged stress fringe plot is very smooth,
indicating that the mesh density is adequate.
● The stress difference plot shows near zero values.
● Using a 2D representation of the scuba tank, we
were able to create a smaller model with a finer
mesh compared to the 3D model.
SECTION 9
SCUBA TANK
S9-104
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
● Perform Workshop 10 “Support Bracket” in your
exercise workbook.
● Optional:
Analyze the Scuba Tank covered in this section.
S10-1
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 10
CAR DESIGN
S10-2
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S10-3
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
• Topics covered in this case study:
• Groups and Lists
• 0-D Elements
• Rigid Elements
SECTION 10: CAR DESIGN
S10-4
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
• Problem Description
• We have inherited a Nastran input file of a vehicle body-in-
white.
• We are tasked with breaking the model down into
manageable sections so that the we can:
• refine the mesh further
• apply properties to the elements
• breakout components for detailed analysis
• control the post processing of different components
• We are required to add a mass representation of the
engine and spring stiffnesses of the shock absorbers.
SECTION 10: CAR DESIGN
S10-5
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S10-6
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
 Groups allow geometric and FE entities to be divided into
separate groups for various modeling and post-processing
tasks
 A group named “default_group” is created automatically
when a new database is created
 Newly created items automatically become members of the
current group
 Any number of groups can be created, and entities may
belong to more than one group
 Groups become permanent members of the database
 Name of current group is displayed as part of Viewport
banner
INTRODUCTION TO GROUPS
S10-7
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
• What is a Group?
• Any subset of model
• A collection of entities
• Why use more than just the Default Group?
• Separate groups for geometry & finite elements
• Isolate Subsets when working with large models
Geometry
Elements
Total
Ends
Middle
INTRODUCTION TO GROUPS
S10-8
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
• Current
• Group into which newly created entities are placed
• Only one group may be current at a time
• Target
• Group that will be acted upon
• Translate entities from the Target Group to the
Current Group
• Modify the appearance of the Target Group
• Posted
• Group is displayed in a viewport
• A group may be posted to more than one viewport
• More than one group may be posted to a viewport
GROUP TERMINOLOGY
S10-9
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING A GROUP
 Choose Group/Create, or change the
Action to Create in the Group menu
 Assign new group name
 The default is to make the new group
the Current Group (new entities
assigned to)
 Use the Group Contents options to
select group member categories, i.e.
Add Entity Selection, Add All Geometry,
Add All FEM, Add All Orphans, Add All
Entities
 Loads, boundary conditions, coordinate
frames, fields, load cases and results
are not group members
S10-10
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Perform set operations on contents of groups, e.g. operation of
union on groups group_A and group_B
Boolean
Select MPC type, i.e. RBAR, RBE2 MPC Type
Specify element number range, e.g. start ID = 1, End ID = 327 Element ID
Select element shape, i.e. 2D, 3D, bar Element Shape
Select element topology, i.e. hex8, quad4 Element Topology
Select material set names, i.e. matl_1, matl_2 Material
Select load and boundary condition types, i.e. displacement,
force
Loads/BCs Type
Select load and boundary condition set names, i.e. lbc_1, lbc_2 Loads/BCs Set
Select element property type, i.e. 2D shell, 3D solid Property Type
Select element property set names (user specified), i.e.
prop_1, prop_2
Property Set
Select the desired entities from the screen or all entities of a
particular type (i.e. geometry or finite elements)
Select Entity
CREATING A GROUP (Cont.)
S10-11
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
• First step: Create a group that contains the roof
mesh only.
• defining the current group
• controlling the entity picking
• controlling the viewport display of the group
• modifying the group
• This may be demonstrated on the model included
in the Nastran input file car_1.bdf.
CREATE GROUP
S10-12
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Choose a view that will
allow a us to pick all the
roof entities.
Choose Group/Create.
New Group Name is ‘roof’
Check Make Current
Check Unpost All Other
Groups
Choose Option:
Add Entity Selection
This allows us to make the
selection by clicking and
dragging in the viewport.
CREATE GROUP
S10-13
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The selected entities are
now highlighted.
Now hit Apply
The group will be created.
It will be made current,
which means any new
entities created will be
added to it.
All other groups will be
unposted.
CREATE GROUP
S10-14
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
We have the roof
region, but it has
extra entities.
We need a strategy
for cleanly eliminating
these.
First we change our
Picking Preference
from default –
Enclose centroid
to
Enclose any Portion
CREATE GROUP
S10-15
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Next use
Group/Modify
The Target Group is
‘roof’ as that is what
we want to modify.
The Member List
shows us what is in
the group at present.
We wish to select
entities to put into the
Member List to
Add/Remove set.
Then we will click the
-Remove- option.
MODIFY GROUP
S10-16
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Now we are ready to
pick the entities to
remove.
Select Polygonal Picking from the Selection bar, and set the Picking
Preference so that entities we just touch will be picked. That makes
the selection very simple now. Hit OK to complete the action.
CREATE GROUPS
S10-17
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The group ‘roof’ is now
finished.
However it can be
irritating when working
with groups because
the viewport will snap
to a view that fits each
group posted or
created.
To disable this use
Preferences/Graphics
and uncheck
Auto Extend
DISABLE AUTO EXTEND
S10-18
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
USING LISTS WITH GROUPS
Manual selection of
entities for groups is
not always efficient.
Often we want to
define a collection of
entities with some
feature in common.
Lists allow us to do
this, and then the list
contents may be saved
as a group.
S10-19
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LIST OVERVIEW
 Create list of entities based on given criterion
 Lists can be used as input for various Patran applications,
such as Application Regions for element properties
 Criteria for list creation are
 Attributes, such as location, results value, assigned properties
 Association with other entities, such as Points, Edges, Elements,
Groups, etc.
 Lists are not stored in the database, but can be added to
a Group
List
S10-20
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
HOW TO CREATE A LIST
 Create two lists: List A: all nodes at X = 18.0 (+ 1.0 tolerance)
List B: all elements associated with the nodes in List A
 Create List A
 Nodes at X = 18 + 1
 Create List B
 Elements
associated with
nodes in List A
 When using a list
as input, enclose
the List name in
back quotes (e.g.
`lista`)
S10-21
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
• We now introduce methods for using lists to help create groups
• We will create a group containing entities belonging to the B pillar
of the car.
CREATE GROUP FROM LIST
S10-22
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Post the Default
Group.
The B pillar is
defined as shown.
We want to get the
nodes and
elements for this
component into a
group.
B Pillar
CREATE LIST
S10-23
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
To help us define the
group we first build a
local coordinate system
which has its y axis
running up the B Pillar.
Use Create/Coord/Axis
Axis: Axis 1 and 2
And pick 3 Nodes.
CREATE LIST
S10-24
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Objective:
All nodes in the
region +/- 2.5 in
around the xy
plane of Coord 6
will be put into a
temporary list.
• Patran LISTS
• We will use a LIST method to create
the B Pillar group.
• In our case the Attribute will be a
distance from the xy plane of
coordinate frame 6.
CREATE LIST
S10-25
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Under Tools:
Select List/Create
Select
FEM/Node/Attribute
Attribute is
Coord Value
Refer. Coord Frame is 6
Check z axis
Use default tolerance of
.005
Choose the ‘between’
option –2.5 to 2.5
Choose Target List ‘A’
CREATE LIST
S10-26
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
List box List A will now
pop up and will contain a
list of all the nodes that
meet the criterion set.
If we select Add to
Group then we have a
further option in the List
Save menu to choose a
Group to add the entities
into.
This can be an existing
group or a new as yet
undefined group.
We define a new group
‘b_pillar’
ADD TO GROUP
S10-27
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Post the
b_pillar group
POST GROUP
S10-28
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Clear ‘List A’ box and
create a new list that
includes all the elements
associated to the nodes in
the b_pillar group.
Use
FEM/Element/Association
Select Nodes
Select Target List A
Apply
Choose Add To Group
and select ‘b_pillar’
CREATE LIST
S10-29
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The resulting of
adding the List A
contents is
shown.
The group can be
cleaned up as
before using
Group/Modify to
remove unwanted
elements.
POST ENTIRE GROUP
S10-30
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Post both the roof
and b_pillar
groups.
Use Ctrl to select
multiple groups.
POST TWO GROUPS
S10-31
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
BOOLEAN OPERATIONS
 Boolean operations are used to manipulate lists or groups
 Intersection operation finds items common to both
 Union operation combines items in both
 Results of subtracting one from another
 Example
 Find elements with a von Mises stress result value > 20,000
psi and a temperature result value > 300 F
S10-32
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
BOOLEAN EXAMPLE
 Plot von Mises
stress
 Create List A
 Find elements
with a von Mises
stress greater
than 20,000 psi
 Plot temperatures
 Create List B
 Find elements
with a
temperature
greater than 300
F
o
S10-33
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
BOOLEAN EXAMPLE (Cont.)
 Use Boolean operation to create List C
 Contents of List C are all elements with a
von Mises stress greater than 20,000 psi
and temperature greater than 300 F
o
S10-34
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
• We deviate from the Car example to look at two
powerful functions of Groups:
• To Create new entities
• We have created a 1 x 1 surface and meshed it using
global edge length of 0.1
• We created a group called ‘mesh’ that contains only the
finite element entities and a similar geometry group
called ‘geom’
• We now wish to create further regions of geometry and
mesh using the Group Options
• To Scale Geometry and Finite Elements
simultaneously
• If a model needs to be scaled after meshing, we may
scale a group that contains all entities.
MODEL MODIFICATION USING GROUPS
S10-35
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create and post a
group called ‘combo’
that contains all of
the entities in the
model.
We can do this
directly or by
assembling the
‘mesh’ and ‘geom’
groups
MODEL MODIFICATION USING GROUPS
S10-36
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Using
Group/Transform/Translate
We now translate the group
‘combo’ to form a new group called
‘combo2’.
MODEL MODIFICATION USING GROUPS
S10-37
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
We have a further option to
Transform any
Loads and Boundary Conditions
and/or
Material and Physical Properties
that are associated with the
selected group
The Translation Vector we have
used here is the edge of the plate.
It is convenient to use the Tip and
base point method.
MODEL MODIFICATION USING GROUPS
S10-38
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The translation is completed and
the new entities are in the current
group ‘combo2’
combo
combo2
MODEL MODIFICATION USING GROUPS
S10-39
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
All existing entities in a group or
groups may be transformed
together.
This technique is useful to scale an
entire model that has already been
meshed.
MODEL MODIFICATION USING GROUPS
S10-40
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 11 “Spacecraft Fairing” in your
exercise workbook.
S10-41
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● We now look at the general class of elements
termed 0D. This includes the following:
● Spring Elements – used to model bolts, connections
etc.
● Mass Elements – used to simulate lumped mass.
ZERO DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS
S10-42
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Spring Elements
● CELAS1, CELAS2, CELAS3, CELAS4, CBUSH
● The CELASi elements are connected by two degrees of freedom
- one at each grid/ground connection point.
● The CBUSH elements connects from 1 to 6 degrees of freedom
between two GRID points.
● Force components: axial force P
or moment M
● Displacement components: axial translation u
or rotation 
ZERO DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS
S10-43
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Elements
● CELAS1 Connects two points, which may be grid points, scalar
points, or both, with reference to a property entry.
● CELAS2 Connects two points, which may be grid points, scalar
points or both, without reference to a property entry
● CELAS3 Connects only scalar points with reference to a property
entry (Not Supported in Patran)
● CELAS4 Connects only scalar points without reference to property
entry (Not Supported in Patran)
● CBUSH Connects two GRID points. Avoids the grounding problem
inherent in CELASi elements (when mis-used). May connect 1 to 6
dof.
ZERO DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS
S10-44
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Elements
● The CBUSH is the recommended form for scalar springs.
● It avoids the potential grounding which may occur when two non-coincident points
are connected.
● The CELASi elements simply insert terms directly into the stiffness matrix without
considering geometry or displacement coordinate systems.
● The CBUSH correctly accounts for the effects of geometry and displacement
coordinate systems.
CBUSH ELEMENT
S10-45
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Elements
● The CBUSH - Defines a generalized spring-and-damper
structural element that may be nonlinear or frequency
dependent.
CBUSH ELEMENT
S10-46
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Elements
● The CBUSH
● Field Contents
● EID Element identification number. (Integer > 0)
● PID Property identification number of a PBUSH
entry. (Integer > 0; Default =EID)
● GA, GB Grid points identification number of connections points.
(Integer > 0)
CBUSH ELEMENT
S10-47
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Elements
● The CBUSH
● Xi Component of orientation vector, from GA, in
the displacement coordinate system at GA.
● GO Alternate method to supply orientation vector using grid
point GO. Direction is from GA to GO
● CID Element coordinate system identification. A 0 means the
basic coordinate system. If CID is blank, then the element
coordinate system is determined from GO or Xi.
CBUSH ELEMENT
S10-48
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Elements
● The CBUSH
● S Location of spring-damper (Real; Default =0.5)
● OCID Coordinate system identification of spring-
damper offset. (Integer; Default=-1 which means element
coordinate system)
● S1, S2, S3 Components of spring-damper offset in the
OCID coordinate system if OCID <> 0
CBUSH ELEMENT
S10-49
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Elements
● The PBUSH - Defines the nominal property values for a generalized
spring-and-damper structural element
● Field Contents
● PID Property identification number. (Integer > 0)
● "K" Flag indicating that next 1 to 6 fields are
stiffness values. (Character)
● Ki Nominal stiffness values in directions 1 through 6.
(Real; Default=0.0)
PBUSH PROPERTIES
S10-50
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Elements
● The PBUSH - Defines the nominal property values for a generalized
spring-and-damper structural element
● Field Contents
● "B" Flag indicating that the next 1 to 6 fields are
force-per-velocity damping. (Character)
● Bi Nominal damping coefficient in units of force per
unit velocity. (Real; Default=0.0)
PBUSH PROPERTIES
S10-51
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Elements
● The PBUSH - Defines the nominal property values for a generalized
spring-and-damper structural element
● Field Contents
● "GE" Flag indicating that the next fields is structural
damping. (Character)
● GE1 Nominal Structural damping constant.
(Real;Default=0.0)
PBUSH PROPERTIES
S10-52
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Elements
● The PBUSH - Defines the nominal property values for a generalized spring-
and-damper structural element
● Field Contents
● "RCV" Flag indicating that the next 1 to 4 fields are stress or
strain coefficients. (Character)
● SA Stress recovery coefficient in the translational
component numbers 1 through 3. (Real, Default=1.0)
● ST Stress recovery coefficient in the rotational component
numbers 4 through 6. (Real; Default=1.0)
● EA Strain recovery coefficient in the translational
components. (Real; Default=1.0)
● ET Strain recovery coefficient in the rotational components.
(Real; Default=1.0)
PBUSH PROPERTIES
S10-53
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Rear Suspension
● Zero Dimensional Elements
● We want to add the rear suspension to the car model. We
will do this using, in turn:
● CELAS elements
● BUSH elements
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE
S10-54
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
If the suspension is connected to
another component then we
need to define a pair of grids to
form end B of the springs.
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE
S10-55
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create each suspension
element directly using
Create/Element/Edit
Use Bar2 generic
MSC.Patran Topology.
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE
S10-56
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the suspension element
properties using
Create/1D/Spring
Provide a Property Set Name
Pick the elements using Select
Members
Use the element selector
El 17581
El 17582
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CELAS
S10-57
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
From the main form
select Input Properties
On the CELAS1 form:
Input Spring Constant
Select the DOF’s using
the String List: here we
use “UY”
Note: In general,
springs should always be
created between
coincident nodes. A
spring connecting two
nodes separated by a
distance can cause
grounding problems.
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CELAS
String List
S10-58
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : rear_susp
PELAS 12 1.+6
$ Pset: "rear_susp" will be imported as: "pelas.12"
CELAS1 17581 12 7142 2 7239 2
CELAS1 17582 12 872 2 1869 2
● Zero Dimensional Elements
● The CELAS1 and PELAS cards are shown
● The Cross Reference from the CELAS1’s to the
PELAS is via PID 12
● Both ends of the spring have DOF 2 (the y direction)
● Ky = 1e6 lbf/in
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CELAS
S10-59
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional
Elements
● If CELAS2 is desired,
select Write Properties
on Element Entries in
the Patran Analysis
Translation Parameters
form:
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CELAS
S10-60
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Elements
● Stiffness in multiple directions:
● The Suspension has only the Uy direction stiffness
defined so far.
● If we want to apply stiffness in all 6 degrees of freedom
we will need to define 6 elements for each suspension
component, connected between the same grids. We
will end up with 6 CELAS1 elements per suspension
component.
● Setting up this number of elements is tedious and is
one of the reasons to use a CBUSH element instead.
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE
S10-61
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Elements
● Zero Length Springs:
● The concept of ‘length’ in a spring is misleading and in
general it is bad practice to put in a finite length. They
are strictly 0D elements even though we create them
via generic Patran Bar2 elements.
● There are two alternatives in our case:
● A Spring between two coincident grids
● A Grounded Spring
● When creating the Spring between coincident grids we
create the zero length Bar2 element and property
exactly as shown before, except being careful to select
the coincident grids properly.
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE
S10-62
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Elements
● Zero Length Springs:
● The grounded spring is created by defining a 0D
element in Patran and then associating Grounded
Spring Properties. By definition, only one grid is
needed.
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE
S10-63
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Elements
● The Bush Element:
● As described in the theory section the CBUSH element
is much preferred when defining a finite length spring.
Length now has a physical meaning and geometry is
taken into account properly.
● However we still classify it as a 0D element.
● The CBUSH can be defined as having coincident grids,
or grounded with a single grid. But we need to define
an orientation vector to define the direction of the
stiffness terms
● We repeat the suspension example now …
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CBUSH
S10-64
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create each suspension
element as before
Create/Element/Edit
Use Bar2 generic MSC.Patran
Topology
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CBUSH
S10-65
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create the suspension element
properties using
Create/1D/Bush
Provide a Property Set Name
Pick the elements using Select
Members
Use the element selector
El 17581
El 17582
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CBUSH
S10-66
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CBUSH
String List
From the main form
select Input Properties
On the Bush form:
Input Bush Orientation
Input Spring Constants
1 to 6 as required
S10-67
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Bush Element
We define the Orientation by using the
orientation vector method. The CID
method can be used when the two grid
points are coincident.
The direction of the stiffness terms is
then defined. Note only translational
stiffness is defined.
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CBUSH
S10-68
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Elements
● The CBUSH and PBUSH cards are shown.
● The Cross Reference from the CBUSH’s to
the PBUSH is via PID 12.
● The Stiffnesses are defined on the PBUSH
card via the ‘K’ flag and the orientation is
defined by the vector <1. 0. 0.>
SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CBUSH
S10-69
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Mass Elements
● Mass elements are used when mass properties of a
structural component are idealized at a single grid
point.
● They are used in dynamic analysis and static
analysis where inertia loading are used.
● Only 3 mass elements are created by MSC.Patran:
● CONM2 – a simple lumped mass definition
● CONM1 – a more complex mass definition
● CMASS1 – a scalar mass definition
● Of these the CONM2 is the most commonly used.
MASS ELEMENTS
S10-70
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Mass Elements
● We will now represent the engine block in the car via
a CONM2 element.
● This is a very typical example where we do not want
to model the engine block in detail, but want to have
the correct mass and inertia terms included.
● We have a tet mesh of the block, so we can use that
to find lumped mass properties.
MASS ELEMENTS
S10-71
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The tet mesh of the block
MASS ELEMENTS
S10-72
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MASS PROPERTIES
Select Tools
Mass Properties…
Show/3D
Define the region using
a previously defined
group ‘block’
Check Plot Principal
Axes
S10-73
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The Principal Axes are
plotted.
MASS PROPERTIES
S10-74
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The cg is reported
relative to Coord 0 in this
case.
Coord 9 has been
created at the cg.
M = .8412
I11 = 50.32 I22 = 36.11 I33 = 30.22
CG = [34.24,24.91,-30.0]
(Mass density values)
MASS PROPERTIES
S10-75
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
First we create a grid at
the origin of the block as
reported.
ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE
S10-76
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Now we create a Point
Element at this grid.
A triangle confirms the
element position.
ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE
S10-77
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
In Properties
Create/0D/Mass
Input Property Set Name
Choose Lumped Option
Select Members (use the
point element selection
pick).
Input Properties for
CONM2 as reported
previously.
ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE
S10-78
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : block_mass
CONM2 17583 11365 .8412
50.32 36.11 30.22
● Zero Dimensional Mass Elements
● The CONM2 element is shown below with M, I11, I22, I33
completed.
ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE
S10-79
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Mass Elements
● The other options for creating Mass properties from
point elements are shown:
ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE
S10-80
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Zero Dimensional Mass Elements
● If generic bar2 elements are used then a
CMASS1 element with 2 grids is created.
ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE
S10-81
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Offset 20,0,0 in Coord 0
from grid
Mass 200
● Zero Dimensional Mass Elements
● A very common application is to offset a
CONM2 element. The setup is shown below:
ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE
S10-82
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Rigid Elements
● A very useful set of elements are defined as Rigid
Elements. They are most commonly used as general
connection elements, where we do not wish to model
the connections in detail.
● The most common Rigid Elements are:
● RBE2 - one independent node and multiple dependant
nodes.
● RBE3 – one dependent node and multiple independent
nodes.
RIGID ELEMENTS
S10-83
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBEs and MPCs
● Working Definition:
The motion of a DOF is dependent on
the motion of at least one other DOF
S10-84
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MOTION AT ONE GRID DRIVES ANOTHER
● Simple Translation
X motion of Green Grid drives X motion
of Red Grid
S10-85
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MOTION AT ONE GRID DRIVES ANOTHER
● Simple Rotation
Rotation of Green Grid drives X translation
and Z rotation of Red Grid
S10-86
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LINEAR RBEs and MPCs
The motion of a DOF is dependent on
the motion of at least one other DOF
• Displacement, not elastic relationship
• Not dictated by stiffness, mass, or force
• Linear relationship
• Small displacement theory
• Dependent v. Independent DOFs
• Stiffness/mass/loads at dependent DOF transferred
to independent DOF(s)
S10-87
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SMALL DISPLACEMENT THEORY & ROTATIONS
● Small displacement theory:
sin() ≈ tan() ≈ 
cos() ≈ 1
● For Rz @ A
Rz
B
= Rz
A
= 
Tx
B
= ()*L
AB
Ty
B
= 0
X
Y
A
B

Tx
B
S10-88
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Geometry-based
● RBAR
● RBE2
● Geometry- & User-input based
● RBE3
● Less Common “Rigid” elements (not covered in this course)
● RBAR1, RJOINT, RROD, RTRPLT, RTRPLT1, RBE1, RSSCON,
RSPLINE
● User-input based
● MPC
COMMONLY USED “RIGID” ELEMENTS IN
MSC.NASTRAN
Really-rigid “rigid” elements
S10-89
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COMMON GEOMETRY-BASED RIGID ELEMENTS
● RBAR
● Rigid Bar with six DOF at each end
● RBE2
– Rigid body with independent
DOF at one GRID, and
dependent DOF at an arbitrary
number of GRIDs.
S10-90
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE RBAR
● The RBAR is a rigid link between two GRID points
● Proper rigid body motion is preserved
S10-91
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE RBAR
● Can mix/match dependent DOF between the GRIDs, but this is rare
● The independent DOFs must be capable of describing the rigid
body motion of the element
123456 123456 1 2 RBAR 535
CMA CMB CNA CNB GA GB RBAR EID
● Most common to have all the
dependent DOFs at one GRID,
and all the independent DOFs at
the other
B
A
S10-92
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBAR EXAMPLE: FASTENER
● Use of RBAR to “weld” two parts of a model
together:
123456 123456 1 2 RBAR 535
CMA CMB CNA CNB GA GB RBAR EID
B
A
S10-93
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBAR EXAMPLE: PIN-JOINT
● Use of RBAR to form pin-jointed attachment
123 123456 1 2 RBAR 535
CMA CMB CNA CNB GA GB RBAR EID
B
A
S10-94
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBAR DEFINITION IN PATRAN
S10-95
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THE RBE2
● One independent GRID (all 6 DOF)
● Multiple dependent GRID/DOFs
S10-96
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE2 EXAMPLE
● Rigidly “weld” multiple GRIDs to one other GRID:
3 2 RBE2 4 1 101 99 123456
GM5 GM3 GM2 RBE2 GM4 GM1 GN EID CM
1
3
2
101
4
S10-97
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE2 EXAMPLE
● Note: No relative motion between GRIDs 1-4 !
● No deformation of element(s) between these GRIDs
3 2 RBE2 4 1 101 99 123456
GM5 GM3 GM2 RBE2 GM4 GM1 GN EID CM
1
3
2
101
4
S10-98
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COMMON RBE2/RBAR USES
● RBE2 or RBAR between 2 GRIDs
● “Weld” 2 different parts together
● 6DOF connection
● “Bolt” 2 different parts together
● 3DOF connection
● RBE2
● “Spider” or “wagon wheel” connections
● Large mass/base-drive connection
S10-99
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE2 DEFINITION IN PATRAN
Be careful of Patran
defaults
• For RBE2
Typically want dependant grid
to have either
• 3 translational DOF’s
(UX, UY, UZ)
or
• 6 DOF’s
(3 translation & 3 rotation)
• Default in Patran is UX only
and this is typically not
correct.
• For RBE3
Typically want independent
grids to have 3 translational
DOF only (UX, UY, UZ).
Including rotations for RBE3
MPC’s can cause incorrect
results.
S10-100
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE & MPC NOTES
● Dependent DOF cannot be SPC’d,
OMITted, SUPORTed or be dependent on
other RBE/MPC elements
● PARAM,AUTOMSET,YES can resolve
conflicts
1
3
2
101
4
S10-101
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
engine
● Rigid Elements – the RBE2
● Consider the engine mass we created for the car
model. We need to connect it into the bulkhead
structure, but we have a lumped mass idealization
and we do not wish to model the detail of the
connections.
RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE2
connections
S10-102
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
lumped mass idealization
● Rigid Elements – the RBE2
● We will connect the lumped mass to the attachment
points via an RBE2 element.
RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE2
S10-103
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create/MPC/RBE2
Define Terms
Switch off Auto Execute
Check Create Dependent
Select only DOF’s Ux thru Rz
Pick Node List and hit Enter
RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE2
S10-104
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
The Dependent Terms box will be
populated
Select Create Independent
Select Node List – pick the node at the
engine mass
Hit Enter
The Independent Terms will be filled in
RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE2
S10-105
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Hit Cancel in the sub-form
Hit Apply in the main form
The RBE2 will be shown
RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE2
S10-106
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The ‘spider’ we have formed will now form an infinitely
rigid connection between the CONM2 at it’s grid and the
other four connecting grids.
RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE2
S10-107
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE 3: THE DEMOCRATIC MPC
● RBE3
● Everyone votes on the outcome
● Some votes carry more weight!
S10-108
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE3 ELEMENTS
● NOT a “rigid” element
● IS an interpolation element
● Does not add stiffness to the structure (if used
correctly)
• Motion at a dependent GRID is
the weighted average of the
motion(s) at a set of master
(independent) GRIDs
S10-109
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE3 DESCRIPTION
● By default, the reference grid DOF will be the dependent
DOF
● Number of dependent DOF is equal to the number of DOF
on the REFC field
S10-110
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE3 IS NOT RIGID!
● RBE3 vs. RBE2
● RBE3 allows warping
and 3D effects
● In this example, RBE2 enforces beam
theory (plane sections remain planar)
RBE3 RBE2
S10-111
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Forces/moments applied at reference grid are
distributed to the master grids in same manner as
classical bolt pattern analysis
● Step 1: Applied loads are transferred to the CG of the
weighted grid group using an equivalent Force/Moment
● Step 2: Applied loads at CG transferred to master grids
according to each grid’s weighting factor
RBE3: HOW IT WORKS? – APPLIED FORCES
S10-112
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE3: HOW IT WORKS? – APPLIED FORCES
● Step 1: Transform force/moment at reference grid to
equivalent force/moment at the weighted CG of master
grids.
M
CG
=M
A
+F
A
*e
F
CG
=F
A
CG
F
CG
M
CG
F
A
M
A
Reference Grid
e
CG
S10-113
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE3: HOW IT WORKS? – APPLIED FORCES
● Step 2: Move loads at CG to master grids according
to their weighting values.
● Force at CG divided amongst master grids according to
weighting factors W
i
● Moment at CG mapped as equivalent force couples on
master grids according to weighting factors W
i
S10-114
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Step 2: Continued…
CG
F
CG
M
CG
Total force at each master node is sum of...
Forces derived from force at CG: F
if
= F
CG
{W
i
/W
i
}
F
1m
F
3m
F
2m
Plus Forces derived from moment at CG:
F
im
= {M
cg
W
i
r
i
/(W
1
r
1
2
+W
2
r
2
2
+W
3
r
3
2
)}
RBE3: HOW IT WORKS? – APPLIED FORCES
S10-115
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE3: HOW IT WORKS? – MASS DISTRIBUTION
● Masses smeared to the master grids similar to
forces distribution
● Mass is distributed to the master grids with weighting factors
● Rotational inertia is transferred to master grids
● Reference node inertial force is distributed in same manner as when
static force is applied to the reference grid.
S10-116
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 1
● RBE3 distribution of loads when force at reference grid
at CG passes through CG of master grids
S10-117
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 1: FORCE THROUGH CG
● Simply supported beam
● 10 elements, 11 nodes numbered 1 through 11
● 100 LB. Force in negative Y on reference grid 99
S10-118
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 1: FORCE THROUGH CG
● Load through CG with uniform weighting factors results
in uniform load distribution
S10-119
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 1: FORCE THROUGH CG
● Comments…
● RBE3 Require 6 RBMODES
● x rotation DOF is added to satisfy equilibrium
S10-120
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 2
● Force does not pass thru CG of master grids
S10-121
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 2: LOAD NOT THROUGH CG
● The resulting force distribution is not intuitively
obvious
● Note forces in the opposite direction on the left side
of the beam.
Upward loads on
left side of beam
result from moment
caused by
movement of
applied load to the
CG of master grids.
S10-122
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 3
● Use of weighting factors to generate realistic load
distribution: 100 LB. transverse load on 3D beam.
S10-123
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 3: TRANSVERSE LOAD ON BEAM
● If uniform
weighting factors
are used, the load
is equally
distributed to all
grids.
S10-124
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 3: TRANSVERSE LOAD ON BEAM
Displacement Contour
● The uniform load distribution results in too much
transverse load in flanges causing them to droop.
S10-125
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 3: TRANSVERSE LOAD ON BEAM
● Assume quadratic distribution of load
in web
● Assume thin flanges carry zero
transverse load
● Master DOF 1235. DOF 5 added to
make RY rigid body motion
determinate
S10-126
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Displacements with quadratic weighting factors
virtually equivalent to those from RBE2 (Beam
Theory), but do not impose “plane sections remain
planar” as does RBE2.
EXAMPLE 3: TRANSVERSE LOAD ON BEAM
S10-127
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 3: TRANSVERSE LOAD ON BEAM
● RBE3 Displacement Contour
● Max Y disp=.00685
S10-128
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLE 3: TRANSVERSE LOAD ON BEAM
● RBE2 Displacement contour
● Max Y disp=.00685
S10-129
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE3 USAGE GUIDELINES
● Do not specify rotational DOF for master (independent) grids
except when necessary to avoid singularity caused by a
linear set of master grids
● Recommend independent grids use DOF = 123 (Ux, Uy, Uz)
● Using rotational DOF on master grids can result in implausible
results
S10-130
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RBE3 USAGE GUIDELINES
● Make check run with PARAM,CHECKOUT,YES
● Section 9.4.1 of MSC.Nastran Reference Manual (V68)
● EMH printout should be numeric zeroes (no grounding)
● No MAXRATIO error messages from decomposition of R
g
mm
and R
m
mm
matrices (numerically stable)
● Perform grounding check of at least K
GG
and K
NN
matrix
● V2001: Case control command
● GROUNDCHECK (SET=(G,N))=YES
S10-131
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
engine
● Returning to the car model, if we connect the
engine with an RBE3:
● The engine location will be determined by the
average of the connecting locations
● The presence of the engine will not stiffen the rest of
the model.
RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE3
connections
S10-132
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Create/MPC/RBE3
The procedure is the same as before
except that the mass grid is dependent.
The connection grids are independent
and only choose DOF’s Ux to Uz.
RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE3
S10-133
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The engine mass will now move as the average of the
connection grids.
● The connections and the bulkhead will not be stiffened
by the presence of the RBE3.
RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE3
S10-134
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 12 “RBE2 vs. RBE3” in your exercise
workbook.
S11-1
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 11
UNITS
S11-2
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S11-3
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● MD Nastran does not know what units you are using.
● It is up to you to use a system of consistent units in the finite
element model.
● This means that you must input all model quantities such as grid
point locations, elastic modulus, applied loads, etc. using a
consistent system of units.
● You must also interpret the model output quantities such as
displacements and stresses in the same consistent system of
units.
UNITS IN MD NASTRAN
S11-4
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NEWTON’S SECOND LAW
● A consistent set of units must satisfy Newton’s
Second Law of Motion:
● In other words, one unit of force applied to one unit of
mass must result in one unit of acceleration:
● Whenever in doubt about a system of modeling units,
use the equation above to check them.
1 unit force = 1 unit mass x 1 unit acceleration
F = M
.
a
S11-5
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
BASE AND DERIVED UNITS
● Newton’s Second Law of Motion contains the units
of force, mass, length, and time
● We can choose any three of the four units as our
base units. The fourth unit is then derived from
these three base units.
F = M
.
a
Force
Force
Mass
Mass
Time
Length
2
S11-6
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COMMONLY USED SYSTEMS OF UNITS
● The two major systems of units used by engineers and
scientists are the International System of Units (SI) and
the U. S. Customary System (USCS).
● The SI system is the modern version of the metric system.
The base units include the meter (m), the kilogram mass
(kg), and the second (sec).
● The USCS is based on the British Imperial System. It is also
known as the English System. The USCS includes two
systems of units:
● The foot-pound-second (fps) system - the base units include the
foot (ft), the pound force (lb
f
), and the second (sec).
● The inch-pound-second (ips) system - the base units include the
inch (in), the pound force (lb
f
), and the second (sec).
S11-7
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SI UNITS
● In the SI system of units, the base units are the
meter, the kilogram mass, and the second.
● The fourth unit, the unit of force, is derived from
Newton’s Second Law and is called the newton (N).
● Let’s check this system of units using Newton’s
Second Law:
N = kg
.
m/sec
2
1 unit force 1 unit mass x 1 unit acceleration
1 N 1 kg x 1 m/sec
2
?
=
?
=
S11-8
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SI-mm UNITS
● A popular variation of the SI system of units uses the
millimeter as the unit of length. The unit of force is the
newton and the unit of time is the second.
● In order to satisfy Newton’s Second Law, the unit of
mass must be the megagram (Mg), the metric ton (t), or
the tonne (T
e
).
● Let’s check this system of units using Newton’s Second
Law:
Mg = t = T
e
= 1000 kg
1 unit force 1 unit mass x 1 unit acceleration
1 N 1 Mg x 1 mm/sec
2
?
=
?
=
S11-9
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
U. S. CUSTOMARY fps SYSTEM
● In the U. S. Customary foot-pound-second system, the
base units are the foot, the pound force, and the second.
● The fourth unit, the unit of mass, is derived from
Newton’s Second Law and is called the slug.
● Let’s check this system of units using Newton’s Second
Law:
slug = lb
f
.
sec
2
/ft
1 unit force 1 unit mass x 1 unit acceleration
1 lb
f
1 slug x 1 ft/sec
2
?
=
?
=
S11-10
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
U. S. CUSTOMARY ips SYSTEM
● In the U. S. Customary inch-pound-second system, the
base units are the inch, the pound force, and the second.
● The fourth unit, the unit of mass, is derived from
Newton’s Second Law and has no official name. This unit
is unofficially called the snail or the slinch.
● Let’s check this system of units using Newton’s Second
Law:
snail = slinch = lb
f
.
sec
2
/in
1 unit force 1 unit mass x 1 unit acceleration
1 lb
f
1 lb
f
.
sec
2
/in x 1 in/sec
2
?
=
?
=
S11-11
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WEIGHT UNITS vs. MASS UNITS
● MD Nastran expects your mass input (MATi, CONMi,
etc.) to be in consistent mass units.
● However, mass property data for the U. S. Customary
System are typically reported in the units of weight.
There are two methods to handle the weight units:
● Convert the weight units into the correct mass units before
entering them into the finite element model.
● Input the weight units into the finite element model. Then, use
the MD Nastran WTMASS parameter to convert weight units
to mass units.
S11-12
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WTMASS PARAMETER EXAMPLE
● For example, you are modeling a steel structure in the U. S. Customary
inch-pound-second system. The material density obtained from a
handbook is show below:
Method 1
Use Newton’s Second Law to convert weight to mass:
W = M x g M = W x 1/g = W x 1/386.1 = W x 0.00259
Mass Density = 0.283 x 0.00259 = 7.33 x 10
-4
lb
f
.
sec
2
/in
4
Weight Density = 0.283 lb
f
/in
3
7.33E-4 0.32 29.E6 1 MAT1
Method 2
Enter the weight density directly into MD Nastran. Use the WTMASS
parameter to convert weight units to mass units.
0.283 0.32 29.E6 1 MAT1
0.00259 WTMASS PARAM
S11-13
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WTMASS PARAMETER EXAMPLE (Cont.)
The WTMASS
parameter is defined
in Patran as shown
on the right.
The default value for
this parameter is 1.0
S11-14
NAS120, Section 11, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLES OF CONSISTENT SYSTEMS OF
UNITS
psf lb
f
ft 32.17
ft/sec
2
1.0 slug/ft
3
slug psf lb
f
ft 3
Output
in
in
mm
m
Disp
lb
f
lb
f
N
N
Force
Input
5
4
2
1
386.1
in/sec
2
386.1
in/sec
2
9807
mm/sec
2
9.807
m/sec
2
1 G
psi
psi
MPa
Pa
Stress
psi
psi
MPa
Pa
Elastic
Modulus
2.59x10
-3
1.0
1.0
1.0
WTMASS
Parameter
lb
f
lb
f
.
sec
2
/in
t or Mg
kg
Mass
lb
f
/in
3
lb
f
.
sec
2
/in
4
t/mm
3
or
Mg/mm
3
kg/m
3
Mass
Density
lb
f
lb
f
N
N
Force
in
in
mm
m
Length
System of
Units
● Following table contains some of the most commonly used
consistent systems of units
S12-1
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-2
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S12-3
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Topics covered in this case study:
● Normal modes analysis
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-4
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Problem Description
● A communications tower is in the final design stage. You
are asked to analyze the tower structure under dynamic
loading, including wind and seismic loading.
● Before you can perform any dynamic analysis, you must
first perform a normal modes analysis to determine the
dynamic characteristics of the tower.
● Analysis Objectives
● Perform a normal modes analysis to determine the
natural frequencies and mode shapes of the tower
structure.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-5
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Getting started on the case study
● The tower structural members are made from steel open
sections. These members are modeled by CBAR elements.
● The communications equipment is mounted at the top of
the tower. The equipment is fairly compact so it will be
modeled as lumped masses attached to the top corners of
the tower.
● The model is shown in the next slide.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-6
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Lumped mass
element
CBAR element
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-7
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Before performing a normal modes analysis on
the tower structure, let’s look at the theory
behind the normal modes analysis:
● Equation of motion for free vibrations
● Mass Matrix Formulation
● Solving the equations
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-8
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Governing Equations
● Consider the undamped single-degree-of-freedom system
shown below:
● The equation of motion for free vibrations (i.e. without
external load or damping) is
where m = mass
k = stiffness
m
x
k
mx = -kx or mx + kx = 0
.. ..
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-9
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● For a multi-degree-of-freedom system, this equation
becomes
..
M x + K x = 0
where [K] = the stiffness matrix of the structure
(the same as in static analysis)
[M] = the mass matrix of the structure
(it represents the inertia properties of the
structure)
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-10
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Formulating the mass matrix
● The mass matrix represents the inertia properties of the
structure. MD Nastran provides the user with two choices:
● Lumped Mass Matrix (default)
Contains only diagonal terms associated with translational
degrees of freedom
● Coupled Mass Matrix
Also contains off-diagonal terms, coupling translational
degrees of freedom and rotational degrees of freedom. (Note:
For a rod element, only translational DOFs are coupled.)
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-11
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Example of Mass Matrix
L
2 1 3 4
M | | µAL
1 2 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 2 0
0 0 0 0
=
Lumped Mass Matrix
M | | µAL
5 12 0 1 12 0
0 0 0 0
1 12 0 5 12 0
0 0 0 0
=
Coupled Mass Matrix
where µ = mass density and A = cross sectional area
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-12
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Lumped vs. Coupled Mass
● Coupled mass is generally more accurate than lumped mass
● Lumped mass is preferred for computational speed in dynamic
analysis
● User-selectable coupled mass matrix for elements
● PARAM,COUPMASS,1 to select coupled mass matrices for all
BAR, ROD, and PLATE elements that include bending
stiffness
● Default is lumped mass
● Elements that have either lumped or coupled mass:
● CBAR, CBEAM, CONROD, CHEXA, CPENTA, CQUAD4,
CQUAD8, CROD, CTETRA, CTRIA3, CTRIA6, CTRIAX6,
CTUBE
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-13
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Lumped vs. Coupled Mass (Cont.)
● Elements that have lumped mass only
● CONEAX, CSHEAR
● Elements that have coupled mass only
● CBEND, CHEX20, CTRAPRG, CTRIARG
● Lumped mass contains only diagonal, translational
components (no rotational ones).
● Coupled mass contains off-diagonal translational
components as well as rotations for CBAR (though no
torsion), CBEAM, and CBEND elements.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-14
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Solving the equation of motion for free vibration
● Assume a harmonic solution of the form
(Physically, this means that all the coordinates perform
synchronous motions and the system configuration does not
change its shape during motion, only its amplitude.)
(1)
M | | x
··
{ } K | | x { } 0 = +
x { } | { }e
i
e
t
=
(2)
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-15
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Differentiating equation (2) twice, we get
● Substituting equations (2) and (3) into equation (1),
we get
which simplifies to
● This is an eigenvalue problem.
(3)
(4)
e
2
M | | | | |e
i
e
t
K | | | | |e
i
e
t
0 = + –
x
··
{ } e –
2
| { }e
i
e
t
=
..
K | | e
2
M | | | { } – ( ) 0 =
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-16
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● There are two possible solutions to the eigenvalue problem:
1. If , then the only possibility is
which is the so-called trivial solution and is not interesting from a
physical point of view.
2. If , then there is a nontrivial solution to
the eigenvalue problem.
The eigenvalue problem is reduced to
or
where ì = e
2
is called the eigenvalue.
| { } 0 =
det K | | e
2
M | | – ( ) 0 =
det K | | e
2
M | | – ( ) 0 =
det K | | ì M | | – ( ) 0 =
(5)
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
| | | | ( ) 0 det
2
= ÷ M K e
S12-17
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● If the structure has N dynamic degrees of freedom (degrees of
freedom with mass), then there are N number of e’s that are
solution for the eigenvalue problem.
● These e’s (e
1
, e
2
, ..., e
N
) are the natural frequencies of the
structure (also known as normal frequencies, characteristic
frequencies, fundamental frequencies, or resonant frequencies).
● The eigenvector , associated with the natural frequency e
j
, is
called normal mode or mode shape. The normal mode
corresponds to deflected shape patterns of the structure.
● When a structure is vibrating, its shape, at any given time, is a
linear combination of its normal modes.
|
j
{ }
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-18
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Example of normal modes
Simply Supported Beam
Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
● The number of grid points (degrees of freedom) in the model
must be adequate to describe the mode shapes.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-19
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Reasons to compute natural frequencies and normal modes:
● Assess the dynamic characteristics of the structure. For example, if
rotating machinery is going to be installed on a certain structure, it
might be necessary to see if the frequency of the rotating mass is
close to one of the natural frequencies of the structure to avoid
excessive vibrations.
● Assess possible dynamic amplification of loads.
● Use natural frequencies and normal modes to guide subsequent
dynamic analysis (transient response, response spectrum analysis),
i.e. what should be the appropriate At for integrating the equation of
motion in transient analysis?
● Use natural frequencies and mode shapes for subsequent dynamic
analysis, i.e. transient analysis of the structure using modal
expansion.
● Guide the experimental analysis of the structure, i.e. the location of
accelerometers, etc.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-20
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The natural frequencies (w
1
, w
2
, ..., w
j
) are expressed in
radians/seconds. They can also be expressed in hertz
(cycles/seconds) using
f
j
hertz ( )
e
j
radians second ( )
2t
------------------------------------------------- =
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-21
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● If a structure is not totally constrained, i.e. if it admits a rigid body
mode (stress-free mode) or a mechanism, at least one natural
frequency will be zero.
Example: The following unconstrained structure has a rigid body mode.
m m
k
x
1
x
2
e
1
0{ } =
|
1
{ }
1
1
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
=
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-22
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Scaling of normal modes is arbitrary.
For example, the following three mode shapes represent the same
model of vibration:
x
1
x
2
m
m
|
1
{ }
.66
.33
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
= |
1
{ }
1
0.5
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
, =
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
|
1
{ }
300
150
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
=
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-23
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Determination of the natural frequencies, i.e. solution
of
is a difficult problem. The solution to this problem
must be determined using a numerical approach.
det K | | e
2
M | | – ( ) 0 =
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-24
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● MD Nastran provides the user with the following three
types of methods for eigenvalue extraction:
● Tracking Method
● Eigenvalues (or natural frequencies) are determined, one at a time,
using an iterative technique. Two variations of the inverse power
method are provided: INV and SINV. This approach is more
convenient when a few natural frequencies are to be determined.
In general, SINV is more reliable than INV.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-25
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Transformation Method
● The original eigenvalue problem
is transformed to the form
● Next, the matrix [ A ] is transformed into a tridiagonal matrix using
either the Given’s technique or the Householder technique. Finally,
all the eigenvalues are extracted at once, using the QR Algorithm.
Two variations of the Given’s technique and two variations of the
Householder technique are provided: GIV, MGIV, HOU, and MHOU.
These methods are more efficient for small models when a large
proportion of eigenvalues are needed.
A | | | { } ì | { } =
K | | ì M | | – ( ) | { } 0 =
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-26
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Lanczos Method
● This is a combined tracking-transformation method and is the
most modern method.
● This method is most efficient for computing a few
eigenvalues of large, sparse problems (most structural
models fit into this category).
● This is the recommended method for most structural
problems. By default, Patran uses this method when setting
up a Nastran input file.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-27
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● In order to perform a normal modes analysis, following entries are
required in the Nastran input data file:
● Executive Control Section
● SOL 103
● Case Control Section
● METHOD = n where n is the ID number for the EIGR or EIGRL entry
that is included in the bulk data section. Multiple subcases can be used to
control output requests.
● Bulk Data Section
● EIGRL entry – Lanczos method
● EIGR entry – Other eigenvalue extraction methods
● Mass properties are required
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-28
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The EIGRL entry
● Defines data needed to perform vibration or buckling analysis with the
Lanczos Method
10 3.2 0.1 1 EIGRL
NORM SHFSCL MAXSET MSGLVL ND V2 V1 SID EIGRL
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Field Contents
SID Set identification number (unique integer > 0)
V1, V2 Vibration analysis: Frequency range of interest
Buckling analysis: Eigenvalue range of interest (V1 < V2,
real). If all modes below a frequency are desired, set V2
to the desired frequency and leave V1 blank. It is not
recommended to put 0.0 for V1 (It is more efficient to
use a small negative number or to leave it blank).
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-29
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The EIGRL entry (Cont.)
Field Contents
ND Number of roots desired (integer > 0, or blank)
MSGLVL Diagnostic level (integer 0 through 3, or blank)
MAXSET Number of vectors in block (integer 1 through 15, or
blank)
SHFSCL Estimate of the first flexible mode natural
frequency (real or blank)
NORM Method for normalizing eigenvectors, either "MASS" or
"MAX"
MASS Normalize to unit value of the generalized
mass (default)
MAX Normalize to unit value of the largest
component in the analysis set
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-30
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Mass properties are required for normal analysis
analysis. There are several ways to enter mass:
● Structural Mass – Density field on MATi entries (mass/volume)
● Non-Structural Mass – NSM field on element property entries
(mass per unit length or area)
2.59E-4 0.33 10.E6 10 MAT1
GE TREF A RHO NU G E MID MAT1
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
0.125 1 0.1 1 20 PSHELL
NSM T
S
/T MID3 12I/T
3
MID2 T MID1 PID PSHELL
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-31
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Concentrated Mass – Mass property fields on
concentrated element entries CONMi and CMASSi
I33 I32 I31 I22 I21 I11
49.7 176 15 COMN2
3.9 13.7 16.2
X3 X2 X1 M CID G EID CONM2
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
● Non-structural mass can also be defined on non-
structural mass entries: NSM, NSM1, NSML, NSML1,
and NSMADD.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-32
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Mass Units
● MD Nastran does not know units. It is up to you to use a
consistent set of units.
● For the steel tower structure in this case study, the SI system of
units is used.
● Units of Force = Newton Units of Length = meter Units of time =
second Units of mass = kg
● Mass Density µ = 7,861 kg/m
3
● Concentrated Mass m = 1000 kg each
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-33
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Mass Units (Cont.)
● Another common system of units is the English in-lb
f
-sec system:
● Units of Force = lb
f
Units of Length = in Units of time = second
Units of mass = lb
f
sec
2
/in
● Mass Density r = 7.36 x 10
-4
lb
f
sec
2
/in
4
● Concentrated Mass m = 5.710 lb
f
sec
2
/in each
● The consistent mass unit of lb
f
sec
2
/in must be used in this system of
units. If your problem definition is based on the weight unit of lb
f
, use
the following equation to convert lb
f
to the correct mass units:
W = M x g M = W x 1/g = W x 1/386.1 = W x 0.00259
2204.6 lb
f
x 0.00259 = 5.710 lb
f
sec
2
/in
0.284 lb
f
/in
3
x 0.00259 = 7.36 x 10
-4
lb
f
sec
2
/in
4
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-34
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Mass Units (Cont.)
● Alternatively, the user of the English system of units can use
lb
f
as the mass unit in the model and use the WTMASS
parameter to convert lb
f
to the correct mass unit.
● Mass Density µ = 0.284 lb
f
/in
3
● Concentrated Mass m = 2,205 lb
f
each
● Use PARAM, WTMASS, 0.00259 in the model. This is a multiplier
for the mass matrix (0.00259 = 1/386.1 = 1/g).
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-35
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Let’s now continue with the case study.
● We want to determine the first 5 modes for the tower
structure.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-36
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Set up the
normal modes
analysis
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-37
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Click on Solution
Type and select
Normal Modes
analysis.
Click on Solution
Parameters and
enter a node ID for
the Wt. Generator.
The mass
properties of the
model will be
computed about
this node. Enter 0
to select the origin
of the basic
coordinate system.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-38
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Next, click on
Subcases and
select the Default
subcase.
Click on Subcase
Parameters and
select the
Lanczos method.
Enter 5 in the
number of
desired roots
box.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-39
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Run the
analysis, read
the results
into Patran,
and animate
the mode
shapes, one
at a time.
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-40
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Examine the .f06 file
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-41
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Examine the .f06 file (Cont.)
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-42
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Normal modes analysis summary:
● Total mass of structure is 85,732 kg
● Mode No. Frequency (Hz) Description
1 12.01 Primary Bending
2 12.01 Primary Bending
3 23.43 Torsion
4 32.70 Secondary Bending
5 32.70 Secondary Bending
SECTION 12
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER
S12-43
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 13 “Normal Modes of a rectangular plate” in your
exercise workbook.
S12-44
NAS120, Section 12, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S13-1
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-2
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S13-3
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Topics covered in this case study:
● Linear buckling analysis
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-4
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Problem Description
● You have been presented with the conceptual design of a
next-generation military submarine. The submarine
pressure hull is a thick shell structure reinforced with ring
frames. The submarine must be capable of operating at
depths up to 1000 ft. Will the pressure hull buckle under
the pressure loading?
● Analysis Objective
● Perform a buckling analysis on the submarine pressure
hull to determine the buckling load.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-5
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SAIL
FC
ER
RC
FWD MBT
AFT MBT
Submarine General Spec:
Overall Length = 350 ft
DIA = 36 ft
ER = Engine Room
RC = Reactor Compartment
FC = Forward Compartment
AFT MBT = Aft Main Ballast Tanks
FWD MBT = Forward Main Ballast Tanks
● Submarine Design
Pressure hull
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-6
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Pressure Hull Details
4
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-7
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Pressure loading
● The cruising depth for the submarine is 1000 ft. The
water pressure load at this depth is the main design
load.
● Compute the pressure:
p = µgh
µg = 64 lb/ft
3
h = 1000 ft
p = 64 x 1000 = 64,000 lb/ft
2
= 445 psi
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-8
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Getting started on the case study
● The pressure hull shell structure is modeled with plate
elements.
● The ring frames (typical frames and King frames) are
modeled with CBAR elements without offsets.
● The two bulkheads are modeled with plate elements.
● The model is shown in the next slide.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-9
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Pressure hull shell structure
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-10
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Ring frames and bulkheads
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-11
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Loads and Boundary Conditions
● At 1000 ft, the water pressure load is
p = 445 psi
● The pressure hull is fully fixed at one end point
x
y
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-12
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● A structure can fail in a number of ways such as
● Yield failure (material yield strength exceeded)
● Ultimate failure (material ultimate strength exceeded)
● Excessive deflection
● Buckling
● So far in this course, we have been designing and
analyzing structures to prevent them from material
failure and excessive deflection. Let’s now examine the
concept of buckling.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-13
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The Concept of Linear Buckling
● A compressive force P is applied to a
perfectly straight column.
● A lateral force is introduced to create a
small lateral deflection o.
● If the lateral deflection disappears when
the lateral force is removed, the straight
form of equilibrium is stable.
P
P
o
Q
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-14
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The Concept of Linear Buckling (Cont.)
● If P is gradually increased, a condition is reached when the
straight form of equilibrium becomes unstable and a small
lateral force will produce a deflection which does not
disappear when the lateral force is removed.
● This critical load P
cr
is defined as the axial force which is
sufficient to keep the column in such a slightly bent form. At
this load, the bent column is said to be buckled.
● The critical loads for the buckling of plates and shells are
developed using this same concept.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-15
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Thin-walled or slender structures are susceptible to
buckling
● Examples of such structures are
● Columns
● Beams
● Plates
● Cylindrical shell, conical shell, and spherical shell structures
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-16
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Theory of Linear Buckling
● The equilibrium equations for a structure subjected to a
constant force system take the following form:
● Under loading, the structure deforms and internal loads are
developed within the structure. Write the equilibrium
equations for this deformed state:
[ K ] { u } = { P }
( [ K ] + [ K
D
] ) { u
-
} = { P }
(1)
(2)
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-17
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Theory of Linear Buckling (Cont.)
● The matrix [K
D
] is the differential stiffness matrix. It is also called
the geometric stiffness matrix or the stress stiffness matrix. The
differential stiffness is the stiffness that results from including the
higher-order terms (non-linear terms) of the strain-displacement
relations.
● The differential stiffness matrix is proportional to the internal
forces in the structure. This allows us to rewrite Equation (2) as
where ì is an arbitrary scalar multiplier for the applied load
( [ K ] + ì[ K
D
] ) { u
-
} = ì{ P } (3)
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-18
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Theory of Linear Buckling (Cont.)
● Now, let’s perturb the structure slightly from its equilibrium
position by taking the derivative of both sides of Equation (3):
● At the critical buckling load, both, the reference and the slightly
perturbed (buckled) configurations are possible equilibrium
positions. Therefore, as the displacement { du
-
} takes place, the
load does not change. This leads to the eigenvalue problem for
buckling:
( [ K ] + ì[ K
D
] ) { du
-
} = ì{ dP }
( [ K ] + ì[ K
D
] ) { du
-
} = 0
(4)
(5)
( [ K ] + ì[ K
D
] ) { | } = 0
(6)
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-19
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Solution to the eigenvalue problem
● The solution is nontrivial (different from zero) only for
specific values of
that make the term ([ K ] + ì[ K
D
]) singular.
● To each eigenvalue ì
i
, there is a corresponding distinct
eigenvector { |
i
} which represents the buckled shape.
● The critical buckling loads for the structure are computed as
ì = ì
i
i = 1, 2, …n
{ P }
cr
i
= ì
i
{ P }
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-20
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Solution to the eigenvalue problem (Cont.)
● Usually, only the lowest eigenvalue ì
1
is of interest because
it is associated with the lowest buckling load for the
structure.
● The eigenvalue ì is also called the buckling load factor
(BLF). A structure has buckled if the buckling analysis
indicates that BLF s 1.0
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-21
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Linear Buckling vs. Nonlinear Buckling
● Linear buckling analysis assumes that the structure in the pre-
buckled configuration is perfectly straight and elastic.
● Nonlinear buckling analysis accounts for the pre-buckled
deformations as well as material non-linearity.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-22
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
● Buckling Solutions in MD Nastran
● SOL 105 -- Linear Buckling
● SOL 106 -- Nonlinear Buckling
● SOL 600 -- Nonlinear Buckling
● SOL 105 may be applicable for column and plate
structures with slight manufacturing imperfections or
slightly eccentric loadings. Must use engineering
judgment.
● Some examples of nonlinear buckling problems are
shown on the next slide.
S13-23
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Highly Eccentrically
Loaded Column
Beam-Column
Snap-Through of thin Shell
(Large pre-buckled deflection
and possible inelastic pre-
buckled behavior)
● Examples of nonlinear buckling problems
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-24
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Rules for SOL 105 linear buckling analysis
● The Case Control must contain at least two subcases.
● The first subcase controls the static analysis run (this step is
used to determine the differential stiffness matrix [K
D
]).
● The second subcase controls the buckling analysis run. The
METHOD entry must appear in this subcase to select an
EIGRL or EIGB entry from the Bulk Data Section.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-25
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Rules for SOL 105 linear buckling analysis (Cont.)
● For multiple buckling solutions
● All static subcases must appear first
● The buckling subcases follow the last static subcase
● A METHOD entry must appear in each of the buckling subcases
● Each buckling subcase must contain a STATSUB command that
references the appropriate subcase ID of the static subcase
● The use of offsets in bar, beam, and plate elements in buckling
analysis is not recommended.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-26
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● In order to perform a linear buckling analysis, the
following entries are required in the Nastran input data
file:
● Executive Control Section
● SOL 105
● Case Control Section
● SUBCASE 1
LOAD = M Defines static loading condition (LOAD,
TEMP, DEFORM)
● SUBCASE 2
METHOD = N Selects eigenvalue extraction method
● Bulk Data Section
● EIGRL entry – Lanczos method (recommended)
● EIGB entry – Other eigenvalue extraction methods
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-27
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The EIGRL entry
● Defines data needed to perform vibration or buckling analysis
with the Lanczos Method.
10 3.2 0.1 1 EIGRL
NORM SHFSCL MAXSET MSGLVL ND V2 V1 SID EIGRL
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Field Contents
SID Set identification number (unique integer > 0)
V1, V2 Vibration analysis: Frequency range of interest
Buckling analysis: Eigenvalue range of interest (V1 < V2,
real). If all modes below a frequency are desired, set V2
to the desired frequency and leave V1 blank. It is not
recommended to put 0.0 for V1 (It is more efficient to
use a small negative number or leave it blank).
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-28
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● The EIGRL entry (Cont.)
Field Contents
ND Number of roots desired (integer > 0 or blank)
MSGLVL Diagnostic level (integer 0 through 3 or blank)
MAXSET Number of vectors in block
SHFSCL Estimate of the first flexible mode natural
frequency (real or blank)
NORM Method for normalizing eigenvectors, either "MASS" or
"MAX"
MASS Normalize to unit value of the generalized
mass (default)
MAX Normalize to unit value of the largest
displacement in the analysis set
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-29
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Let’s now continue with the case study
● We want to determine the first 5 buckling loads for the
submarine structure.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-30
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Set up the linear
buckling analysis
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-31
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Click on Solution
Type and select
buckling analysis
Click on Solution
Parameters
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-32
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Next, click on
Eigenvalue
Extraction
Select the
Lanczos
method and
enter 5 as the
number of
desired roots.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-33
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Run the
analysis, read
the results
into Patran,
and plot the
buckled
shapes one at
a time
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-34
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Examine the .f06 file
{ P }
cr
= ì { P }
P
cr
= 2.93 x 445 psi = 1,304 psi
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-35
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● Linear buckling analysis summary:
● The critical buckling load factor (BLF) is 2.93. This is equivalent to
a critical buckling load of 1,304 psi.
● Mode No. BLF Description
1 2.93 Pressure hull buckling
2 2.93 Pressure hull buckling
3 4.42 Bulkhead buckling
4 4.50 Bulkhead buckling
5 5.22 Pressure hull buckling
● A follow-on nonlinear buckling analysis may be necessary to
account for nonlinear effects.
SECTION 13
SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D
S13-36
NAS120, Section 13, August 2008
Copyright© 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 14 “Buckling of a Submarine Pressure
Hull” in your exercise workbook.
S14-1
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 14
PARASOLID MODELING
S14-2
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S14-3
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PARASOLID MODELING TOOLS
● Patran has a set of powerful parasolid modeling
tools to help the user create complex geometry in
Patran.
● The parasolid modeling tools described in this
section use the parasolid kernel which requires the
Parasolid Modeling license.
S14-4
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PARASOLID MODELING TOOLS (Cont.)
● Primitive Creation
● Block, cylinder, cone, sphere, torus
● Optional on-the-fly (automatic) Boolean operation
● Solid Creation Operations
● Extrude
● Revolve
● Solid Editing Operations
● Boolean operations: add, subtract, intersect
● Edge blend: constant radius, chamfer
● Shell: create thin-wall solids
● Imprint: solid on solid
● Refit to Parasolid
● Auto update of CAE data after a solid editing operation
S14-5
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● A primitive is a solid that can be defined with several
parameters.
● Patran has five different types of primitives:
PRIMITIVE CREATION
BLOCK CYLINDER CONE SPHERE TORUS
S14-6
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
BLOCK
Create a rectangular solid by
specifying Side lengths.
The direction of the X, Y,
and Z length are determined
by the coordinate frame
listed on the right. Users
can also specify a negative
side length to get the block
defined in the opposite
direction.
The base origin defines the
corner of the block and also
depends on the Reference
Coordinate Frame.
S14-7
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
CYLINDER
Define a cylinder
using a Radius,
Height, and Location
of the base.
The height can be
defined along the X,
Y, or Z axis. This
direction is defined
on the Axis List.
S14-8
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
CYLINDER (Cont.)
By entering a wall
thickness, a tube
can be created.
S14-9
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
CONE
Define a cone by
specifying a Base
Radius, Top Radius,
Height, and Base
Center Point.
The height of the
cylinder can run
along the X, Y, or Z
axis. The direction is
defined on the Axis
List box.
Height
Base Radius
Top Radius
S14-10
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
CONE (Cont.)
The Cone Primitive
also has a
Thickness box for
making thin walled
cones. This option
works the same way
as the Thickness
List option for the
cylinder.
S14-11
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
SHPERE
Define a sphere by
specifying a Radius
and Center Point.
S14-12
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
TORUS
Define a torus by
specifying a Center
Point, Inner
Radius, and Outer
Radius.
The centerline of
the torus can run
along the X, Y, or Z
axis. Users can
define this direction
on the Axis List
box.
S14-13
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
MULTIPLE PRIMITIVES
In the Center Point List box, users can create multiple
primitives at once by entering multiple center points.
This example shows 3 spheres created in one operation.
S14-14
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
AUTOMATIC BOOLEAN OPERATION
The Boolean
Operation menu
controls what kind of
boolean to perform
using the solid that
will be modified.
This menu comes
up when the user
first turns on the
Modify/Solid option
and clicks on the
Boolean Operation
button on any of the
Primitive Solid
menus.
The resulting solid
is added to the
target solid.
The resulting
solid is
subtracted from
the target solid.
The user will get
the solid that is
common, or the
intersection of
the resulting
solid and the
target solid.
S14-15
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRIMITIVE CREATION
AUTOMATIC BOOLEAN OPERATION
In this example, the cylinder created will be
automatically subtracted from the target solid,
making the hole in one step.
Target Solid
Newly Created
Primitive Solid
(Cylinder)
Finished Part
- =
S14-16
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID CREATION
EXTRUDE
Extruding Surfaces:
Using this option, any surface can be
extruded to create a complex (white) solid.
Surface 1
S14-17
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID CREATION
EXTRUDE (Cont.)
Extruding Simple Surfaces:
This option works only with simple
(green) surfaces which are
extruded into simple (blue) solids.
Surface 1
S14-18
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID CREATION
REVOLVE
Revolving Surfaces:
Using this option, any surface can be
revolved to create a complex (white) solid.
Surface 1
S14-19
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID CREATION
REVOLVE (Cont.)
Revolving Simple Surfaces:
This option works only with simple
(green) surfaces which are revolved
into simple (blue) solids.
Surface 1
S14-20
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
● The following parasolid editing tools are available in
Patran:
● Boolean operations: add, subtract, intersect
● Edge blend: fillet, chamfer
● Shell: create thin-wall solids
● Imprint: solid on solid
● Refit Parasolid
S14-21
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
BOOLEAN OPERATIONS OVERVIEW
● This solid model represents the top part of a cell phone. It was created
using the three types of Boolean operations: add, subtract, and
intersect.
The holes for the
keyboard are made
using multiple solids
for the subtraction.
This is much faster
than subtracting the
solids one at a time.
The main body of
this solid can be
made by intersecting
a thin walled
cylinder with a
simple block.
The tabs on the top
of this part can be
added using a
Boolean Add.
S14-22
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
BOOLEAN OPERATIONS (Cont.)
Boolean Add option:
Patran allows users
to perform this
operation on more
than one solid at
once.
This picture shows
individual solids
before an Add
operation is
performed.
S14-23
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
BOOLEAN OPERATIONS (Cont.)
The eight solids
have been
combined into
one solid.
S14-24
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
BOOLEAN OPERATIONS (Cont.)
Boolean Subtract
option:
In this example,
the cylinder is
subtracted from
the block, which is
the target solid.
S14-25
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
BOOLEAN OPERATIONS (Cont.)
Boolean Subtract
option:
This is the resulting
solid.
The Boolean Subtract
can also be used on
multiple solids at once.
This would allow users
to easily use multiple
solids to create holes
or to cut a solid.
S14-26
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
BOOLEAN OPERATIONS (Cont.)
Boolean Intersect
option:
Creates a new solid
from what was
common between
the Target Solid and
the Intersecting
Solids.
S14-27
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
BOOLEAN OPERATIONS (Cont.)
Boolean Intersect
option:
Patran automatically
deletes the solids
used for this
operation. If the user
still wants to use
these solids, it will be
necessary to copy
them BEFORE the
operation.
S14-28
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
EDGE BLEND OVERVIEW
● Users can also add fillets and chamfers to a solid using the
Edge Blend tool.
For this model, an
intersection of
pipes, edge fillets
were added using
the
Edit/Solid/Edge
Blend tool under
the Geometry
menu.
Chamfers were
added to this
solid using the
same menu.
S14-29
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
EDGE BLEND (Cont.)
Fillet option:
With this option,
the user can add
fillet to a single
edge on a solid, to
all edges on a face
or to all edges on
the solid.
Let’s consider this
solid and add
fillets to all its
edges.
Single edge on solid
All edges on face
All edges on solid
S14-30
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
EDGE BLEND (Cont.)
Fillet option:
The All Edges on
Solid button was
selected and a
Constant Radius
of 0.05 chosen.
The fillets were
added in one
operation.
Filleted edges
Multiple fillets
blended at a corner
S14-31
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
EDGE BLEND (Cont.)
Chamfer option:
This option works the
same as the fillet
option. The user can
add chamfer to a
single edge on a
solid, to all edges on
a face or to all edges
on the solid.
The parameters that
have to be chosen
are the Offset and
the Angle.
Single edge on solid
All edges on face
All edges on solid
S14-32
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
EDGE BLEND (Cont.)
Chamfer option:
This model has a
few edges
chamfered with
different offsets
and different
angles.
Chamfered edges
S14-33
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
SHELL OVERVIEW
● Users can remove the material on the interior of a solid using
the Edit/Solid/Shell tool under the Geometry menu.
This model was
obtained from a solid
that was hollowed
out using the shell
tool.
S14-34
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
SHELL (Cont.)
Shell option:
Let’s remove the
material from the
interior of this solid,
leaving a wall
Thickness of 0.1 in.
The Solid Face List
identifies the face or
faces which will be
pierced to allow the
removal of material.
S14-35
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
SHELL (Cont.)
Shell option:
The material is
removed from the
solid up to the wall
thickness.
S14-36
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
IMPRINT
The Imprint tool
imprints one or
more solids onto
other solids.
For example, the
cylinder on the
right is imprinted
onto the
rectangular block.
S14-37
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
IMPRINT (Cont.)
The imprinting
broke the larger
rectangular face
into two faces.
This tool is useful
for creating
congruent
meshes across
neighboring
solids.
S14-38
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
REFIT TO PARASOLID
● Non-Parasolid geometry can be converted
into Parasolid geometry by using the Refit
tool.
● Once the geometry is converted to
Parasolid geometry, the user can take
advantage of all the new Parasolid editing
tools described in this Section.
● Alternatively, the user may choose to let
Patran automatically refit the geometry to
Parasolid geometry. This automatic refit
occurs whenever a Parasolid editing
operation is requested and Patran detects
that the solids involved are not Parasolid
solids.
S14-39
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
AUTO UPDATE OF CAE DATA
● The Auto Update Solid Mesh/LBC
toggle from the Preferences/Geometry
form re-applies mesh parameters, loads
and boundary conditions, and re-
meshes after geometry modification
(such as a Boolean operation).
S14-40
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
AUTO UPDATE OF CAE DATA (Cont.)
For example, the
Parasolid solid on
the right has been
meshed with
Tet10 elements.
We now want to
drill a hole
through the solid
using Boolean
subtract.
S14-41
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
AUTO UPDATE OF CAE DATA (Cont.)
A cylinder is
created and it will
be used to drill
the hole.
S14-42
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOLID EDITING
AUTO UPDATE OF CAE DATA (Cont.)
Use Boolean
Subtract to drill
the hole.
The solid is
modified and the
Tet mesh is
automatically
updated.
S14-43
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NEW SOLID MODELING TOOLS
● The following three Case Studies will demonstrate
the parasolid modeling tools
● Case Study 1: Lamp Housing
● Case Study 2: Tension Fitting
● Case Study 3: Valve Housing
S14-44
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING
● Model the lamp housing shown below using primitive
geometry, shell, fillets, and Booleans.
S14-45
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Step 1: Model the base
geometry using a
primitive cone.
Step 2: Use a shell
operation to hollow out
the cone.
Step 3: Use a trimmed
surface to model the
outline of the tabs.
Extrude the surface into
a solid and use a
Boolean Add to combine
the tabs to the main
solid.
Step 4: Add the fillets to
the solid.
CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
S14-46
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Define a primitive
cone with the
dimensions
shown.
The Thickness
List option will
not work in this
case because it
would remove
material from
both sides of the
cone.
CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
S14-47
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Use the
Edit/Solid/Shell
tool to remove
the interior
material from
the solid, with a
wall thickness of
0.25 in.
CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
S14-48
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Defining a
surface on the
top of the base
is easier if a
coordinate
system is
placed on the
top of the base.
This will make
defining
coordinates
and moving the
tabs easier.
CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
S14-49
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Define the base
points for the tab
such that they
penetrate into
the top of the
cone.
These
coordinates
reference the
new coordinate
system.
Point 1 Point 2
S14-50
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Define the left
and right
edges of the
tab, 1.1 inch
tall.
Point 1 Point 2
S14-51
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Define the rounded
top edge of the tab.
The coordinates of
the center point are
easier to define using
the local coordinate
system Coord1.
S14-52
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Create the bottom
curve of the tab.
Without this curve,
there will not be a
closed loop, which
is required for a
trimmed surface.
S14-53
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Use the chain tool
to link the curves
together.
S14-54
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Define the hole for the tab
with a radius of 0.125 in.
S14-55
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Create a trimmed
surface. This surface
will be extruded to
create the tabs.
S14-56
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Extrude the trimmed
surface to create the
tab using the local
coordinate system
Coord1.
S14-57
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
There are two tabs on the
top of the base. Use the
Translate tool to copy the
solid you created in the
previous step.
S14-58
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Use a Boolean
Add to
combine all the
solids together.
Without the
Boolean, it will
not be possible
to add the
fillets in the
next step.
S14-59
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Apply fillets
to the root of
the tabs and
the bottom
lip of the
cone.
S14-60
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING
● Model the bathtub tension fitting shown below,
using techniques similar to the last case study.
S14-61
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Step 1: Create an outline of
the bracket as a trimmed
surface and extrude the
surface to create the base.
Step 2: Use a shell
operation to hollow out the
bracket. For the shell,
remove the top, angled, and
front face of the base solid.
Step 3: Use a Boolean or
the Modify/Solid option to
add the hole on the back of
the part.
Step 4: Add fillets to the
solid.
S14-62
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Start with a
simple
rectangular
surface (5x2
in). This
surface will be
cut to create
the outline of
the bracket.
S14-63
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Translate the
points shown
below to
create the
cutting line for
the outline.
S14-64
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Connect the
two points to
create a line.
This line will
be used with
the break tool
to create the
outline of the
bracket.
S14-65
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Use the break
tool to split the
surface.
S14-66
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Delete the extra
surface. The
resulting trimmed
surface can be
extruded to create
the base for the
part.
S14-67
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Use the extrude
Parasolid option
on the extrude
menu. Since
this is a
magenta
surface, the
blue solid option
would not have
worked.
S14-68
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Use the shell
tool to remove
the interior
material from the
solid.
The shell
operation needs
to remove
material from the
top face, angled
face, and the
front face of the
solid.
S14-69
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
This is the
hollowed out
bracket.
S14-70
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Create a solid
cylinder where
the hole will be.
The height of the
cylinder is not
important. It only
needs to pass
through the solid.
Alternatively, the
Modify/Solid
option could be
used to skip the
Boolean Add
operation.
S14-71
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Use a Boolean
Subtract to
remove the
cylinder and
create a hole on
the back face of
the fitting.
S14-72
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont.)
Add the fillets
to complete
the model.
S14-73
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING
S14-74
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
● The valve housing shown in the previous slide
can be created in two ways:
1. Generate the cross section of the part and revolve it to
create the part.
2. Create the outer solid and inner cavity using primitive
geometry and use a Boolean operation to subtract the
two solids. This requires less calculation and often,
less work from the user.
● We will use method 2 to create this part.
S14-75
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
Step 1: Model the outer
solid with three
primitives: two cones
and a cylinder. Use a
Boolean operation to
combine the three solids
into one.
Step 2: Model the inner
cavity with solids. This
can also be done using
cones and cylinders.
Use another Boolean to
combine all the solids.
Step 3: Subtract the
cavity from the outer
solid.
S14-76
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
Since the user
probably wants
the cone to taper
in the - Z
Direction, use a
negative height.
Otherwise, the
user would have
to rotate the
cone to get it to
face the right
direction.
S14-77
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
Create the middle
portion of the
outer solid by
extruding the
bottom face of the
cone into a
cylinder (this is to
make sure the
solids are joined).
S14-78
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
The end of the
outer solid can be
created using
another Primitive
Cone. But for
good practice, to
make the solids
join exactly,
extrude the
cylinder’s surface
and scale at the
same time to
create a cone (4
inch high).
S14-79
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
Use a Boolean
Add to combine
all the solids into
one part.
S14-80
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
Place the outer
solid in its own
group. This will
help with the next
set of steps.
S14-81
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Before creating the inner
cavity, define a group for
the next set of solids. Use
the Make Current option to
make sure any solids
created join this group, and
Unpost All Other Groups to
clean up the display.
CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
S14-82
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
The first part of the
cavity is a cylinder.
The base of the
cylinder is at (0, 0, -
4). One alternative
is to specify a
negative height and
an origin of (0, 0, 0).
S14-83
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Even with the separate
groups, it is difficult to see
what is going on with the
model. Use the Group
Display mode to draw the
outer solid in wireframe and
the inner cavity in solid
shaded mode.
CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
S14-84
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
Draw the
cutting_tool group in
solid shaded mode.
S14-85
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
To display the
settings on screen,
post both groups to
the viewport.
CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
S14-86
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
The next part of the
cavity is a cone. This
can also be defined
using a primitive.
S14-87
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
To define the rest of
the cavity, use a
mirror operation.
Defining a coordinate
system in the middle
of the part will help
define the mirror
plane.
S14-88
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
Use the Z-Axis of
the new coordinate
system to define the
mirror plane.
S14-89
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
For the remaining
solid, extrude a face
of one of the cones to
make the cylinder. A
primitive could also
be used for this step.
S14-90
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
Combine all of
the inner solids
into one part.
S14-91
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.)
Use a Boolean
Subtract to
remove the cavity
from the outer
shell.
S14-92
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 15 “Parasolid Modeling” in your
exercise workbook.
S15-1
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 15
LINEAR
CONTACT SIMULATION
S15-2
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S15-3
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LINEAR VS. NONLINEAR ANALYSIS
Linear Analysis
● Kinematic relationship is linear, and displacements are small.
● Element compatibility and constitutive relationships are linear,
and the stiffness matrix does not change. There is no yielding,
and the strains are small.
● The equilibrium is satisfied in the undeformed configuration.
● Boundary conditions and loads do not change.
● It follows that:
● Displacements are directly proportional to the loads
● Results for different loads can be superimposed
S15-4
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LINEAR VS. NONLINEAR ANALYSIS (Cont.)
● Nonlinear Analysis
● Geometric nonlinear analysis:
● The kinematic relationship is nonlinear. The displacements and rotations are large.
Equilibrium is satisfied in deformed configuration.
● Follower forces:
● Loads are a function of displacements.
● Large strain analysis:
● The element strains are nonlinear functions of element deformations.
● Material nonlinear analysis:
● Element constitutive relationship is nonlinear. Element may yield.
● Element forces are no longer equal to stiffness times displacements.
● Contact analysis:
● Deformable and rigid body contact is generally nonlinear, but simple enough contact
may be modeled linearly using MD R2 Nastran and Patran as shown on following slides.
● Boundary conditions and loads may change.
● It follows that:
● Displacements are not directly proportional to the loads.
● Results for different loads cannot be superimposed.
S15-5
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTACT IN MD NASTRAN LINEAR ANALYSIS
Linear Contact Modeling
● Beginning with MD R2 Nastran, SOL101 supports linear contact
analysis.
● Linear contact is defined as the full nonlinear contact algorithm of
SOL 400 without material nonlinear requirements and the usual
linear requirements of small strain and small rotation imposed.
Permanent Glued Contact Modeling
● Beginning with MD R2 Nastran, SOLs 101, 103, 105, 107, 108,
109, 110, 111, and 112 support permanent glued contact.
● Permanent Glued contact is defined as a special type of contact
model which imposes the condition that between the contacting
surfaces there is no relative normal or tangential motion.
● The primary benefit of the Permanent Glued contact is the joining
of two dissimilar meshes.
S15-6
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LINEAR CONTACT ANALYSIS
 Linear Contact Modeling
● SOL101 supports linear contact analysis provided that contact is the
only nonlinearity in the analysis.
● The contact bodies need not be in initial contact, and multiple contact bodies
are allowed.
● The grids of the contacting bodies need not be aligned, and the contact
algorithm may be used to join dissimilar meshes with relative motion.
● Both deformable-deformable and deformable-rigid contact is allowed.
● Only surface to surface 3D contact is currently supported.
● Bilinear Coulomb or bilinear shear friction is allowed.
● Note that the linear GAP contact defined by PARAM,CDITER,n is still
supported in Nastran, but should not be used in association with the surfaces
defined for linear contact.
● If more detailed complex contact simulation is necessary, consider use
of SOL 400 nonlinear simulation.
● If after running a model in SOL 101 the user determines that there are other
nonlinear effects such as material nonlinearity or large rotation, the model
can simply be switched to SOL 400 without having to redefine the contact
surfaces.
S15-7
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTACT IN FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
Why do we need it?
Finite elements are based on the concept of “local
support”— nodes and elements usually communicate only
with their nearest neighbors.
Forces are transmitted
between elements only
via shared nodes
No Common Node =
No Communication
S15-8
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Why do we need it? (cont.)
● Elements not connected via a common node are not aware of
each other and would pass right through each other in a
standard finite element analysis
● Thus, standard finite element solutions are not sufficient for
contact problems
CONTACT IN FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
S15-9
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
POSSIBLE CONTACT BODIES
● Deformable body
● Body is deformable
● Stress and temperature distribution
● Rigid body
● Body is not deformable (rigid)
● No stress distribution
● Constant temperature
S15-10
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
DEFORMABLE BODIES
● Each deformable body consists of one or more finite elements
● A deformable body does not need to completely correspond with a physical
body
v
deformable contact body
● Include all elements in the contact body in a coupled analysis if heat transfer to
the environment is taken into account
● Nodes or elements must belong to NO MORE than one deformable body
● Internally, FE data is transferred into segments and nodal points defining the
boundary of the deformable body
● 2D: a segment corresponds to an element edge
● 3D: a segment corresponds to an element face
S15-11
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RIGID BODIES
● A rigid body is defined by means
of a number of geometrical
entities
● Discrete description
● straight line, circular arc, spline
● surface of revolution, Bezier
surface, ruled surface, 4-point
patch, poly-surface
● Analytical description
● NURBS curve or surface
● cone surface
● sphere surface
● Patran uses the analytical
NURBS description – more on
this later.
Bezier Surface
Ruled Surface
S15-12
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RIGID BODIES
● Internally, the geometry of a rigid body is stored:
● Piecewise linearly for each discrete entity
● Exactly for analytical entities
● Analytical entities (NURBS) are more accurate for curved geometries, as
they can provide a continuously varying slope as well as continuity of the
normal vector along the surface
● The number of subdivisions for analytical entities is used for searching
purposes (it might influence the amount of memory allocated)
● Each rigid body may have a prescribed motion
● Velocity
● Position
● Force or moment
S15-13
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LINEAR CONTACT SETUP
● Contact bodies are specified in Patran as shown.
● Linear SOL 101 MD Nastran R3 analysis is performed.
S15-14
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTACT DETECTION IN A
STATIC ANALYSIS
S15-15
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
POSSIBLE CONTACT SITUATIONS
contacted (touched)
body
distance tolerance
2
2) Node outside element, inside distance tolerance
3
3) Node inside element, inside distance tolerance
4
4) Node inside element, outside distance tolerance
contacting (touching)
body
1
1) Node outside element, outside distance tolerance
S15-16
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
1) NODE OUTSIDE ELEMENT, OUTSIDE
DISTANCE TOLERANCE
● Bodies are not in contact
● Contacting node remains in current position
S15-17
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
2) NODE OUTSIDE ELEMENT, INSIDE
DISTANCE TOLERANCE
● Contacting node is projected onto segment of contacted
body
● According to internal equilibrium (mass preservation)
● Remains in contact if necessary force is less than
separation force
S15-18
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
3) NODE INSIDE ELEMENT, INSIDE DISTANCE
TOLERANCE
● Contacting node is pushed back onto segment of
contacted body
● According to internal equilibrium
S15-19
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
4) NODE INSIDE ELEMENT, OUTSIDE
DISTANCE TOLERANCE
● Node penetrated
● Increment will be recycled with modified time step
● If this situation occurs at beginning of analysis,
contact will not be found
S15-20
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
DISTANCE TOLERANCE
● The size of the contact tolerance has a significant impact on
the computational costs and the accuracy of the solution
● Contact tolerance too small:
● Detection of contact is difficult, leading to higher costs
● More nodes are likely to be considered penetrating leading to increase in
increment splitting, therefore, increasing the computational costs
● Contact tolerance too large:
● Nodes are considered in contact prematurely, resulting in a loss of
accuracy
● Nodes might “penetrate” the surface by a large amount
S15-21
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
DISTANCE TOLERANCE
● Measured normal to the contacted body
● May be user-defined
● By default, this tolerance is evaluated from:
● 1/20x “smallest element edge“ for continuum elements
● 1/4x “smallest thickness“ for beam and shell elements
L
min
y
x
S15-22
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
DISTANCE TOLERANCE
● Recommended usage is
to leave the tolerance
blank and let SOL 101
evaluate this
● If necessary, specify a
tolerance in the contact
table for a specific
contact pair
S15-23
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
● By default, the contact tolerance is biased to the inside by a factor of 0.9
● Can be changed within the range of bias factor 0 < B < 1 (default: 0.9)
● Improves accuracy since the distance below which a node comes into
contact is reduced
● Reduces increment splitting since the distance to cause penetration is
increased
● The default/recommended value is B = 0.9 for most contact analyses
● For analyses involving frictional contact, a bias into a contact body is
recommended (0.95 - 0.99)
dist
tol
dist
tol
dist
tol
(1-B)
dist
tol
(1+B)
BIAS FACTOR
S15-24
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
BIAS FACTOR
Where in the GUI?
0.9
S15-25
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY
● Import the MD Nastran input file: 2plates.bdf
● Define a contact body for each plate.
● Define any other loads and boundary conditions.
● Configure contact table under Subcase Parameters.
● Perform SOL101 Linear Static Analysis.
● Postprocess results. Keep in mind that while contact is present the
analysis is still linear and does not include nonlinear effects such
as large displacement.
S15-26
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY
Import the file:
2plates.bdf
S15-27
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY
Define a contact body
for each plate under
Loads/BCs
S15-28
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY
Define other
Loads/BCs to apply
force and constrain
ends.
S15-29
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY
Select Contact Table under
Subcase Parameters.
S15-30
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY
In the contact table,
you may disable self
contact (via the
diagonal entries) to
decrease solution time.
T indicates Touch
Contact, G indicates
Glued Contact, and
Blank indicates no
contact.
Be sure to click OK to
implement changes.
S15-31
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY
Perform Linear Static
Analysis.
S15-32
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY
Plot analysis results.
Verify that contact
took place, and that
linear assumptions
were not violated.
S15-33
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 16 “3D Contact” in your exercise
workbook.
Perform Workshop 17 “Glued Contact” in your exercise
workbook.
S15-34
NAS120, Section 15, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S16-1
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 16
RESULTS POSTPROCESSING
S16-2
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S16-3
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN RESULTS APPLICATION
● Manages the Display, Output, Transformation,
Animation & Calculation of Result Quantities
● Application based on “Tools” (Fringe,
Deformation, etc.)
● Soon to be the “Single Source” Post-Processing
tool for all of MSC.Patran (Insight IsoSurfaces is
the last tool to be incorporated into MSC.Patran
Results)
S16-4
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN RESULTS APPLICATION
● There are 5 Actions to the Results Form, each of which has
it’s own Objects:
● Create: Quick Plot, Deformation, Fringe, Marker, Cursor, Contour,
Graph, Animation, Report, Results, Freebody
● Modify: Deformation, Fringe, Marker, Cursor, Contour, Graph, Report
● Post: Plots, Ranges
● Delete: Plots, Result Cases, Result Data
● Use Templates: Deformation, Fringe, Marker, Graph, Report
S16-5
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PATRAN RESULTS APPLICATION
● Results Forms are designed such that for any of the
Objects being created, all you need to do, at a minimum,
to create a Result Object/Tool is to Select:
● Object
● Result Case
● Result Type
● Position (when applicable)
● Quantity (when applicable)
● Whether to Animate the Tool upon creation
● Apply
● The other 3-4 Form Icons may be used to customize the
Object/Tool at any stage of it’s creation, but are NOT
necessary for the Object/Tool creation
S16-6
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Quick Plot Tool
S16-7
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
● A combined, yet simplified, version of the Deformation & Fringe
Tools
● Designed so that a minimum of 4 clicks would be needed to
create a combined Deformation/Fringe plot
● 4 Icon Menu Options:
● Select Results
● Fringe Attributes
● Deform Attributes
● Animation Options
● Data Manipulation (averaging, coordinate transformation, etc.)
can only be changed by settings.pcl variables
● Changing settings means Quitting out of MSC.Patran, editing
settings.pcl, & restarting MSC.Patran
S16-8
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
● Other limitations:
● Process multiple Result Cases at once, but the display will show a pseudo-
animation (1 cycle), where each frame/picture is one of the Result Cases
Selected. This will not do a Max/Min Fringe “carpet plot” single picture, like
Create/Fringe.
● However, the fringe animation will allow you to have either a constant
range/spectrum, or a variable range/spectrum during the animation
● Display results on whatever is in the current viewport. If you want to display
on only certain pieces of what is being displayed, you must create a group of
that area and post it by itself
S16-9
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
● Select Results
● Select one or more Result Cases
● Optionally select a Fringe and/or Deformation Result
Type
● For Fringe, Select the Position(s) and the Component of
interest
● Optionally Animate the plot(s)
S16-10
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
● Result Quantities
● For Vector Type Results:
● Magnitude, X-Component, Y-Component, Z-Component are
Available
● For Tensor Type Results:
● Many values shown were not computed by the Analysis code
● MSC.Patran “knows” how to take Tensorial Data and calculate
Result Quantities that are not generated by the Analysis Code
● MSC.Patran On-Line help describes the computed Quantity
Derivations in great detail ( Using MSC.Patran –
Results_Postprocessing – Numerical Methods – Derivations )
S16-11
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
● Engineering vs.True/Tensor Strain Results
● Tensor Result Quantities
● XY, YZ, & ZX Component vs. XY, YZ & ZX Engr. Component
● MSC.Patran translators convert Engineering strain values to Scientific
(True/Tensor) strain values by dividing the shear strain components by 2, i.e., 
xy
=

xy
/2
● Analysis codes such as MSC.Nastran & ABAQUS calculate Engineering strain values
● MSC.Patran does this conversion (True/Tensor) to calculate other result components and to transform
results into other coordinate systems
● To distinguish between “Engineering” and “True/Tensor” strain values, and to allow
MSC.Patran to display the same results as the analysis code, the above 6
quantities were made available
● Keep in mind that these 6 quantities are shown whenever any tensor result is selected. Be aware that
the Engineering Components are intended only for Shear Strains and no other results, such as Shear
Stresses or Shell Forces.
S16-12
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
True Shear
Strain
Engineering
Shear Strain
S16-13
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
● Position Sub Form
● Select & Filter Positions on elements to be displayed
● Several Types
● Non-Layered (2D & 3D Solids)
● Layeri; i=1 to Max Ply (Laminate Shells)
● Center, C, D, E, F (Bars/Beams)
● Z1 / Z2 (2D Shell Elements)
● One or more positions may be selected
● For Quick Plot, multiple positions can be selected for 1 or
more result cases since only 1 Result Case is operated on
at a time
● For Other Result Tools, if multiple Result Cases are
selected, only 1 position may be selected, since the other
results tools will process multiple result cases into 1 picture
S16-14
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
● Position Sub Form (cont)
● Options
● Maximum: Plot the Maximum value for each element from either the multiple result positions
selected, or from multiple result cases at a singular result position
● Minimum: Plot the Minimum value for each element from either the multiple result positions
selected, or from multiple result cases at a singular result position
● Average: Plot the Average value at each element from either the multiple result positions selected,
or from multiple result cases at a singular result position
● Sum: Plot the Sum value at each element from either the multiple result positions selected, or from
multiple result cases at a singular result position
● Merge: This option will Plot the first existing value encountered from any particular layer or Result
Case. For instance if both top and bottom stresses are selected then only the top will be reported.
This is useful for layers that are associated with certain element types. That way a layer with shells,
a layer with solid, and a layer with beam elements can all be displayed simultaneously on the
graphics screen in one operation.
S16-15
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
● Fringe Attributes
● Controls the Display of Fringe plots
● Option to display Spectrum & Max/Min summary legend
● Control Fringe Style
● Discrete/Smooth, Continuous, Discrete/Flat are all targeted towards
nodal type fringe plots
● Element Fill is targeted towards Centroidal fringe plots (“checker
board” pattern)
● Fringe overlaid onto elements can be shrunk using the shrink factor
● Great in combination with Show Fringe Label toggle when wanting to
display fringe values without colors, especially when comparing
results to MSC.Nastran .F06 file
● Element edge color & display can be altered
● Edit label style & title content placed on Fringe Plot
● Easy Access to Spectrum & Range controls
S16-16
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
● Deform Attributes
● Provides ability to modify the “look” of a deformed results plot
● Deformation shading controlled by Render Style on this form (not
Toolbar shading icons)
● Model scale is default scale interpretation
● Model Scale is defined as the maximum length of the model’s bounding
box in the current viewport, multiplied by the Scale Factor on the form.
The resulting value is the scale factor applied to the deformations to be
displayed
● True Scale always recommended for non-linear analyses & scale factor
type plots (i.e., 100x displacements shown)
● Option to show/unshow Undeformed shape
● Control Undeformed shading characteristics in this form as well
● Result Titles & Label styles on plot may be adjusted
S16-17
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: QUICK PLOT
● Animation Options
● Choose to Animate Fringe and/or Deformation plots (available when a single
result case selected)
● Constant Range Value option available when multiple result cases are selected
● Two Animation Methods (single result case only)
● Modal: Animate from –1x to 1x the displayed result values
● Ramped: Animate from 0x to 1x the displayed result values
● Animation Graphics Control
● 2D: Animate without the ability to change view of the model
● 3D: Animate with the ability to change view of the model
● Preview: Shows only 1 cycle of the Animation
● VRML: Generate a VRML file format of the Animation (single result case only)
● MPEG: (Single result case only) Generate an MPEG-1 recording of the displayed Animation
(suggest using default window size to get a manageable MPEG file)
● Select the number of frames to display for the Animation
● Must use the Animate button on the Select Results Form Icon to initiate the
Animation
S16-18
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Deformation Tool
S16-19
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
● The Deformation Tool is specifically designed to deal
with Displacement-type Plots
● Provides GUI based flexibility in customizing
Deformation Plots that is not provided in Quick Plot
● The Deformation Result listbox may include “non-
displacement” type results because all vector type
results are listed
● Form settings may be saved to a “plot name” on the
database
S16-20
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
● Anatomy of Form
● Similar to Quick Plot in Format
● 5 Icon menu Options
● Select Results
● Target Entities
● Display Attributes (same as Quick Plot)
● Plot Options
● Animation Options
● Have an additional option to Modify the Tool (which QP
does not have)
S16-21
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
● Select Results
● The form is essentially the same as shown in Quick Plot
● One exception is that multiple Result Cases may be
processed at one time
● Based on this, there are Result Case Filter Buttons that may
appear
● When there are Result Case names that contain the same
Subcase/Subtitle, they can be displayed in either a compressed
or expanded format
● Note: Result Case Name is actually made up of 2 parts: <Nastran
Subtitle>, <Type of Subcase>
S16-22
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
● Result Case Filtering
● Two Icons appear when you have multiple Result
Cases using the same prefix
● Compress/Expand Toggle Icon
● Select Subcase Filter Icon
● The default is to have a Compressed listing if more
than 30 Result Case Names have the same Prefix
● settings.pcl variable controls this:
● pref_env_set_integer( "result_loadcase_abbreviate", 30 )
● The Filter Icon only appears if the
Compress/Expand Toggle Icon is depressed
(activated)
Compressed Format
Expanded Format
S16-23
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
● Result Case Filtering
● When in Compressed format, you must enter the Filter Form to
select Result Cases
● Depending on the Analysis type (modal, non-linear, etc.) the
filter method variables may change
● Filter Types
● Global Variable: Frequency, time,..
● String: Text within Result Case Names (may use wildcards
for search)
● Subcase ID’s: Filter by ID or range of ID’s
● All: Select all Result Cases
● Procedure:
● Select one or more Result Case sets
● Choose Filter Method, Variable, & Value
● Hit Filter & Apply, or add another Filter result
S16-24
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
● Result Case Name Filtering
● Notice that even though the Result Case block is highlighted, the important change is
“0 of 40” to “11 of 40”. That is your indication that Result Cases have been selected.
Before After
S16-25
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
● Target Entities
● Select what entities to display Deformations upon
● Current Viewport: All entities currently posted
● Nodes/Elements: Select specific Nodes or Elements
● Groups: Select entities by Groups
● Materials: Select entities by Material sets
● Properties: Select entities by Property sets
● Element Types: Select entities by Element Type (BAR2,
QUAD4, etc.)
● Additional Display Control:
● Elements or Nodes; Available for all Target Entity Options
except for Nodes & Elements
S16-26
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
● Plot Options
● Controls 3 things
● Coordinate Transformations
● Results Scaling
● Allows Deformations to be scaled above and
beyond scale factor on Display Attributes
● Constant or PCL function scaling available
● Saving Plot Settings to Database
S16-27
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
● Coordinate Transformation
● As Is: No Transformation; Numbers Exactly from Solver Code
● CID: Transformed WRT a Selected Coordinate Frame (which can be created on the fly
in MSC.Patran; does not have to be part of the Analysis)
● Projected CID: Transformed WRT a selected Projected Coordinate Frame Axis onto
an Element
● Global: Transformed WRT the MSC.Patran Global Axes (MSC.Nastran Basic)
● Default: Transformed WRT the Projected MSC.Patran Global Axes
● Nodal: Transformed into the Node’s Analysis Coordinate System
S16-28
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
● Save Deformation Plot As:
● Name saved to database which contains all settings and results
used to generate the plot
● May be posted at a later time using Results->Post/Plots form
● Up to 31 characters may be used to define the name
● Nomenclature used for plot names are:
● <First 3 letters of plot type>_<saved name>
● Example: DEF_john plot
● Note that if a name is not used to save the settings, an
automatically overwritten name is created containing the last plot
settings using the format:
● <First 3 letters of Plot Type>_default_<plot tool>
● Example: DEF_default_Deformation
S16-29
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
● Animation Options
● Need to Have Animate Switch turned on (Select Results)
before coming to this form
● Select Animation Method depending on result/analysis
type (none, modal, ramp, global variable)
● Modal goes from –1x to 1x the values being displayed
● Ramped goes from 0x to 1x the values being displayed
● Global Variable changes due to Analysis/Results type;
examples being load case id, frequency, time)
S16-30
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
● Animation Options
● Animation Graphics
● 2D: Display in Viewport w/ no rotation
● 3D: Display in Viewport w/ rotation
● Preview: 1 cycle of Animation shown
● VRML: Save Animation to this file format
● MPEG: Make an MPEG-1 recording of the Animation (make sure to use Default
Window Size switch for a manageable MPEG file)
● Select Number of Frames for Animation
● Extrapolation:
● Linear: Good for single case Animations (1 static subcase deformation)
● Closest Value: Intermediate frames will show values closest known values
● None: Best when doing multiple result cases or time steps; Make sure #Frames
= #steps selected
S16-31
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: DEFORMATION
● Animation Control Form
● Appears after an Animation starts
● May pause and change frame to display manually
● Can change the sequence
● Provides options for what to do after stopping the
Animation
S16-32
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Fringe Tool
S16-33
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
● The Fringe Tool provides fringing capabilities that are not
provided in Quick Plot
● GUI based results transformation, averaging options, display options
● 5 Icon menu Options
● Select Results (same as Quick Plot for selection, position, & quantity;
same as Deformation for the rest)
● Target Entities
● Display Attributes (same as Quick Plot)
● Plot Options
● Animation Options (same as Deformation)
● One of the more misunderstood tools in attempting to correlate
MSC.Patran results to MSC.Nastran results
● May Process Multiple Result Cases
S16-34
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
● Target Entities
● Options
● Current Viewport: Plot Results on all entities posted in Viewport
● Elements/Connectors: Plot Results on selected
Elements/Connectors posted in Viewport
● Groups: Plot Results on selected Groups posted in Viewport
● Materials/Properties: Plot Results on selected Material/Property
sets assigned to elements posted in Viewport
● Element Types: Plot results on specific Element Types posted in
Viewport (QUAD4, BAR2, etc.)
S16-35
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
● Target Entities (cont’d)
● Additional Display Control
● Free Faces: More applicable to 3D Solids; plot results on Free Faces & not
internal shared faces
● Faces: More applicable to 3D Solids; plot results on all faces of targeted
elements
● Free Edges: Plot Fringe Results on only Free Edges of elements; no fill
● Edges: Plot Fringe Results on all edges of elements; no fill
S16-36
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
• Edge Display
Control Example
• Examples of Edge Control
for 2D Shell Models
• Free Edge Display
Control Example
S16-37
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
• Example w/
All Faces
• In Solids, Display Control for
Faces, combined with Arbitrary
Clipping Planes, can provide
additional Results
investigation
• Example w/
Free Faces
S16-38
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
● Plot Options
● “The Mother of All Results Forms”
● Controls Coordinate Transformation, Value Filtering, &
Averaging Techniques
● Save Fringe Plot Options & Scaling Options similar to what
was shown for Deformations
● Proper combination of Averaging Selections, along with
Display Attribute Options will produce correct correlation
with MSC.Nastran .F06 results
S16-39
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
● Coordinate Transformation
● As Is: No Transformation; Numbers Exactly from Solver Code
● CID: Transformed WRT a Selected Coordinate Frame (which can be created on
the fly in MSC.Patran; does not have to be part of the Analysis)
● Projected CID: Transformed WRT a selected Projected Coordinate Frame Axis
onto an Element
● Global: Transformed WRT the MSC.Patran Global Axes (MSC.Nastran Basic)
● Default: Transformed WRT the Projected MSC.Patran Global Axes
● Material: Transformed WRT the Element’s Material Coordinate System
● Not supported for solid elements
● Element IJK: Transformed WRT the MSC.Patran Element Axes
S16-40
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
● Within Plot Options, you can Filter what Values are shown on a
Fringe Plot
● None: No Value Filtering is Applied
● Minimum: Values BELOW this Setting will NOT be Displayed
● Maximum: Values ABOVE this Setting will NOT be Displayed
● Range: Only Show Values BETWEEN the Min/Max Settings
Defined for this Range
● Exclude: Show all Displayed Values EXCEPT those WITHIN this
Min/Max Range
● Entities falling outside the Filter Parameters are shown with a
black fill (for black backgrounds)
S16-41
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
● Example of Fringe Results Filtering
S16-42
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
● Results Averaging
● Many Mistakes are made by not knowing the
defaults of these 3 Results Averaging values and
what they do
● Some of the Options shown for
Domain/Method/Extrapolation are designed for
Gauss Point Results
● MSC.Nastran uses Gauss Point Locations to
INTERNALLY calculate values, but they are not
allowed to be output to the
F06/OP2/XDB/T16/MASTER
● Let’s talk about how the options operate, and how to
use them to get correct correlation with the
MSC.Nastran .F06 file
S16-43
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
● Averaging Definition: Domain
● All Entities: Average Nodal Values among ALL elements, posted or not
posted
● Material: Only Average Nodal Values common with Elements that have the
same Material Property
● Property: Only Average Nodal Values common with Elements that have the
same Property sets
● Target Entities: Average Nodal Values among Elements defined in the
Target Entities portion of the Fringe Form (2
nd
Icon)
● Element Type: Only Average Nodal Values common among elements of the
same type (Quad4, Tri3, etc.)
● None: No averaging performed at all
S16-44
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
● Averaging Definition: Method
● Derive/Average: When computing Invariants, such as from a Stress Tensor, compute
the Invariant first, then Average the Invariants coming from each Element contribution
at a common Node
● Average/Derive: Compute the Average of the Element-Nodal components used in an
Invariant calculation, and then use the Averaged values to Derive the Invariant
● Difference: At a node, the Maximum & Minimum Element-Nodal value is determined,
the difference computed and displayed. Sometimes called a Stress Jump Plot when
plotting Stresses. Quality check method. Must use Domain option other than NONE to
make this work properly.
● Sum: Sum all the Element-Nodal values common to a Node and plot that Sum
S16-45
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
● Averaging Definition: Extrapolation
● This has more meaning for Analysis codes that output Gauss Point
Results
● Definitions for MSC.Nastran Results are a bit different and will be
discussed here
● Shape Function: If Elemental Nodal values exist, use the values at the Nodes
● Average: If Elemental Nodal Results exist, Average the values within an element and
assign that value to each Node in the element
● Centroid: If Centroidal values exist, use the value at the Centroid
● Min: Review all the Result Values within an Element, find the Minimum value, and assign
that value to all Result locations within that Element
● Max: Review all the Result Values within an Element, find the Maximum value, and assign
that value to all Result locations within that Element
S16-46
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
● Comments on Averaging
● There are pluses & minuses about Averaging
● Pluses
● Great way to determine if your mesh has enough density to predict the results.
If the averaged result appears to be the same as the unaveraged result, then
the mesh is considered adequate
● “Smooths” peaking results or results approaching a singularity
● Minuses
● “Blind” Averaging can hide real peak results
● Never Average:
● Across Different Material Boundaries
● Across Different Thicknesses
● Across Elements with Different Coordinate Systems
● Across Elements not in the same Plane
● Amongst Different Element Types
S16-47
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
● Averaging Examples
● 4 Regions, 2 Different
Materials
● 4 Regions, 4 Different
Properties/Thicknesses
S16-48
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: FRINGE
● Nodal Results, Average Amongst
Common Materials: Good! (Provided
Elements w/ Common Materials Have
same Element Coordinate Axes
● Nodal Results, No
Averaging: Good!
● Element Centroid Results, No
Averaging: Good!
● Nodal Results, Average All Entities:
Bad!
● Note that reviewing the Unaveraged
and Averaged Nodal Results, it is
determined that the model does not
have enough mesh density. Results
can’t be trusted.
S16-49
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Marker Tool
S16-50
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: MARKER
● Scalar, Vector or Tensor Plots
● Displacements & Constraint Forces are Vectors
● Element Stresses/Strains/Forces are Tensors
● Vector Plot is an Arrow Plot
● Tensor Plot can be as detailed as a 6 component Tensor Cube
● Scalar Plots are simply a marker shape with a number/value
alongside of it
● This saves a person from doing a Fringe plot and turning off the
fringe colors, and turning on the fringe value labels
● 5 Icon Menu Choices
● Select Results (same as Deformation)
● Target Entities
● Display Attributes
● Plot Options (same as Fringe)
● Animation Options (same as Deformation)
S16-51
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: MARKER
● Target Entities
● Options
● Current Viewport: Plot Results on all entities posted in Viewport
● Nodes/Elements/Connectors: Plot Results on selected Nodes/Elements/Connectors
posted in Viewport
● Groups: Plot Results on selected Groups posted in Viewport
● Materials/Properties: Plot Results on selected Material/Property sets assigned to elements
posted in Viewport
● Element Types: Plot results on specific Element Types posted in Viewport (QUAD4,
BAR2, etc.)
● Additional Display Control
● Nodes: Display on Nodes
● Elements: Display on Elements
● Free Faces: (3D) Display on Free Element Faces
● Free Edges: (2D or 3D) Display on Free Element Edges
● Corners: Display on Component’s or Structure’s Free Corners
S16-52
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: MARKER
● Display Attributes
● Controls the look of Scalar Symbols,
Vector Arrows, or Tensor Cubes
● Control Scaling of Scalar Symbols,
Vectors & Tensor Boxes
● Control Label Style
● Now includes it’s own Label Font Size!!!
● Control Result Title, Spectrum & Range
S16-53
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: MARKER
● Another Application of Marker/Tensor
● Crow’s Foot Plots
● Turn off Tensor Box
● Select “in-plane” Normal & Shear components
● Scale Arrows & Labels correspondingly
● Great Application for Utilizing Results
Templates
S16-54
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Cursor Tool
S16-55
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: CURSOR
● One of the Insight Tools that has
been migrated into MSC.Patran
Results
● Create a Scalar, Vector, or
Tensor Tool that when activated,
picked entities will have results
labels shown at their location
S16-56
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: CURSOR
● Cursor/Scalar shows a single value at either an
Element or a Node
● Cursor/Vector shows a column of values at either
an Element or Node
● Cursor/Tensor shows a ½ diagonal matrix of
values at either an Element or a Node
● Keep in mind to treat Tensor values as Tensors
and Vector values as Vectors to save on
confusion with Tensor/Vector conversions
S16-57
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: CURSOR
● Display Attributes
● Reduced feature form to
modify/create titles & change
label style
● Plot Options
● Reduced feature form to control
CID Transformation & Result
Averaging
S16-58
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Contour Tool
S16-59
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: CONTOUR
● Another of the Insight tools
brought into MSC.Patran
Results
● Generates “old style” Contour
Line plots in color or Black &
White
● Fringe Post-Processing rules
apply for this tool
S16-60
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: CONTOUR
● 5 Options on form are similar to other forms we have
discussed:
● Select Results (Same as Deformation)
● Target Entities
● Display Attributes
● Plot Options (Same as Fringe)
● Animation Options (Same as Deformation)
S16-61
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: CONTOUR
● Target Entities
● Only display on Current Viewport, Elements, Groups,
Materials, Properties, and Element Types
● ADC only Free Faces
● Display Attributes
● Similar in look to other forms
● Spectrum/Constant switch allows color lines or single
color lines
● Modify Contour Line Style & Width
● Label Spacing may be controlled
● Suggest setting to Min to get the maximum number of
Contour Letter Labels
● Title & Label Style Controls
S16-62
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Graph Tool
S16-63
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: GRAPH
● A Tool to Plot Results in XY-Plot Format
● Plot Results vs. Coordinate Axes, Defined Path Length, or
other Results
● 4 Icon Menu Options
● Select Results
● Target Entities
● Display Attributes
● Plot Options (same as Fringe)
● Graphs created using XY-Plot Windows
● Additional Graph/Window Control not available in this Tool is
managed by the XY-Plot Application
S16-64
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: GRAPH
● Select Results
● Only difference to form vs. Fringe or Deformation is the X-Axis selection
option menu
● Three choices
● Coordinate: Plot Results vs. Location WRT a Selected Coordinate Frame Axis
by selecting a Target Entity Appropriate to the Result type (Nodes, Elements,
etc.)
● Result: Plot Results vs. Another Result, such as Stress vs. Strain for a Non-
Linear Analysis
● Path Length: Plot Results vs. an Arbitrary Path Length which can be defined by
Points/Nodes, Geometric Curves/Edges, or Beams/2D Element Edges
● Target Entities / Display Control changes accordingly to the selection of
the X-Axis Quantity
S16-65
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: GRAPH
● Display Attributes
● Subset of Display Options for the XY-Curves that will be
generated
● Control the Fit and Style of the curve
● Control Axis Titles, Scales, & Label Format
● Control Name of XY-Window created
● Option to Append Curves to a Single XY-Plot Window
● Default is to make a separate Window for every XY-Graph
created by this Results Tool
S16-66
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Animations
S16-67
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: ANIMATION
● Stand-Alone Animation Tool for
Existing Results Plots
● 2D & 3D Graphics, Preview, VRML &
MPEG are the same as the Animate
options on Tool forms like Fringe &
Deformation
● Single Panel Form (No Icon menu
choices)
S16-68
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: ANIMATION
● Procedure
● Before using, there MUST be Result Plots posted to the Current Viewport
● If not, just go to Post/Plots, and Post existing Plots of interest
● After Selecting Plot of Interest & depending on how the Result Plot was made, up to 4
Animation Methods may be Available
● None: No Animation Settings
● Global Variable: Animate based on Multiple Result Cases / Time Steps /
Frequencies
● Modal: Animate from -1x to 1x the displayed result values
● Ramp: Animate from 0x to 1x the displayed result values
● After Method Selection, the Plots to Animate Listbox will show the method as the first part
of the Plot name (Modal, Ramp, GV)
● Choose appropriate options for the selected method
● Select the number of frames for the animation and the Interpolation type
● For multi-case animations, the number of frames should be the same as the number
of cases/steps
S16-69
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Report Tool
S16-70
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: REPORT
● Facility to Export & Format Results Reports from the
MSC.Patran Database
● Select Results Cases, Results Types, Positions, Quantities, &
Entities to have in the Report
● 4 Icon Menu Options
● Select Results
● Target Entities
● Display Attributes
● Plot Options (same as Fringe)
● 3 Methods
● Preview: Show Report in Unix Shell or DOS STDOUT Window
● Overwrite File: If File Exists, Overwrite; If not, Create New File
● Append File: If File Exists, Append to File; If not, Create New File
S16-71
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: REPORT
● Selecting Results
● Normal Procedure of Selecting Results Case(s) & Result
Type
● Depending on Result Type, Select Result Position &
Quantity/Quantities
● Example Quantities for Stress Tensor:
● NSHAPE (element code), Loadcase, Subcase, & Layer ID
● X, Y, Z Locations
● X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, ZX, XY Engr.,YZ Engr., ZX Engr.
Components
● Von Mises, Max/Mid/Min Principal, Max/Min 2D Principal,
Hydrostatic, 1
st
, 2
nd
, 3
rd
Invariants, Tresca & Tresca 2D,
Octahedral, Max Shear & Max Shear 2D
● CID, ACID, Property Name & ID, Material Name & ID
S16-72
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: REPORT
● Target Entities
● Depending on the Target Entity Type (Current
Viewport, Groups, etc.), the Additional Display
Control (ADC) may vary
● Example: Element All Data will Export Nodal &
Centroidal Stress Information for the Stress Tensor
S16-73
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: REPORT
● Display Attributes
● Since there is no “Display” for this Results Type,
the Attributes are Report & Data Formatting
• Format Allows You to Layout the
Report with Specific Margins,
Column Headings & Order, Titles,
Value Formatting, etc.
• Sorting Options Provides a Way
to Sort the Data Report with
Several Options
S16-74
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: REPORT
● Sample Report Output File
S16-75
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Create Tool
S16-76
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: CREATE RESULTS
● One can Create Analysis Results (within Solver
& Engineering Guidelines) without Re-running
the Analysis
● 7 Methods of Results Creation
● Combine
● Maximum / Minimum
● Sum
● Average
● PCL Function
● Demo (Facility to Create Sample/Test Results To
Demonstrate the Results Tools)
S16-77
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: RESULTS/COMBINE
● Select Result Cases to Combine
● Within Spreadsheet, Input Optional Scale
Factors & Result Quantities to Combine
● Up to 31 Characters may be used for the New
Result Case Name & New Subcase Name
● Think of it as a 62 character max. descriptor
● Very useful since MSC.Patran does not store the
Metadata about how the combination was created
S16-78
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: RESULTS/MAX OR MIN
● 3 Icon Menu Options
● Select Results, Target Entities, Plot Options
● Multiple Results Cases May be Selected
● Note: Resulting Max/Min Case will not indicate which Result
Case the Max/Min Value came from
● Up to 62 Characters (31 Result, 31 Subcase) May be used for
New Result Case Name
● Only one Quantity per New Result Case at a time
S16-79
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: RESULTS/MAX OR MIN
● Select Target Entities to be Saved in this Result Case
(Entire Model, Elements, etc.)
● Plot Options Similar to Fringe except for Comparison
Criteria
● Method to determine a Max/Min value to be stored to newly
created Result Case
● Saved Max/Min quantity is a Scalar Value, regardless of
how it was computed
S16-80
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: RESULTS/SUM OR AVERAGE
● Create a New Result Case by Summing a Result Array, such as Stress Tensor in
3 ways:
● Select Multiple Results Cases @ one Position
● Select Single Result Case & Multiple Positions
● Select Multiple Results Cases & Multiple Positions
● Entire Result Array Processed (not just one component)
● Option to do an Algebraic or Absolute Sum
● Results saved in same format as the Array that was being Summed
● Results/Average works the same way except that the New Results are either
Averaged by the number of Results Cases Selected or Number of Positions
Selected
S16-81
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: RESULTS/PCL FUNCTION
● Create a Result Case by Scaling a Result Array using a PCL
Function
● Depending on the Result Array, Different PCL Functions may be
used to Scale Different Components
● Option to Save PCL Scaled Results as Scalar, Vector, or Tensor
Quantities
● Example: Select Stress Tensor, but only want to operate on the
Octahedral Invariant; Save Result as Scalar
● This Option can be Important since Scalar, Tensor, & Vector Results
have their own characteristics in the Results Application
S16-82
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Results Modify/Post/Delete
S16-83
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: MODIFY
● We have discussed the Creation Tools in Results
● The Modify Function is Available for 5 Tools:
● Deformation, Fringe, Marker, Cursor, Contour, Graph, Report
● To use, One has to have a Plot Type Saved to the Database
● When Entering Form, Select Results has a Button for Existing
<Tool> Plots
● After Selecting a Plot, All Icon Menu Forms Affected by the Plot
Changes are Modified
● Upon Apply, the Plot Type will be Modified
● If Modifying a Saved Plot Name Under Create, MSC.Patran will
Confirm to User if this Operation is to be Performed
S16-84
NAS120, Section 16, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESULTS: POST & DELETE
● Post
● Saved Plot Names & Ranges May be Posted to Viewport Any Time
After Being Created
● Great Way of Regenerating Plots EXACTLY the way they were Created
the First Time
● No Guessing What Settings Were Used
● Delete
● Option to Delete Plots, Result Data (Arrays), or Result Cases
● If Using XDB, MASTER, or T16/T19, this option will do the same thing as
Analysis-Delete/(XDB or MASTER or T16) Attachment
S17-1
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 17
MODEL CHECKOUT
S17-2
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S17-3
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS
Pre-Analysis
● Understand the structure and the elements
● Make small models – understand the problem
● Use pilot models in areas of uncertainty
● If you are not familiar with using the element type or SOLution you
expect to use, make simple models and compare the answers to
theoretical results (with a simple model, you should be able to obtain
excellent correlation with theoretical results).
● Model checks before the analysis
● Geometry
● Pre-processor (or Undeformed plots)
● Look at connections between different element types
● Based on knowledge of elements
● Based on loads
● Look at corners (QUAD plates)
● Shrink plots
S17-4
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS
(CONT)
● Check for Rigid Body Motions (singularities)
● Sufficient Nodal Displacement should be specified so that the 6 “rigid
body” modes of movement are fixed.
Rigid Body Motion
Adequate Constraints
S17-5
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS
(CONT)
● Rigid Body Motions
● Forgetting to “Equivalence in Patran or other preprocessors is a very
common error.
Rigid Body Motion
Adequate Constraints
S17-6
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS
(CONT)
● Elements
● Beam and bar
● Check that I1 and I2 have proper orientation and values
● Check all end releases (in member coordinates)
● Verify all offsets (in output coordinate system of GRIDs)
● Material – need E,  (or G), and 
● Plates and Shells
● Check aspect ratios, taper, and warpage
● Check orientation – Z, surfaces consistent
● Check attachments – especially any depending on in-plane rotational
stiffness, any corners, and “shells”
● Verify any offsets (in element coordinate system)
● Material – need E,  (or G), and 
● Property entry – be sure to get the correct properties. (One of the most
commonly made errors is not specifying MID2 for “bending” plates.)
S17-7
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS
(CONT)
● Solids
● Check aspect ratios
● Check taper
● Check attachments. If any attachments depend on rotational stiffness,
special modeling effort is required
● Material – need E,  (or G), and 
● Mass properties
● Check  on MATi entries
● Check NSM on property entries
● Bars, beams = mass/unit length
● Plates = mass/unit area
● Submit with PARAM, GRDPNT, xxxx
where xxxx = ID of GRID point to calculate mass properties about
● Always check center of gravity and total weight (mass) versus known
values
S17-8
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS
(CONT)
● Loadings:
● Verify they are correct (OLOAD RESULTANT)
● Constraints:
● Verify that they are defined (often they are forgotten)
● Verify they are correct (location and orientation – in output coordinate system
of the GRID points)
● Verify that they are applied (SPC CASE CONTROL command)
● Static Checks – ALWAYS RUN STATICS FIRST!!!
● Apply 1–g in X, Y, and Z directions independently
● Check load paths (GPFORCE)
● Check reactions (SPC FORCE)
● Does total = applied load?
● Are the reactions at the correct locations and do they have the correct orientation?
● In Dynamics, approximate frequency:
 where d = center of gravity displacement in direction of applied g-load
 g = acceleration due to gravity
d
g
f
 2
1

S17-9
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS
(CONT)
● Equilibrium check – verify model is not over-constrained
● Run free-free. Remove known constraints and check for
unconstrained motion under applied loads or imposed displacements.
or
● Use the Case Control Command GROUNDCHECK, to check for
over-constrained systems.
● Thermal equilibrium check – if thermal loads are to be considered.
● Check  on MATi entries
● Check for unconstrained thermal expansion – on a copy of your
model
● Apply a determinate set of constraints
● Use the same  for all materials
● Apply a uniform T to the structure. It should expand “freely,” that is, with
no reactions, element forces, or stresses
S17-10
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
AUTOSPC
● If obvious singularities exist, MD Nastran attempts to
automatically deal with them.
● Controlled by either:
AUTOSPC = Yes (case control)
Or
Param,autospc,yes
● User action is not needed as feature is turned on by
default in most solution sequences.
S17-11
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
HOW AUTOSPC WORKS
GRID 99 Stiffness Terms
R3
R2
R1
T3
T2
T1
Hexa Element
GRID 99 GRID 99
S17-12
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
HOW AUTOSPC WORKS (Cont.)
GRID 99 Stiffness Terms
● Successful Elimination of
Zero Stiffness terms
R3
R2
R1
T3
T2
T1
Hexa Element
GRID 99 GRID 99
S17-13
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PROBLEMS WITH AUTOSPC
Solid Bar
R3
R2
R1
T3
T2
T1
R3
R2
R1
T3
T2
T1
Hexa Hexa Element Element
Bar Element
GRID 99 GRID 99
● No Elimination of Solid
Element Zero Stiffness terms
S17-14
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PROBLEMS WITH AUTOSPC (Cont.)
Hexa Hexa Element Element
Bar Element
GRID 99 GRID 99
● No Elimination of Solid
Element Zero Stiffness terms
R3
R2
R1
T3
T2
T1
Combined Stiffness Terms
S17-15
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PROBLEMS WITH AUTOSPC (Cont.)
Hexa Hexa Element Element
Bar Element
GRID 99 GRID 99
● 3 Mechanisms !
S17-16
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PROBLEMS WITH AUTOSPC (Cont.)
Hexa Hexa Element Element
Bar Element
GRID 99 GRID 99
● Solutions
Manual SPC
MPCs (later)
Rigid Links (later)
S17-17
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
AUTOSPC
● Controlling AUTOSPC
● All ‘failed’ DOFs are written to Grid Point Singularity Table
● Can get very large – obscure real problems
● Write out ‘failed’ DOFs to .pch File
● Param,spcgen,1
or
PUNCH keyword in AUTOSPC Case Control Command
● Disable the printout of a table of singularities
● Param,prgst,no
or
NOPRINT keyword in AUTOSPC Case Control Command
● Re-use generated SPC1 data selectively
S17-18
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GOOD MODELING PRACTICE
● Essentials
● Mesh Density – fit for purpose
● Mesh Quality – fit for purpose
● Loading Boundary Conditions
● Displacement Boundary Conditions
S17-19
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GOOD MODELING PRACTICE (Cont.)
● Mesh Density – fit for purpose
S17-20
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GOOD MODELING PRACTICE (Cont.)
● Loading Boundary Conditions
● Simple Point Loading?
Poor stress Poor stress
distribution locally distribution locally
Good stress Good stress
distribution locally distribution locally
S17-21
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
GOOD MODELING PRACTICE (Cont.)
● Loading Boundary Conditions
● More sophisticated loading?
S17-22
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS
(CONT)
After the Analysis
● Statics
● Check EPSILON and MAXRATIO
● Epsilon > 10
-9
may indicate trouble
● MAXRATIO > 10
6
may indicate trouble
● Check reactions. Do they equal the applied loads ( applied loads are
printed as “OLOAD RESULTANT” in superelement solutions)?
● Check load paths – use grid point force balance to “trace” loads
● Check stress contours for “consistency”
● “Sharp” corners indicate bad modeling
● Use different options (i.e., topological and geometric) and compare results
● Check stress discontinuities
● Compare values to “hand calc” or small model results
S17-23
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS
(CONT)
● Dynamics – normal modes
● Check frequencies. Are they in the expected range? (Did
you forget WTMASS???)
● If free-free, are there six “rigid-body” (f=0.0) modes?
● Are there any mechanisms (f=0.0)?
● More than six “rigid-body” modes in free-free?
● Any “rigid-body” modes in constrained modes?
● Check mode shapes, and Identify modes
● Plots and/or animation
● Effective weight and kinetic energy (Case Control Commands
MEFFMASS and EKE) help to identify “significant” modes
S17-24
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
HOW TO AVOID SERIOUS MODELING
MISTAKES
● Take the time to understand the structure and how it
behaves under load. Perform hand analysis or use a
simple model first.
● Take the time to understand MSC.NASTRAN
(particularly the elements). Run small samples each
time you try something new.
● Use independent checks (if available).
● Estimate the cost (labor and computer costs) before
you start.
S17-25
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CHECK FOR BAD MODES
● Identify your modes using one or more of the
following:
● Plot your eigenvectors and identify them
● Use Case Control Commands EKE, and MEFFMASS to print
kinetic energy and modal effective mass .
● Watch for warnings on orthogonality checks
● Look for extraneous low frequency modes – these
often indicate incorrect modeling.
S17-26
NAS120, Section 17, August 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SOME RECOMMENDATIONS
● Understand the important things BEFORE you get into
trouble!!!
● Understand your structure and how you expect it to perform
● Understand your loading
● Understand your model
● Understand how to use the program
● Understand the limitations of the method
● Use simple sample problems (preferably with known solutions)
to understand the MSC.Nastran solution.
● ALWAYS perform a static solution first, then progress
to the more complicated solutions.

Legal Information
MSC.Software Corporation reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information contained in this document without prior notice. The concepts, methods, and examples presented in this text are for illustrative and educational purposes only, and are not intended to be exhaustive or to apply to any particular engineering problem or design. MSC.Software Corporation assumes no liability or responsibility to any person or company for direct or indirect damages resulting from the use of any information contained herein. Copyright © 2008 MSC.Software Corporation. All Rights Reserved. This notice shall be marked on any reproduction of this documentation, in whole or in part. Any reproduction or distribution of this document, in whole or in part, without the prior written consent of MSC.Software Corporation is prohibited. The MSC.Software corporate logo, Adams, Dytran, Easy5, Fatigue, Laminate Modeler, Marc, Mentat, MD Nastran, Patran, MSC, MSC Nastran, Mvision, Patran, SimDesigner, SimEnterprise, SimManager, SimXpert and Sofy are trademarks or registered trademarks of the MSC.Software Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. NASTRAN is a registered trademark of NASA. All other trademarks belong to their respective owners.

Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

2

CONTENTS
Section 1.0 Overview
Course Objectives What is MD Nastran? What is Patran? Case Study: Landing Gear Strut Company Information Workshop 1 “Landing Gear Strut Analysis” 1-3 1-4 1-9 1-12 1-32 1-37 2-3 2-7 2-22 2-48 2-50 3-3 3-19 3-22 3-40 4-5 4-19 4-48 4-57
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

Page

2.0

Introduction to the Finite Element Method
Engineering Methods What is the Finite Element Method? Key Concepts in FEM FEM References Workshop 2 “Simply Supported Beam”

3.0

Basics of MD Nastran and Patran
Patran GUI Patran-Nastran Workflow and Files The Nastran Input File Workshop 3 “Editing a Nastran Input File”

4.0

Case Study: Stadium Arched Roof Truss
MD Nastran Element Library The CROD Element Post Processing CROD Results Workshop 4 “Stadium Truss”

3

CONTENTS
Section 5.0 Space Station Truss
Introduction to Geometry Coordinate Systems Grid Points Workshop 5 “Coordinate Systems” The CBAR Element Multiple Subcases Post Processing CBAR Results Workshop 6 “Bridge Truss” 5-3 5-34 5-48 5-59 5-68 5-142 5-149 5-153 6-19 6-31 6-50 6-76 6-82 7-19 7-29 7-45 7-52 7-105 5-109 Workshop 8 A-C “Tension Coupon” Workshop 7 “Tapered Plate”

Page

6.0

Case Study: Traffic Signal Pole
Material Properties The CBEAM Element Fields Post Processing CBEAM Results

7.0

Case Study: Aircraft Wing Rib
Meshing 2-D Elements Single Point Constraints Loads Element Distortion

Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

4

CONTENTS
Section 7.0 Case Study: Aircraft Wing Rib cont.
Analysis of Composite Materials Workshop 8 D “Composite Tension Coupon” 7-110 7-127 8-9 8-14 8-34 8-68 8-71 9-6 9-11 9-51 9-64 9-87 9-104 10-6 10-40 10-41 10-82 10-134

Page

8.0

Case Study: Intercooler Structure
Solid Geometry The CHEXA Element Post Processing Solid Element Results Solid Elements Workshop 9 A-B “2 ½ D Clamp”

9.0

Case Study: Scuba Tank
Model Simplification Methods Importing Geometry Viewports Mesh Density Control Axisymmetric Elements Workshop 10 “Support Bracket”

10.0

Case Study: Car Design
Groups and Lists Workshop 11 “Spacecraft Fairing” 0-D Elements Rigid Body Elements Workshop 12 “RBE2 vs. RBE3”

Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

5

CONTENTS
Section 11.0 12.0 Units
Units in MD Nastran 11-3 12-3 12-43 13-3 13-36 14-3 14-92 15-3 15-9 15-14 15-25 15-33 15-33

Page

Case Study: Communications Tower
Normal Modes Analysis Workshop 13 “Normal Modes of a Rectangular Plate”

13.0

Case Study: Submarine Pressure Hull - 3D
Linear Buckling Analysis Workshop 14 “Buckling of a Submarine Pressure Hull”

14.0

Parasolid Modeling
Parasolid Modeling Tools Workshop 15 “Parasolid Modeling”

15.0

Linear Contact
Linear vs. Nonlinear Analysis Contact Bodies Contact Detection Plate Contact Case Study Workshop 16 “3D Contact” Workshop 17 “Glued Contact”

Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

6

CONTENTS
Section 16.0 Results Postprocessing
Quick Plot Tool Deformation Tool Fringe Tool Marker Tool Cursor Tool Graph Tool Animations Report Tool Create Tool 16-6 16-18 16-32 16-49 16-54 16-62 16-66 16-69 16-75 17-3 17-10 17-18

Page

17.0

Model Checkout
Minimum Recommended Model Checks AutoSPC Good Modeling Practice

Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

7

Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

8

SECTION 1 OVERVIEW

NAS120, Section 1, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-1

NAS120, Section 1, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-2

COURSE OBJECTIVES
● Learn the basic features in MD Nastran
● Data structure ● Element library ● Linear static, normal modes, and buckling analyses

● Learn the basic functionalities in Patran
● Build finite element models (pre-processing) ● Evaluate analysis results (post-processing)

● Become familiar with solving engineering problems in an integrated

Patran/Nastran environment through hands-on training
● Students will work through a number of workshop problems in class

with assistance from the instructor
● Simple workshop problems designed to introduce basic concepts ● Real-world workshop problems designed to lead the students through

engineering problems from beginning to end

NAS120, Section 1, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-3

WHAT IS MD NASTRAN?
● MD Nastran offers multidiscipline simulation capabilities

based on proven technologies and industry leadership of over four decades.
● In addition to the analysis capabilities of MSC Nastran, MD

Nastran offers key capabilities that drive efficiency and streamline processes:
● Broad Analysis Capabilities - Supports key engineering disciplines that

provide the basis for a superior multidiscipline simulation system
● Integration - Unparalleled support for interaction between multiple disciplines

in simulations that facilitates true multidisciplinary analysis
● Optimization - Multidisciplinary optimization capabilities with combined sizing,

shape, and topology optimization, special constraints and response functions across disciplines
● High Performance Computing - Optimized for parallel and 64-bit

supercomputing environments
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S1-4

WHAT IS MD NASTRAN?
● This course primarily covers basic features that are common

to both MD Nastran and MSC Nastran.
● Some course material uses the enhanced functionality of MD

Nastran, while the majority of the course may be completed using either MSC Nastran or MD Nastran.

NAS120, Section 1, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-5

WHAT IS MD NASTRAN?
● MD Nastran is a general-purpose finite element analysis

program capable of solving a wide variety of engineering problems, including:
● Linear static analysis ● Static analysis with geometric and material nonlinearity ● Transient analysis with geometric and material nonlinearity ● Normal modes analysis ● Buckling analysis ● Direct and modal complex eigenvalue analysis ● Direct and modal frequency analysis (including random analysis) ● Direct and modal transient analysis (including response

spectrum analysis)
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S1-6

WHAT IS MD NASTRAN? (Cont.)
● MD Nastran Capabilities (Cont.)
● Linear cyclic symmetry analysis (including static, normal

modes, buckling, and direct frequency response)
● Linear and nonlinear steady-state heat transfer ● Linear and nonlinear transient heat transfer ● Aeroelasticity ● Substructure analysis (superelements) ● Design sensitivity and optimization ● Acoustics ● Composite material analysis ● P-element analysis ● Rotor Dynamics
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S1-7

WHAT IS MD NASTRAN? (Cont.)
● MD Nastran is
● Extensively documented (including online encyclopedia) ● Extensively tested ● Continually enhanced with new capabilities ● Highly efficient in using modern numerical analysis techniques ● Used extensively by aerospace, automotive, energy,

biomedical, civil, and other industries

NAS120, Section 1, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-8

WHAT IS PATRAN?
● Patran is a CAE pre- and post-processing software

package. It consists of the following major components:
● User-Friendly Graphical User Interface ● Powerful Geometry Import, Export, and Creation ● Robust Meshing Algorithms ● Fast Results Visualization and Reporting ● Extensive Analysis Code Preferences

NAS120, Section 1, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-9

WORKFLOW IN PATRAN
● The Main Menu
1 - Select Analysis Code 2 - Import Geometry

2 - or Build Geometry

4 - Perform the Analysis 5 - Evaluate and Publish Analysis Results

NAS120, Section 1, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

3 - Create Analysis Model
S1-10

SOLVING A TYPICAL ENGINEERING PROBLEM
● The following case study demonstrates how to use

Patran and MD Nastran in a typical engineering application

NAS120, Section 1, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-11

CASE STUDY: LANDING GEAR STRUT
● The design team has created a nose landing gear strut

design for the new fighter jet. Determine if the landing gear strut has been designed properly to withstand the landing load.

NAS120, Section 1, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-12

CASE STUDY: LANDING GEAR STRUT (Cont.)
● Design Specifications
● Material: Steel
● E = 30 x 106 psi ●  = 0.3

7,080 LB

● Landing load = 7,080 lb

NAS120, Section 1, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-13

STEP 1 - CREATE DB AND SET ANALYSIS PREFERENCE

Open a new database in Patran. Select MD Nastran and Structural Analysis for this case study.

NAS120, Section 1, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-14

STEP 2 - IMPORT OR BUILD GEOMETRY
● The user can import or build geometry in Patran:
● Import geometry models from CAD systems: ● CATIA ● Pro/ENGINEER ● Unigraphics ● EUCLID 3 ● I-DEAS ● Import geometry models in standard formats: ● STEP ● Parasolid xmt ● ACIS ● IGES ● STL ● VDA ● Build the geometry directly in Patran
NAS120, Section 1, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S1-15

IMPORT OR BUILD GEOMETRY (Cont.Software Corporation S1-16 .) ● For this case study. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120. the landing gear strut geometry model is available as a parasolid xmt file. ● Import this model directly into Patran. Section 1.STEP 2 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.IMPORT OR BUILD GEOMETRY (Cont.Software Corporation S1-17 .) Import the landing gear strut geometry.STEP 2 . Section 1. NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S1-18 . NAS120. Section 1.IMPORT OR BUILD GEOMETRY (Cont.STEP 2 .) ● The landing gear strut geometry is imported.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.STEP 3 .Software Corporation S1-19 . create the analysis model: Create a finite element mesh Apply boundary condition Apply loading Create material properties Create element properties NAS120.CREATE ANALYSIS MODEL Next. Section 1.

CREATE ANALYSIS MODEL (Cont.Software Corporation S1-20 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.) Create the finite element mesh.STEP 3 . Section 1.

) Constrain the hub cylinder at the bottom of the strut.Software Corporation S1-21 .CREATE ANALYSIS MODEL (Cont.STEP 3 . Section 1. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S1-22 .) Apply 7.STEP 3 . Section 1. NAS120.080 lb to the upper face of the strut.CREATE ANALYSIS MODEL (Cont.

NAS120.Software Corporation S1-23 .CREATE ANALYSIS MODEL (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.STEP 3 .) Define a material property for the landing gear strut. Section 1.

STEP 3 .Software Corporation S1-24 . NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Create an element property for the landing gear strut. Section 1.CREATE ANALYSIS MODEL (Cont.

PERFORM THE ANALYSIS Submit the model to MD Nastran to perform a linear static analysis. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S1-25 . Section 1.STEP 4 . NAS120.

b.Software Corporation S1-26 .EVALUATE ANALYSIS RESULTS Review . Review warning messages. Review analysis results.STEP 5 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.f06 file a. Verify that the analysis has completed successfully. NAS120. c. Section 1.

Software Corporation S1-27 .STEP 5 . NAS120. Section 1.EVALUATE ANALYSIS RESULTS Read the analysis results into Patran. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.EVALUATE ANALYSIS RESULTS (Cont.STEP 5 .) Plot displacements and stresses. Section 1.Software Corporation S1-28 . NAS120.

PUBLISH ANALYSIS RESULTS Publish a stress summary report.Software Corporation S1-29 .STEP 6 . Section 1. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.

animated.Software Corporation S1-30 .STEP 6 . and vrml images for reports and presentations. Section 1. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.PUBLISH ANALYSIS RESULTS (Cont.) Under File/Images or Results/Create/ Quick Plot: Create static. NAS120.

SUMMARY OF PATRAN-NASTRAN WORKFLOW Patran Pre-Processing ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Import/create geometry Create finite element mesh Apply boundary condition Apply loads Create material properties Create element properties Submit model to solver MD Nastran Solver ● Solve for displacements ● Compute strains ● Compute stresses Post-Processing ● Deformation plots ● Stress fringe plots ● Reports NAS120. Section 1.Software Corporation S1-31 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 1. pre and post processor for all major finite element analysis (FEA) software.Software is also the developer. distributor. MD Nastran.Software Corporation has been supplying sophisticated computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools since 1963. including MD Nastran and Marc. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● Patran is an open architecture. ● MSC. and supporter of the state of the art CAE analysis program. distributor. and supporter of the most complete and widely-used structural analysis program in the world. Patran. ● MSC.COMPANY OVERVIEW ● The MSC.Software is the developer.Software Corporation S1-32 .

com/support NAS120.support@mscsoftware.m. to 5:00 p.com ● Website support at www. 8:00 a.support@mscsoftware. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.m.Software Corporation S1-33 . Section 1.mscsoftware.WHERE TO GO FOR HELP ● The MSC Technical Support Hotline 1-800-732-7284 is staffed Monday through Friday.com ● mscnastran. ● Email support: ● mscpatran.

dates. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.WHERE TO GET TRAINING ● MD Nastran and Patran seminars are held worldwide ● Locations. and descriptions of all scheduled classes can be found at www.com/support/msc_institute ● MSC also conducts cost-effective in-house seminars at clients’ facilities. ● Contact the MSC Institute at 1-800-732-7211 NAS120. These seminars can be tailored to meet clients’ specific needs.Software Corporation S1-34 .mscsoftware. Section 1.

New Features in Patran NAS120.Thermal Analysis Using Patran Thermal ● PAT318 .PATRAN SEMINARS ● Following Patran seminars are offered ● PAT301 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Introduction to Patran Command Language (PCL) ● PAT312 .Introduction to Patran ● PAT302 –Patran for Advanced Users ● PAT304 .Durability and Fatigue Life Analysis Using MSC Fatigue ● PAT325 .Introduction to Laminate Modeler ● PAT328 . Section 1.Software Corporation S1-35 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 1.Software Corporation S1-36 .MD NASTRAN SEMINARS ● Following MD Nastran seminars are offered ● NAS101 – Basic MD Nastran Linear Static and Normal Modes Analysis ● NAS102 – MD Nastran Dynamic Analysis ● NAS103 – MD Nastran Nonlinear Analysis ● NAS104 – MD Nastran Thermal Analysis ● NAS105 – Practical Finite Element Modeling Techniques Using MD Nastran ● NAS106 – MD Nastran Superelement Analysis ● NAS107 – Design Sensitivity and Optimization in MD Nastran ● NAS108 – New Capabilities in MD Nastran ● NAS110 – DMAP and Database Applications in MD Nastran ● NAS111 – MD Nastran Aeroelastic Analysis ● NAS113 – Analysis of Composite Materials with MD Nastran ● NAS115 – Fluid-Structure Analysis in MD Nastran ● NAS116 – Practical Dynamic Analysis with MD Nastran ● NAS120 – Linear Static and Normal Modes Analysis Using MD Nastran and Patran ● NAS122 – Dynamic Analysis Using Patran and MD Nastran ● NAS123 – MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL600) Analysis ● NAS125 – Stochastic Simulation Using MSC Robust Design NAS120.

NAS120.Software Corporation S1-37 . Section 1. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.EXERCISE ● Perform Workshop 1 “Landing Gear Strut Analysis” in your exercise workbook.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.NAS120.Software Corporation S1-38 . Section 1.

SECTION 2 INTRODUCTION TO THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD NAS120.Software Corporation S2-1 . Section 2. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.NAS120.Software Corporation S2-2 . Section 2.

METHODS FOR SOLVING ENGINEERING PROBLEMS ● As shown below. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 2. the finite element method is one of several methods for solving engineering problems Engineering Analysis Classical Methods Closed-form Numerical Methods Finite Element Finite Difference Approximate Boundary Element NAS120.Software Corporation S2-3 .

and boundary conditions NAS120.) ● Classical Methods: ● Closed-form solutions are available for simple problems such as bending of beams and torsion of prismatic bars ● Approximate methods using series solutions to governing differential equations are used to analyze more complex structures such as plates and shells ● The classical methods can only be used for structural problems with relatively simple geometry. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 2.METHODS FOR SOLVING ENGINEERING PROBLEMS (Cont.Software Corporation S2-4 . loading.

) ● Numerical Methods: ● Boundary Element Method ● Solves the governing differential equation for the problem with integral equations over the boundary of the domain.Software Corporation S2-5 . Section 2. ● Finite Difference Method ● Replaces governing differential equations and boundary conditions with corresponding algebraic finite difference equations. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.METHODS FOR SOLVING ENGINEERING PROBLEMS (Cont. Only the boundary surface is meshed with elements. NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. and boundary conditions ● Increasingly becoming the primary analysis tool for designers and analysts ● The Finite Element Method is also known as the Matrix Method of Structural Analysis in the literature because it uses matrix algebra to solve the system of simultaneous equations. loading. Section 2.METHODS FOR SOLVING ENGINEERING PROBLEMS (Cont.) ● Finite Element Method (FEM) ● Capable of solving large. NAS120. complex problems with general geometry.) ● Numerical Methods (Cont.Software Corporation S2-6 .

● These smaller pieces of structure are called elements. Section 2. The elements are connected to each other at the nodes. simpler pieces. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.WHAT IS THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD? ● The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a numerical approximation method.Software Corporation S2-7 . NAS120. ● The assembly of elements and nodes is called a finite element model. It is a method of investigating the behavior of complex structures by breaking them down into smaller. The piston head shown in the next slide is an example of a finite element model.

SAMPLE FINITE ELEMENT MODEL Node Element Sample Finite Element Model NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 2.Software Corporation S2-8 .

plates. The three basic types of finite elements are beams. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 2.FINITE ELEMENTS ● Finite elements have shapes which are relatively easy to formulate and analyze. and solids.Software Corporation Plate (2D) Solid (3D) S2-9 . Beam (1D) NAS120.

slender structural members. as demonstrated in this communications tower finite element model.Software Corporation S2-10 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 2. NAS120.ONE DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS ● 1D beam elements are used to model long.

Section 2.TWO DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS ● 2D plate elements are used to model thin structural members such as aircraft fuselage skin or car body NAS120.Software Corporation S2-11 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

THREE DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS ● 3D solid elements are used to model thick components such as the piston head shown below: NAS120.Software Corporation S2-12 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 2.

the results become increasingly accurate. but the computing time also increases. ● As one increases the number of elements (and hence. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.BUILDING A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL ● The Finite Element Method approximates the behavior of a continuous structure with a finite number of elements. NAS120.Software Corporation S2-13 . decrease the size of the elements). Section 2. ● Patran provides numerous modeling tools to help the user build finite element models with the right balance between accuracy and model size.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.Software Corporation S2-14 . Section 2. Y X Z ● Elements are connected to each other by nodes.HOW DOES FEM WORK ? ● Basic Approach ● A given problem is discretized by dividing the original domain into simply shaped elements.

) ● Each node is capable of moving in six independent directions: three translations and three rotations. Section 2. qy.HOW DOES FEM WORK ? (Cont.Software Corporation S2-15 . These are called the degrees of freedom (DOF) at a node. qz) {u} = displacement vector = { u x uy u z q x qy q z } NAS120. uy. y uy x ux z uz Three translations (ux. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. uz) Three rotations (qx.

It describes how the nodes are moving as a result of the applied forces.HOW DOES FEM WORK ? (Cont. element. [ k ]e { u }e = { f }e Elemental Equation NAS120. material properties.Software Corporation S2-16 . Section 2.) ● The relationship between an element and its surrounding nodes can be described by the following equation: [ k ]e { u }e = { f }e ● The elemental stiffness matrix [ k ]e is derived from geometry. ● The elemental load vector { f }e describes the forces acting on the ● The displacement vector { u }e is the unknown in this equation. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. and element properties.

The loads are also assembled into a global load vector. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 2. the elemental stiffness matrices are assembled into a global stiffness matrix.Software Corporation S2-17 . This results in the following matrix equation for the overall structure: [K] {u} = {F} [ k ]e { u }e = { f }e Elemental Equation [K] {u} = {F} Global Equation NAS120.HOW DOES FEM WORK ? (Cont.) ● Next.

Software Corporation S2-18 . Mathematically. apply the boundary condition to the model (constrain the model). August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 2. this is achieved by removing rows and columns corresponding to the constrained degrees of freedom from the global matrix equation. Boundary Condition [K] {u} = {F} Global Matrix Equation with boundary condition applied NAS120.HOW DOES FEM WORK ? (Cont.) ● Next.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● Element strains and stresses are then computed from the nodal displacements. Section 2.) ● Finally.HOW DOES FEM WORK ? (Cont. the global matrix equation is solved to determine the unknown nodal displacements.Software Corporation S2-19 . Deformation Plot Stress Fringe Plot NAS120.

Software Corporation S2-20 . Section 2. element properties.HOW DOES FEM WORK ? (Cont. and geometry Apply boundary conditions to constrain the model Assemble all element stiffness matrices into a global stiffness matrix [K] Solve the matrix equation [K] {u} = {F} for nodal displacements Compute strains and stresses from displacement results NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) ● Summary of the finite element method: Represent continuous structure as a collection of discrete elements connected by nodes Assemble loads into a global load vector {F} Derive element stiffness matrices from material properties.

In both methods. Section 2. The displacement method is used by most modern finite element codes. ● In the force method. equilibrium. ● Both methods can be used to solve structural problems. the member forces are the basic unknowns in the system of equations. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.the displacement method and the force method. compatibility.TYPES OF FINITE ELEMENT METHODS ● There are two different types of finite element methods . ● In the displacement method. the grid point displacements are the basic unknowns in the system of equations. and stress-strain relations are used to generate a system of equations that represent the behavior of the structure.Software Corporation S2-21 . including MD Nastran.

Software Corporation S2-22 .KEY CONCEPTS IN FEM ● The Displacement Method ● Formulation of the Element Stiffness Matrix ● Matrix Assembly and Decomposition NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 2.

THE DISPLACEMENT METHOD ● All structural engineering analyses must satisfy the following three general conditions: 1. Section 2.Software Corporation S2-23 . Strain-Displacement relations (also called compatibility of deformations): ensures that the displacement field in a deformed continuous structure is free of voids or discontinuities NAS120. Equilibrium of forces and moments: F = 0. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. M = 0 2.

Stress-Strain relations (also called constitutive relations): ● For a linear material.Software Corporation S2-24 .) 3. the generalized Hooke’s law states {} = [E] {} {} = { x y z xy yz zx } {} = { x y z xy yz zx } [E] = 6 x 6 matrix of elastic constants where NAS120. Section 2.THE DISPLACEMENT METHOD (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 2. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. The stiffness matrix [K] is used to relate the forces acting on the structure and the displacements resulting from these forces in the following manner: {F} = [K] {u} where {F} = forces acting on the structure [K] = stiffness matrix [kij]. where each kij term is the force of a constraint at coordinate i due to a unit displacement at j with all other displacements set equal to zero ● {u} = displacements resulting from {F} Boundary conditions are applied to prevent rigid body motions.) ● ● These three conditions can be used to generate a system of equations in which the displacements are unknown.THE DISPLACEMENT METHOD (Cont. and the system of linear equations is solved for the unknown {u}.Software Corporation . S2-25 NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S2-26 . Section 2.FORMULATION OF THE ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX ● ● ● A key step in the displacement method is the formulation of the element stiffness matrix Each element in a finite element model is represented by an element stiffness matrix [K]e A single-rod case study is used to demonstrate the element stiffness matrix formulation for a rod element NAS120.

CASE STUDY: ROD ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX ● Consider an elastic rod of uniform cross section A and length L under axial load.Software Corporation . S2-27 NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. X=0 L F1 1 u1 A 2 u2 F2 X ● Axial translations u1 and u2 are the only displacements at grid points 1 and 2. Thus. this element has two degrees of freedom. Section 2.

CASE STUDY: ROD ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX (Cont.= ----------------L L (2) NAS120.Software Corporation S2-28 . The strain in the rod is u2 – u 1 L ----- x =  .) ● Step 1: Satisfy static equilibrium   F x = F 1 + F2 F 2 = –F 1 = 0 (1) ● Step 2: Relate strain to displacements ● Assume that the rod changes length by an amount L due to the axial load. Section 2. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 2.CASE STUDY: ROD ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) ● Step 3: Relate stress to strain x = E x (3) ● Step 4: Relate force to stress   P --A F1  x = – ----1 A and F2  x = ----2 A (4) NAS120.Software Corporation S2-29 .

u 2 – ------.u 2 – ------.u 1 L L (5) similarly.) ● Step 5: Relate force to displacement ● Substitution of Equations 2 and 3 into Equation 4 yields EA –F 1 =  x A = E x A = ------.u1 L L (6) NAS120. EA EA F 2 = ------.Software Corporation S2-30 . u2 – u 1 L or EA EA AE AE –F1 = ------.CASE STUDY: ROD ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 2.

Rewrite them in matrix form:     EA 1 –1  u1   F1    = ------L –1 1  u   F2   2      [K]e or where {F} = [K]e {u} (6) [K]e = [kij].) ● Equations 5 and 6 represent two linear equations with two unknowns. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. the known 2x2 rod element stiffness matrix {F} = vector of known applied forces {u} = vector of unknown displacements NAS120. Section 2.CASE STUDY: ROD ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX (Cont.Software Corporation S2-31 .

For more complex 2D and 3D elements. Assumed element shape functions and energy principles are used to derive the element stiffness matrices. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation . This method works well for simple elements such as rods and beams.FORMULATION OF THE ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX ● The method used in the previous case study to derive the rod element stiffness matrix is called the direct method or the stiffness method. Section 2. A list of reference books on the finite element method is included at the end of this section. S2-32 NAS120. the variational method is used ● ● ● ● The variational method is also known as the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The variational method is covered in detail in text books on the finite element method.

ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX ● The stiffness matrix for a rod element under torsion is shown below: X=0 L T1 1 x1 J     GJ 1 – 1   x1   T1    = -----L –1 1    T2    x2      2 T2 x2 X [K] e NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 2.Software Corporation S2-33 .

Section 2.Software Corporation [K] e S2-34 {u} .ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) ● The stiffness matrix for a beam element under in-plane shear and bending is shown below:           Py1  6 3L –6  2 M z1  2E I 3L 2L –3L ------- = 3 Py2  – 6 – 3L 6 L  2 M z2  3L L –3L    2   L  – 3L  2  2L   3L  y1   z1   y2   z2   {P} F NAS120.

X=0 L1 1 P 2 L2 3 X u 1.CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY ● The following case study demonstrates the assembly of the the individual element stiffness matrices and the solution to the entire problem.Software Corporation S2-35 . Section 2. F2 u 3. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. F3 NAS120. F1 u2.

Section 2. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) ● Write the following element stiffness equations based on the previous derivation of stiffness matrix for a rod element:  E1 A 1  F1   L1   E A F2    1 1  L1   E1 A 1  L1  u1   E1 A 1  u 2     L1   E2 A 2 F2   L 2   E A F3    2 2  L2   E2 A 2  L 2  u 2   E 2 A 2  u 3    L2   [K]1 [K]2 NAS120.Software Corporation S2-36 .CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 2.Software Corporation S2-37 .) ● Rewrite the stiffness matrices in simpler terms: k K 1   1  k  1  k1  k1    k2  k2 K 2     k 2 k 2  where k1  E1 A 1 L1 and k2  E2 A 2 L2 NAS120.CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.

The resulting matrix is called the global stiffness matrix.) ● Assemble the two stiffness matrices by superposition.CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont. K 1    k1  k 1  k1  k1   K 2    k2  k 2  k2 k2   ( ) Global Stiffness Matrix [K] NAS120. Section 2.Software Corporation S2-38 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 2.Software Corporation S2-39 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.) ● Apply external loads to the structure F1 = -P F2 = 0 F3 = 0  P   k 1     0    k 1  0   0     k1 k1  k 2  k2 0  u 1   u   k 2  2  k 2  u 3    NAS120.

Software Corporation S2-40 .CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont. so u3 = 0. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. This is achieved by discarding row 3 and column 3 from the global stiffness matrix.) ● Next.  P   k 1     0    k 1  0   0     k1 k1  k 2  k2 0  u 1   u   k 2  2  k 2  u 3     k 1  u 1   P   k 1    u   0   k 1 k 1  k 2   2  NAS120. impose the boundary condition ● The right end is fixed. Section 2.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. S2-41 NAS120. solve the matrix equation  P   k 1    0   k 1  k 1  u 1    k 1  k 2  u 2   or {F} = [K] {u} ● One way to solve this equation is to multiply both sides by the inverse of [K] [K]-1 {F} = {u} ● In actual practice. inverting the stiffness matrix to solve the system of equations is highly inefficient. Section 2. MD Nastran uses a more efficient matrix decomposition procedure rather than the matrix inversion method.) ● Now.Software Corporation .CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont.

the structure is unstable and the stiffness matrix will be singular. nonsingular). ● NAS120.e.Software Corporation S2-42 . Always remember that MD Nastran is working in a 3-D space when considering rigid body motion. Therefore. Section 2.CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont. the set of constraints you apply must be able to prevent any possible rigid body motion in 3-D space. If rigid body motion or mechanisms are not prevented (constrained). August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) ● ● Inversion of the [K] matrix requires that [K] be square and that det[K]  0 (i.

Software Corporation S2-43 .) Example of Inadequate Constraints Example of Adequate Constraints NAS120. Section 2.CASE STUDY: TWO-ROD ASSEMBLY (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S2-44 . NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.PROCEDURE FOR GENERAL STRUCTURES ● The same procedure used for the two-rod model can be extended to a general structure such as the aircraft structure shown below: Element 100 Element 200 ● The two highlighted stringer elements are represented by the two element stiffness matrices developed in the previous case study. Section 2.

PROCEDURE FOR GENERAL STRUCTURES (Cont. Section 2.) ● The stiffness characteristics of the rest of the aircraft are obtained by assembling the individual element stiffness matrices to the global stiffness matrix using the same procedure as used in the two-rod model. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S2-45 . Stiffness contributions from the rest of the aircraft k1 -k1 0 -k1 (k1+ k2) -k2 0 -k2 k2 NxN NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 2.Software Corporation S2-46 .) ● Rule of thumb for computer resources (CPU time) used by MD Nastran for a problem with “N” DOF ● Overhead (~ constant) ● Stiffness matrix assembly (~ N) ● Solution cost ( ~ N2) ● Data recovery ( ~ N) NAS120.PROCEDURE FOR GENERAL STRUCTURES (Cont.

OTHER APPLICATIONS OF FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ● In general. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● Example: Steady-state heat conduction ● ● Replace the structural stiffness matrix with the matrix of thermal conductivities Single DOF at each node (temperature) Fluid flow/wave propagation Electromagnetics Dynamics ● Other fields ● ● ● NAS120. Section 2.Software Corporation S2-47 . the finite element method can be applied to any continuum described by partial differential equations.

Software Corporation S2-48 . 1999 K. J.REFERENCES V. Bathe Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis Prentice-Hall. Adams Building Better Products with Finite Element Analysis OnWord Press. Section 2. D. MacNeal Finite Elements: Their Design and Performance Marcel Dekker. 1989 R. H. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. 1982 R. Cook Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis John Wiley & Sons. 1994 NAS120.

1968 B. Babuska Finite Element Analysis John Wiley & Sons. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) NAFEMS A Finite Element Primer Department of Trade and Industry. 1986 J. 1991 O. S.Software Corporation S2-49 . A. Zienkiewicz The Finite Element Method McGraw-Hill. Przemieniecki Theory of Matrix Structural Analysis McGraw-Hill. C. Szabo and I.REFERENCES (Cont. UK. 1994 NAS120. Section 2.

NAS120. Section 2.EXERCISE Perform Workshop 2 “Simply Supported Beam” in your exercise workbook.Software Corporation S2-50 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S3-1 .SECTION 3 BASICS OF MD NASTRAN AND PATRAN NAS120. Section 3. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S3-2 .NAS120. Section 3. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S3-3 . the two GUIs are basically identical. ● The course material will be presented using the Windows GUI. Except for the color scheme and icon arrangements. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.PATRAN GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE ● The Patran GUI for the Windows and Unix platforms are shown in the following slides. Section 3.

WINDOWS GUI NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 3.Software Corporation S3-4 .

Section 3.UNIX GUI NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S3-5 .

THE MAIN MENU Menu Bar Application Buttons Tool Bar Status Icon ● Static Green indicates Patran is waiting for user input ● Rotating Blue indicates Patran is performing a process which can be stopped immediately with the abort icon ● Rotating Red indicates that Patran is performing a process which cannot be interrupted History Window Command Line NAS120. Section 3.Software Corporation S3-6 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

THE MAIN MENU (Cont.will undo last command Abort .Stops operation in progress Reset Graphics Refresh Graphics Display and Viewing Icons File Save Print Copy to Clipboard NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Undo .Software Corporation S3-7 . Section 3.

THE VIEWPORT Display Mode Current Group Current Viewport Database Name NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 3.Software Corporation S3-8 .

Section 3.Software Corporation S3-9 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.APPLICATION FORMS Action Object Method Select Menu (Filter Buttons) NAS120.

clicking the left mouse button.” suffix denotes that a subordinate form will open up upon clicking the button Slide bar assigns a value to associated variable Apply causes action to execute Hyphens indicate action can be undone only immediately after its execution NAS120. the default values may be constant or can change S3-10 .) Toggle button is an on/off switch Select databox is used to enter data Data can be inserted by placing the mouse at the desired location.. the icon can be set to highlight or split. Section 3.APPLICATION FORMS (Cont. In this example.Software Corporation Control icon allows the switching between different actions. and typing in the desired data Existing text can be edited “.. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Causes the content of a form to reset back to default values.

ENTITY PICKING ● Picking is performed in two ways: ● Keyboard entry into a databox ● Graphical picking with the mouse NAS120.Software Corporation S3-11 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 3.

z5. 2] [1. Section 3. 1.Software Corporation S3-12 .0/20.1 Description Refers to points 1. edge 1 of surface 3. zp5. 3/ 4 Surface 3. and 3 Points 1 through 9 by 2 All points Different forms for delimiters: space. that is similar to a curve) Combinations of entity ID syntax is possible (face 2 of solids 1 through 10) Square brackets signifies coordinate specification Solid 1:10.0‘] <R T Z> {[ ][ ]} Individual coordinates can reference existing entities.2 [x y z] [xn28.” and “/” References an entity associated with a higher order one (i. ‘-64. such as x = the x coordinate of node 28 y = the z coordinate of point 5 When a point is referenced the letter “p” can be dropped Mathematical operations like division are possible to determine the individual components < > signifies a vector definition Signifies an axis with first point representing the base and the second determining the direction NAS120. “. 2. 2. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.ENTITY ID SYNTAX Syntax Point 1 2 3 Point 1:9:2 Point 1:# Curve 1 2. 3] [1.e. 3] [1.

Software Corporation S3-13 . Section 3. the closest entity to the location of the cursor will be picked. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● For Centroid Single Picking. ● The Preselection Settings highlight the Entity and Label (ID #) of the entity before you select it.ENTITY GRAPHICAL PICKING ● Individual and collective entity picking is controlled by the Picking option under Preferences. ● Additional tools are available to aid the process of picking. a portion of the selected entity must be within the physical limits of the cursor. NAS120. ● For Single Entity Picking. such as Cycle picking.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S3-14 . Section 3.CURSOR PICKING ● Single Entity Move the cursor to the entity label/centroid and press the left mouse button ● Multiple Picking Hold down the shift key and select the entities with the left mouse button Shift NAS120.

CURSOR PICKING (Cont.Software Corporation S3-15 . Section 3.) ● Rectangle Picking (Click & Drag) ● Polygon Picking Ctrl You can also select this icon from the select menu “Click” “Click” Note: To complete your selection. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. double-click the left mouse button NAS120.

NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CURSOR PICKING (Cont.Software Corporation S3-16 . make the selection from the window.) ● Deselect Move the cursor to the entity’s label/centroid and click on the right mouse button ● Cycle Picking Picking an entity underneath another. or that is close to other entities. Once the cycle picking window appears. Section 3.

Software Corporation S3-17 XY Translate Zoom . Section 3. then drag with the middle mouse button Z Rotate XY Rotate NAS120.MANIPULATING THE MODEL FOR VIEWING Click on one of these icons. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 3.Software Corporation S3-18 .PATRAN ONLINE HELP ● Two ways to use on-line help ● Use the drop-down help menu to get topical help or help via the world wide web ● Press the “F1” key to get context sensitive help on a form in question NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation .bdf MD Nastran Solver K u = F Import/create geometry Create finite element mesh Apply boundary condition Apply loads Create material properties Create element properties Submit model to solver ● Solve for u ● Compute strain ● Compute stress Post-Processing ● Deformation plots ● Stress fringe plots ● Reports .log .f04 .xdb .db.db . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 3.op2 .PATRAN-NASTRAN WORKFLOW AND FILES Patran Patran Pre-Processing ● ● ● ● ● ● ● .ses .jou S3-19 NAS120.f06 .

NAS120.Software Corporation S3-20 .db Database One per model . Record of all PCL commands from database creation to present. Concatenated session files.jou Journal File One per model. Section 3. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.db. EXTREMELY useful for rebuilding a database.ses Session File A Session File is opened at Patran start-up and it is closed when you quit Patran. .BASIC PATRAN FILES File Extension File Type Comments .

Software Corporation S3-21 .xdb Results File Used by Patran for post processing.log Operating System Log File .BASIC MD NASTRAN FILES File Extension File Type Comments . It contains the results of your analysis such as displacements and stresses. Section 3. and diagnostic messages to help the user evaluate the quality of the analysis results. error messages.bdf and .bdf Input File Contains model definition. It is in ASCII format so it can be viewed in any text editor. .f06 Results File This is the main Nastran output file. It also contains warning messages. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.op2 Results File Used by Patran for post processing. . Contains a time history of job execution.f04 Execution Summary File . .dat Popular extensions are . NAS120.

Software Corporation S3-22 .THE MD NASTRAN INPUT FILE ● The two files which contain the finite element model definition are ● The Patran database file ● The Nastran input file ● The Nastran input file is useful in a number of ways: ● Can be viewed and edited in any text editor ● Can include comments to document modeling assumptions and changes ● Allows the user to add entries which are not supported in Patran ● Useful in debugging a model NAS120. Section 3. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S3-23 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.ORGANIZATION OF THE NASTRAN INPUT FILE ● The Nastran input file is arranged in five sections: Nastran Statement Nastran Statement Optional Sections File Management Section File Management Section Optional Delimiter ID A. Section 3.B Executive Control Section Executive Control Section CEND Case Control Section Case Control Section BEGIN BULK Required Sections Bulk Data Section Bulk Data Section Required Delimiters ENDDATA NAS120.

controls restarts and database operations ● Executive Control Section – Solution type. ● File Management Section – Allocates files.NASTRAN INPUT FILE SECTIONS ● Nastran Statement – Used to modify system defaults. Section 3. and system diagnostics ● Case Control Section – Requests Output and selects Bulk Data items such as loadings and constraints to be used ● Bulk Data Section – Model definition. and boundary conditions NAS120. loadings. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. time allowed.Software Corporation S3-24 . Not needed in most runs. program modifications.

Section 3. beginning of Case Control Section End of Case Control Section. beginning of Bulk Data Section Last entry in the input file NAS120.B ● CEND ● BEGIN BULK ● ENDDATA First statement in Executive Control Section (optional) End of Executive Control Section. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.NASTRAN INPUT FILE DELIMITERS ● The delimiters are ● ID A.Software Corporation S3-25 .

3 A = 4.SAMPLE MODEL E = 30x106 psi NAS120. January 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.27 in4 S3-26 .Software Corporation  = 0.0 in2 J = 1. Section 3.

Section 3. 0. -1. 0. 120. 120.Software Corporation S3-27 .27 MAT1 22 30. SPC1 11 12 1 2 SPC1 11 3456 1 2 3 4 ENDDATA Bulk Data NAS120.3 FORCE 10 4 1000.NASTRAN INPUT FILE OF SAMPLE MODEL Executive Control Case Control ID TRUSS.SAMPLE SOL 101 TIME 5 CEND TITLE = SAMPLE INPUT FILE SUBTITLE = TRUSS STRUCTURE LOAD = 10 SPC = 11 DISP = ALL ELFORCE = ALL SPCFORCE = ALL BEGIN BULK $ Comments start $ GRID POINTS DESCRIBE THE GEOMETRY with a dollar sign $ GRID 1 0. 0. GRID 3 600. 1. 0. 0. GRID 2 0. 0. $ $ TRUSS MEMBERS MODELED WITH ROD ELEMENTS $ CROD 1 21 2 3 CROD 2 21 2 4 CROD 3 21 1 3 CROD 4 21 1 4 CROD 5 21 3 4 $ PROD 21 22 4. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. GRID 4 600. 0.E6 . 0.

Section 3.THE BULK DATA SECTION ● The Bulk Data Section contains all data necessary for describing a structural model ● Each item described in the Bulk Data section is called an Entry ● The Bulk Data entries are not required to be input in any order NAS120.Software Corporation S3-28 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 3.Software Corporation S3-29 . Section 5) ● Shown below is the CROD entry description from the Quick Reference Guide: NAS120. January 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.FORMAT OF BULK DATA ENTRIES ● Each Bulk Data entry has a specific pre-defined format and purpose (described in the MD Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

See the Quick Reference Guide for the correct format.Software Corporation S3-30 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) ● Each line contains 80 columns ● A Bulk Data entry may span multiple lines ● There are three data formats ● Integer ● Real ● Character String ● Each field in a particular entry has a required data format. Section 3.FORMAT OF BULK DATA ENTRIES (Cont. NAS120.

Section 3. NAS120. Integers must be entered without a decimal point.34E+1 ● Real numbers must be entered with a decimal point.1234E3 1. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.4 0.234+2 .234E2 12.1234E3 1.4 are numerically equivalent and acceptable to MD Nastran: 123.Software Corporation S3-31 .) ● Following representations of the real number 123.FORMAT OF BULK DATA ENTRIES (Cont.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.FIELD FORMAT ● Each Nastran input file line contains 80 columns. There are three field formats for entering data in these 80 columns: ● Small Field Format ● Large Field Format ● Free Field Format NAS120. Section 3.Software Corporation S3-32 .

6 9.Software Corporation S3-33 .5 8. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.FIELD FORMAT (Cont.0 456 NAS120. Section 3.) ● Small Field Format ● Each line is divided into 10 fields ● Each field is 8 columns wide 1  8  2 8  3 8  4 8  5 8  6 8  7 8  8 8  9 8  10 8  GRID 10 7.

The large field format is used when the small field format does not provide enough significant digits. GRID* 10 7.Software Corporation 9.FIELD FORMAT (Cont.) ● Large Field Format ● A high degree of accuracy is required in some MD Nastran applications.5 8.0 456 S3-34 .6 *GRID10 *GRID10 NAS120. ● An asterisk after the keyword signifies large field format. Section 3. January 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.

use two commas in succession ● Integer numbers or character strings with more than eight characters cause a fatal error ● Real numbers with more than eight characters are rounded off and will lose some precision Example: GRID..) ● Free Field Format ● Fields are separated by commas or blanks (commas are strongly recommended) ● To skip a field.10.FIELD FORMAT (Cont.9.Software Corporation S3-35 .6. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.7..456 NAS120.0.8.5. Section 3.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. and the continuation entry may be blank in columns 2-8 (field 1).CONTINUATION ENTRIES ● Many input entries require more than one line of input ● If this is the case. Section 3. ● Continuation entries may be generated automatically when the entries are in sorted order.Software Corporation S3-36 . For small field entries. NAS120. the first column of the continuation entry may be blank or contain a + symbol. then “continuation” entries must be used. For large field entries. The parent entry may be blank in columns 74-80 (field 10). the first column of the continuation entry must contain a * symbol.

Software Corporation S3-37 . ● Any entry in the first column of field 10 on the parent entry is ignored by the continuation entry ● Small field and large field continuation entries may be used together in defining a single data item entry ● An example of the use of continuation is shown in the next slide NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. field 1 of a continuation entry.CONTINUATION ENTRIES (Cont. Section 3. The remaining contents in field 1 of a continuation entry must be identical to the entry in field 10 (columns 2 through 8) of the parent entry (or the preceding continuation entry). a (+) or (*) is required in column 1.) ● Input rules ● Unless you use automatic generation.

Section 3. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CONTINUATION ENTRIES (Cont.Software Corporation S3-38 .) ● Two methods of entering a MAT8 entry with continuation are shown below: ● Method 1 +M101 +M101 +M102 +M102 ● Method 2 NAS120.

the default values will be used (See the Quick Reference Guide). Input data in fields 2 through 9 do not have to be left or right justified. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● All real numbers. Section 3.GENERAL INPUT FORMAT RULES ● Input data items in fields 1 and 10 must be left justified. If these fields are left blank.Software Corporation S3-39 . ● Many fields have default values. must contain a decimal point. NAS120. ● Input data items must not have any embedded blanks. including zero. ● Error results if data extends beyond its field into another field.

Software Corporation S3-40 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120. Section 3.EXERCISE Perform Workshop 3 “Editing a Nastran Input File” in your exercise workbook.

SECTION 4 STADIUM ARCHED-ROOF TRUSS NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S4-1 . Section 4.

Section 4.SECTION 4 STADIUM ARCHED-ROOF TRUSS NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S4-2 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 4 STADIUM ARCHED-ROOF TRUSS ● Topics covered in this section: ● MD Nastran Element Library ● Creating nodes and 1D Elements ● The MD Nastran CROD element ● Post-processing 1D element results NAS120.Software Corporation S4-3 . Section 4.

25 inch. An electric billboard will be hung from this truss. arched-roof truss in her design. ● Determine the maximum vertical displacement of the structure. overhanging. NAS120.Software Corporation S4-4 . Section 4. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. The maximum stress must be below the yield point of the truss material.CASE STUDY: STADIUM ARCHED-ROOF TRUSS ● Problem Description ● The final design of a new support structure for the center field scoreboard of a baseball stadium is almost complete. You are asked to analyze the design of the arched-roof truss to ensure that it can support the weight of the scoreboard. The architect has specified that the maximum vertical movement of the scoreboard should not exceed 0. The architect has an exposed. ● Analysis Objectives ● Determine stress levels in the truss members under loading.

MD NASTRAN ELEMENTS ● The MD Nastran element library contains over 50 finite elements ● Zero-dimensional ● One-dimensional ● Two-dimensional ● Three-dimensional ● Scalar ● Axisymmetric ● Rigid ● Heat transfer ● Fluid-structure ● P-version ● Contact ● “GENEL” user-supplied element NAS120. Section 4.Software Corporation S4-5 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

4) CROD CONROD CTUBE CBAR CBEAM CBEND CQUAD4 CQUAD8 CTRIA3 CTRIA6 CQUADR CTRIAR CSHEAR CHEXA CPENTA CTETRA CTRIAX6 CTRIAX CQUADX RBAR RBE2 RBE3 RSSCON NAS120.COMMONLY USED MD NASTRAN ELEMENTS 0-D Elements Scalar Elements 1-D Elements 2-D Elements 3-D Elements Axisymmetric Elements Rigid Elements CONM2 CBUSH CELASi (i=1. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.2.Software Corporation S4-6 .3. Section 4.

CREATING ELEMENTS IN PATRAN ● Two methods for creating elements in Patran: 1. Section 4. 2.Software Corporation Method 1 S4-7 Method 2 . Mesh geometry to generate elements Create elements by connecting nodes NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

● The table below shows the location of truss joints. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Method 2 will be used to directly create nodes and connect the nodes to create elements ● There are five identical planar truss assemblies supporting the roof. Use this table to create the nodes.CREATING TRUSS NODES AND ELEMENTS ● For this case study. NAS120. Section 4. Only one truss assembly will be created.Software Corporation S4-8 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S4-9 .CREATING NODES Input location for node 1 NAS120. Section 4.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING NODES (Cont.) Repeat the process until all 13 nodes have been created NAS120. Section 4.Software Corporation S4-10 .

Section 4.Software Corporation S4-11 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING ELEMENTS Input element connectivity for element 1 NAS120.

CREATING ELEMENTS (Cont.) Repeat the process until all 24 elements have been created NAS120. Section 4. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S4-12 .

) ● The Patran BAR2 element corresponds to a family of two-noded Nastran elements: 0-D Elements Scalar Elements 1-D Elements 2-D Elements 3-D Elements Axisymmetric Elements Rigid Elements CONM2 CBUSH CELASi (i=1. Section 4. NAS120.3.Software Corporation S4-13 .CREATING ELEMENTS (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.2.4) CROD CONROD CTUBE CBAR CBEAM CBEND CQUAD4 CQUAD8 CTRIA3 CTRIA6 CQUADR CTRIAR CSHEAR CHEXA CPENTA CTETRA CTRIAX6 CTRIAX CQUADX RBAR RBE2 RBE3 RSSCON ● The specific element type will be specified later when creating the element properties.

3 ● Tensile yield strength = 36 ksi NAS120.Software Corporation S4-14 . ● The material properties are as follows: ● E = 30 x 106 psi ●  = 0. Section 4. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES ● Creating Material Properties ● The architect has selected steel tubing as the construction material.

Software Corporation S4-15 . Section 4.CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Create a material named steel NAS120.

Section 4. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Input material properties NAS120.Software Corporation S4-16 .CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.

CTUBE: ● CBAR: ● CBEAM: ● CBEND: Pin-ended rod (4 DOFs) Prismatic beam (12 DOFs) Straight beam with warping (14 DOFs) Curved beam or pipe (12 DOFs) NAS120. Section 4. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SELECT THE 1-D ELEMENT TYPE ● Following are the most commonly used one-dimensional elements in MD Nastran: ● CROD.Software Corporation S4-17 . CONROD.

25 inch wall thickness ● A = /4 *(6.5 ) = 37.0 -5. the primary load path in the truss members is axial.Software Corporation S4-18 .516 in 2 2 4 4 2 4 ● J = /32 *(6. ● The truss members have the following physical properties: ● 6.) ● For this case study.SELECT THE 1-D ELEMENT TYPE (Cont.0 -5. Assume the bending moments are negligible.398 in NAS120.5 ) = 4. ● Select the MD Nastran CROD element to model the truss members. Section 4. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.0 inch diameter tubing ● 0.

Section 4. prismatic member ● The element stiffness matrix contains only terms for axial and torsional degrees of freedom A T P B P T Xe NAS120.THE CROD ELEMENT ● General features of the CROD element are: ● Connected by two nodes ● Two force components: ● Axial force P ● Torque T ● Displacements components: ● ui and i ● Straight.Software Corporation S4-19 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

THE CROD ELEMENT (Cont.) ● Element connectivity is defined on the Nastran CROD entry 1 CROD CROD 2 EID 23 3 PID 1 4 G1 1 5 G2 7 6 7 8 9 10 Field EID PID G1. Section 4.Software Corporation S4-20 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. where G1 = grid point at End A and G2 = grid point at End B NAS120.G2 Contents Element identification number Identification number of PROD property entry Grid point identification numbers of connection points.

) ● Element property is defined on the Nastran PROD entry 1 PROD PROD 2 PID 1 3 MID 1 4 A 4.Software Corporation S4-21 . Section 4. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.THE CROD ELEMENT (Cont.398 6 C 7 NSM 8 9 10 Field PID MID A J Contents Property identification number Material identification number Cross-sectional area Torsional constant (equals to polar moment of inertia for circular cross sections) Coefficient to determine torsional stress Nonstructural mass per unit length (Real) C NSM NAS120.516 5 J 37.

Software Corporation S4-22 2b 2a . - 3 a 4 12a NAS120.25a4 ● 2a Solid Rectangular Section b4 3 16 – 3.  r o – r 4  i 2 Solid Square Section ri J = 2.36 b 1 – ----------. Section 4.) ● Calculation of torsional constant J for some typical cross sections ● Solid Circular Section 2r 1 J = -.r 4 2 ● Hollow Circular Section ro ● 1 4 J = -.THE CROD ELEMENT (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. J = ab -----.

Software Corporation S4-23 . Section 4.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTY FOR THE TRUSS Create a 1D Rod property named circular_rod NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S4-24 .CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTY FOR THE TRUSS (Cont.) Input element properties NAS120. Section 4. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S4-25 . Section 4.) Select application region NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTY FOR THE TRUSS (Cont.

NAS120.) Click Add to send selection to the collector box below and click Apply to create the element property. Section 4. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S4-26 .CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTY FOR THE TRUSS (Cont.

ELEMENT-PROPERTY-MATERIAL CHAIN REFERENCE ● A snap shot of the MD Nastran input file for this problem. and the material entry are linked together: CROD 23 1 1 7 $ Elements and Element Properties for region : circular_rod PROD 1 1 4.+7 . the property entry.516 37. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.398 $ Material Record : steel $ Description of Material : Date: 06-May-02 MAT1 1 3. Section 4. showing how the connectivity entry.Software Corporation S4-27 .3 Time: 09:25:28 NAS120.

Each truss assembly. NAS120.CREATING LOADS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ● Creating Loads and Boundary Conditions ● The truss assembly is bolted down at the base. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● The billboard weighs 2. supports 500 pounds of weight. Section 4. therefore.500 pounds.Software Corporation S4-28 . which is supported by five truss assemblies.

Software Corporation S4-29 . Section 4. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS Create a boundary condition named fixed NAS120.

) Constrain all six degrees of freedom NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 4.Software Corporation S4-30 .CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.

Software Corporation S4-31 . Section 4.) Select the base of the truss NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.

Section 4.Software Corporation S4-32 .CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Finish creating the boundary condition NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S4-33 .) Create a second boundary condition to constrain DOFs not connected to any element NAS120. Section 4.CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.

Section 4. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S4-34 .CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.) Constrain the T3 and R3 degrees of freedom NAS120.

Section 4. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.) Select the rest of the truss NAS120.Software Corporation S4-35 .

) Finish creating the boundary condition NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont. Section 4.Software Corporation S4-36 .

Software Corporation S4-37 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 4.) Rotate the model to get a better view Click here first.CREATING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont. then drag the middle mouse button to rotate the model NAS120.

CREATING LOADS Create a load named force NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S4-38 . Section 4.

CREATING LOADS (Cont.) Input -500 lbs in the y direction NAS120. Section 4. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S4-39 .

Software Corporation S4-40 .CREATING LOADS (Cont.) Select the application region NAS120. Section 4. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

CREATING LOADS (Cont. Section 4.Software Corporation S4-41 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Finish creating the load NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CASE STUDY WORKFLOW ● The pre-processing phase of the analysis process is now complete. Pre-Processing Post-Processing PATRAN PATRAN Solver MD NASTRAN NAS120. The next step is to send the model to MD Nastran to perform the numerical analysis.Software Corporation S4-42 . Section 4.

Section 4.Software Corporation S4-43 .ANALYSIS SETUP AND SUBMITTAL Select linear static analysis and submit the analysis job to MD Nastran NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S4-44 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.ANALYSIS SETUP AND SUBMITTAL (Cont.) Status window reports job progress NAS120. Section 4.

CASE STUDY WORKFLOW ● After MD Nastran completes the analysis.Software Corporation S4-45 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Pre-Processing Post-Processing PATRAN PATRAN Solver MD NASTRAN NAS120. the analysis results are ready to be post-processed. Section 4.

xdb NAS120.db truss.op2 truss.db + truss.xdb file ● When the . Section 4. it is attached to the database temporarily and becomes detached when the Patran database is closed.op2 file is read into Patran.xdb truss.db truss. it becomes a permanent part of the database. ● When the .db truss. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.op2 file and the .Software Corporation S4-46 . truss.op2 truss.TWO TYPES OF RESULT FILES ● There are two types of Nastran results files: the .xdb file is read into Patran.

Software Corporation S4-47 .xdb file to Patran. Attach the . NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Patran requested for a .xdb file when the job was submitted to Nastran.ATTACH THE XDB FILE By default. Section 4.

Software Corporation S4-48 .25 inch. Section 4. ● Examine the truss member stresses. The requirement is 36 ksi (material yield strength) NAS120. The allowable deflection is 0. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.POST PROCESS THE RESULTS ● Evaluate the analysis results ● Examine the maximum vertical deflection.

25 in NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 4.Software Corporation S4-49 .PLOT DEFORMATION Plot the deformation Max y disp = 0.018 in < 0.

Section 4. ● By switching off the averaging option.Software Corporation S4-50 .PLOT STRESSES ● By default. the true maximum axial stresses in the truss members are displayed. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Patran averages the stresses at a node from neighboring elements and plots this average stress value.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.PLOT STRESSES (Cont. Section 4.) Plot the averaged axial stresses NAS120.Software Corporation S4-51 .

) Plot the un-averaged axial stresses NAS120.PLOT STRESSES (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 4.Software Corporation S4-52 .

f06 FILE ● Open the .Software Corporation S4-53 . Section 4.f06 file with a text editor ● Check the total applied load against the total reaction load Total applied load Total reaction load NAS120.REVIEW THE . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S4-54 . Section 4. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) ● Examine the constraint forces to verify that the boundary condition has been applied correctly: NAS120.F06 FILE (Cont.REVIEW THE .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.REVIEW THE .f06 FILE (Cont. Section 4.) ● Review the displacements and rod element stresses NAS120.Software Corporation S4-55 .

018 inch is below the 0.25 inch requirement ● Maximum axial stresses: ● Tensile Stress = 226 psi ● Compressive Stress = -268 psi ● The strength margin of safety is high ● Effects such as dynamic loading and buckling will be discussed at a later part of the course.Software Corporation S4-56 . NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CASE STUDY ANALYSIS SUMMARY ● Analysis Summary: ● Maximum deflection of 0. Section 4.

EXERCISE Perform Workshop 4 “Stadium Truss” in your exercise workbook. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.Software Corporation S4-57 . Section 4.

NAS120.Software Corporation S4-58 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 4.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 5 SPACE STATION TRUSS NAS120. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-1 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-2 .NAS120.

SECTION 5 SPACE STATION TRUSS ● Topics covered in this case study: ● Part 1: Modeling ● ● ● ● ● Introduction to Geometry Transform Geometry Organize the model using Groups Mesh control Coordinate systems ● Part 2: 1D Finite Element entities ● NASTRAN CBAR element ● Definition of 1D element properties ● Part 3: Analysis and Results ● Multiple Subcases ● Postprocessing 1D data NAS120. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-3 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

CASE STUDY: SPACE STATION TRUSS ● Problem Description ● The preliminary design of a Space Station truss segment is complete. This truss segment will be launched on the Space Shuttle and assembled in space to other truss segments. communication. and heat rejection. Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-4 . The truss assembly carries a number of critical components used for navigation. The maximum stress must be below the yield point of the truss material. NAS120. ● Analysis Objectives ● Determine stress levels in the truss members under loading. You are asked to analyze the design of the truss segment to ensure that it can survive the launch and on-orbit loading events.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-5 .PART 1: MODELING ● In this section of the workshop. we will learn about: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Modeling Geometry in Patran Types of Geometry Meshing Options for each type of geometry Organizing models using Groups Coordinate Systems in Patran and Nastran Nastran Grid Point entries Equivalent Terminology in Patran and Nastran NAS120. Section 5.

NAS120. then mesh the geometry to generate the finite element model. no geometry was used. Section 5.CASE STUDY: SPACE STATION TRUSS ● Getting started on the Space Station truss analysis: ● For the previous case study.Software Corporation S5-6 . The more common method is to create or import the geometry first. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. the structure is too complex to be modeled using the previous method. ● Nodes were directly created by entering xyz coordinates ● Rod elements were created by connecting the nodes ● This method works well for simple models ● In general modeling situations.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● Patran creates points automatically when constructing curves. e.Software Corporation Y Z S5-7 X . surfaces.GEOMETRY BUILDING BLOCKS IN PATRAN Point (cyan) ● A point is a zero-dimensional CAD entity. surface from points Z 9 X NAS120. surface Y vertices (“corners”) ● It is not always necessary to construct entities starting with their points. It represents a location in space. e. and solids ● Points are created at vertices.g. Section 5.g.

GEOMETRY BUILDING BLOCKS IN PATRAN Curve (yellow) P2 ● A curve is a general vector function of the single parametric variable 1. It can have many types of mathematical forms:  P() (X. Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. with one at each end P1 5  Z Y X Y X Z ● A parametric coordinate (1) whose domain is from 0.0 at P2 ● Meshing a curve produces bar elements Bar Element S5-8 NAS120.Software Corporation .Z) = function (   ) ● A curve has: ● Two points.Y.0 at P1 (its origin) to 1.

2) ● A simple surface has: ● 3 or 4 bounding edges ● A parametric origin and parametric coordinates whose domains are from 0 to 1 ● A simple surface with 3 visible edges has a P4 Z Y X Y X S5-9 P3 Z fourth edge that is degenerate NAS120.GEOMETRY BUILDING BLOCKS IN PATRAN Simple Surface (green) ● There are two types of surface: ● Simple .Magenta ● A simple surface is a general vector  P2 P1     function of the two parametric variables 1. Section 5.Green ● Complex (general trimmed) .Z) = function (1. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Y.2:    12 P( ) (X.Software Corporation .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-10 . Section 5.MESHING A SIMPLE SURFACE ● Meshing a simple surface produces 2-D elements Tria mesh Quad mesh NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-11 . Section 5.GEOMETRY BUILDING BLOCKS IN PATRAN Complex Surface (magenta) ● A complex or general trimmed surface (magenta) has more than 4 edges and can have interior cutouts ● Not defined parametrically (1. 2 not used) ● It is a “trimmed” parametric surface Outer boundary Inner boundaries NAS120.

MESHING A COMPLEX SURFACE ● Meshing a complex surface produces 2-D elements Quad mesh Tria mesh NAS120. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-12 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

2. Section 5.White ● Simple solid ● Vector function of three parametric variables P  P P 5 P8 6 1. 3 ● A simple solid has: ● 4 to 6 bounding faces ● Parametric origin and coordinates whose P 7 domains are from 0 to 1  P 1   P 2 ● A simple solid with 4 to 5 visible faces P 3 has some degenerate faces NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Blue ● Complex .GEOMETRY BUILDING BLOCKS IN PATRAN Simple Solid (blue) ● There are two types of solid: ● Simple .Software Corporation S5-13 P 4 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.MESHING A SIMPLE SOLID ● Meshing a simple solid produces solid elements Hex mesh Wedge mesh NAS120. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-14 Tet mesh .

Section 5. It is called a boundary representation (B-rep) solid. ● Complex solids can be either Patran native B-Rep or parasolid B-Rep NAS120.Software Corporation S5-15 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.GEOMETRY BUILDING BLOCKS IN PATRAN Complex Solid (white) ● Complex Solid ● Can have an arbitrary number of faces which define the solid boundary.

Section 5.Software Corporation Tet mesh S5-16 .MESHING A B-REP SOLID ● Meshing a B-rep solid produces solid elements NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S5-17 . For example ● Solid 1.4 specifies face number 4 of solid 1 which is a surface ● Surface 2. Section 5.TOPOLOGICAL ENTITIES ● Topological entities are subcomponents of the basic geometry entities Face Vertex Solid Edge ● All topological entities can be cursor selected to perform PATRAN functions.3 specifies edge number 3 of surface 2 which is a curve NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-18 .CREATING THE SPACE STATION GEOMETRY NAS120.

Section 5.CREATING A GROUP Create a group called bulkheads NAS120.Software Corporation S5-19 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

740 -64.Software Corporation Y 81.740 -64.200 30. Section 5.675 -30.675 -30.740 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 S5-20 .675 0 Z 0 0 64.CREATING POINTS Input 7 point locations X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NAS120.740 64.675 30.200 -81. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

CREATING CURVES Create 12 curves for one bulkhead NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-21 . Section 5.

Section 5.TRANSFORMING THE CURVES Make 5 copies of the bulkhead geometry X=100 X=100 X=120 X=100 X=100 NAS120.Software Corporation S5-22 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5. NAS120.Software Corporation S5-23 .FINISH CREATING THE BULKHEAD GEOMETRY Delete unnecessary curves and points from front and rear bulkheads.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120. Groups are an effective tool to organize your model and are covered in greater detail in Section 10.CREATING A NEW GROUP Create a new group called longerons.Software Corporation S5-24 . Section 5.

Software Corporation S5-25 . Section 5.CREATING THE LONGERON GEOMETRY Create geometry for the longerons NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S5-26 . Section 5.CREATING A NEW GROUP Create a new group called diagonals NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

CREATING THE DIAGONAL GEOMETRY Create geometry for all diagonal members NAS120. Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-27 .

Section 5.● The truss geometry will next be meshed to generate MESHING THE GEOMETRY nodes and elements. ● There are two ways to control the element size Mesh seeds or Global edge length NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-28 .

Section 5.Software Corporation S5-29 .CREATING A NEW GROUP Create a new group called FEM NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

SETTING UP MESH SEEDS Set up a mesh seed of 12 elements per curve to control the mesh density on the 4 diagonal members in the longest bay NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-30 . Section 5.

MESH THE TRUSS GEOMETRY Next mesh all the curves with a global edge length of 20 in NAS120. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-31 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RESULTING MESH Coarser global mesh controlled by global edge length Finer local mesh controlled by mesh seeds NAS120.Software Corporation S5-32 .

Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-33 .EQUIVALENCE THE MODEL Equivalence the model to merge coincident nodes NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-34 . Section 5.COORDINATE SYSTEMS IN PATRAN ● Coordinate systems are used in the construction and transformation of geometry NAS120.

Software Corporation S5-35 .) ● Coordinate systems are also used to define the direction of loads and boundary conditions NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.COORDINATE SYSTEMS IN PATRAN (CONT. Section 5.

Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-36 .COORDINATE SYSTEMS IN PATRAN (CONT.) ● Coordinate systems can also be used to define the analysis coordinate system of a node NAS120.

CREATING COORDINATE SYSTEMS ● There are three types of coordinate systems: Rectangular.Software Corporation S5-37 . Cylindrical. and Spherical ● There are many ways to create coordinate systems: NAS120. Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S5-38 .MD NASTRAN COORDINATE SYSTEMS ● MD Nastran Coordinate systems are used to ● Define locations of grid points in space ● Orient each grid point’s displacement vector ● Coordinate systems in MD Nastran: ● Basic Coordinate System .User-defined coordinate systems. Each local coordinate system must be related directly or indirectly to the basic coordinate system. Section 5.Implicitly defined reference rectangular coordinate system (Coordinate System 0). ● Local Coordinate Systems . The six possible local coordinate systems are: ● Rectangular CORD1R ● Rectangular CORD2R ● Cylindrical CORD1C ● Cylindrical CORD2C ● Spherical CORD1S ● Spherical CORD2S NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Orientation of this system is defined by the user through specifying the components of grid point locations.

and CORD1S entries define a local coordinate system by referencing the IDs of three existing grid points. NAS120. This is the format used by Patran.MD NASTRAN COORDINATE SYSTEMS (Cont. CORD1C.Software Corporation S5-39 . ● All angular coordinates are input in DEGREES. All rotational displacements associated with these coordinates are output in RADIANS. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. CORD2C. ● The CORD2R.) ● MD Nastran Local Coordinate Systems: ● The CORD1R. Section 5. and CORD2S entries define a local coordinate system by specifying the vector components of three points.

uy.MD NASTRAN RECTANGULAR COORDINATE SYSTEM Rectangular Local Coordinate System (X. Y. Z) Point A Point B Point C Point P = = = = local coordinate system origin reference point for z axis direction reference point in the x-z plane grid point defined in local rectangular system (ux. uz) = displacement components of P in local system NAS120. Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-40 .

MD NASTRAN CYLINDRICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM Cylindrical Local Coordinate System (R. Uz) = displacement components of P in local system NAS120.Software Corporation S5-41 . Z) Point A Point B Point C Point P = = = = local coordinate system origin reference point for z axis direction reference point in the x-z plane grid point defined in local cylindrical system (Ur. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5. . U.

U) = displacement components of P in local system NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ) Point A Point B Point C Point P = = = = local coordinate system origin reference point for z axis direction reference point in the x-z plane grid point defined in local spherical system (Ur.Software Corporation S5-42 . U. .MD NASTRAN SPHERICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM Spherical Local Coordinate System (R. Section 5.

MD NASTRAN COORDINATE SYSTEM ENTRIES NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-43 .

Software Corporation S5-44 .DISPLAY OF COORDINATE SYSTEM 0 The tick mark represents the origin of the coordinate system 0 Coordinate system 0 is always displayed at the lower left-hand corner of the viewport NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. CORD2X ENTRIES ● By default.CORD1X VS. coordinate systems are translated into MD Nastran CORD2X entries ● If Coordinate Frame Coordinates in the Translation Parameters form is set to reference nodes. Section 5. then CORD1X is translated where applicable NAS120.Software Corporation S5-45 .

the Coordinate Frame Coordinates in the Translation Parameters form needs to be set to reference frame.Software Corporation S5-46 . Section 5.NESTED COORDINATE SYSTEMS ● Creating nested coordinate systems ● By default. the nested relationship is lost during translation to MD Nastran ● If nested coordinate system is desired. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-47 .CREATE A RECTANGULAR COORDINATE SYSTEM Create a rectangular coordinate system which will be used later to define the direction of the applied load Point 23 Point 16 Point 17 NAS120. Section 5.

GRID POINTS ●Grid points are used to specify: ● Structural geometry ● Degrees of freedom of the structure ● Locations of points at which displacements are constrained or loads are applied ● Locations where output quantities are to be calculated NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-48 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-49 . 6 3 1 4 DOF1 DOF2 DOF3 DOF4 DOF5 DOF6 = = = = = = T1 = T2 = T3 = R1 = R2 = R3 = u1 u2 u3 1 2 3 = = = = = = 2 5 translation in direction 1 translation in direction 2 translation in direction 3 rotation in direction 1 rotation in direction 2 rotation in direction 3 NAS120.DEGREES OF FREEDOM ● Each grid point is capable of moving in six directions. Section 5. These are called degrees of freedom (DOF).

Software Corporation S5-50 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.DEGREES OF FREEDOM (Cont. Section 5. all six degrees of freedom must be accounted for: ● Think in terms of 3D even if the problem is only 1D or 2D.) ● For each grid point. ● Any un-used DOF must be constrained 6 3 1 4 2 5 NAS120.

THE NASTRAN GRID ENTRY ● The NASTRAN GRID entry is show below: Field ID CP Contents Grid point identification number Identification number of coordinate system in which the location of the grid point is defined (integer  0 or blank. March 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC. Section 5. default = basic coordinate system) Location of grid point in coordinate system CP (real) Identification number of coordinate system in which displacements. X2. degrees of freedom.Software Corporation S5-51 . Permanent single-point constraints associated with grid point (any of the digits 1-6 with no embedded blanks) This method of constraining a structure is not recommended. Superelement ID X1. X3 CD PS SEID NAS120. constraints. and solution vectors are defined at the grid point (integer  0 or blank. default = basic coordinate system).

degrees of freedom. ● The coordinate system in field 7 establishes the grid point displacement coordinate system which defines for the given grid point the directions of displacements. Section 5. and solution vectors. constraints.THE NASTRAN GRID ENTRY (Cont.) ● Each GRID entry refers to two coordinate systems ● The coordinate system in field 3 is used to locate the grid point. March 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S5-52 . NAS120. This is called the positional coordinate system.

etc. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5. NAS120. grid point forces.THE GRID POINT DISPLACEMENT COORDINATE SYSTEM ● The grid point displacement coordinate system: ● The grid point displacement coordinate system is also known as the output coordinate system because all grid point results (displacements.Software Corporation S5-53 .) are generated and output in this coordinate system. ● The union of all displacement coordinate systems is called the global coordinate system.

Basic coordinate system 0 Coordinate System 5 (cylindrical) NAS120. Section 5. March 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S5-54 .GRID POINT EXAMPLE GRID POINT EXAMPLE Grid points 10 and 20 are located on the aircraft fuselage as show below. The GRID entry uses coordinate system 5 to define the location of the two points and uses coordinate system 0 to define the grid point displacements.

Section 5.Software Corporation S5-55 .) Suppose we are interested in displacements and forces in the fuselage radial and tangential directions. March 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.GRID POINT EXAMPLE (Cont. We can accomplish this by changing field 7 of the GRID entries from coordinate system 0 to coordinate system 5. Basic coordinate system 0 Coordinate System 5 (cylindrical) NAS120.

Software Corporation S5-56 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5.USING THE GRID POINT DISPLACEMENT COORDINATE SYSTEM ● Examples of how the grid point displacement coordinate system is used CONSTRAINTS RIGID ELEMENTS CLEARANCE SPRINGS NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING A GRID POINT IN PATRAN ● There are two ways to create grid points in PATRAN: ● Directly create the grid point ● Mesh the geometry Equivalent to grid point in MD Nastran Equivalent to the displacement coordinate system in MD Nastran Equivalent to the positional coordinate system in MD Nastran NAS120. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-57 .

Section 5.NASTRAN AND PATRAN TERMINOLOGY ● Equivalent Terminology in NASTRAN and PATRAN: NASTRAN Grid Points Basic Coordinate System Global Coordinate System Displacement Coordinate System Positional Coordinate System PATRAN Nodes Global Coordinate System None Analysis Coordinate System Reference Coordinate System NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-58 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.EXERCISE Perform Workshop 5 “Coordinate Systems” in your exercise workbook. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-59 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. we will learn about: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Types of 1D elements available in Nastran Selection of appropriate elements for modeling tasks The Nastran CBAR element Bar Offsets Element coordinate systems Definition of 1D element properties Orientation for Bar and Beam elements Display of element cross section Manual input of sectional properties NAS120. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-60 .PART 2: 1D FINITE ELEMENT ENTITIES ● In this section of the workshop.

3 ● Tensile yield strength = 45 ksi NAS120.Software Corporation S5-61 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● Aluminum 7075-T7351 plate and bar stock has been selected for the truss. Section 5. ● The material properties are as follows: ● E = 10 x 106 psi ●  = 0. Let’s create material properties.CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES ● Now back to the case study.

Section 5.Software Corporation S5-62 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Create a material named al_7075 NAS120.CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.

Software Corporation S5-63 . Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.) Input material properties NAS120.

P M NAS120. We must select an element type that is capable of resisting the shear forces and moments.Software Corporation S5-64 .LOAD PATH IN TRUSS ● Considering load paths in the truss assembly ● The truss members must carry axial and lateral loads due to the way they are loaded. Section 5. Shear and bending moment will develop in the members as they are loaded laterally at locations between the truss joints as shown below. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 5.Software Corporation S5-65 .COMMONLY USED 1-D ELEMENTS ● Following are the most commonly used one- dimensional elements in NASTRAN: ● ROD ● BAR ● BEAM Pin-ended rod (4 DOFs) Prismatic beam (12 DOFs) Straight beam with warping (14 DOFs) NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

More complex elements will still do the job. select the simplest element which gives you the correct load path. August 2008 significant Copyright 2008 MSC. but may give you a lot of unwanted output.Software Corporation S5-66 . Section 5. ● If shear and moment are to be transmitted in an element.ELEMENT SELECTION ● Guidelines on 1-D element selection: ● In general. then the CROD or CONROD element is the best choice. ● If only an axial load or torsional load is to be transmitted in an element. then the CBAR is the easiest element to use. ● Use the CBEAM element instead of the CBAR element for the following reasons: ● Variable cross-section ● The neutral axis and shear center are not coincident ● The effect of cross-sectional warping on the torsional stiffness is significant ● The mass center of gravity and shear center are not coincident ● The effect of taper on the transverse shear stiffness (shear relief) is NAS120.

Software Corporation S5-67 . Section 5.ELEMENT SELECTION (Cont.) ● For this problem we will use the CBAR element due to its ability to transmit shear force and bending moment. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● The CBEAM element has additional capabilities which we don’t need for this problem. The use of CBEAM will be demonstrated in the next section. NAS120.

● Pin flag capability used to represent slotted joints. Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.THE CBAR ELEMENT ● General Features of the CBAR Element ● Connected to two grid points ● Formulation derived from classical beam theory (plane sections remain plane under deformations) ● Includes optional transverse shear flexibility ● Neutral axis may be offset from the grid points (internally a rigid link is created) ● Principal moment of inertia axis need not coincide with element axis.Software Corporation S5-68 . etc. hinges. ball joints. NAS120.

● Force components: ● ● ● ● Axial force P Torque T Bending moments about two perpendicular directions M1 and M2 Shears in two perpendicular directions V1 and V2 S5-69 NAS120.THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.Software Corporation .e. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. properties do not vary along the length). prismatic member (i. ● Shear center and neutral axis must coincide (therefore.) ● General limitations on CBAR: ● Straight.. ● Displacement Components: ● Six degrees of freedom at each end. not recommended for modeling channel or angle sections). Section 5. ● The effect of cross-sectional warping is neglected.

) ● CBAR element entry: NAS120. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-70 .THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-71 . Section 5.) ● CBAR element entry: NAS120.

Software Corporation S5-72 .) ● CBAR element entry: NAS120. Section 5.THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

) ● CBAR element coordinate system ● ● ● ● Defined by the orientation vector V Orients input cross-sectional properties Orients output forces and stresses Orients pin flags x x z z NAS120.THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont. March 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S5-73 . Section 5.

Software Corporation S5-74 . Section 5.) CBAR Element Coordinate System NAS120.THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)

CBAR Element Coordinate System with Offsets

NAS120, Section 5, March 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation

S5-75

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
Following are two examples of when you might define the CBAR element coordinate system orientation vector V with each of the two available options (G0 or X1, X2, X3).

Example 1 If you are representing stringers on a fuselage with CBAR elements, your input will be minimized by using the G0 option to define the element coordinate system orientation vector V.

NAS120, Section 5, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S5-76

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)

Example 2 To specify the orientation of the legs of a tripod modeled with CBAR elements as shown, it would be most efficient to use the components of a vector (X1, X2, X3) to define the orientation vector V since the orientation of each of the legs is unique.

NAS120, Section 5, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S5-77

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● CBAR Offsets
●The ends of the CBAR element can be offset from the Grid Points

(GA, GB) by specifying the components of offset vectors WA and WB on the CBAR entry.
●The offset vector is treated as a rigid link between the grid point and

the end of the element.
●The element coordinate system is defined with respect to the offset

ends of the bar element.

NAS120, Section 5, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S5-78

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● Bar Offset Example
Stiffeners Centroid of Stiffener

Offset

Grid Points Thin sheet
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-79

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● The OFFT field
● OFFT is a character string code that describes how the

offset and orientation vector components are to be interpreted.
● By default (string input is GGG or blank), the offset vectors

are measured in the displacement coordinate systems at grid points A and B and the orientation vector is measured in the displacement coordinate system of grid point A.
● At user option, the offset vectors can be measured in an

offset coordinate system relative to grid points A and B, and the orientation vector can be measured in the basic system as indicated in the following table:
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-80

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● The OFFT field (Cont.)

NAS120, Section 5, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S5-81

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● CBAR Pin Flags
The user specifies DOF’s at either end of the bar element that are to transmit zero force or moment. The pin flags PA and PB are specified in the element coordinate system and defined in fields 2 and 3 of the optional CBAR continuation.

Example: Pin flag applied to rotational DOF at this end of CBAR creates a hinged joint.
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-82

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● CBAR Element Properties entry:

NAS120, Section 5, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S5-83

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● CBAR Element Properties entry (cont.)

NAS120, Section 5, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S5-84

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● CBAR Element Properties entry (Cont.)

NAS120, Section 5, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S5-85

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)

NAS120, Section 5, March 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation

S5-86

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)

NAS120, Section 5, March 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation

S5-87

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)

Shear Factor K

NAS120, Section 5, March 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation

S5-88

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)

NAS120, Section 5, March 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation

S5-89

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● Alternative CBAR Element Properties entry:

NAS120, Section 5, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S5-90

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● PBARL cross-section types

NAS120, Section 5, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S5-91

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● PBARL cross-section types

NAS120, Section 5, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S5-92

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● PBARL cross-section types

NAS120, Section 5, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S5-93

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● PBARL cross-section types

NAS120, Section 5, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S5-94

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● BAR element internal forces and moments

NAS120, Section 5, March 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation

S5-95

THE CBAR ELEMENT (Cont.)
● BAR element internal forces and moments

NAS120, Section 5, March 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation

S5-96

CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES

Create properties for the CBAR element

CBAR CBEND
NAS120, Section 5, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

CBEAM

S5-97

CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. ● The diagonal members carry less loads and are made of lighter I-beam sections. Section 5. there are two types of cross-sections: ● The longerons and bulkhead members carry large axial and bending loads and are made of heavy I-beam sections.) ● For the Space Station truss segment. NAS120.Software Corporation S5-98 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.190 in NAS120.375 in Tw = 0. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.25 in Light Section 6” x 6” Tf = 0.) Heavy Section 6” x 6” Tf = 0.500 in Tw = 0.Software Corporation S5-99 . Section 5.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. Section 5.) Post the longerons and bulkheads NAS120.Software Corporation S5-100 .

Software Corporation S5-101 .) Create a property for the longerons and bulkheads NAS120. Section 5.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

) Select the material created earlier NAS120.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-102 .

Software Corporation S5-103 .) Enter the orientation vector NAS120. Section 5.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Select a section from the Beam Library NAS120. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-104 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5.) Enter dimensions for the Ibeam section and type in a section name NAS120.Software Corporation S5-105 .CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.

Software Corporation S5-106 .CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.) Click Calculate/Display to compute section properties NAS120. Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

) Click OK to accept the cross-section NAS120. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-107 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.

Software Corporation S5-108 . Section 5.) Click OK to accept all the physical properties NAS120.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 5.) Select all curves representing longerons and bulkheads NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-109 .CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.

CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.Software Corporation S5-110 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Add to the application region box and apply NAS120. Section 5.

NAS120. Section 5. ● Since a cross section from the beam library was used. PATRAN now has enough information to display the cross section in 3D space.Software Corporation S5-111 .) ● It is important to always verify that the CBAR cross section is oriented in the correct direction. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.

CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.Software Corporation S5-112 . Props… NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5.) Display Loads/BC/Elem.

Software Corporation S5-113 .CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.) Change from 1D line display to 3D Display NAS120. Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.) Post the FEM group NAS120. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-114 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) The CBAR elements are now displayed as 3D members NAS120. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-115 .CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.

Software Corporation S5-116 . Section 5.) Zoom in to verify that the I-beams are oriented correctly NAS120.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S5-117 .CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.) Shade the I-beams Shaded Hidden Line Wireframe NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5.

CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. Section 5.) Post the diagonals NAS120.Software Corporation S5-118 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

) Create a second property set for the diagonal members NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (cont.Software Corporation S5-119 .

we will use Method 2 to demonstrate how to directly enter cross sectional properties. Arbitrary shape 2. Create a cross section using the Beam Library a.Software Corporation S5-120 . Compute the cross sectional properties first and enter them directly into PATRAN.) ● There are two ways to define section properties in PATRAN: 1. ● For the diagonal members. Standard shape b. Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.

the following cross sectional properties have been calculated: Diagonals 6” x 6” Tf = 0.224 in4 NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-121 .497 in2 I1 = 37.50 in4 J = 0.375 in Tw = 0.94 in4 I2 = 13. Section 5.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.190 in A = 5.) ● Using equations from a handbook such as Roark.

CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.Software Corporation S5-122 .) Select material and enter orientation vector NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5.

I2.Software Corporation S5-123 . I1. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. J NAS120.) Enter A.

) Enter stress recovery points and click OK to accept properties NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-124 .CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.

Section 5.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-125 .) Select curves representing the diagonal members and apply NAS120.

CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. PATRAN can not provide a 3D display of the I-beam cross section ● However.Software Corporation S5-126 .) ● Since the cross-sectional properties for the diagonals were entered directly into PATRAN. Patran can display an equivalent rectangular section. Section 5. NAS120.

CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-127 .) Post the FEM group NAS120.

CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-128 .) Another way to verify the orientation of cross sections is to display the element Y axis NAS120.

Section 5. and the material entry are linked together. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) ● A snap shot of the NASTRAN input file for this problem shows how the connectivity entry.Software Corporation S5-129 . the property entry. NAS120.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.

Section 5.PART 3: ANALYSIS AND RESULTS ● In this section of the workshop. we will learn about: ● ● ● ● ● Definition of loads and boundary conditions Creation of Loadcases Subcases created from Loadcases Submit Analysis Post-process 1D results This section wraps up the workshop by completing the simulation of the space station truss.Software Corporation S5-130 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.

Once on orbit. For this configuration.Software Corporation S5-131 . we will only analyze the truss on-orbit configuration. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. it is deployed and attached to neighboring truss segments. Section 5. NAS120. assume the neighboring truss assemblies are massive enough to provide fixed boundaries for the two ends of our truss segment. ● For simplicity.LOADS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ● Boundary Conditions ● The truss segment is tied down at 6 points in the Space Shuttle cargo bay during launch.

LOADS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ● Applied Loads ● There are a number of on-orbit loading events including Space Shuttle docking loads.Software Corporation S5-132 . assembly loads. and EVA (Extravehicular Activity) loads. we will focus on the EVA push-off load of 200 lb produced by an astronaut while working on the Space Station. NAS120. For this case study. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS Create a boundary condition named fixed_ends NAS120. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-133 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-134 .CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.) Constrain all six degrees of freedom NAS120.

Section 5.Software Corporation S5-135 .) Select two ends of the truss NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5.CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.) Finish applying the boundary condition NAS120.Software Corporation S5-136 .

NAS120.CREATE LOADS ● The EVA push-off load can be applied anywhere on the truss segment by an astronaut.Software Corporation S5-137 . Let’s apply the 200-lb force on a diagonal member in the longest truss bay. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5.

CREATE LOADS (Cont.Software Corporation S5-138 .) Create a load named EVA_Load NAS120. Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

NAS120. Section 5.) Apply a 200 lb force normal to the diagonal member using the coordinate system created earlier. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-139 .CREATE LOADS (Cont.

) Select the application region NAS120.Software Corporation S5-140 . Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATE LOADS (Cont.

) Finish creating the load NAS120.Software Corporation S5-141 .CREATE LOADS (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5.

● Each MD Nastran Subcase can contain loads. Thermal loading. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. EVA loads. ● During launch. The design driver is the severe launch vibration environment. The launch loads are now absent. Section 5. ● A good example of this is the space station.MULTIPLE SUBCASES ● A structure may experience different loading scenarios. the space station segment is attached at several hardpoints inside the shuttle cargo bay. ● All these launch and on-orbit loading events can be applied using the MD Nastran Subcases. the space station segment is attached to other segments at its two ends. and output requests. NAS120. ● When in orbit. and shuttle docking loads become more important loading events. boundary condition. It may also be constrained differently during different phases of usage.Software Corporation S5-142 .

it is activated by selecting it in the Subcase Select form. NAS120. Section 5. ● Once the load case is created. ● Use the Assign/prioritize form to add or remove loads and boundary conditions to the load case.Software Corporation S5-143 .MULTIPLE SUBCASES (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) ● A Subcase is created in Patran using the Load Case form as shown on the next page.

CREATING THE SUBCASE NAS120. Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-144 .

Section 5.SELECTING THE SUBCASE NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-145 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.THE SUBCASE ENTRIES ● A sample Nastran input file showing multiple subcases NAS120. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-146 .

Software Corporation S5-147 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.PERFORM ANALYSIS Perform linear static analysis NAS120. Section 5.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.ATTACH RESULTS Attach the xdb file NAS120. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-148 .

PLOT RESULTS Plot deformed shape and averaged stresses NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-149 . Section 5.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 5.Software Corporation S5-150 .PLOT RESULTS Plot un-averaged stresses NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-151 .EXAMINE RESULTS ● Examine the .f06 file for element stresses Minimum Combined Maximum Combined NAS120. Section 5.

) ● Examine the . Section 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S5-152 .f06 file for element forces NAS120.EXAMINE RESULTS (Cont.

Software Corporation S5-153 . Section 5. NAS120.EXERCISE Perform Workshop 6 “Bridge Truss” in your exercise workbook. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S5-154 . Section 5.NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 6 TRAFFIC SIGNAL POLE NAS120. Section 6.Software Corporation S6-1 .

SECTION 6 TRAFFIC SIGNAL POLE NAS120.Software Corporation S6-2 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 6.

SECTION 6 TRAFFIC SIGNAL POLE ● Topics covered in this case study: ● Material properties ● NASTRAN CBEAM element ● Fields NAS120. Section 6. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S6-3 .

Section 6. NAS120. The maximum stress must be below the yield point of the pole material.Software Corporation S6-4 . ● Analysis Objective ● Determine stresses in the pole due to traffic signal loading. The loading on the signal pole is 200 lbs. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CASE STUDY: TRAFFIC SIGNAL POLE ● Problem Description ● A traffic signal pole supports the signal at one end and is attached to the vertical pole at the other end. It has a circular tube cross section.

Section 6.5” tapering down to 2.000 psi yield strength NAS120.Software Corporation S6-5 .SECTION 6 TRAFFIC SIGNAL POLE ● Traffic signal pole specifications ● ● ● ● ● Length: 20 ft Cross section: circular tube Outer radius: 4” tapering down to 3” Inner radius: 3. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.5” Material: Steel with 50.

CREATE SIGNAL POLE GEOMETRY Create the signal pole geometry NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S6-6 . Section 6.

Section 6.Software Corporation S6-7 .CREATE SIGNAL POLE GEOMETRY (Cont.) Examine the parametric direction for the curve NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 6. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.WORKING WITH CURVES ● Methods for Creating Curves NAS120.Software Corporation S6-8 .

) ● Methods for Creating Curves NAS120.WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont.Software Corporation S6-9 . Section 6. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S6-10 .) ● Methods for Creating Curves NAS120. Section 6.

WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont. Section 6.Software Corporation S6-11 .) ● Other Actions for Curves NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 6. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont.Software Corporation S6-12 .) ● Editing Curves NAS120.

) ● Showing Curves NAS120.Software Corporation S6-13 .WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 6.

Section 6. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S6-14 .WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont.) ● Transforming Curves NAS120.

Section 6.Software Corporation S6-15 .) ● Associate/Disassociate Curves ● You can only associate curves to curves or surfaces which are within the global model tolerance ● Associated curves may be used to guide the interior meshing of an entity through mesh seeding ● Curves can be associated with other curve and surface types of geometry NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.WORKING WITH CURVES (Cont.

MESHING THE GEOMETRY ● Now. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S6-16 . mesh the curve to generate grid points and elements ● Use mesh seeds to control the mesh NAS120. Section 6.

MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Create uniform mesh seeds NAS120.Software Corporation S6-17 . Section 6.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont. Section 6.Software Corporation S6-18 .) Mesh the curve to create 1D elements NAS120.

MATERIAL PROPERTIES ● Creating Material Properties ● So far in the case studies. we have been creating isotropic materials such as steel and aluminum ● Patran supports a number of material types as shown in the next slide NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S6-19 . Section 6.

MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) ● Material Types ● Isotropic ● 2D Orthotropic ● 3D Orthotropic ● 2D Anisotropic ● 3D Anisotropic ● Composite Isotropic structural material (MAT1) 2-Dimensional orthotropic material (MAT8) 3-Dimensional orthotropic material (MAT9) 2-Dimensional anisotropic (MAT2) 3-Dimensional anisotropic (MAT9) Various composite material models NAS120.Software Corporation S6-20 . Section 6.

● The creation of composite materials is covered in a later section NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) ● The creation of isotropic materials is covered in this section.MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.Software Corporation S6-21 . Section 6.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) ● Material Property Definitions NAS120. Section 6.MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.Software Corporation S6-22 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Only two are independent.) Homogeneous Material properties are independent of the location within the material Material properties do not change with the direction of the material The three properties needed to completely describe an isotropic material are E. Isotropic NAS120.Software Corporation S6-23 .) ● Material Property Definitions (Cont.MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont. and G (shear modulus). . Section 6.

Section 6. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S6-24 .) ● There are two ways to create material properties in PATRAN ● Manual Input ● Externally Defined NAS120.MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.

) How to create an isotropic material by manual input NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont. Section 6.Software Corporation S6-25 .

Section 6.Software Corporation S6-26 .MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.) ● NASTRAN entry for isotropic materials NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont.3 ● Yield strength = 50 ksi NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) ● Create material properties for this case study ● Following properties are given for the signal post material: ● E = 29 x 106 psi ●  = 0. Section 6.Software Corporation S6-27 .

Software Corporation S6-28 .) Create an isotropic material named steel NAS120.MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont. Section 6. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

) Define material strength properties Note that Linear Elastic and Failure properties must be input separately and you must click Apply after specifying each constitutive model. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.MATERIAL PROPERTIES (Cont. NAS120. Section 6.Software Corporation S6-29 .

SELECT ELEMENT TYPE CBAR CBEND CBEAM S6-30 NAS120.Software Corporation . Section 6. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S6-31 . and NAS120. Section 6. i . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.THE CBEAM ELEMENT ● CBEAM Element Overview ● Connected to two grid points ● Force components: ● Axial force P ● Shear forces in 2 planes V1 and V2 ● Bending moments in 2 planes M1 and M2 ● Total torque T ● Warping torque Tw ● Displacement components: ● ui .

Software Corporation S6-32 .) ● The CBEAM element includes all capabilities of the CBAR element plus several optional capabilities that include: ● The cross-sectional properties may be specified at up to nine interior points and also at both ends ● The neutral axis and shear center axis need not be coincident ● The effect of cross-sectional warping on the torsional stiffness ● The effect of taper on the transverse shear stiffness (shear relief) ● The nonstructural mass center of gravity can be offset from the shear center NAS120.) ● CBEAM Element Overview (Cont.THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 6.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 6.THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.) ● The CBEAM Entry NAS120.Software Corporation S6-33 .

) ● The CBEAM Entry (cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.) NAS120. Section 6.Software Corporation S6-34 .

) ● The CBEAM Entry (cont.) NAS120.Software Corporation S6-35 . Section 6. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.

January 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC. Section 6.THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.) NAS120.Software Corporation S6-36 .

Section 6. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) ● The CBEAM Element Properties NAS120.THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.Software Corporation S6-37 .

) ● The CBEAM Element Properties NAS120.THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S6-38 . Section 6.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.Software Corporation S6-39 .) ● The CBEAM Element Properties NAS120. Section 6.

) ● The CBEAM Element Properties NAS120.THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont. Section 6.Software Corporation S6-40 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont. Section 6.January 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.) ● Shear Relief Coefficients S1 and S2 ● The shear relief coefficient accounts for the fact that in a tapered flanged beam the flanges sustain a portion of the transverse shear load. This situation is illustrated below: NAS120.Software Corporation S6-41 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.Software Corporation S6-42 .) ● The value of the shear coefficient for a tapered beam with heavy flanges that sustain the entire moment load may then be written as ● See the MD NASTRAN Reference Manual for further details on the shear relief coefficients.) ● Shear Relief Coefficients S1 and S2 (Cont.THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont. Section 6.

Software Corporation S6-43 . but warp.THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont. CW(B) ● A twisting moment m is applied to a beam and the beam twists ● For a beam with a circular cross section. Section 6.January 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.) ● Cross-Sectional Warping – Coefficients CW(A). This behavior is described by the differential equation below: NAS120. plane sections remain plane after twisting ● For a beam with a non-circular cross section. plane sections do not remain plane.

) ● Cross-Sectional Warping – Coefficients CW(A). CW(B) ● The first term in the equation is called the twisting torque. ● In order to model the warping effect. Section 6. NAS120. The second term in the equation is called the warping torque.January 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC. the user must enter the warping coefficients on the PBEAM entry and specify two scalar points on the CBEAM entry. m is the total torque.Software Corporation S6-44 .THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.

Software Corporation .THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont. N2) ● The N1 and N2 fields on the PBEAM entry allow the user to specify the neutral axis offset from the shear center. S6-45 NAS120. Section 6.) ● Neutral Axis Offset from Shear Center (N1.January 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.

NAS120.) ● The CBEAM properties can be alternatively specified using the PBEAML entry.Software Corporation S6-46 .THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont. Section 6. December 2004 Copyright 2004 MSC.

) ● CBEAM element internal forces and moments NAS120. Section 6.Software Corporation S6-47 .THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.January 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.

Software Corporation S6-48 .) ● CBEAM element internal forces and moments in plane 1 and plane 2 NAS120. Section 6.THE CBEAM ELEMENT (Cont.January 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.

0” ● The inner radius of the pole tapers from R = 3.5” NAS120.Software Corporation S6-49 .5” to R = 2.MODELING THE TAPERED SIGNAL POLE ● Use the CBEAM element ● The outer radius of the pole tapers from R = 4.0” to R = 3. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 6.

Section 6.Software Corporation S6-50 .FIELDS ● The linearly varying outer and inner radii of the beam will be modeled by using Fields. NAS120. Fields in PATRAN are used to define variations in ● ● ● ● ● Loads Boundary Conditions Material Properties Element Properties ● There are three types of fields: ● ● ● Spatial Fields Non Spatial Fields Material Property Fields ● Use Spatial Fields to model the beam tapers in this case study. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

CREATING FIELDS Create a field for the taper in beam outer radius from 4” to 3” NAS120.Software Corporation S6-51 . Section 6. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.5” to 2.Software Corporation S6-52 . Section 6.) Create a second field for the taper in beam inner radius from 3.CREATING FIELDS (Cont.5” NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S6-53 . Section 6.CREATING FIELDS (Cont.) Verify the two fields by plotting them NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S6-54 .CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES Create 1D element properties NAS120. Section 6.

) Input properties NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S6-55 .CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. Section 6.

Software Corporation S6-56 . Section 6.) Select the steel material created earlier NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. Section 6.) Enter the beam orientation vector NAS120.Software Corporation S6-57 .

Software Corporation S6-58 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. Section 6.) Select the circular tube section from the Beam Library and name it “circular tube section” NAS120.

Section 6.Software Corporation S6-59 .CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.) Enter R1 and R2 by selecting the fields created earlier NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

) Select curve 1 and click calculate/display to show cross section at one end of curve NAS120. Section 6.Software Corporation S6-60 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. Section 6.Software Corporation S6-61 .) Slide the parametric location dial from End A to End B and click Calculate/Display to view cross section at the other end of curve NAS120.

Section 6.Software Corporation S6-62 . NAS120. Select OK to accept the input properties.) Select OK to accept the beam library section. Click Apply to create the element property. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.

Software Corporation S6-63 .CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 6.) Change from 1D to 3D display to visually inspect the cross section NAS120.

Section 6.) 3D display of tapered beam NAS120.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S6-64 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S6-65 . Section 6.CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION Create the boundary condition NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Constrain all six degrees of freedom NAS120.Software Corporation S6-66 . Section 6.CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION (Cont.

) Select the end point NAS120.Software Corporation S6-67 .CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 6.

Section 6.Software Corporation S6-68 .CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION (Cont.) Finish creating the boundary condition NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

CREATE LOADS Create a concentrated force of 200 lbs downward NAS120.Software Corporation S6-69 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 6.

Section 6. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Apply the force to the end of the beam NAS120.Software Corporation S6-70 .CREATE LOADS (Cont.

Software Corporation S6-71 . NAS120.) The load is applied. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 6.CREATE LOADS (Cont.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 6.PERFORM ANALYSIS Set up a static analysis run in NASTRAN NAS120.Software Corporation S6-72 .

Apply.Software Corporation S6-73 . NAS120.REQUEST FOR ADDITIONAL OUTPUT Set up the output request: Select Subcases Select the Default subcase Select Output Requests Select Element Forces to add this to the Output Request Box OK. and Cancel. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 6.

) Click Apply to submit the job to MD NASTRAN NAS120.Software Corporation S6-74 .PERFORM ANALYSIS (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 6.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S6-75 . Section 6.ATTACH RESULTS Read the MD NASTRAN results into PATRAN NAS120.

Software Corporation S6-76 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 6.PLOT RESULTS Plot the deformation NAS120.

Section 6.PLOT RESULTS (Cont. NAS120. Plot it again with averaging domain set to none.Software Corporation S6-77 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Plot the maximum combined axial and bending stresses.

Software Corporation S6-78 . Section 6. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Plot the minimum combined axial and bending stresses.PLOT RESULTS (Cont. NAS120. Plot it again with averaging domain set to none.

307 psi.f06 file shown below: NAS120. Section 6.EXAMINE THE f06 FILE ● The maximum stress according to PATRAN is 2.Software Corporation S6-79 . Compare this to the NASTRAN . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Axial Stress fa = P/A = 0 psi Tens. Section 6.307.203 = -2.6 psi ● The computed stresses do agree with the NASTRAN stress output in the previous slide.f06 file to compute stresses by hand.0)/83. NAS120.6 psi Comp.307. Bending Stress fb = MC/I = 48000(-4.0)/83.EXAMINE THE f06 FILE (Cont.) ● Use the NASTRAN element force output from the . Bending Stress fb = MC/I = 48000(4.203 = 2.Software Corporation S6-80 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S6-81 . ● Further analysis may consider different types of loading and crippling of circular cross section. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 6. NAS120.CASE STUDY SUMMARY ● Traffic signal pole stresses based on preliminary finite element analysis are well below the yield point of the material.

NAS120. Section 6. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.EXERCISE Perform Workshop 7 “Tapered Plate” in your exercise workbook.Software Corporation S6-82 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-1 .SECTION 7 AIRCRAFT WING RIB NAS120. Section 7.

Software Corporation S7-2 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 7.SECTION 7 AIRCRAFT WING RIB NAS120.

Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-3 .SECTION 7 AIRCRAFT WING RIB ● Topics covered in this case study: ● PATRAN 2D Geometry ● Meshing 2D Geometry ● Controlling the mesh ● NASTRAN Plate and Shell Element Definitions ● Importing CAD Geometry ● Midsurface Extraction for 2D Modeling of Solids ● Loads and Constraints ● Post Processing 2D analysis results NAS120.

● In this particular load case.Software Corporation S7-4 . Front Spar Wing Rib Rear Spar NAS120. which is part of the wing structure of a light aircraft. ● The wing rib is attached to the front and rear spars and wing skins. Section 7. the rib is undergoing shear and we are going to look at the stress around the cutout lightening holes. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CASE STUDY: AIRCRAFT WING RIB ● Problem Description ● We are tasked with analyzing a wing rib.

Software Corporation S7-5 . ● The loading will have been determined by assessment of the air loads and inertia loads. Section 7. NAS120.) ● Wing Rib ● We are going to simplify the analysis by assuming that the front spar loads the rib in shear and that the rear spar is effectively built in. ● The geometry is simplified by ignoring the curvature of the rib edges.CASE STUDY: AIRCRAFT WING RIB (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

063” Loading 60 lbf/in Centerline R=3” R=4” R=5” 22” Fully Fixed 18” X 10” 20” 31” 40” 7075 –T73 Aluminum E = 10.Software Corporation S7-6 .CASE STUDY: AIRCRAFT WING RIB (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.0 x 106 lb/in2  = 0.) X t=0. Section 7.33 NAS120.

CASE STUDY: AIRCRAFT WING RIB (Cont.) ● Analysis Objectives ● Determine stress levels in the rib skin under shear loading.100 inch. The maximum stress must be below the yield stress of the rib material. Section 7. ● Determine the maximum vertical displacement of the rib.Software Corporation S7-7 . NAS120. The aeroelastics department has specified that the maximum vertical movement of the rib should not exceed 0. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) ● Wing Rib Geometry has been modeled in a CAD program ● Rib is a very thin solid. which we prefer to model with 2D elements NAS120.CASE STUDY: AIRCRAFT WING RIB (Cont.Software Corporation S7-8 .

NAS120.) ● Getting started on the wing rib analysis in PATRAN: ● Ignore the cutouts initially and create a simple surface in Patran to introduce the idea of Surface Geometry Creation ● Initially. Section 7.Software Corporation S7-9 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. we will create a basic geometric surface on which we will later create the mesh ● This type of surface is a ‘Green’ surface ● Later.CASE STUDY: AIRCRAFT WING RIB (Cont. we will import the CAD Geometry and create and mesh a more complex surface.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 7.CREATING GEOMETRY ● Simple PATRAN Surfaces (Green) ● A surface is a general vector function of two parametric variables ● A surface is characterized by: ● A set of bounding curves ● A parametric origin and two parametric variables ( and ) ● A surface can have the same curvature as a curve ● Display lines can be turned on to visualize the interior curvature NAS120.Software Corporation S7-10 .

CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.) ● A Simple Surface (Green) has 3 or 4 edges ● A simple surface with 3 sides is degenerate ● A simple surface can be meshed with either the Iso Mesher (Mapped) or Paver Mesher Simple Surface IsoMesh (mapped mesh) Elements Geometry NAS120. Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-11 .

CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 7.) ● A General Surface (Magenta) may have more than 4 edges and can have inner boundaries (holes) ● It is also called a Trimmed Surface ● General surfaces can only be meshed with the Paver Mesher ● General surfaces can be optionally decomposed into simple surfaces to allow meshing with IsoMesh (Mapped) Mesher General (Trimmed) Surface Paver Mesh Elements Geometry NAS120.Software Corporation S7-12 .

0.9. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.0 Vector 0. Section 7.Software Corporation S7-13 .CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.0 NAS120.) Create two curves using the xyz method First Curve: Origin 0.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.11.CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont. Section 7.Software Corporation S7-14 .0.) Second Curve: Origin 40.0 NAS120.0 Vector 0.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 7.CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.Software Corporation S7-15 .) Create the surface NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Make the bottom half of the rib by Mirroring Surface 1 NAS120. Section 7.Software Corporation S7-16 .CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.

) Surface 2 is created NAS120.CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 7.Software Corporation S7-17 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING GEOMETRY (Cont.0 We reversed the new surface so that subsequent meshing keeps consistent orientation NAS120. Section 7.Software Corporation S7-18 .2 The Offset was 0.) The Mirror reflection Plane was set up using: Coordinate System 0 Direction 2 (the y axis) Coord 0.0 so the Plane lies on y=0.

MESHING THE GEOMETRY Elements Menu Create the mesh on Surface 1 and 2 NAS120.Software Corporation S7-19 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 7.

Section 7.Software Corporation S7-20 .MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Use the IsoMesh Meshing Method Elements will be Quad4 type Global Edge Length is 2 inches for the Elements in the mesh NAS120.

IsoMesh divides the surfaces or faces into groups of parallel edges called Mesh Paths ● Mesh Paths are used by IsoMesh to determine the number of elements per edge for elements along a specific path.Software Corporation S7-21 . The number of elements per edge is based on the following priority: ● Mesh Seeds ● Adjoining meshed regions that are topologically congruent (surface 1 and 2) ● Global Edge Length (set to 2 inches) NAS120.MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont. Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) ● When meshing surfaces or solids.

Section 7.Software Corporation S7-22 .) A portion of the mesh is shown: Elements 1 to 120 are on Surface 1 Elements 121 to 240 are on Surface 2 Nodes on the common boundary must be Equivalenced NAS120.MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-23 . The redundant nodes have been deleted. the mesh is now continuous and without cracks. NAS120. Section 7.MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont.) After Equivalencing.

we have created quad4 elements.Software Corporation S7-24 .) ● So far. Section 7. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.MESHING THE GEOMETRY (Cont. The PATRAN quad4 element is the generic term for a family of fournoded elements which include the following: ● ● ● ● ● Thin Shell Elements (will be used here) Bending Panel Elements 2D Solid Elements Membrane Elements Shear Panel Elements ● The specific element type will be specified later when we create the element physical properties.

Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-25 .33 ● Tensile Yield strength = 50 ksi ● Shear Ultimate Strength = 65 ksi ● The data is input using the Materials Menu as before. ● The material properties are as follows: ● E = 10 x 106 psi ●  = 0.CREATING MATERIAL PROPERTIES ● Creating Material Properties ● The Designer has selected aluminum 7075-T73 sheet as the construction material. NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● Then.Software Corporation S7-26 .063 in NAS120. This is a specific application within the generic PATRAN “quad4” designation. we are going to use the Thin Shell Element type. ● Define this specific type by selecting Thin Shell in the Element Properties Menu. define the physical Properties relevant to the Thin Shell: ● Thickness .. Section 7.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES ● Creating Element Physical Properties ● For this application.

Software Corporation S7-27 .) Property Menu Create a 2D Shell property named rib_web Link to Material Input Thickness Apply to Surfaces 1 and 2 NAS120. Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.

● If we re-mesh the Surface.CREATING ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.) ● Question: ● Why do we apply the Element Physical Properties to the Surfaces? ● Answer: ● The Physical Properties are then associated to the Surface – any Elements associated to the Surface via Meshing will automatically be associated to the Physical Properties. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. the Physical Properties will automatically get associated with the new Elements.Software Corporation S7-28 . Section 7. NAS120.

December 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC. Section 7.TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS ● Two-Dimensional Elements Overview NAS120.Software Corporation S7-29 .

Section 7. MD Nastran plate elements assume classical engineering assumptions of thin plate behavior: ● The deflection of the midsurface is small compared with the thickness ● The midsurface remains unstrained (neutral) during bending. not in-plane loads.) ● Two-Dimensional Elements Overview (Cont.) ● A plate is a structural element with one small dimension and two large dimensions. (This applies to lateral loads.) ● The normal to the midsurface remains normal to the midsurface during bending NAS120.Software Corporation S7-30 .TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● A thin plate is one in which the thickness is much less than the next larger dimension (roughly 1/15) ● For linear analysis.

) ● Two-Dimensional Elements Overview (Cont.TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.Software Corporation S7-31 . Section 7.) ● Plate and shell elements (except CQUADR and CTRIAR) have no stiffness in the normal rotational (drilling) degrees of freedom. NAS120. No stiffness in the drilling degrees of freedom ● CQUADR and CTRIAR plate elements have stiffness in the drilling degrees of freedom. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

0. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-32 . 20. is the default NAS120.. 100. 20. 100.. is the default in nonlinear solution sequences ● PARAM. SNORM.TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS ● Commonly used parameters for plate and shell elements ● For V2001 ● PARAM. is the default for all linear solution sequences ● PARAM. SNORM. K6ROT. Section 7. K6ROT. K6ROT. is the default ● For V2004 and later ● PARAM. is the default for all solution sequences ● PARAM.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont. looking at Element 1 in our rib: 2 EID 1 3 PID 1 TFLAG 4 GRID1 1 T1 5 GRID2 2 T2 6 GRID3 23 T3 7 GRID4 22 T4 8 THETA or MCID 9 ZOFFS 10 1 CQUAD4 CQUAD4 .bdf file extract CQUAD4 CQUAD4 CQUAD4 CQUAD4 CQUAD4 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 6 23 24 25 26 27 22 23 24 25 26 NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 7.) ● Element connectivity is defined on the NASTRAN CQUAD4 entry.Software Corporation S7-33 .

) Field EID PID G1. Section 7.TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.G3.) NAS120.Software Corporation S7-34 .G4 Contents Element identification number (integer>0) Identification number of a PSHELL or PCOMP property entry Grid point identification numbers of connection points.G2. (All interior angles of this element must be less than 180. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

specifies material property orientation angle in degrees. material x-axis orientation is along projection onto the plane of the x-axis of the specified coordinate system. ZOFFS Offset from the surface defined by the grid points to the element reference plane in the element coordinate system. Section 7. NAS120. If real or blank. not all zero).TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont. it describes the membrane thickness of the element at grid points G1 through G4 (real  0. If supplied.. If not supplied. then T1 through T4 is set equal to the value of T on the PSHELL data entry.) Field Theta Contents Material property orientation specification.T4 The continuation entry is optional. T1. If integer. T3.T2. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-35 .

Software Corporation S7-36 .) ● 1 PSHELL PSHELL 1 Element physical property is defined on the NASTRAN PSHELL entry 2 PID 1 2 Z1 3 MID1 1 3 Z2 4 T . Section 7.063 1 1 $ CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 23 22 CQUAD4 2 1 2 3 24 23 CQUAD4 3 1 3 4 25 24 NAS120.TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont.063 4 MID4 5 MID2 1 5 6 6 12I/T3 7 MID3 1 7 8 9 10 8 TS/T 9 NSM 10 ● We will ignore the other terms for now $ Elements and Element Properties for region : rib_web PSHELL 1 1 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont. default = 1. Section 7.Software Corporation S7-37 . MID2 = -1 represents plane strain) Note: The default for MID2 is not to include bending stiffness. 12I/T3 NAS120.0).) Field PID MID1 T MID2 Contents Property identification number (integer >0) Material identification number for membrane behavior (integer > 0 or blank) Plate or membrane thickness Material identification number for bending behavior (integer > 0 or blank. MID2 should not be blank Normalized bending inertia per unit length (real or blank. The default value is correct for solid. homogeneous plates. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. For most models.

Z2 = +1/2 thickness) Material identification number to define coupling between membrane and bending deformation NSM Z1.TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont. Nonstructural mass per unit area (real) Stress recovery distances for bending (real.833333).Software Corporation S7-38 . homogeneous plates. The default value is correct for solid. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 7.) Field MID3 TS/T Contents Material identification number for transverse shear behavior (integer > 0 or blank) Transverse shear thickness divided by membrane thickness (default = . Z2 MID4 NAS120. default Z1 = -1/2 thickness.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 7.) ● A snap shot of the NASTRAN input file for this problem.+7 .063 1 1 $ Referenced Material Records $ Material Record : aluminum $ Description of Material : Date: 09-Oct-00 MAT1 1 1.TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS (Cont. the property entry.Software Corporation S7-39 .33 Time: 11:49:27 ……… NAS120. showing how the connectivity entry. and the material entry are linked together: CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 23 22 $ Elements and Element Properties for region : rib_web PSHELL 1 1 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-40 . Section 7.LOADS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ● Applying Boundary Conditions and Loads ● The Rear Spar is assumed fully built in ● A vertical load of 60 lbs force per inch is applied at the Front Spar NAS120.

Software Corporation S7-41 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION Loads/BCs Create a boundary condition named fixed NAS120. Section 7.

Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION (Cont. NAS120.Software Corporation S7-42 .) All six degrees of freedom are fixed.

Software Corporation S7-43 . Section 7.) Select the left side of the rib NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION (Cont.

Section 7.) Finish creating the boundary condition NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITION (Cont.Software Corporation S7-44 .

not supported by PATRAN ● SPC1 . Section 7. differing only in convenience: ● SPC . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● A single-point constraint (SPC) is a constraint applied to one or more components of motion at selected grid points. ● There are two forms of the data input.SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS ● We can see visually that PATRAN has applied these constraints – but how is this written to a NASTRAN bdf file? ● We do this via SPC’s.supported by PATRAN NAS120.Software Corporation S7-45 .

) ● Grids 1. 154 are selected ● DOF 123456 are selected ● The SPC set is given a SET ID – number 1 in this case. 43. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. 22. $ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : fixed SPC1 1 123456 1 22 43 127 149 150 151 152 64 153 85 154 106 NAS120.SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS (Cont. …… 153.Software Corporation S7-46 . Section 7.

) ● SPC1 entry format: 1 SPC1 SPC1 2 SID 1 G7 127 3 C 123456 G8 149 4 G1 1 G9 150 5 G2 22 G10 151 6 G3 43 G11 152 7 G4 64 G12 153 8 G5 85 G13 154 9 G6 106 G14 10 NAS120.Software Corporation S7-47 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 7.SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS (Cont.

Section 7.) ● These constraints are selected by the SPC Case Control request ● Constraints are only applied if requested ● The set of constraints applied may be different for each SUBCASE ● BE CAREFUL . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS (Cont.if SPC and SPC1 entries are used.Software Corporation S7-48 . they are not applied unless specifically requested in Case Control NAS120.

Remember that the grid point output coordinate system is defined in field 7 of the GRID entry ● This can be used to advantage – an example follows in a later section ● It is also a major source of error as the constraint will act in the sense of the orientation of the output coordinate system NAS120.) ● SPCs are specified in the output coordinate (displacement) system of the grid point at which they are defined.Software Corporation S7-49 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS (Cont. Section 7.

Section 7.) ● Uses of SPCs include: ● Support a structure (apply constraints) ● Apply symmetric or antisymmetric boundary conditions by restraining the DOFs that must have zero values in order to satisfy symmetry or antisymmetry ● Remove degrees of freedom unconnected or weakly coupled to the structure ● Remove degrees of freedom not used in the structural analysis (e.g. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-50 .SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS (Cont. out-of-plane DOFs for a 2-D analysis) ● Apply zero or nonzero enforced displacements to grid points NAS120.

Section 7.AUTOSPC.SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINTS (Cont.PARAM. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.done in Case Control with SPC=SID. SPC1.Software Corporation S7-51 . or SPCD entries ● Automatic .defined on GRID entry (Not supported in PATRAN) ● User-selected . may be obtained by including the Case Control request SPCFORCES=ALL NAS120.) ● Constraints can be defined as: ● Permanent .YES ● Reaction forces at SPC’d grids (termed forces of single- point constraint). Defined in the Bulk Data on SPC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. this is a load/unit length NAS120.DISTRIBUTED LOAD Create a Distributed Load named force Remember. Section 7.Software Corporation S7-52 .

Section 7.) Input -60 lbs in the f1 direction NAS120.DISTRIBUTED LOAD (Cont.Software Corporation S7-53 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

DISTRIBUTED LOAD (Cont. Section 7.) Select the application region NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-54 .

DISTRIBUTED LOAD (Cont.) Finish creating the load NAS120. Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-55 .

Total Load = 60 lbf/in x 22in = 1320 lbf ● The direction of f1 f2 f3 is parametric. Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. or load per unit length ● In our case. ● It is a running load. based on the orientation of the edge f1 y z x f3 f2 NAS120.Software Corporation S7-56 .) ● We need to be careful with the application of the Distributed Load.DISTRIBUTED LOAD (Cont.

NAS120.Software Corporation S7-57 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.THE FORCE ENTRY ● We can see visually that PATRAN has applied these loads – but how is this written to a NASTRAN BDF file? ● We do this via FORCE data entries. Section 7.

0. -1. are selected ● A value of 55. 84. FORCE 1 84 54. FORCE 1 105 55. etc. 63.9999 in the translator NAS120.0000 0. -1. 0. Section 7.0000 0. 0. FORCE 1 63 54. -1.) ● Grids 21.0000 0. 105. -1.THE FORCE ENTRY (Cont. 0. * Rounding causes 54.0000 0.9999 0.0 0.9999 0.0 is applied per grid* (There are 24 grids equally spaced and a total load of 1320 lbf) ● A vector of < 0. -1. FORCE 1 42 54.Software Corporation -1. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. -1. FORCE 1 42 55. FORCE 1 63 54. > is used ● The FORCE set is given a SET ID – number 1 in this case $ Distributed Loads of Load Set : force FORCE 1 21 55.9999 0. 0. -1. 0.9999 0. FORCE 1 84 55. 0. S7-58 . -1. 0. 42.

Software Corporation S7-59 .0 7 Y1 -1.) ● FORCE entry format 1 FORCE FORCE 2 SID 1 3 GID 21 4 CID 5 F 55.THE FORCE ENTRY (Cont. we use default 0 ● Beware as the Force Magnitude is multiplied by the vector resultant NAS120.0 8 Z1 0. Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.0 9 10 ● The FORCE can be applied in any Coordinate System – here.00 6 X1 0.

1 2 2 2 2 1 $ Distributed Loads of Load Set : force FORCE 1 21 55. -1. Uniform 10 NAS120. -1. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. 0. FORCE 1 84 55. FORCE 1 105 55. 0. 0.THE FORCE ENTRY (Cont. . Section 7. FORCE 1 84 54.. FORCE 1 63 54.9999 0.. -1.0000 0.9999 0. -1.0000 0. FORCE 1 63 54.Software Corporation S7-60 . -1.) ● The application of the FORCE to the grids can appear confusing as data is repeated – this is a valid way for NASTRAN to have a loading distribution on QUAD4 elements which is kinematically equivalent to a constant load.. 0.9999 0.0000 0. 0. -1. FORCE 1 42 54.etc .0000 0. FORCE 1 42 55. -1. 0.9999 0. -1. 0. 0.

The next step is to send it to NASTRAN to perform matrix analysis on the model. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.PERFORM ANALYSIS ● We have now completed the pre-processing phase of the analysis process. Pre-Processing Post-Processing PATRAN Solver PATRAN MD NASTRAN NAS120.Software Corporation S7-61 . Section 7.

) Select linear static analysis NAS120.Software Corporation S7-62 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 7.PERFORM ANALYSIS (Cont.

) Status window reports job progress NAS120.Software Corporation S7-63 .PERFORM ANALYSIS (Cont. Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Pre-Processing Post-Processing PATRAN Solver PATRAN MD NASTRAN NAS120.Software Corporation S7-64 . Section 7.ACCESS ANALYSIS RESULTS ● After NASTRAN completes the analysis. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. we are now ready to read the results back into PATRAN.

ACCESS ANALYSIS RESULTS (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-65 . Section 7.) Read in the xdb file NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● Examine the rib tensile stresses and shear stresses. ● Must be below 50 ksi in tension (material yield strength) ● Must be below 65 ksi in shear (material ultimate strength – requires a 1.POST PROCESS RESULTS ● Post Processing the Results ● Examine the maximum vertical deflection. Section 7.100 inch. The allowable deflection is 0.5 load factor) NAS120.Software Corporation S7-66 .

) Plot the deformation Max y disp = 0.0987 in < 0.100 in NAS120.POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.Software Corporation S7-67 . Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Plot the averaged x direct stresses Max x stress = 18.900 lbs/in2 NAS120.Software Corporation S7-68 .POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont. Section 7.

Section 7.Software Corporation S7-69 .POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.930 lbs/in2 NAS120.) Plot the averaged xy stresses Max absolute xy stress = 1. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

100 lbs/in2 NAS120.) Plot the averaged Von-Mises stresses Max Von Mises stress = 17.POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.Software Corporation S7-70 . Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 7. ● ● ● NAS120.) ● 2-D element stresses are computed at Z1 and Z2 positions. For this rib problem. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. set the position to Z1 and examine the stresses.Software Corporation S7-71 . By default stresses at the Z2 position are selected for display in Patran.POST PROCESS RESULTS (CONT. The Z1 results are identical to the Z2 results since there is no bending in this problem.

0987 inch is below the 0.POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont. ● Maximum axial stresses: ● Tensile Stress = 18.100 psi – appears to be dominated by x direction direct stresses NAS120.900 psi at upper rear spar ● Compressive Stress = -18.900 psi at lower rear spar ● Margin of safety >2 ● Maximum Shear Stress: ● Shear Stress = 1.930 psi in center of panel in negative sense ● Margin of safety >2 ● Overall check Von Mises: ● Max Von Mises = 17.100 inch requirement. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 7.Software Corporation S7-72 .) ● Analysis Summary: ● Maximum deflection of 0.

0/30.618 = 15. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.26 = 1047 psi ● Maximum Shear Stress: ● Median Cross Sectional Area ● Shear Stress NAS120.0^3/12 = 30.063*20 = 1.) ● Manual Check: ● Maximum axial stresses at Rear Spar: ● Equiv bending section I = b*d^3/12 ● Moment at Rear Spar ● Stress at Rear Spar = .063*18.Software Corporation S7-73 .618 in^4 = 1320*40 lbf in = 52800 lbf in = M*y/I = 52800*9. Section 7.26 in^2 = 1320/1.520 psi = .POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.

PATRAN averages the stresses at a node from neighboring elements and plots this average stress value. ● By switching off the averaging option.Software Corporation S7-74 . the true maximum stresses in the quad4 elements are displayed. NAS120.POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont.) ● By default. Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● We will use this to check stress gradients in the top rear spar attachment point.

POST PROCESS RESULTS (Cont. ● Otherwise. We would need to take care when drawing conclusions about local stress levels here. NAS120.Software Corporation S7-75 .) Standard fringe from QuickPlot Element Averaging OFF in Fringe ● The Element at the top rear spar attachment point is seeing a steep stress gradient. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 7. the gradients are very similar.

so we will extract the midsurface of the solid. ● The geometry we will import is a solid. which includes the cutouts. but we want to do 2D modeling. but we’ll demonstrate importing geometry from a CAD file. Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● We could use a variety of methods to draw the geometry in Patran or add the holes to the existing simple surface.RIB WITH CUTOUTS ● Full Rib Idealization ● We now decide to do a more realistic analysis of the rib. NAS120.Software Corporation S7-76 .

) File Menu Import the existing CATIA V5 Model NAS120.Software Corporation S7-77 . Section 7.RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

) One Solid was imported. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont. NAS120.Software Corporation S7-78 . Section 7.

Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.) Extract a midsurface from the solid geometry.RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.Software Corporation S7-79 .

RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont. Section 7.) Delete the solid NAS120.Software Corporation S7-80 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 7.Software Corporation S7-81 .RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.) We now have our complex (Magenta) surface. NAS120.

RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.Software Corporation S7-82 .) Elements Menu Create the mesh on Surface 1 NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 7.

Section 7.Software Corporation S7-83 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Use the Paver Meshing Method Elements will be Quad4 type Global Edge Length is 2 inches for the Elements in the mesh NAS120.RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.

Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.) Global Edge Length of 2 dominates wherever possible NAS120.Software Corporation S7-84 .

Section 7.Software Corporation S7-85 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.) ● Paver Mesher ● Used with all surfaces ● trimmed (magenta) ● simple (green) ● When meshing surfaces. the Paver starts at the boundary and gradually moves towards the interior ● To Add More Control ● Mesh seeding controls element generation along seeded curves ● Paver recognizes hard points and curves added to a surface by association NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-86 .) ● Rib Cutout Model ● Global Edge Length is good for areas away from stress concentrations ● Mesh Density is poor around holes and in ligaments (thin regions of material) ● To Add More Control ● Mesh Seed around the holes. say.RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont. Section 7. 16 elements per 180 degrees NAS120.

Section 7.) ● To Rebuild a Mesh ● Either .Use Delete Mesh ● To Change or Add Mesh Seed ● You will need to delete the existing Mesh NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-87 .RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.create the mesh again and you will be prompted to delete the old mesh ● Or .

Software Corporation S7-88 . Section 7.RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.) Here we delete the mesh and Mesh Seed all 3 hole edges NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 7.) This improves the mesh. but we wish for a more regular array of elements around the cutouts NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.Software Corporation S7-89 .

Software Corporation S7-90 .RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.) We go back to Geometry to create additional concentric curves to guide the mesh. Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Click Draw Direction Vector and Reverse Direction to select the radially outward direction NAS120.

) Now. Section 7. translate the edges by a constant offset value of 0. This creates a set of concentric curves NAS120.5 inch.Software Corporation S7-91 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.) The curves are now associated to the surface. Section 7.Software Corporation S7-92 . The association is shown by a triangular marker NAS120.

) The curves are seeded and then the surfaces re-meshed NAS120.RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-93 . Section 7.

RIB WITH CUTOUTS (Cont.7 • further concentric lines associated • extra lines associated NAS120. Section 7.Software Corporation S7-94 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Extra Lines The final mesh is accepted with: • a global edge length 1.

Software Corporation S7-95 .THE PAVER MESHER ● For Paver Mesher. the number of elements per edge are based on the following priority: ● Mesh Seeds ● Adjoining meshed regions that are topologically congruent ● Even number of elements along the boundary ● Global edge length NAS120. Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

must decompose Will not mesh to interior hard geometry Paver Limited User-Control “Pac Man” Algorithm Any Surface Can mesh arbitrary n-sided surfaces Can mesh to interior hard geometry Mixed-element mesh can be generated by both algorithms (Quad/Tri) Both methods will match adjacent mesh NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-96 .) ● Comparison of Paver and IsoMesher IsoMesh High Degree of User-Control Selection of smoothing algorithms Surface must be 3 or 4 sided If not.THE PAVER MESHER (Cont. Section 7.

RIB WITH CUTOUTS ● The Rib is now complete as before ● Create Material Property ● Create Physical Property ● Apply Loads and Boundary Conditions ● Equivalence ● Analyze NAS120. Section 7.Software Corporation S7-97 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

PLOT RESULTS Plot the deformation Max y disp = 0.Software Corporation S7-98 . Section 7.100 in NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.148 in > 0.

Section 7.) Plot the averaged x direct stresses Max x stress = 20. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.PLOT RESULTS (Cont.Software Corporation S7-99 .400 lbs/in2 NAS120.

PLOT RESULTS (Cont.) Plot the averaged xy stresses Max absolute xy stress = 8.890 lbs/in2 NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 7.Software Corporation S7-100 .

) Plot the averaged von Mises stress Also.000 lbs/in2 NAS120. Max von Mises stress = 22.PLOT RESULTS (Cont. These two values should be close to each other for a good mesh.Software Corporation S7-101 . Section 7. plot the un-averaged von Mises stress Compare the average stress with unaveraged stress. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

400 psi at lower rear spar ● Margin of safety >2 ● Maximum Shear Stress: ● Shear Stress = 8. then we would expect the deflection to be within limits. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.400 psi at upper rear spar ● Compressive Stress = -20. If we include Rib Caps and Spar Attachment Flange.890 psi in center of panel in negative sense ● Margin of safety >2 ● Overall check von Mises: ● Max von Mises = 22.000 psi – appears to be dominated by x direction direct stresses NAS120.148 inch is above the 0.Software Corporation S7-102 . ● Maximum axial stresses: ● Tensile Stress = 20. Section 7.100 inch requirement.ANALYSIS SUMMARY ● Analysis Summary: ● Maximum deflection of 0.

0/30.ANALYSIS SUMMARY (Cont.0^3/12 = 30. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-103 .063* 18.618 in^4 ● Moment at Rear Spar = 1320*40 lbf in = 52800 lbf in ● Stress at Rear Spar = M*y/I = 52800*9.618 = 15. Section 7.520 psi ● Maximum Shear Stress – reduced area ● Median Cross Sectional Area = .) ● Manual Check: ● Maximum axial stresses at Rear Spar (as before): ● Equiv bending section I = b*d^3/12 = .063*12 = 0.756 = 1746 psi NAS120.756 in^2 ● Shear Stress = 1320/0.

Software Corporation S7-104 .ANALYSIS SUMMARY (Cont. By setting stress averaging off. we can see the influence of that element. NAS120. Section 7.) We have a poorly shaped element in the mesh. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 7. For a complete description of element distortion checks performed by MD Nastran. ● It is good practice to check the quality of the finite elements before running the MD Nastran job. please refer to the MD Nastran Linear Static Analysis User’s Guide. NAS120.Software Corporation S7-105 .CHECKING ELEMENT DISTORTION IN PATRAN ● MD Nastran performs a number of element distortion checks. ● Patran has a number of element distortion checks shown in the next slide. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S7-106 .CHECKING ELEMENT DISTORTION IN PATRAN (Cont.) NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 7.

and Taper. NAS120. Section 7. Warp.) ● Within each element type. Skew. verification tests for the Quad element include Aspect Ratio. ● For example. specific element distortion tests can be made and the results are displayed in a fringe plot.CHECKING ELEMENT DISTORTION IN PATRAN (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-107 .

Software Corporation S7-108 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.WING RIB ELEMENT DISTORTION PLOT ● The quad element aspect ratio plot is shown below: NAS120. Section 7.

Perform Workshop 8B “Tension Coupon” in your exercise workbook. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-109 . Perform Workshop 8C “Tension Coupon” in your exercise workbook. Section 7. NAS120.EXERCISES Perform Workshop 8A “Tension Coupon” in your exercise workbook.

Software Corporation S7-110 . NAS120. Please attend the NAS113 Analysis of Composite Materials with MD Nastran course for a more comprehensive treatment of composite analysis.ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS ● ● The following slides provide a brief introduction to the analysis of composite materials. Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

● In a ply called a cloth. the fibers are unidirectional. the fibers are woven at 0 and 90 degree directions. ● The matrix is usually an isotropic material that holds the fibers together. ● In a ply called a tape.PLY DEFINITION ● Typically a ply is a flat group of fibers imbedded in a matrix. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.Software Corporation S7-111 . Section 7.

Software Corporation S7-112 . Section 7.TAPE PLIES ● Fiber: ● Unidirectional in tape ● Direction is the 1 axis of the ply coordinate system ● Matrix: ● Glue that holds fibers together ● Matrix direction is the 2 axis ● 90 degrees to the 1 axis ● Material properties are: ● 2D orthotropic material in Patran ● MAT8 in Nastran NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

25+4 S7-113 . 1. Use STRN=1. Allowables are Xt.bdf file extract NAS120.3-7 GE 3 E1 20. F12 is for the Tsai-Wu failure theorem.3-4.0+6.+6. 1. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Elastic properties are E1. ● 1 The example below is typical for a graphite/epoxy tape.0 if allowables are in units of strain.3+5 6 G12 1. Section 7.3+5. 4. The MAT8 TREF reference temperature is not used since it is overridden by the PCOMP TREF. 1. S.0+6.0+6 Yc 1.2+5 7 G1Z 1. Yt.+6 A2 4. 1.+ +. E2..+6 TREF 5 NU12 0. 1.25+4 10 MAT8 MAT8 . 1.1+4.0+6 Yt 1. The MAT8 GE structural damping is not used since it is overridden by the PCOMP GE. 0. -2. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.3-7.0+6 Xc 1.3-4 S 1. 20. 1. 2. G2Z.35 Xt 1. NU12.MAT8 BULK DATA ENTRY ● Defines the ply orthotropic properties.5-6 F12 STRN 4 E2 2. Thermal coefficients of expansion are A1 and A2.2+5. Xc. 1.+6.Software Corporation mat8.35.0+6.5-6. 2 MID 1 A1 -2. Density is RHO.2+4 9 RHO 1. 1. 1.1 +4 8 G2Z 1. G1Z. Yc. G12.2+4.

PATRAN 2D ORTHOTROPIC Materials: Create/ 2d Orthotropic/ Manual Input Material Name Input Properties Linear Elastic Apply Input Properties Failure Apply Note that Linear Elastic and Failure properties must be input separately with an Apply between and after. Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-114 . NAS120.

G4 Xm is in the direction of the 0 degree ply Positive angles are defined by right hand rule around Zm S7-115 NAS120.G3.COMPOSITE MATERIAL ● ● ● Stack of plies Each ply has a different direction. G1. Ym. and thickness Composite properties are calculated in the material coordinate system (Xm.G2. material. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Zm) ● ● ● Zm is the same as the element Z axis (Ze) ● Right hand rule of grid ordering. Section 7.Software Corporation .

Software Corporation S7-116 .PCOMP BULK DATA ENTRY ● Defines the composite layup.0 T2 0.0 3 Z0 4 NSM 5 SB 5000.0054 THETA1 0.0054 T3 0. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.0054 THETA2 45. 7 TREF 0.0 SOUT1 YES SOUT3 6 FT HILL MID2 1 etc. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● GE is element damping ● Use default = -(composite thickness)/2 Overrides GE on ply MAT8s NSM is nonstructural mass SB is allowable interlaminar shear stress ● ● LAM is layup options MIDi is ply material ID ● Put as Bonding Shear Stress in Patran 2D Orthotropic Material Required for failure indices Required for failure indices Overrides TREFs on ply MAT8s MAT8 ID ● ● FT is the ply failure theorem ● Ti is ply thickness THETAi is ply angle SOUTi is data recovery option TREF is reference temperature ● NAS120.0 SOUT2 YES 8 GE 9 LAM 10 ● ● ● Z0 is composite offset. 1 PCOMP PCOMP 2 PID 1 MID1 1 MID3 1 T1 0.0 THETA3 90. Section 7.

. 45. with an equal number of plies in each of the 0. YES . . -45.0054. .Software Corporation S7-117 . Section 7.PCOMP BULK DATA ENTRY (cont.) ● The example composite below is an 8 ply layup.0054. .0054.0054.0054. 45. 1.0054. YES . 90. HILL .. 1... YES .. YES . . YES . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. 90. 0.. YES NAS120. YES . 1. PCOMP. 5000.bdf file extract . 1. . 1. 1.. . . -45.. 0.0054. .. YES .. +45.0054.. symmetric about it’s centerline. 1. 1. 1. 90 degree directions.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. click on a ply material in Existing Materials. Apply NAS120.Software Corporation S7-118 . Repeat for each of the plies Enter Thickness for all layers: 0. Section 7.0054 in the box under Input Data <return> Click on first cell in Orientation column Enter Orientations: 0 45 –45 90 90 –45 45 0 in the box under Input Data.PATRAN COMPOSITE Materials: Create/ Composite/ Laminate To create a ply.

25. 99 ● MCID – (integer) . 1. 4. 1.an angle between the G1G2 vector of the element and the X-axis of the material coordinate system. 5. 2. 1. 4. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. 1. 5. 1.CQUAD4 BULK DATA ENTRY 1 CQUAD4 CQUAD4 2 EID 1 3 PID 1 4 G1 1 5 G2 2 6 G3 3 7 G4 4 8 THETA or MCID 99 9 ZOFFS 10 ● ● Defines the composite plate. The positive sense of this angle is the right hand rule direction around the element’s Z-axis. THETA – (real) . Material coordinate system can be defined one of two ways: ● CQUAD4. Section 7.Software Corporation . 1. S7-119 CQUAD4. This along with the Z-axis of the element coordinate system defines the material coordinate system.0 NAS120.ID of a user defined coordinate system who’s X-axis is projected onto the element to define the element’s material coordinate system’s Xaxis. 2.

sys. for projection to material coord. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. sys.PATRAN COMPOSITE PROPERTIES Properties: Create/ 2D/ Shell Property Set Name Option: Laminate Input Properties Click on Mat Prop Name Icon to select the material Click on coord. OK Select elements Apply NAS120.Software Corporation S7-120 . Section 7.

PATRAN MATERIAL COORD. Section 7. Z-AXIS Elements: Verify/ Element/ Normals Draw Normal Vectors Apply NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-121 .

PATRAN MATERIAL COORD. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-122 . X-AXIS Properties: Show Material Orientation Apply NAS120. Section 7.

2.+7.Software Corporation S7-123 . HILL . 0. 1.5 1.0054. 0.. 1.1 SPC1. 250. YES . .+6.130000.. 1. POST.. YES MAT8. 12500. YES . 250. .Sample Composite Input SPC = 1 LOAD = 1 DISP = ALL STRESS =ALL $ BEGIN BULK PARAM. 1. 1... 0.0054.35. 0. 1. 0. .. 1..0054.+6 . 0. 0. 0. 0. 1.. 0. 0. 90.0054. 1. YES . 120000. 0. YES . 1.. YES . YES .5 .. 0.NASTRAN INPUT FILE SOL 101 CEND TITLE = Composite Workshop Chapter 2 . 0. 0. 0.1. 500. 2. 0. 1. 0. 0. 1. 250. 0. 0. 0. 0. 250.. 250.0054. .5 1. YES . ● The single ply per line format on PCOMP continuation fields allows easier cutting and pasting of plies NAS120. 1. 0. 0. 5000..1.. . 0. 0. 0. 1. 1. 250. 1.. 1. . $ CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 5 4 99 CQUAD4 2 1 2 3 6 5 99 CQUAD4 3 1 4 5 8 7 99 CQUAD4 4 1 5 6 9 8 99 $ GRID 1 GRID 2 GRID 3 GRID 4 GRID 5 GRID 6 GRID 7 GRID 8 GRID 9 $ SPC1.5 1. . 0. 45. 99. .+6. -45. -1 $ PCOMP. 0. 0. 250. 1.dat file extract 3 6 6 9 7 8 8 9 7 8 8 9 500. . 0. 0. 0.135. 11000. . 1. . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. .. 2. 1. 0.+6. 1. 0.5 1.3 $ FORCE 1 FORCE 1 FORCE 1 FORCE 1 FORCE 1 FORCE 1 FORCE 1 FORCE 1 FORCE 1 FORCE 1 FORCE 1 FORCE 1 $ CORD2R.0054. 0. 12000. 0. 1.. ENDDATA 0. 0.. . 90.. 500. 0. 0. 1. 1. 1. 45. -45.. 0. 0..0054. ... 0. 1.5 . 0.. 0.. 250. Section 7. .0054. 1. 1.. 500. 0.. 1.1235.

0 0.79852E+04 -3.42040E+04 0.08610E+05 4 7 1.88 1.0 0.74926E+04 6.98976E+04 5.69492E+03 0.19 4.0 0.26546E+04 8.17071E+04 -2.14704E+03 0.42040E+04 0.11062E+04 8.59550E+04 9.69212E+05 -5.73019E+04 0.58604E+03 -9.59550E+04 9.90535E+04 5.69411E+05 -5.0 -12.0 -80.55820E+05 2.07578E+05 2 7 9.23436E+05 5.18544E+05 5. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.54 9.74 2.05290E+04 -1.37626E+03 -5.0 0.79000E+04 2.31267E+04 0.0 2.99891E+04 4 1 8.44 1.59049E+05 2.23 1.0 0.19674E+04 -2.73019E+04 0.31585E+05 1.05290E+04 -1.69492E+03 0.61790E+04 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .35916E+03 0.15727E+04 -7.24352E+05 -2.07406E+05 2.02861E+05 5.0 87.0 0.42142E+05 4.67154E+04 -1.12753E+05 -1.0 -0.0 -80.69492E+03 0.0 0.90459E+04 1.84613E+03 -1.18544E+05 3.0 0.21357E+04 4 6 -1.35916E+03 0.28449E+03 -2.72387E+04 4.73019E+04 0.13646E+03 9.74647E+04 1 5 2.0 78.0 0.49319E+04 1 2 4.0 -12.0 0.74647E+04 1 6 -3.03837E+04 8.28449E+03 -2.44826E+04 -9.44826E+04 -9.Software Corporation S7-124 .55942E+01 1.10887E+04 -4.03837E+04 8.95088E+03 0.72039E+04 9.40 1.93411E+03 -8.69212E+05 -5.47 1.63734E+04 2 2 9.99705E+04 8.24272E+04 2 8 2.33180E+04 5.41 2.63734E+04 3 1 -5.88892E+03 0.0 -87.45713E+04 5.0 -3.32 4.87066E+04 3 7 1.90558E+03 3 3 -4.07406E+05 2.70896E+04 7.59049E+05 2.61790E+04 8.81603E+04 2.73294E+04 2.0 83.0 88.93 1.70896E+04 7.42142E+05 1.11984E+05 -1.23826E+05 -1.f06 file extract NAS120.40 1.19 4.45713E+04 1.96222E+05 1.99705E+04 4.0 78.88892E+03 0.14316E+03 4 2 1.67154E+04 -1.48844E+04 -2.98976E+04 6.07578E+05 2 4 -2.72387E+04 4.45970E+03 3 6 -4.0 0.14704E+03 0.49319E+04 2 1 2.0 0.03163E+05 3.31267E+04 0.28923E+04 -3.79852E+04 -3.26546E+04 2.70 1.13269E+04 -5.83 2.88892E+03 0.37626E+03 -5.24352E+05 -2.90535E+04 1.42040E+04 0.31267E+04 0.84613E+03 -1. Section 7.11984E+05 -1.0 0.69411E+05 -5.20715E+05 -1.73294E+04 3.15727E+04 -7.31987E+05 2 6 -1.74 2.0 0.14704E+03 0.0 0.73239E+04 1 7 4.96237E+05 1.93 1.NASTRAN PLY STRESS OUTPUT ● Printed in the f06 file if STRESS=ALL or STRAIN=ALL Case Control Commands are used.19674E+04 -2.0 -70.08326E+05 1.57467E+03 4 8 8.0 0.02149E+04 -2.17058E+05 2.19524E+04 1 3 -3.0 6.81209E+03 2.34056E+04 2.69 1.0 -1.08326E+05 1.69 1.0 0.96 9.31987E+05 2 5 -2.0 -8.57467E+03 4 3 -1.23826E+05 -1.03163E+05 3.0 -8.73019E+04 0.0 87.14704E+03 0.0 -70.02861E+05 5.36024E+04 -1.0 0.96237E+05 1.20297E+05 -1. S T R E S S E S I N L A Y E R E D C O M P O S I T E E L E M E N T S ( Q U A D 4 ) ELEMENT PLY STRESSES IN FIBER AND MATRIX DIRECTIONS INTER-LAMINAR STRESSES PRINCIPAL STRESSES (ZERO SHEAR) ID ID NORMAL-1 NORMAL-2 SHEAR-12 SHEAR XZ-MAT SHEAR YZ-MAT ANGLE MAJOR MINOR 1 1 2.95088E+03 0.17058E+05 1.99891E+04 3 2 1.87066E+04 3 4 1.95088E+03 0.95088E+03 0.24272E+04 2 3 -1.33180E+04 5.73239E+04 1 4 2.0 0.55820E+05 2.74926E+04 4.0 2.35916E+03 0.81209E+03 2.02149E+04 -2.32 4.31585E+05 1.36024E+04 -1.0 4.25140E+04 6.81603E+04 2.69 1.28923E+04 -3.0 0.17071E+04 -2.69 1.88892E+03 0.83 2.35916E+03 0.72039E+04 9.0 0.23 1.08610E+05 4 4 -2.14316E+03 MAX SHEAR 1.0 88.13646E+03 9.0 0.54 9.70 1.10887E+04 -4.47 1.90459E+04 1.93411E+03 -8.90558E+03 3 8 -5.0 0.11062E+04 2.0 -0.0 83.13269E+04 -5.55942E+01 1.0 0.42040E+04 0.12753E+05 -1.41 2.20715E+05 -1.0 8.79761E+04 9.56580E+04 4.0 8.34056E+04 6.23436E+05 1.79000E+04 2.0 0.79761E+04 9.0 -87.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.31267E+04 0.21357E+04 4 5 -2.25140E+04 2.0 6.0 0.19524E+04 1 8 2.0 0.96 9.0 0.96222E+05 1.48844E+04 -2.20297E+05 -1.44 1.58604E+03 -9.0 4.0 -3.45970E+03 3 5 1.88 1.0 -1.56580E+04 5.69492E+03 0.

Section 7.PATRAN PLY OUTPUT REQUEST Analysis: Analyze/ Entire Model/ Full Run Translation Parameters/ OP2 Subcases/ Create Output Requests/ Advanced/ Element Stress Ply Stresses OK Apply NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-125 .

PATRAN PLY STRESS RESULTS NAS120.Software Corporation S7-126 . Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S7-127 . NAS120.EXERCISE Perform Workshop 8D “Composite Tension Coupon” in your exercise workbook. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 7. Perform Workshop 18 “Stiffened Plate” in your exercise workbook.

NAS120. Section 7. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S7-128 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S8-1 . Section 8.SECTION 8 INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE NAS120.

Software Corporation S8-2 .NAS120. Section 8. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 8.Software Corporation S8-3 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 8 INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE ● Topics covered in this case study: ● ● ● ● ● Creating 3D Geometry Meshing 3D Geometry Controlling the mesh in 3D Nastran Solid Element Definitions Post Processing the 3D analysis NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120. Hot fluid passes through holes running inside the wall. We will consider the combined thermal loading in a later case. ● For the initial analysis.CASE STUDY: INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE ● Problem Description ● The task is to analyze an Intercooler Design. The Intercooler is pressurized and cooled by a fluid on the inner face of its thick wall. we will only consider the mechanical loading.Software Corporation S8-4 . Section 8.

) ● Intercooler – assumptions ● We simplify the analysis by assuming that a 30 degree segment is able to represent the full 360 degree structure. ● We will set up constraint boundary conditions to achieve this.CASE STUDY: INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.Software Corporation S8-5 . Section 8.

NAS120.Software Corporation S8-6 .) ● Analysis Objectives ● Determine stress levels in the intercooler under pressure loading. The maximum stress must be below the yield stress of the intercooler material. Section 8. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CASE STUDY: INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE (Cont.

Software Corporation S8-7 .SIMPLIFIED INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE ● Basic Intercooler Idealization ● No cooling holes NAS120. Section 8. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 8.) ● Getting started on the Intercooler analysis ● We will introduce the idea of Solid Geometry Creation. NAS120.Software Corporation S8-8 . We will use this.SIMPLIFIED INTERCOOLER STRUCTURE (Cont. ● The simple type of Solid Geometry in PATRAN is a ‘Blue’ Solid. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Boundary Representation ● In our case.SOLID GEOMETRY ● A PATRAN Solid can be: ● Blue . Section 8.Parametric ● White . Wedge. we will build a Parametric Solid (Blue) ● Vector function of three parametric variables (x1. x3) ● Parametric solids are meshed with the IsoMesh (Mapped) mesher (Hex.Software Corporation S8-9 . x2. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. or Tet elements) NAS120.

0. Section 8.0 and 130.0. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Construct 2 points in this system at 100.to help in the construction.0 NAS120.CREATE GEOMETRY Geometry Menu Create a local cylindrical Coordinate system number 1 .Software Corporation S8-10 .

Note the Axis definition 1.CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.) Construct two curves by revolving the two points in the cylindrical coordinate system. NAS120.Software Corporation S8-11 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.3 and the angle definition. Section 8.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S8-12 .) Construct a green surface from these two curves NAS120.CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont. Section 8.

Section 8. using the local axis system.Software Corporation S8-13 .) Extrude the surface to form the geometric solid. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont. NAS120.

NAS120.Software Corporation S8-14 .MESH THE GEOMETRY Use Isomesh and Hex8 Element Type This results in NASTRAN 8Noded CHEXA Elements. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 8.

assign Physical Properties.CREATE MATERIAL PROPERTIES Set up Material Properties as before Steel: E = 209E9  = 0.Software Corporation S8-15 . Section 8. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.3 Then. NAS120.

Section 8.bdf file extract CHEXA CHEXA CHEXA 1 80 2 81 3 82 1 79 1 80 1 81 1 2 3 2 3 4 8 9 10 7 8 9 73 74 75 74 75 76 NAS120.ELEMENT CONNECTIVITY ● Element connectivity is defined on the NASTRAN CHEXA entry. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. looking at Element 1 in our intercooler: 1 CHEXA CHEXA 2 EID 1 G7 80 3 PID 1 G8 79 4 G1 1 5 G2 2 6 G3 8 7 G4 7 8 G5 73 9 G6 74 10 .Software Corporation S8-16 .

ELEMENT PROPERTIES ● Element physical property is defined on the NASTRAN PSOLID entry 1 PSOLID PSOLID 2 PID 1 3 MID1 1 4 CORDM 0 5 IN 6 STRESS 7 ISOP 8 FCTN 9 10 .bdf file extract $ Elements and Element Properties for region : wall PSOLID 1 1 0 NAS120. Section 8.Software Corporation S8-17 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. and the material entry are linked together. CHEXA 1 80 1 79 1 2 8 7 73 74 $ Elements and Element Properties for region : wall PSOLID 1 1 0 $ Material Record : steel $ Description of Material : Date: 26-Oct-00 MAT1* 1 2. Section 8.Software Corporation S8-18 .ELEMENT PROPERTIES (Cont.3 NAS120.09+11 * ……… Time: 14:47:56 . the property entry.) ● A snap shot of the NASTRAN input file for this problem shows how the connectivity entry.

or apply constraints to the solid type elements. NAS120.Software Corporation S8-19 . such as the CHEXA. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SOLID ELEMENTS ● An interesting feature of the solid elements in Nastran. Section 8. is that each grid only has: ● 3 translational Degrees of Freedom (DOF’s) ● No rotational DOF’s ● We must be very careful to account for this when we mix element types.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. This will mean each face is free to slide radially.CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS We want to apply theta direction constraints to the two ‘cut’ faces of the segment.Software Corporation S8-20 . Section 8. NAS120.

Section 8.Software Corporation S8-21 .) Theta Direction Constraint on Theta = 0 Remember – only translational DOF’s for solids NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.

CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S8-22 .) Theta Direction Constraint on Theta = 30 NAS120. Section 8.

) ● Question – ● We have applied constraints on faces theta 0 and theta 30 ● Are these sufficient to enable us to carry out the analysis? ● Think about how these components of constraints map to the basic x y z system of the model and remember that ALL possible Degrees of Freedom need to be considered. NAS120.CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.Software Corporation S8-23 . Section 8. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

As we are not loading in the z (axial) direction.Software Corporation S8-24 . we must add a z direction constraint.) ● Answer – The translational constraints in the theta 0 and theta 30 planes map to constraints in the x and y directions only of the basic coordinate system. These constraints can take out translational movement in basic system x and y. So.CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont. we can choose just one grid as the datum. Section 8. They will also take out rotations of the structure about the basic system x y and z axes by providing couples. we would need to consider an appropriate constraint set: ● either build in the base or top ● or apply a reflective symmetry constraint NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. They will not constrain the model in basic system z – or indeed the local cylindrical z which maps directly. To load in the z direction.

Software Corporation S8-25 . The z translation of the basic Coord system is constrained.) We specify a Node by using the FEM filter. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont. Section 8. NAS120.

showing the three defined constraint regions $ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : plane1_th SPC1 1 2 1 2 3 4 73 74 75 76 77 78 147 148 149 150 217 218 .. 1151 1152 1219 1220 1221 1222 1291 1292 1293 1294 1295 1296 $ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : datum_z SPC1 4 3 679 1223 1224 1157 1158 5 145 219 6 146 220 71 211 285 72 212 286 NAS120. 1085 1086 1153 1154 1155 1156 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 1230 $ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : plane2_th SPC1 3 2 67 68 69 70 139 140 141 142 143 144 213 214 215 216 283 284 . Section 8.. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S8-26 ...CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont........) ● A snap shot of the NASTRAN input file for this problem..

88235 5.873 56. 0.7986 96.879 111. GRID 4 118.88235 5. 0.04368 0.9948 102. 130. GRID 3 112. 56.CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont. GRID 2 106.88235 0.88235 5. ● 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 NAS120. 99. 0. It is essential that each grid preserves this Analysis Coordinate System in any further PATRAN modelling. 0. 0. 0.) $ Nodes of the Entire Model GRID 1 100. we see that the Analysis Coordinate System has been automatically set to 1 for each grid. 0. 0..04368 5.88235 5.88235 5. 53. 0. 4.8867 GRID 8 105.8201 59. 0. Section 8.387 112. 0. GRID 6 130.Software Corporation S8-27 .6025 91.75819 5.548 86. 62. 0. otherwise. 0. 0.5694 50. GRID 7 99. 0.32917 0.8867 105. 0. 0. 0. 0. 65. 4. 0. 118. 124. GRID 5 124. GRID GRID GRID GRID GRID GRID GRID GRID GRID GRID GRID GRID GRID GRID GRID GRID GRID 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 110. 106. 0. 59.879 . 5... 0.215 115..583 100. 112.88235 5. the sense of the constraint is corrupted. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. 0.. 0.190 107..88235 5.75819 5. 0.88235 5. 1 1 1 1 1 1 ● If we look at a sample of the GRID data for those grids in the constrained faces.

) The constraints are verified using a Marker Plot NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont. Section 8.Software Corporation S8-28 .

CREATE LOADS The pressure of 100. Section 8.Software Corporation S8-29 .0 N/m2 is applied to the inside face. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.

PERFORM ANALYSIS Select linear static analysis NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S8-30 . Section 8.

Software Corporation S8-31 .PERFORM ANALYSIS (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 8.) Status window reports job progress NAS120.

Pre-Processing Post-Processing PATRAN Solver PATRAN MD/NASTRAN NAS120.ACCESS RESULTS ● After NASTRAN completes the analysis. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. we are now ready to read the results back into PATRAN.Software Corporation S8-32 . Section 8.

xdb file is attached. ● We will also look at the stresses to check the magnitude and sense of the loading. Section 8.Software Corporation S8-33 . NAS120.ACCESS RESULTS (Cont. ready to view the results for post processing. ● We will look at the deformed shape – to confirm correct boundary conditions.) ● The . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

PLOT RESULTS The correct radial nature of the deformation is shown by a top view with the deformed shape shown in dashed outline NAS120. Section 8. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S8-34 .

Section 8.) The radial and hoop stresses can be checked by looking at stresses relative to the local cylindrical system no.PLOT RESULTS (Cont.Software Corporation S8-35 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. 1 radial hoop NAS120.

Software Corporation S8-36 .PLOT RESULTS (Cont. Section 8.) hoop radial NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

) ● We can look at radial and/or hoop stresses in a similar manner by setting up the vector controls.PLOT RESULTS (Cont.Software Corporation S8-37 . Section 8. ● Switch off the option to plot on the deformed shape. ● And choose either of the xx or yy vector components to plot. ● Root the base of the vector. ● Define everything relative to the local coordinate system 1. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S8-38 . Section 8. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.PLOT RESULTS (Cont.) NAS120.

Section 8.PLOT RESULTS (Cont.Software Corporation S8-39 .) NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 8. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.BASIC INTERCOOLER ● Basic Intercooler Idealization ● No cooling holes ● Alternative Construction: ● Create 2D shells ● Extrude these 2D shells ● No solid geometry created NAS120.Software Corporation S8-40 .

BASIC INTERCOOLER (Cont.) ● Alternative Construction – sweeping ● Create the base surface as before ● Mesh this base surface using 2D shell elements ● Sweep the 2D mesh to form a 3D mesh ● Delete the 2D elements ● This is a powerful technique. Section 8. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. but not often feasible in complex solid geometry.Software Corporation S8-41 . NAS120.

Section 8.CREATE GEOMETRY Construct a green surface as before. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S8-42 . NAS120.

Section 8. NAS120.Software Corporation S8-43 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.MESH THE SURFACE Construct a mesh of quads on the base surface.

SWEEP THE ELEMENTS Construct the solid elements by sweeping the shells. The vector and distance are defined in the main form. Section 8. NAS120.Software Corporation S8-44 . The number of solid elements are defined under mesh control. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 8. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. An easy way to do this is by a general element delete command.) Clean up the model by deleting the shell elements.Software Corporation S8-45 .SWEEP THE ELEMENTS (Cont. NAS120. but using the entity selection icon to pick only 4noded shells.

) ● The model creation and analysis are as before except: ● There is no Patran geometry associated with the solid elements. Section 8. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120. ● This means we have to apply loads and boundary conditions to the FEM.SWEEP THE ELEMENTS (Cont.Software Corporation S8-46 . ● We have to apply the Element Physical properties directly to the group of solid elements.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Use the selection icon to help pick only solid elements.Software Corporation S8-47 .CREATE ELEMENT PROPERTIES ● Therefore. NAS120. Section 8. the typical Menu selections are : Create Physical Properties: Pick the elements directly.

Use the polygon picking option to capture the correct region. NAS120.Software Corporation S8-48 . Section 8. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Use the ‘hidden line’ picking option.CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS Polygon Pick Hidden Line Pick Create displacement constraints: Pick the FEM Filter.

DETAILED INTERCOOLER ● Advanced Intercooler Idealization ● Introduce cooling holes ● Alternative Construction: ● Create 2D shells ● Extrude these 2D shells ● No solid geometry created NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S8-49 . Section 8.

sweeping ● Create the base surface as before. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 8.Software Corporation S8-50 . including the hole ● Mesh this base surface using 2D shell elements ● Sweep the 2D mesh to form a 3D mesh ● Delete the 2D elements NAS120.) ● Alternative Construction .DETAILED INTERCOOLER (Cont.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATE GEOMETRY Create the two start curves as before. NAS120.Software Corporation S8-51 . Section 8. Then. create the mid points.

Section 8. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.) Create the center point of the circle NAS120.Software Corporation S8-52 .

create the trimmed surface. close the outer boundary with two curves. Section 8. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.) Create the center circle using 2D Arc Angles Method (R=5) Then.CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.Software Corporation S8-53 . Chain the outer boundary using autochain. Then.

MESH THE SURFACE The 2D base mesh is constructed in the same way as the rib in case study 4. NAS120. Then. Concentric circles are made from the center ring. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. using a local cylindrical axis system. These are mesh seeded. Section 8.Software Corporation S8-54 . the surface is paver meshed.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S8-55 . The vector and distance are defined on the main form. The number of solid elements are defined under mesh control.SWEEP THE ELEMENTS Construct the solid elements by sweeping the shells as before. NAS120. Section 8.

loads and boundary conditions as before. but without using geometry to assist. ● Similarly.LOADS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ● Now.Software Corporation S8-56 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. the internal pressure load is applied to the solid element faces. apply materials. properties. ● We must use the FEM filter and carefully pick the surface grids for the displacement constraints. NAS120. Section 8.

) Theta Direction Constraint on Theta = 0 Remember – only translational DOF’s for solids NAS120. Section 8.LOADS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont.Software Corporation S8-57 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

) Theta Direction Constraint on Theta = 30 NAS120. Section 8.Software Corporation S8-58 .LOADS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. including the hole ● Copy the base surface to the top ● Create the other bounding surfaces ● Form the Boundary-Representation (B-Rep) Advanced Solid ● Tet-Mesh the Solid NAS120.Software Corporation S8-59 .ALTERNATIVE METHOD ● Alternative Construction – Advanced Solid ● Create the base surface as before. Section 8.

Section 8.ALTERNATIVE METHOD (Cont.Software Corporation S8-60 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) ● Non-Parametric Solids (White) ● Non-parametric solids have only a surface representation inside PATRAN ● Boundary representation (B-Rep) solids can be created ● CAD solids are normally accessed as B-Rep solids and can be meshed using the Auto Tet Mesh algorithm Solid Automatic Tet Mesh NAS120.

NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S8-61 . Section 8.CREATE GEOMETRY The base surface is created as a trimmed surface as before.

Section 8.Software Corporation S8-62 .CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) The base surface is translated to form the top surface <0 0 100> NAS120.

Software Corporation S8-63 .) The other 5 surfaces are created (including the hole). August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. These are simple green surfaces. NAS120. Section 8.CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.

) Now the b-rep solid is complete NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 8.Software Corporation S8-64 .CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.

CREATE GEOMETRY (Cont.) Another way to create the solid is to extrude the base surface directly. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 8.Software Corporation S8-65 . <0 0 100> NAS120.

Section 8. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.MESH THE SOLID Mesh the solid using TET10 Topology. Use Global Edge of 2 NAS120.Software Corporation S8-66 .

PATRAN SOLIDS ● Summary of Patran Solids: NAS120. Section 8.Software Corporation S8-67 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

any or all mid-side nodes may be deleted NAS120.NASTRAN SOLID ELEMENTS ● Commonly used solid elements: ● PENTA (6-15 nodes) ● HEXA (8-20 nodes) ● TETRA (4-10 nodes) Note .Software Corporation S8-68 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 8.

Section 8.Software Corporation S8-69 . it results in excessive stiffness. it has superior performance to the other 3D elements.NASTRAN SOLID ELEMENTS (Cont. NAS120. If the triangular faces are not on the exposed surfaces of the shell. ● PENTA ● Commonly used to model transition. ● TETRA ● Frequently used by automatic mesh generators. The 10-noded TETRA elements will provide much better accuracy. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. This element is designed to behave well as a reasonable thin shell element. In most modeling situations. Accuracy degrades when element is skewed and used in a situation where bending behavior is dominant.) ● HEXA ● Recommended for general use. The 4-noded TETRA is not recommended for modeling.

MESHING METHODS SUMMARY ● Hex versus Tet Meshing ● ● Convenience and speed of Tet Meshing in a non 2 ½ D case Control and Quality of Hex Meshing NAS120. Section 8. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S8-70 .

Software Corporation S8-71 . Perform Workshop 9B “2 1/2 D Clamp – Iso Mesher” in your exercise workbook. Section 8.EXERCISE Perform Workshop 9A “2 1/2 D Clamp – Sweep Mesher” in your exercise workbook. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S8-72 .NAS120. Section 8.

Software Corporation S9-1 . Section 9. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S9-2 .NAS120. Section 9.

Software Corporation S9-3 . Section 9.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK ● Topics covered in this section ● ● ● ● ● Axisymmetric modeling techniques Importing Geometry Mesh Density Control Perform quality checks on stress results Create and manipulate viewports NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK
● Problem Description
● Scuba tanks are designed to withstand cyclic

pressurization and depressurization loads. They must also survive loads induced during transportation and actual service. You are asked to analyze a new scuba tank design.

● Analysis Objectives
● Determine stresses in the scuba tank under an internal

pressure of 3000 psi. The maximum stress must be below the yield point of the tank material.

NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S9-4

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK
● Getting started on the scuba tank analysis
● The scuba tank is a thick shell structure. We expect the

state of stress to be 3 dimensional in the tank shell. Solid elements should be used. ● Solid element models tend to get large and take a lot of CPU time to solve. This is especially true for non-linear or transient analysis. It is often advisable to simplify the model in order to speed up the analysis process. ● Several ways to simplify finite element models are presented next.

NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

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SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK
● Simplifying Finite Element Models
● Finite element models can be simplified by using a 2D

(planar) representation of a 3D model. There are three ways to do this:
● Plane Stress ● Plane Strain ● Axisymmetric

● Finite element models can also be simplified by taking

advantage of symmetry. There are two primary types of symmetry - reflective symmetry and cyclic symmetry. Symmetry techniques will be presented in detail in the advanced course.
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

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SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK

● The Plane Stress Model
● Assumptions:
● Z stress is zero ● Stresses do no vary through

the thickness

● One way to identify a plane

stress model is to look for structures in which the thickness is small compared to the other two dimensions.
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S9-7

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK
● The Plane Strain Model
● Assumptions:
● Z strain is zero

● The depth of the plane strain

model is large compared to the cross section.
● Plane strain problems are

common in civil engineering and are used to model retaining walls or dams.

NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

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SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK
● The Axisymmetric Model
● Assumptions:
● The geometry, loads, and

boundary conditions are not a function of  . ● Another way to state this is that the geometry, loads, and boundary conditions do not vary in the circumferential direction.

● Axisymmetry is commonly

used to analyze pressure vessels and tanks.

NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S9-9

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK

Simplification of the scuba tank model

Since the scuba tank is axisymmetric and the pressure load is axisymmetric, we can simplify the problem using axisymmetry. We will solve this problem using two different axisymmetric methods:
1. 2.

Build a sector of the tank using 3D solid elements Build the tank cross section using 2D solid elements

NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S9-10

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK

Creating the geometry for the tank

A geometry file for the scuba tank generated by a CAD package is available so there is no need to re-create the geometry. Use File/Import to import the geometry file directly into PATRAN.

NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S9-11

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK

Select the file type to be imported
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S9-12

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK

Models created by the following CAD packages can be imported into PATRAN:
● ● ● ● ●

CATIA Unigraphics Pro/ENGINEER EUCLID 3 I-DEAS

NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

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SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK

Additional types of geometry files can also be imported into PATRAN

ACIS solid geometry files
● ●

Typical file extension is .sat Generated by CAD systems such as Autocad, SolidEdge, and Mechanical Desktop Typical file extension is .xmt Generated by CAD systems such as SolidWorks Typical file extension is .igs Generated by most CAD systems Typical file extension is .stp Generated by CAD systems such as CATIA

Parasolid solid geometry files
● ●

IGES geometry files
● ●

STEP geometry files
● ●

NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

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SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK

The scuba tank geometry file we have is a parasolid solid geometry model. Let’s import this file into PATRAN.

NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

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SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK

Import the parasolid model tank.xmt

NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

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SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK

Select Parasolid xmt options and select Model Units. Select Inches. This converts the units in the parasolid model from meters to inches.
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

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SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK

Finish importing the parasolid model

NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S9-18

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK

Rotate and shade the model

NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S9-19

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK

Break the solid into two halves

NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S9-20

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK

Delete half the tank

NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S9-21

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK

Break the remaining tank into two halves
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S9-22

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK

Delete the upper quarter of the tank

NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S9-23

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK

Let’s create a coarse mesh. Select Tet10 elements. Select TetMesh Parameters and deselect curvature check. Select the solid. Use a global edge length of 0.521 to create one element through the thickness. Click Apply.
NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

0.521 in thick

S9-24

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK

A relatively coarse mesh is created

NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S9-25

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK
● Create Boundary Conditions
● Since the scuba tank is axisymmetric, we need to create

a cylindrical coordinate system to define the symmetry boundary conditions.

NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S9-26

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S9-27 . Section 9.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Create a cylindrical coordinate system NAS120.

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Create a symmetric constraint in the tangential (theta) direction NAS120.Software Corporation S9-28 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 9.

Section 9. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Constrain translation in the theta direction and select coordinate system 1 as the analysis coordinate system NAS120.Software Corporation S9-29 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S9-30 . Section 9.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Select the two surfaces located on the planes of symmetry NAS120.

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Finish creating the theta symmetry boundary condition NAS120. Section 9. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S9-31 .

Software Corporation S9-32 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Select DisplayLoads/BC/Element Prop to change the display to show on FEM only. NAS120. Also turn off LBC/Prop values to simplify the display. Section 9.

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Next. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. create a symmetry constraint in the radial direction.Software Corporation S9-33 . Section 9.

Section 9. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S9-34 .SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Constrain the radial translation NAS120.

Software Corporation S9-35 .SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Select the edge along the tank centerline. Section 9. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

NAS120.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Finish creating the radial constraint.Software Corporation S9-36 . Section 9. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Create a final constraint in the Z direction.Software Corporation S9-37 . Section 9. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S9-38 . Section 9. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Constrain the z translation NAS120.

NAS120.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Select the cylindrical surface at the valve interface. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 9.Software Corporation S9-39 .

Section 9.Software Corporation S9-40 .SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Finish creating the z constraint. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 9. NAS120.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Create a pressure load. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S9-41 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S9-42 .SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Select all the internal wetted surfaces. NAS120. Section 9.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 9.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Finish creating the pressure load NAS120.Software Corporation S9-43 .

27 Ultimate strength = 155 ksi Yield strength = 145 ksi NAS120.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK ● Create the scuba tank material properties ● The tank is made from 17-4 PH stainless steel forging. heat treated to the H1025 condition.Software Corporation S9-44 .5 x 106 psi  = 0. ● ● ● ● E = 28. Section 9. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

NAS120.Software Corporation S9-45 .SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Create an isotropic material named 17-4PH. Section 9. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Create a 3D solid physical property set for the tank.Software Corporation S9-46 . Section 9. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.

Section 9. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S9-47 . NAS120.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Select the solid and apply.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S9-48 .SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Submit the model to MD NASTRAN for a static analysis. Section 9. NAS120.

Software Corporation S9-49 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 9.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Read the MD NASTRAN results into PATRAN NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Create the deformation plot. which is reasonable. NAS120. The maximum deformation is 0. Section 9.007 in.Software Corporation S9-50 .

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Create 3 additional viewports to display the results. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S9-51 . NAS120. Section 9.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Tile the 4 viewports.Software Corporation S9-52 . Section 9. NAS120.

we are interested in the radial. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. the solid element stresses are computed in the basic coordinate system. let’s plot the stresses ● By default. NAS120. We need to transform the stresses from the basic coordinate system to the cylindrical coordinate system no. and axial stresses which are defined in a cylindrical system. ● For the scuba tank.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK ● Next. Section 9.Software Corporation S9-53 . hoop. 1.

1. Section 9.Software Corporation S9-54 . Select CID and coordinate system no.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Click the Plot Options icon. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. This transforms the stresses into coordinate system 1. NAS120.

NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Plot the radial (x component) stress. Section 9.Software Corporation S9-55 .

Section 9. NAS120.Software Corporation S9-56 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Plot the hoop (y component) stress.

Software Corporation S9-57 . Section 9.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Plot the axial (z component) stress NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 9.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Plot the Von Mises stress NAS120.Software Corporation S9-58 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 9.Software Corporation S9-59 . NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Zoom in to the critical area near the base of the tank. Notice that the stress gradient is high through the thickness of the tank.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Notice that the stress fringes are “jagged”.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Turn off stress averaging. Section 9.Software Corporation S9-60 . NAS120.

Software Corporation S9-61 . Section 9. NAS120.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Plot the stress jumps at each node. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. The difference between the maximum stress and the minimum stress at each node is plotted.

This stress gradient is captured by a single tet10 element through the thickness. It helped us identify the critical area in the tank. ● The un-averaged stress fringe plot is jagged. ● The stress difference plot shows a maximum stress jump of 15. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. It ranges from 31.Software Corporation S9-62 . NAS120.600 psi on the inside wall to about 5.000 psi on the outside wall.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK ● Scuba tank coarse-mesh model analysis summary: ● The maximum Von Mises stress is 31. an indication that the mesh is too coarse. Section 9. ● The stress gradient through the tank wall thickness is high.600 psi at the base of the tank near the fillet radius.000 psi. We will now create a second model with a finer mesh in the critical area. ● This first scuba tank model was relatively coarse. This suggests that the mesh is too coarse in this area.

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Create a new database and import the tank geometry. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Break the solid into 90-degree sectors as before and create a cylindrical coordinate system. Section 9.Software Corporation S9-63 . NAS120.

Software Corporation S9-64 . Section 9.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Point 163 Create a point 1” away from the fillet radius. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.

NAS120. Section 9.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Create a plane at this new point.Software Corporation S9-65 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 9. NAS120.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Use the plane to break the solid.Software Corporation S9-66 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S9-67 . NAS120.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Mesh the bottom portion of the tank with an element size of 0.125 inch. Section 9. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 9.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Move to the other end of the tank. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Break the solid using this plane. NAS120.Software Corporation S9-68 . Create a point 1” away from the dome/cylinder transition point and create a plane there.

25 inch. Section 9.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Mesh the dome portion of the tank with an element size of 0.Software Corporation S9-69 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.

Solid 7 Solid 8 Solid 9 NAS120.Software Corporation S9-70 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. turn on Match Parasolid Faces to match the mesh on two neighboring solids.521 inch. mesh the cylindrical portion with an element size of 0. Under assembly parameters.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Finally. Section 9.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Equivalence the model NAS120.Software Corporation S9-71 . Section 9.

and element properties. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Finish creating loads. Section 9. boundary conditions.Software Corporation S9-72 . material properties. Submit the model to NASTRAN for static analysis. NAS120.

Section 9. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Read the NASTRAN results into PATRAN.Software Corporation S9-73 .

Section 9. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.007 inch agrees with the coarse model. The maximum deformation of 0. NAS120.Software Corporation S9-74 .SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Create the deformation plot.

Software Corporation S9-75 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Plot the Von Mises stress NAS120. Section 9.

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Zoom into the critical area.Software Corporation S9-76 . The maximum Von Mises stress is 29. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Notice that there are 5 elements through the thickness in the critical area. NAS120. Section 9.500 psi.

Section 9.Software Corporation S9-77 . The maximum Von Mises stress is 30. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Turn off stress averaging.300 psi NAS120.

NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S9-78 .SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Plot the stress jumps across nodes. Section 9.

● Let’s analyze the tank again using 2D axisymmetric elements.300 psi at the base of the tank near the fillet radius. Is further mesh refinement necessary? ● A total of 98. Section 9. ● There are 5 elements through the thickness in this critical area. NAS120.Software Corporation S9-79 . indicating that the re-meshing effort paid off.504 elements were used to model this problem. ● The un-averaged stress fringe plot is relatively smooth. The stress gradient is represented reasonably well through the thickness.830 nodes and 66.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK ● Scuba tank fine-mesh model analysis summary: ● The maximum Von Mises stress is 30. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● The stress difference plot shows a maximum stress jump of 4300 psi.

and loads must all be axisymmetric. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● Only half of the tank cross section is modeled. ● Geometry. NAS120. Section 9.Software Corporation S9-80 . ● A much finer mesh can be used to solve this problem. boundary condition.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK ● Using 2D Axisymmetric Elements ● This converts a 3D problem into a planar problem by using 2D elements.

Section 9.Software Corporation S9-81 .SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Open a new PATRAN database and import the scuba tank parasolid model. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120. Section 9.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Again break the solid with the YZ plane and delete one of the resulting solids.Software Corporation S9-82 .

Section 9. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.Software Corporation S9-83 .SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Break the solid with the XZ plane and delete one of the resulting solids.

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Use Create / Surface / Extract with the Face Option to create a surface from a face of the solid that lies in the XZ plane. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S9-84 . Section 9. NAS120.

leaving just the surface geometry. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Delete the remaining solid.Software Corporation S9-85 . Section 9.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Change the view by using Viewing Angles. Section 9.Software Corporation S9-86 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S9-87 . The axisymmetric elements must lie in the positive x half of the x-z plane of the basic coordinate system with the z axis as the centerline. NAS120. Section 9.0625 inch.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Mesh the surface to generate triangular elements with a global edge length of 0.

There are now 10 elements through the thickness in the critical area. NAS120. Section 9.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK The use of planar elements allowed us to use a much finer mesh.Software Corporation S9-88 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

R2. Section 9. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. R1. NAS120. and R3 degrees of freedom are not used in this axisymmetric problem. Constrain these unused degrees of freedom.Software Corporation S9-89 .SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK The T2.

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Constrain the model in the z direction. Section 9. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.Software Corporation S9-90 .

Section 9. The radial constraint is automatically handled by NASTRAN. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S9-91 .SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Apply the z constraint to the curve at the valve interface. NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 9.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Create a pressure load NAS120.Software Corporation S9-92 .

NAS120.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Apply the pressure to all the internal curves. Section 9. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S9-93 .

Section 9.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Create the material properties NAS120.Software Corporation S9-94 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S9-95 .SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Create the axisymmetric element properties NAS120. Section 9.

NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 9.Software Corporation S9-96 .SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Run the static analysis.

SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Read the results back into PATRAN. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.Software Corporation S9-97 . Section 9.

Software Corporation S9-98 .SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Create the deformation plot. Maximum deformation is 0. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.007 inch which agrees with the previous two models. Section 9. NAS120.

Section 9.100 psi NAS120. The maximum Von Mises Stress is 29.Software Corporation S9-99 .SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Plot the Von Mises stress. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 9.100 psi NAS120.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Turn off stress averaging. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S9-100 . The maximum Von Mises stress remains at 29.

Section 9.Software Corporation S9-101 . NAS120.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Zoom in on the critical area. Note that the unaveraged stress fringes are relatively smooth. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S9-102 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK Plot the stress jumps across nodes. NAS120. Section 9. The maximum stress difference in the critical area is near zero.

The stress gradient is represented reasonably well through the thickness. we were able to create a smaller model with a finer mesh compared to the 3D model. The un-averaged stress fringe plot is very smooth. NAS120. The stress difference plot shows near zero values. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.100 psi at the ● ● ● ● base of the tank near the fillet radius. Using a 2D representation of the scuba tank.SECTION 9 SCUBA TANK ● Scuba tank 2D axisymmetric analysis summary ● The maximum Von Mises stress is 29.Software Corporation S9-103 . There are 10 elements through the thickness in this critical area. Section 9. indicating that the mesh density is adequate.

EXERCISE
● Perform Workshop 10 “Support Bracket” in your

exercise workbook.
● Optional:

Analyze the Scuba Tank covered in this section.

NAS120, Section 9, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S9-104

SECTION 10 CAR DESIGN

NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

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NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

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SECTION 10: CAR DESIGN
• Topics covered in this case study:
• Groups and Lists • 0-D Elements • Rigid Elements

NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S10-3

SECTION 10: CAR DESIGN
• Problem Description
• We have inherited a Nastran input file of a vehicle body-inwhite. • We are tasked with breaking the model down into manageable sections so that the we can:
• • • • refine the mesh further apply properties to the elements breakout components for detailed analysis control the post processing of different components

• We are required to add a mass representation of the engine and spring stiffnesses of the shock absorbers.

NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S10-4

NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S10-5

INTRODUCTION TO GROUPS

Groups allow geometric and FE entities to be divided into separate groups for various modeling and post-processing tasks A group named “default_group” is created automatically when a new database is created Newly created items automatically become members of the current group Any number of groups can be created, and entities may belong to more than one group Groups become permanent members of the database Name of current group is displayed as part of Viewport banner

 

NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S10-6

INTRODUCTION TO GROUPS
• What is a Group?
• Any subset of model • A collection of entities

• Why use more than just the Default Group?
• Separate groups for geometry & finite elements

Geometry

Elements

• Isolate Subsets when working with large models

Total
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

Middle
S10-7

Ends

GROUP TERMINOLOGY
• Current
• Group into which newly created entities are placed • Only one group may be current at a time

• Target
• Group that will be acted upon • Translate entities from the Target Group to the Current Group • Modify the appearance of the Target Group

• Posted
• Group is displayed in a viewport • A group may be posted to more than one viewport • More than one group may be posted to a viewport

NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S10-8

CREATING A GROUP

Choose Group/Create, or change the Action to Create in the Group menu Assign new group name The default is to make the new group the Current Group (new entities assigned to) Use the Group Contents options to select group member categories, i.e. Add Entity Selection, Add All Geometry, Add All FEM, Add All Orphans, Add All Entities Loads, boundary conditions, coordinate frames, fields, load cases and results are not group members
S10-9

 

NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

CREATING A GROUP (Cont.)
Select Entity Property Set Property Type Loads/BCs Set Loads/BCs Type Material Element Topology Element Shape Element ID MPC Type Boolean Select the desired entities from the screen or all entities of a particular type (i.e. geometry or finite elements) Select element property set names (user specified), i.e. prop_1, prop_2 Select element property type, i.e. 2D shell, 3D solid Select load and boundary condition set names, i.e. lbc_1, lbc_2 Select load and boundary condition types, i.e. displacement, force Select material set names, i.e. matl_1, matl_2 Select element topology, i.e. hex8, quad4 Select element shape, i.e. 2D, 3D, bar Specify element number range, e.g. start ID = 1, End ID = 327 Select MPC type, i.e. RBAR, RBE2 Perform set operations on contents of groups, e.g. operation of union on groups group_A and group_B

NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

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CREATE GROUP
• First step: Create a group that contains the roof mesh only.
• • • •

defining the current group controlling the entity picking controlling the viewport display of the group modifying the group

• This may be demonstrated on the model included in the Nastran input file car_1.bdf.

NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S10-11

CREATE GROUP

Choose a view that will allow a us to pick all the roof entities. Choose Group/Create. New Group Name is ‘roof’ Check Make Current Check Unpost All Other Groups Choose Option: Add Entity Selection This allows us to make the selection by clicking and dragging in the viewport.
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-12

CREATE GROUP

The selected entities are now highlighted. Now hit Apply The group will be created. It will be made current, which means any new entities created will be added to it. All other groups will be unposted.

NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S10-13

CREATE GROUP

We have the roof region, but it has extra entities. We need a strategy for cleanly eliminating these. First we change our Picking Preference from default – Enclose centroid to Enclose any Portion

NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S10-14

MODIFY GROUP

Next use Group/Modify The Target Group is ‘roof’ as that is what we want to modify. The Member List shows us what is in the group at present. We wish to select entities to put into the Member List to Add/Remove set. Then we will click the -Remove- option.
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-15

CREATE GROUPS

Now we are ready to pick the entities to remove.

Select Polygonal Picking from the Selection bar, and set the Picking Preference so that entities we just touch will be picked. That makes the selection very simple now. Hit OK to complete the action.
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-16

DISABLE AUTO EXTEND

The group ‘roof’ is now finished. However it can be irritating when working with groups because the viewport will snap to a view that fits each group posted or created. To disable this use Preferences/Graphics and uncheck Auto Extend
NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-17

USING LISTS WITH GROUPS

Manual selection of entities for groups is not always efficient. Often we want to define a collection of entities with some feature in common. Lists allow us to do this, and then the list contents may be saved as a group.

NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S10-18

LIST OVERVIEW
List

  

Create list of entities based on given criterion Lists can be used as input for various Patran applications, such as Application Regions for element properties Criteria for list creation are
 

Attributes, such as location, results value, assigned properties Association with other entities, such as Points, Edges, Elements, Groups, etc.

Lists are not stored in the database, but can be added to a Group
S10-19

NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

HOW TO CREATE A LIST

Create two lists:

List A: all nodes at X = 18.0 (+ 1.0 tolerance) List B: all elements associated with the nodes in List A

   

Create List A Nodes at X = 18 + 1

NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

Create List B Elements associated with nodes in List A When using a list as input, enclose the List name in back quotes (e.g. `lista`)

S10-20

CREATE GROUP FROM LIST
• We now introduce methods for using lists to help create groups • We will create a group containing entities belonging to the B pillar of the car.

NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S10-21

CREATE LIST

Post the Default Group. The B pillar is defined as shown. We want to get the nodes and elements for this component into a group.

B Pillar

NAS120, Section 10, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S10-22

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 10.CREATE LIST To help us define the group we first build a local coordinate system which has its y axis running up the B Pillar. Use Create/Coord/Axis Axis: Axis 1 and 2 And pick 3 Nodes.Software Corporation S10-23 . NAS120.

Section 10.CREATE LIST • Patran LISTS • We will use a LIST method to create the B Pillar group. Objective: All nodes in the region +/.2. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. • In our case the Attribute will be a distance from the xy plane of coordinate frame 6.Software Corporation S10-24 . NAS120.5 in around the xy plane of Coord 6 will be put into a temporary list.

Coord Frame is 6 Check z axis Use default tolerance of .5 to 2.005 Choose the ‘between’ option –2. Section 10.5 Choose Target List ‘A’ NAS120.Software Corporation S10-25 .CREATE LIST Under Tools: Select List/Create Select FEM/Node/Attribute Attribute is Coord Value Refer. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

ADD TO GROUP List box List A will now pop up and will contain a list of all the nodes that meet the criterion set.Software Corporation S10-26 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. If we select Add to Group then we have a further option in the List Save menu to choose a Group to add the entities into. Section 10. This can be an existing group or a new as yet undefined group. We define a new group ‘b_pillar’ NAS120.

Software Corporation S10-27 .POST GROUP Post the b_pillar group NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 10.

Software Corporation S10-28 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CREATE LIST Clear ‘List A’ box and create a new list that includes all the elements associated to the nodes in the b_pillar group. Section 10. Use FEM/Element/Association Select Nodes Select Target List A Apply Choose Add To Group and select ‘b_pillar’ NAS120.

The group can be cleaned up as before using Group/Modify to remove unwanted elements. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-29 . Section 10.POST ENTIRE GROUP The resulting of adding the List A contents is shown.

Software Corporation S10-30 .POST TWO GROUPS Post both the roof and b_pillar groups. Use Ctrl to select multiple groups. Section 10. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S10-31 . Section 10.BOOLEAN OPERATIONS  Boolean operations are used to manipulate lists or groups    Intersection operation Union operation Results of subtracting finds items common to both combines items in both one from another  Example  Find elements with a von Mises stress result value > 20.000 psi and a temperature result value > 300 F NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

BOOLEAN EXAMPLE  Plot von Mises stress Create List A Find elements with a von Mises stress greater than 20. Section 10. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.000 psi S10-32    Plot temperatures Create List B Find elements with a temperature greater than 300 Fo   NAS120.Software Corporation .

Section 10.000 psi and temperature greater than 300 Fo NAS120.)   Use Boolean operation to create List C Contents of List C are all elements with a von Mises stress greater than 20.BOOLEAN EXAMPLE (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-33 .

Software Corporation S10-34 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.1 • We created a group called ‘mesh’ that contains only the finite element entities and a similar geometry group called ‘geom’ • We now wish to create further regions of geometry and mesh using the Group Options • To Scale Geometry and Finite Elements simultaneously • If a model needs to be scaled after meshing.MODEL MODIFICATION USING GROUPS • We deviate from the Car example to look at two powerful functions of Groups: • To Create new entities • We have created a 1 x 1 surface and meshed it using global edge length of 0. Section 10. NAS120. we may scale a group that contains all entities.

MODEL MODIFICATION USING GROUPS Create and post a group called ‘combo’ that contains all of the entities in the model. Section 10. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. We can do this directly or by assembling the ‘mesh’ and ‘geom’ groups NAS120.Software Corporation S10-35 .

Software Corporation S10-36 . NAS120. Section 10.MODEL MODIFICATION USING GROUPS Using Group/Transform/Translate We now translate the group ‘combo’ to form a new group called ‘combo2’. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 10. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.MODEL MODIFICATION USING GROUPS We have a further option to Transform any Loads and Boundary Conditions and/or Material and Physical Properties that are associated with the selected group The Translation Vector we have used here is the edge of the plate. It is convenient to use the Tip and base point method.Software Corporation S10-37 . NAS120.

Software Corporation S10-38 . Section 10. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.MODEL MODIFICATION USING GROUPS The translation is completed and the new entities are in the current group ‘combo2’ combo combo2 NAS120.

Section 10.MODEL MODIFICATION USING GROUPS All existing entities in a group or groups may be transformed together. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-39 . NAS120. This technique is useful to scale an entire model that has already been meshed.

Software Corporation S10-40 . NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.EXERCISE Perform Workshop 11 “Spacecraft Fairing” in your exercise workbook. Section 10.

ZERO DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS ● We now look at the general class of elements termed 0D. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. connections etc. NAS120. This includes the following: ● Spring Elements – used to model bolts. ● Mass Elements – used to simulate lumped mass. Section 10.Software Corporation S10-41 .

one at each grid/ground connection point. Section 10. CELAS4. CELAS3. ● The CBUSH elements connects from 1 to 6 degrees of freedom between two GRID points. ● Force components: axial force P or moment M ● Displacement components: axial translation u or rotation  NAS120.ZERO DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS ● Zero Dimensional Spring Elements ● CELAS1. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. CELAS2.Software Corporation S10-42 . CBUSH ● The CELASi elements are connected by two degrees of freedom .

May connect 1 to 6 dof. scalar points. Section 10. which may be grid points. with reference to a property entry. which may be grid points. CELAS2 Connects two points.Software Corporation S10-43 . NAS120. without reference to a property entry CELAS3 Connects only scalar points with reference to a property entry (Not Supported in Patran) CELAS4 Connects only scalar points without reference to property entry (Not Supported in Patran) CBUSH Connects two GRID points. scalar points or both. Avoids the grounding problem inherent in CELASi elements (when mis-used). August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.ZERO DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS ● Zero Dimensional Elements ● CELAS1 ● ● ● ● Connects two points. or both.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-44 . ● The CBUSH correctly accounts for the effects of geometry and displacement coordinate systems.CBUSH ELEMENT ● Zero Dimensional Elements ● The CBUSH is the recommended form for scalar springs. Section 10. ● The CELASi elements simply insert terms directly into the stiffness matrix without considering geometry or displacement coordinate systems. ● It avoids the potential grounding which may occur when two non-coincident points are connected. NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Defines a generalized spring-and-damper structural element that may be nonlinear or frequency dependent. NAS120.Software Corporation S10-45 .CBUSH ELEMENT ● Zero Dimensional Elements ● The CBUSH . Section 10.

NAS120.CBUSH ELEMENT ● Zero Dimensional Elements ● The CBUSH ● Field Contents ● EID Element identification number. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Default =EID) ● GA. (Integer > 0) ● PID Property identification number of a PBUSH entry. Section 10.Software Corporation S10-46 . GB Grid points identification number of connections (Integer > 0) points. (Integer > 0.

If CID is blank. Direction is from GA to GO ● CID Element coordinate system identification. NAS120. A 0 means the basic coordinate system. ● GO Alternate method to supply orientation vector using grid point GO. then the element coordinate system is determined from GO or Xi.Software Corporation S10-47 . in the displacement coordinate system at GA.CBUSH ELEMENT ● Zero Dimensional Elements ● The CBUSH ● Xi Component of orientation vector. Section 10. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. from GA.

S3 Components of spring-damper offset in the OCID coordinate system if OCID <> 0 element NAS120. Default =0.Software Corporation S10-48 . Section 10. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.5) ● OCID Coordinate system identification of springdamper offset. (Integer.CBUSH ELEMENT ● Zero Dimensional Elements ● The CBUSH ● S Location of spring-damper (Real. Default=-1 which means coordinate system) ● S1. S2.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Defines the nominal property values for a generalized spring-and-damper structural element ● Field Contents ● PID ● "K" ● Ki Property identification number. (Real.Software Corporation S10-49 . (Integer > 0) Flag indicating that next 1 to 6 fields are stiffness values.PBUSH PROPERTIES ● Zero Dimensional Elements ● The PBUSH . Default=0. (Character) Nominal stiffness values in directions 1 through 6. Section 10.0) NAS120.

Defines the nominal property values for a generalized spring-and-damper structural element ● Field Contents ● "B" ● Bi Flag indicating that the next 1 to 6 fields are force-per-velocity damping. Section 10. Default=0.Software Corporation S10-50 .PBUSH PROPERTIES ● Zero Dimensional Elements ● The PBUSH . (Real. (Character) Nominal damping coefficient in units of force per unit velocity.0) NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Defines the nominal property values for a generalized spring-and-damper structural element ● Field Contents ● "GE" ● GE1 Flag indicating that the next fields is structural damping. Section 10.Software Corporation S10-51 . (Real. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.PBUSH PROPERTIES ● Zero Dimensional Elements ● The PBUSH . (Character) Nominal Structural damping constant.0) NAS120.Default=0.

PBUSH PROPERTIES ● Zero Dimensional Elements ● The PBUSH .Defines the nominal property values for a generalized spring- and-damper structural element ● Field Contents ● "RCV" ● SA ● ST ● EA ● ET Flag indicating that the next 1 to 4 fields are stress or strain coefficients.0) Strain recovery coefficient in the rotational components. Section 10. (Real. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. (Real. (Real. Default=1.0) Stress recovery coefficient in the rotational component numbers 4 through 6. (Real.0) NAS120. Default=1. Default=1.0) Strain recovery coefficient in the translational components. Default=1.Software Corporation S10-52 . (Character) Stress recovery coefficient in the translational component numbers 1 through 3.

in turn: ● CELAS elements ● BUSH elements Rear Suspension NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SUSPENSION EXAMPLE ● Zero Dimensional Elements ● We want to add the rear suspension to the car model.Software Corporation S10-53 . Section 10. We will do this using.

Software Corporation S10-54 . Section 10. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SUSPENSION EXAMPLE If the suspension is connected to another component then we need to define a pair of grids to form end B of the springs. NAS120.

Section 10. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SUSPENSION EXAMPLE Create each suspension element directly using Create/Element/Edit Use Bar2 generic MSC. NAS120.Patran Topology.Software Corporation S10-55 .

Section 10.SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CELAS Create the suspension element properties using Create/1D/Spring Provide a Property Set Name Pick the elements using Select Members Use the element selector El 17582 El 17581 NAS120.Software Corporation S10-56 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

A spring connecting two nodes separated by a distance can cause grounding problems.SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CELAS From the main form select Input Properties On the CELAS1 form: Input Spring Constant Select the DOF’s using the String List: here we use “UY” Note: In general. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 10. springs should always be created between coincident nodes.Software Corporation String List S10-57 . NAS120.

+6 $ Pset: "rear_susp" will be imported as: "pelas. Section 10.SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CELAS ● Zero Dimensional Elements ● The CELAS1 and PELAS cards are shown ● The Cross Reference from the CELAS1’s to the PELAS is via PID 12 ● Both ends of the spring have DOF 2 (the y direction) ● Ky = 1e6 lbf/in $ Elements and Element Properties for region : rear_susp PELAS 12 1.12" CELAS1 CELAS1 17581 17582 12 12 7142 872 2 2 7239 1869 2 2 NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-58 .

SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CELAS ● Zero Dimensional Elements ● If CELAS2 is desired. Section 10. select Write Properties on Element Entries in the Patran Analysis Translation Parameters form: NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-59 .

connected between the same grids. ● Setting up this number of elements is tedious and is one of the reasons to use a CBUSH element instead. Section 10.Software Corporation S10-60 . We will end up with 6 CELAS1 elements per suspension component. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120. ● If we want to apply stiffness in all 6 degrees of freedom we will need to define 6 elements for each suspension component.SUSPENSION EXAMPLE ● Zero Dimensional Elements ● Stiffness in multiple directions: ● The Suspension has only the Uy direction stiffness defined so far.

NAS120.Software Corporation S10-61 . Section 10. except being careful to select the coincident grids properly. ● There are two alternatives in our case: ● A Spring between two coincident grids ● A Grounded Spring ● When creating the Spring between coincident grids we create the zero length Bar2 element and property exactly as shown before. They are strictly 0D elements even though we create them via generic Patran Bar2 elements. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SUSPENSION EXAMPLE ● Zero Dimensional Elements ● Zero Length Springs: ● The concept of ‘length’ in a spring is misleading and in general it is bad practice to put in a finite length.

Software Corporation S10-62 . only one grid is needed. By definition. NAS120.SUSPENSION EXAMPLE ● Zero Dimensional Elements ● Zero Length Springs: ● The grounded spring is created by defining a 0D element in Patran and then associating Grounded Spring Properties. Section 10. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

● The CBUSH can be defined as having coincident grids. ● However we still classify it as a 0D element. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-63 .SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CBUSH ● Zero Dimensional Elements ● The Bush Element: ● As described in the theory section the CBUSH element is much preferred when defining a finite length spring. But we need to define an orientation vector to define the direction of the stiffness terms ● We repeat the suspension example now … NAS120. Section 10. Length now has a physical meaning and geometry is taken into account properly. or grounded with a single grid.

Patran Topology NAS120.SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CBUSH Create each suspension element as before Create/Element/Edit Use Bar2 generic MSC.Software Corporation S10-64 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 10.

Section 10.Software Corporation S10-65 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CBUSH Create the suspension element properties using Create/1D/Bush Provide a Property Set Name Pick the elements using Select Members Use the element selector El 17581 El 17582 NAS120.

Software Corporation S10-66 String List . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CBUSH From the main form select Input Properties On the Bush form: Input Bush Orientation Input Spring Constants 1 to 6 as required NAS120. Section 10.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 10. The direction of the stiffness terms is then defined. Bush Element NAS120.Software Corporation S10-67 . Note only translational stiffness is defined. The CID method can be used when the two grid points are coincident.SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CBUSH We define the Orientation by using the orientation vector method.

0. 0. Section 10.SUSPENSION EXAMPLE: CBUSH ● Zero Dimensional Elements ● The CBUSH and PBUSH cards are shown.> NAS120.Software Corporation S10-68 . ● The Cross Reference from the CBUSH’s to the PBUSH is via PID 12. ● The Stiffnesses are defined on the PBUSH card via the ‘K’ flag and the orientation is defined by the vector <1. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

NAS120. ● They are used in dynamic analysis and static analysis where inertia loading are used.MASS ELEMENTS ● Zero Dimensional Mass Elements ● Mass elements are used when mass properties of a structural component are idealized at a single grid point. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● Only 3 mass elements are created by MSC.Patran: ● CONM2 – a simple lumped mass definition ● CONM1 – a more complex mass definition ● CMASS1 – a scalar mass definition ● Of these the CONM2 is the most commonly used.Software Corporation S10-69 . Section 10.

so we can use that to find lumped mass properties.Software Corporation S10-70 .MASS ELEMENTS ● Zero Dimensional Mass Elements ● We will now represent the engine block in the car via a CONM2 element. NAS120. but want to have the correct mass and inertia terms included. ● This is a very typical example where we do not want to model the engine block in detail. Section 10. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● We have a tet mesh of the block.

Section 10.Software Corporation S10-71 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.MASS ELEMENTS The tet mesh of the block NAS120.

MASS PROPERTIES Select Tools Mass Properties… Show/3D Define the region using a previously defined group ‘block’ Check Plot Principal Axes NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 10.Software Corporation S10-72 .

Section 10. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-73 .MASS PROPERTIES The Principal Axes are plotted.

24.22 CG = [34.11 I33 = 30. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. M = .Software Corporation S10-74 .0] (Mass density values) NAS120.24.-30. Section 10. Coord 9 has been created at the cg.MASS PROPERTIES The cg is reported relative to Coord 0 in this case.91.32 I22 = 36.8412 I11 = 50.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 10.Software Corporation S10-75 .ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE First we create a grid at the origin of the block as reported. NAS120.

Software Corporation S10-76 .ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE Now we create a Point Element at this grid. NAS120. Section 10. A triangle confirms the element position. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Input Properties for CONM2 as reported previously.Software Corporation S10-77 . Section 10. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE In Properties Create/0D/Mass Input Property Set Name Choose Lumped Option Select Members (use the point element selection pick).

I11. Section 10.32 11365 36.Software Corporation S10-78 . I33 completed.22 NAS120. I22. $ Elements and Element Properties for region : block_mass CONM2 17583 50.ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE ● Zero Dimensional Mass Elements ● The CONM2 element is shown below with M. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.11 .8412 30.

Software Corporation S10-79 . Section 10. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE ● Zero Dimensional Mass Elements ● The other options for creating Mass properties from point elements are shown: NAS120.

Section 10. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE ● Zero Dimensional Mass Elements ● If generic bar2 elements are used then a CMASS1 element with 2 grids is created. NAS120.Software Corporation S10-80 .

Section 10. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.0 in Coord 0 from grid S10-81 NAS120.ENGINE MASS EXAMPLE ● Zero Dimensional Mass Elements ● A very common application is to offset a CONM2 element. The setup is shown below: Mass 200 Offset 20.Software Corporation .0.

Software Corporation S10-82 . ● The most common Rigid Elements are: ● RBE2 . Section 10.one independent node and multiple dependant nodes.RIGID ELEMENTS ● Rigid Elements ● A very useful set of elements are defined as Rigid Elements. ● RBE3 – one dependent node and multiple independent nodes. They are most commonly used as general connection elements. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120. where we do not wish to model the connections in detail.

RBEs and MPCs ● Working Definition: The motion of a DOF is dependent on the motion of at least one other DOF NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-83 . Section 10.

Software Corporation S10-84 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 10.MOTION AT ONE GRID DRIVES ANOTHER ● Simple Translation X motion of Green Grid drives X motion of Red Grid NAS120.

MOTION AT ONE GRID DRIVES ANOTHER ● Simple Rotation Rotation of Green Grid drives X translation and Z rotation of Red Grid NAS120. Section 10.Software Corporation S10-85 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Independent DOFs Stiffness/mass/loads at dependent DOF transferred to independent DOF(s) S10-86 NAS120. mass. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. or force Linear relationship Small displacement theory Dependent v. Section 10.LINEAR RBEs and MPCs The motion of a DOF is dependent on the motion of at least one other DOF • • • • • • Displacement. not elastic relationship Not dictated by stiffness.Software Corporation .

Section 10.Software Corporation S10-87 .SMALL DISPLACEMENT THEORY & ROTATIONS ● Small displacement theory: sin() ≈ tan() ≈  cos() ≈ 1 ● For Rz @ A TxB B  A X RzB = RzA=  TxB = ()*LAB TyB = 0 Y NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

RJOINT.& User-input based ● RBE3 “rigid” elements ● Less Common “Rigid” elements (not covered in this course) ● RBAR1. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. RTRPLT1.NASTRAN ● Geometry-based ● RBAR ● RBE2 Really-rigid ● Geometry.Software Corporation S10-88 . RROD. Section 10. RBE1.COMMONLY USED “RIGID” ELEMENTS IN MSC. RTRPLT. RSPLINE ● User-input based ● MPC NAS120. RSSCON.

and dependent DOF at an arbitrary number of GRIDs.COMMON GEOMETRY-BASED RIGID ELEMENTS ● RBAR ● Rigid Bar with six DOF at each end ● RBE2 – Rigid body with independent DOF at one GRID. Section 10.Software Corporation S10-89 . NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 10.Software Corporation S10-90 .THE RBAR ● The RBAR is a rigid link between two GRID points ● Proper rigid body motion is preserved NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

THE RBAR B ● Most common to have all the dependent DOFs at one GRID. Section 10.Software Corporation S10-91 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. but this is rare ● The independent DOFs must be capable of describing the rigid RBAR RBAR EID 535 GA 1 GB 2 CNA CNB 123456 CMA CMB 123456 NAS120. and all the independent DOFs at the other body motion of the element A ● Can mix/match dependent DOF between the GRIDs.

RBAR EXAMPLE: FASTENER ● Use of RBAR to “weld” two parts of a model together: RBAR RBAR EID 535 B GA 1 GB 2 CNA CNB 123456 CMA CMB 123456 A NAS120.Software Corporation S10-92 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 10.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-93 . Section 10.RBAR EXAMPLE: PIN-JOINT ● Use of RBAR to form pin-jointed attachment RBAR RBAR EID 535 B GA 1 GB 2 CNA CNB 123456 CMA CMB 123 A NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 10.RBAR DEFINITION IN PATRAN NAS120.Software Corporation S10-94 .

Section 10.Software Corporation S10-95 .THE RBE2 ● One independent GRID (all 6 DOF) ● Multiple dependent GRID/DOFs NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 10.Software Corporation S10-96 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RBE2 EXAMPLE ● Rigidly “weld” multiple GRIDs to one other GRID: RBE2 RBE2 EID 99 GN CM GM1 GM2 GM3 GM4 GM5 101 123456 1 2 3 4 3 4 1 2 101 NAS120.

Software Corporation S10-97 .RBE2 EXAMPLE RBE2 RBE2 EID 99 GN CM GM1 GM2 GM3 GM4 GM5 101 123456 1 2 3 4 ● Note: No relative motion between GRIDs 1-4 ! ● No deformation of element(s) between these GRIDs 3 4 1 2 101 NAS120. Section 10. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S10-98 . Section 10.COMMON RBE2/RBAR USES ● RBE2 or RBAR between 2 GRIDs ● “Weld” 2 different parts together ● 6DOF connection ● “Bolt” 2 different parts together ● 3DOF connection ● RBE2 ● “Spider” or “wagon wheel” connections ● Large mass/base-drive connection NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

RBE2 DEFINITION IN PATRAN Be careful of Patran defaults • For RBE2 Typically want dependant grid to have either • 3 translational DOF’s (UX.Software Corporation S10-99 . UY. • For RBE3 Typically want independent grids to have 3 translational DOF only (UX. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Including rotations for RBE3 MPC’s can cause incorrect results. UZ) or • 6 DOF’s (3 translation & 3 rotation) • Default in Patran is UX only and this is typically not correct. NAS120. UZ). UY. Section 10.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.YES can resolve conflicts 3 4 1 2 101 NAS120. Section 10. SUPORTed or be dependent on other RBE/MPC elements ● PARAM.RBE & MPC NOTES ● Dependent DOF cannot be SPC’d.AUTOMSET.Software Corporation S10-100 . OMITted.

Software Corporation S10-101 .RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE2 ● Rigid Elements – the RBE2 ● Consider the engine mass we created for the car model. engine connections NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. We need to connect it into the bulkhead structure. but we have a lumped mass idealization and we do not wish to model the detail of the connections. Section 10.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-102 .RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE2 ● Rigid Elements – the RBE2 ● We will connect the lumped mass to the attachment points via an RBE2 element. lumped mass idealization NAS120. Section 10.

Section 10. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE2 Create/MPC/RBE2 Define Terms Switch off Auto Execute Check Create Dependent Select only DOF’s Ux thru Rz Pick Node List and hit Enter NAS120.Software Corporation S10-103 .

RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE2 The Dependent Terms box will be populated Select Create Independent Select Node List – pick the node at the engine mass Hit Enter The Independent Terms will be filled in NAS120.Software Corporation S10-104 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 10.

Software Corporation S10-105 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 10.RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE2 Hit Cancel in the sub-form Hit Apply in the main form The RBE2 will be shown NAS120.

Software Corporation S10-106 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE2 ● The ‘spider’ we have formed will now form an infinitely rigid connection between the CONM2 at it’s grid and the other four connecting grids. Section 10. NAS120.

Software Corporation S10-107 . Section 10. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RBE 3: THE DEMOCRATIC MPC ● RBE3 ● Everyone votes on the outcome ● Some votes carry more weight! NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-108 .RBE3 ELEMENTS • Motion at a dependent GRID is the weighted average of the motion(s) at a set of master (independent) GRIDs ● NOT a “rigid” element ● IS an interpolation element ● Does not add stiffness to the structure (if used correctly) NAS120. Section 10.

Section 10. the reference grid DOF will be the dependent DOF ● Number of dependent DOF is equal to the number of DOF on the REFC field NAS120.Software Corporation S10-109 .RBE3 DESCRIPTION ● By default. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S10-110 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. RBE2 ● RBE3 allows warping and 3D effects ● In this example.RBE3 IS NOT RIGID! ● RBE3 vs. Section 10. RBE2 enforces beam theory (plane sections remain planar) RBE3 RBE2 NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 10.Software Corporation S10-111 .RBE3: HOW IT WORKS? – APPLIED FORCES ● Forces/moments applied at reference grid are distributed to the master grids in same manner as classical bolt pattern analysis ● Step 1: Applied loads are transferred to the CG of the weighted grid group using an equivalent Force/Moment ● Step 2: Applied loads at CG transferred to master grids according to each grid’s weighting factor NAS120.

Software Corporation S10-112 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 10. FA CG Reference Grid FCG MA CG MCG e FCG=FA MCG=MA+FA*e NAS120.RBE3: HOW IT WORKS? – APPLIED FORCES ● Step 1: Transform force/moment at reference grid to equivalent force/moment at the weighted CG of master grids.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 10.Software Corporation S10-113 . ● Force at CG divided amongst master grids according to weighting factors Wi ● Moment at CG mapped as equivalent force couples on master grids according to weighting factors Wi NAS120.RBE3: HOW IT WORKS? – APPLIED FORCES ● Step 2: Move loads at CG to master grids according to their weighting values.

Section 10.. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Forces derived from force at CG: Fif = FCG{Wi/Wi} Plus Forces derived from moment at CG: Fim = {McgWiri/(W1r12+W2r22+W3r32)} NAS120.Software Corporation S10-114 ..RBE3: HOW IT WORKS? – APPLIED FORCES ● Step 2: Continued… FCG F1m CG MCG F2m F3m Total force at each master node is sum of.

Software Corporation S10-115 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 10.RBE3: HOW IT WORKS? – MASS DISTRIBUTION ● Masses smeared to the master grids similar to forces distribution ● Mass is distributed to the master grids with weighting factors ● Rotational inertia is transferred to master grids ● Reference node inertial force is distributed in same manner as when static force is applied to the reference grid. NAS120.

EXAMPLE 1 ● RBE3 distribution of loads when force at reference grid at CG passes through CG of master grids NAS120. Section 10. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-116 .

11 nodes numbered 1 through 11 ● 100 LB.EXAMPLE 1: FORCE THROUGH CG ● Simply supported beam ● 10 elements. Force in negative Y on reference grid 99 NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-117 . Section 10.

Section 10.EXAMPLE 1: FORCE THROUGH CG ● Load through CG with uniform weighting factors results in uniform load distribution NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-118 .

EXAMPLE 1: FORCE THROUGH CG ● Comments… ● RBE3 Require 6 RBMODES ● x rotation DOF is added to satisfy equilibrium NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-119 . Section 10.

EXAMPLE 2 ● Force does not pass thru CG of master grids NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-120 . Section 10.

Section 10.Software Corporation S10-121 .EXAMPLE 2: LOAD NOT THROUGH CG ● The resulting force distribution is not intuitively obvious ● Note forces in the opposite direction on the left side of the beam. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Upward loads on left side of beam result from moment caused by movement of applied load to the CG of master grids. NAS120.

Software Corporation S10-122 . Section 10.EXAMPLE 3 ● Use of weighting factors to generate realistic load distribution: 100 LB. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. transverse load on 3D beam.

EXAMPLE 3: TRANSVERSE LOAD ON BEAM ● If uniform weighting factors are used.Software Corporation S10-123 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. the load is equally distributed to all grids. Section 10. NAS120.

Section 10.EXAMPLE 3: TRANSVERSE LOAD ON BEAM ● The uniform load distribution results in too much transverse load in flanges causing them to droop. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Displacement Contour NAS120.Software Corporation S10-124 .

EXAMPLE 3: TRANSVERSE LOAD ON BEAM ● Assume quadratic distribution of load in web ● Assume thin flanges carry zero transverse load ● Master DOF 1235. DOF 5 added to make RY rigid body motion determinate NAS120.Software Corporation S10-125 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 10.

NAS120.EXAMPLE 3: TRANSVERSE LOAD ON BEAM ● Displacements with quadratic weighting factors virtually equivalent to those from RBE2 (Beam Theory). but do not impose “plane sections remain planar” as does RBE2. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-126 . Section 10.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.00685 NAS120. Section 10.Software Corporation S10-127 .EXAMPLE 3: TRANSVERSE LOAD ON BEAM ● RBE3 Displacement Contour ● Max Y disp=.

EXAMPLE 3: TRANSVERSE LOAD ON BEAM ● RBE2 Displacement contour ● Max Y disp=. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-128 .00685 NAS120. Section 10.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 10. Uy.Software Corporation S10-129 . Uz) ● Using rotational DOF on master grids can result in implausible results NAS120.RBE3 USAGE GUIDELINES ● Do not specify rotational DOF for master (independent) grids except when necessary to avoid singularity caused by a linear set of master grids ● Recommend independent grids use DOF = 123 (Ux.

N))=YES NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RBE3 USAGE GUIDELINES ● Make check run with PARAM.Nastran Reference Manual (V68) ● EMH printout should be numeric zeroes (no grounding) ● No MAXRATIO error messages from decomposition of Rgmm and Rmmm matrices (numerically stable) ● Perform grounding check of at least KGG and KNN matrix ● V2001: Case control command ● GROUNDCHECK (SET=(G.4.YES ● Section 9.1 of MSC.Software Corporation S10-130 . Section 10.CHECKOUT.

if we connect the engine with an RBE3: ● The engine location will be determined by the average of the connecting locations ● The presence of the engine will not stiffen the rest of the model.RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE3 ● Returning to the car model.Software Corporation S10-131 . engine connections NAS120. Section 10. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

NAS120.Software Corporation S10-132 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. The connection grids are independent and only choose DOF’s Ux to Uz. Section 10.RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE3 Create/MPC/RBE3 The procedure is the same as before except that the mass grid is dependent.

NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S10-133 .RIGID ELEMENTS: RBE3 ● The engine mass will now move as the average of the connection grids. ● The connections and the bulkhead will not be stiffened by the presence of the RBE3. Section 10.

RBE3” in your exercise workbook. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 10.EXERCISE Perform Workshop 12 “RBE2 vs.Software Corporation S10-134 . NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 11.Software Corporation S11-1 .SECTION 11 UNITS NAS120.

NAS120.Software Corporation S11-2 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 11.

● You must also interpret the model output quantities such as displacements and stresses in the same consistent system of units. ● It is up to you to use a system of consistent units in the finite element model. Section 11. ● This means that you must input all model quantities such as grid point locations. etc. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.UNITS IN MD NASTRAN ● MD Nastran does not know what units you are using.Software Corporation S11-3 . applied loads. elastic modulus. using a consistent system of units. NAS120.

NEWTON’S SECOND LAW ● A consistent set of units must satisfy Newton’s Second Law of Motion: F = M .a ● In other words. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. use the equation above to check them. Section 11.Software Corporation S11-4 . one unit of force applied to one unit of mass must result in one unit of acceleration: 1 unit force = 1 unit mass x 1 unit acceleration ● Whenever in doubt about a system of modeling units.

Software Corporation S11-5 .BASE AND DERIVED UNITS ● Newton’s Second Law of Motion contains the units of force.a Force Force Mass Mass Length Time 2 ● We can choose any three of the four units as our base units. mass. NAS120. and time F = M . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 11. length. The fourth unit is then derived from these three base units.

and the second (sec). Customary System (USCS). The USCS includes two systems of units: ● The foot-pound-second (fps) system . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.COMMONLY USED SYSTEMS OF UNITS ● The two major systems of units used by engineers and scientists are the International System of Units (SI) and the U. NAS120. the pound force (lbf). ● The USCS is based on the British Imperial System. the pound force (lbf). S.the base units include the inch (in). ● The SI system is the modern version of the metric system.Software Corporation S11-6 . Section 11. The base units include the meter (m). and the second (sec).the base units include the foot (ft). ● The inch-pound-second (ips) system . the kilogram mass (kg). and the second (sec). It is also known as the English System.

Section 11.SI UNITS ● In the SI system of units. and the second. the base units are the meter. ● The fourth unit. N = kg . is derived from Newton’s Second Law and is called the newton (N).Software Corporation S11-7 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. m/sec2 ● Let’s check this system of units using Newton’s Second Law: 1 unit force = 1 unit mass x 1 unit acceleration ? 1 N = 1 kg x 1 m/sec2 ? NAS120. the unit of force. the kilogram mass.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. The unit of force is the newton and the unit of time is the second. the metric ton (t). Mg = t = Te = 1000 kg ● Let’s check this system of units using Newton’s Second Law: ? 1 unit force = 1 unit mass x 1 unit acceleration ? 1 N = 1 Mg x 1 mm/sec2 NAS120. Section 11. or the tonne (Te).SI-mm UNITS ● A popular variation of the SI system of units uses the millimeter as the unit of length. ● In order to satisfy Newton’s Second Law. the unit of mass must be the megagram (Mg).Software Corporation S11-8 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. the base units are the foot. Section 11. ● The fourth unit. S. CUSTOMARY fps SYSTEM ● In the U. and the second. sec2/ft ● Let’s check this system of units using Newton’s Second Law: 1 unit force = 1 unit mass x 1 unit acceleration 1 lbf = 1 slug x 1 ft/sec2 NAS120.U. the pound force. is derived from Newton’s Second Law and is called the slug. S. the unit of mass.Software Corporation ? ? S11-9 . Customary foot-pound-second system. slug = lbf .

S. ● The fourth unit. sec2/in ● Let’s check this system of units using Newton’s Second Law: 1 unit force = 1 unit mass x 1 unit acceleration 1 lbf = 1 lbf . S. the base units are the inch.U. sec2/in x 1 in/sec2 NAS120. snail = slinch = lbf . This unit is unofficially called the snail or the slinch. is derived from Newton’s Second Law and has no official name. the pound force. Section 11. Customary inch-pound-second system. the unit of mass. CUSTOMARY ips SYSTEM ● In the U. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. and the second.Software Corporation S11-10 ? ? .

MASS UNITS ● ● MD Nastran expects your mass input (MATi. etc. There are two methods to handle the weight units: ● ● Convert the weight units into the correct mass units before entering them into the finite element model.WEIGHT UNITS vs. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Input the weight units into the finite element model.) to be in consistent mass units. However. NAS120. Customary System are typically reported in the units of weight. CONMi. Then. Section 11. use the MD Nastran WTMASS parameter to convert weight units to mass units. S. mass property data for the U.Software Corporation S11-11 .

E6 0. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.32 0. S. Section 11.WTMASS PARAMETER EXAMPLE ● For example.283 lbf/in3 Method 1 Use Newton’s Second Law to convert weight to mass: W=Mxg M = W x 1/g = W x 1/386.00259 Mass Density = 0.00259 NAS120. sec2/in4 MAT1 1 29.Software Corporation S11-12 .33 x 10-4 lbf .00259 = 7.283 x 0. Use the WTMASS parameter to convert weight units to mass units.283 PARAM WTMASS 0. you are modeling a steel structure in the U.E6 0.1 = W x 0. The material density obtained from a handbook is show below: Weight Density = 0.33E-4 Method 2 Enter the weight density directly into MD Nastran.32 7. MAT1 1 29. Customary inch-pound-second system.

Software Corporation S11-13 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.0 NAS120.) The WTMASS parameter is defined in Patran as shown on the right. Section 11. The default value for this parameter is 1.WTMASS PARAMETER EXAMPLE (Cont.

807 m/sec2 9807 mm/sec2 32.0 1G Disp Output Force Stress 1 m N kg 9. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. sec2/in4 lbf lbf/in3 1.17 ft/sec2 386.0 ft lbf lbf lbf psf 4 in psi lbf .1 in/sec2 m N Pa 2 mm N MPa t or Mg t/mm3 or Mg/mm3 slug/ft3 1.Software Corporation S11-14 .0 in psi 5 in psi 2.1 in/sec2 386.0 mm N MPa 3 ft lbf lbf lbf psf slug 1.EXAMPLES OF CONSISTENT SYSTEMS OF UNITS ● Following table contains some of the most commonly used consistent systems of units System of Units Length Force Elastic Modulus Pa Input Mass Mass Density kg/m3 WTMASS Parameter 1. sec2/in lbf . Section 11.59x10-3 in psi NAS120.

Section 12.Software Corporation S12-1 .SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 12. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.NAS120.Software Corporation S12-2 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 12.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Topics covered in this case study: ● Normal modes analysis NAS120.Software Corporation S12-3 .

NAS120. ● Analysis Objectives ● Perform a normal modes analysis to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the tower structure. you must first perform a normal modes analysis to determine the dynamic characteristics of the tower. Section 12.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Problem Description ● A communications tower is in the final design stage. including wind and seismic loading. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S12-4 . ● Before you can perform any dynamic analysis. You are asked to analyze the tower structure under dynamic loading.

● The communications equipment is mounted at the top of the tower.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Getting started on the case study ● The tower structural members are made from steel open sections. These members are modeled by CBAR elements. The equipment is fairly compact so it will be modeled as lumped masses attached to the top corners of the tower. ● The model is shown in the next slide. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S12-5 . Section 12. NAS120.

Section 12.Software Corporation S12-6 .SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER Lumped mass element CBAR element NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 12. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. let’s look at the theory behind the normal modes analysis: ● Equation of motion for free vibrations ● Mass Matrix Formulation ● Solving the equations NAS120.Software Corporation S12-7 .SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Before performing a normal modes analysis on the tower structure.

without external load or damping) is .. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.. Section 12.Software Corporation S12-8 .e. mx + kx = 0 NAS120. mx = -kx or .SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Governing Equations ● Consider the undamped single-degree-of-freedom system shown below: k m where m = mass k = stiffness x ● The equation of motion for free vibrations (i.

SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● For a multi-degree-of-freedom system.. this equation becomes .Software Corporation S12-9 . Section 12. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. M x + K x = 0 where [K] = the stiffness matrix of the structure (the same as in static analysis) [M] = the mass matrix of the structure (it represents the inertia properties of the structure) NAS120.

Section 12. only translational DOFs are coupled. MD Nastran provides the user with two choices: ● Lumped Mass Matrix (default) Contains only diagonal terms associated with translational degrees of freedom ● Coupled Mass Matrix Also contains off-diagonal terms. (Note: For a rod element.) NAS120.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Formulating the mass matrix ● The mass matrix represents the inertia properties of the structure.Software Corporation S12-10 . coupling translational degrees of freedom and rotational degrees of freedom. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation Coupled Mass Matrix S12-11 . Section 12. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Example of Mass Matrix 2 1 L 3 4 where  = mass density and A = cross sectional area 1 2 0 M  = AL 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 5  12 0  M  = AL 1  12 0 0 0 0 0 1  12 0 5  12 0 0 0 0 0 Lumped Mass Matrix NAS120.

CQUAD8. Section 12. CHEXA. CPENTA. CTRIAX6. CTUBE NAS120.1 to select coupled mass matrices for all BAR. CTRIA6. Coupled Mass ● Coupled mass is generally more accurate than lumped mass ● Lumped mass is preferred for computational speed in dynamic analysis ● User-selectable coupled mass matrix for elements ● PARAM. CQUAD4. ROD. CONROD. CROD.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Lumped vs. and PLATE elements that include bending stiffness ● Default is lumped mass ● Elements that have either lumped or coupled mass: ● CBAR.COUPMASS. CTETRA. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. CBEAM. CTRIA3.Software Corporation S12-12 .

and CBEND elements. Section 12. NAS120. CTRAPRG. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. CHEX20. Coupled Mass (Cont. ● Coupled mass contains off-diagonal translational components as well as rotations for CBAR (though no torsion).Software Corporation S12-13 .SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Lumped vs. translational components (no rotational ones). CSHEAR ● Elements that have coupled mass only ● CBEND.) ● Elements that have lumped mass only ● CONEAX. CBEAM. CTRIARG ● Lumped mass contains only diagonal.

this means that all the coordinates perform synchronous motions and the system configuration does not change its shape during motion. only its amplitude. Section 12.Software Corporation S12-14 .SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Solving the equation of motion for free vibration ·· M  x  + K  x = 0 (1) ● Assume a harmonic solution of the form x  =   e it (2) (Physically. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) NAS120.

. we get ··  x  = –    e ● .Software Corporation S12-15 . Section 12. NAS120. we get –  M     e 2 it +  K    e it =0 which simplifies to   K –   M      = 0 ● 2 (4) This is an eigenvalue problem. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. 2 it (3) Substituting equations (2) and (3) into equation (1).SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Differentiating equation (2) twice.

If det K    M   0 . The eigenvalue problem is reduced to 2. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. det  K  –   M   = 0 or 2 det  K –   M   = 0 where  = 2 is called the eigenvalue.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● There are two possible solutions to the eigenvalue problem: 2 1. then the only possibility is   = 0 which is the so-called trivial solution and is not interesting from a physical point of view. Section 12. 2 det  K  –   M   = 0 .Software Corporation S12-16 . then there is a nontrivial solution to If the eigenvalue problem. (5) NAS120.

SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● If the structure has N dynamic degrees of freedom (degrees of freedom with mass).Software Corporation S12-17 . ● The eigenvector   j . then there are N number of ’s that are solution for the eigenvalue problem. linear combination of its normal modes.. 2. fundamental frequencies. called normal mode or mode shape.. The normal mode corresponds to deflected shape patterns of the structure. Section 12. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. is a NAS120. or resonant frequencies). its shape. at any given time. associated with the natural frequency j . . is ● When a structure is vibrating. characteristic frequencies. N) are the natural frequencies of the structure (also known as normal frequencies. ● These ’s (1..

SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Example of normal modes Simply Supported Beam Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 ● The number of grid points (degrees of freedom) in the model must be adequate to describe the mode shapes.Software Corporation . Section 12. S12-18 NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

if ● ● ● ● rotating machinery is going to be installed on a certain structure. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.e. i. response spectrum analysis). i. the location of accelerometers. i. transient analysis of the structure using modal expansion. it might be necessary to see if the frequency of the rotating mass is close to one of the natural frequencies of the structure to avoid excessive vibrations. Guide the experimental analysis of the structure.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Reasons to compute natural frequencies and normal modes: ● Assess the dynamic characteristics of the structure.Software Corporation S12-19 . NAS120. etc. For example. Section 12.e. Use natural frequencies and normal modes to guide subsequent dynamic analysis (transient response. Assess possible dynamic amplification of loads.e. what should be the appropriate t for integrating the equation of motion in transient analysis? Use natural frequencies and mode shapes for subsequent dynamic analysis.

Software Corporation S12-20 . .. w2. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. They can also be expressed in hertz (cycles/seconds) using j  radians  second  f j hertz  = -----------------------------------------------2 NAS120.. wj) are expressed in radians/seconds. Section 12..SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● The natural frequencies (w1.

Example: The following unconstrained structure has a rigid body mode.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● If a structure is not totally constrained. x1 x2 1 = 0  m k m   1  =   1   1  NAS120. Section 12.e.Software Corporation S12-21 . if it admits a rigid body mode (stress-free mode) or a mechanism. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. i. at least one natural frequency will be zero.

the following three mode shapes represent the same model of vibration:  . m x1 m x2 For example.66   1  =   .SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Scaling of normal modes is arbitrary.Software Corporation S12-22 .33    =    1    300  1   =       1   150  0.5     NAS120. Section 12. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. i.Software Corporation S12-23 . NAS120. The solution to this problem must be determined using a numerical approach.e. solution of det  K  –   M   = 0 2 is a difficult problem.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Determination of the natural frequencies. Section 12.

one at a time. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S12-24 . This approach is more convenient when a few natural frequencies are to be determined. Section 12. In general. SINV is more reliable than INV.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● MD Nastran provides the user with the following three types of methods for eigenvalue extraction: ● Tracking Method ● Eigenvalues (or natural frequencies) are determined. Two variations of the inverse power method are provided: INV and SINV. NAS120. using an iterative technique.

all the eigenvalues are extracted at once. HOU.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Transformation Method ● The original eigenvalue problem  K  –  M    = 0 is transformed to the form  A    =    ● Next. MGIV. Section 12.Software Corporation S12-25 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. These methods are more efficient for small models when a large proportion of eigenvalues are needed. using the QR Algorithm. the matrix [ A ] is transformed into a tridiagonal matrix using either the Given’s technique or the Householder technique. NAS120. Finally. and MHOU. Two variations of the Given’s technique and two variations of the Householder technique are provided: GIV.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● This is the recommended method for most structural problems. By default.Software Corporation S12-26 . Section 12. sparse problems (most structural models fit into this category).SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Lanczos Method ● This is a combined tracking-transformation method and is the most modern method. Patran uses this method when setting up a Nastran input file. NAS120. ● This method is most efficient for computing a few eigenvalues of large.

following entries are required in the Nastran input data file: ● Executive Control Section ● SOL 103 ● Case Control Section ● METHOD = n where n is the ID number for the EIGR or EIGRL entry that is included in the bulk data section.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● In order to perform a normal modes analysis. ● Bulk Data Section ● EIGRL entry – Lanczos method ● EIGR entry – Other eigenvalue extraction methods ● Mass properties are required NAS120. Multiple subcases can be used to control output requests.Software Corporation S12-27 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 12.

2 5 ND 10 6 MSGLVL 7 MAXSET 8 SHFSCL 9 NORM 10 Field SID V1. set V2 to the desired frequency and leave V1 blank.Software Corporation S12-28 . real). V2 Contents Set identification number (unique integer > 0) Vibration analysis: Frequency range of interest Buckling analysis: Eigenvalue range of interest (V1 < V2. It is not recommended to put 0. Section 12.1 4 V2 3.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● The EIGRL entry ● Defines data needed to perform vibration or buckling analysis with the Lanczos Method 1 EIGRL EIGRL 2 SID 1 3 V1 0. If all modes below a frequency are desired. NAS120.0 for V1 (It is more efficient to use a small negative number or to leave it blank). August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

either "MASS" or "MAX" MASS MAX Normalize to unit value of the generalized mass (default) Normalize to unit value of the largest component in the analysis set S12-29 NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation .SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● The EIGRL entry (Cont. Section 12.) Field ND MSGLVL MAXSET SHFSCL NORM Contents Number of roots desired (integer > 0. or blank) Number of vectors in block (integer 1 through 15. or blank) Diagnostic level (integer 0 through 3. or blank) Estimate of the first flexible mode natural frequency (real or blank) Method for normalizing eigenvectors.

There are several ways to enter mass: ● Structural Mass – Density field on MATi entries (mass/volume) 1 MAT1 MAT1 2 MID 10 3 E 10.59E-4 7 A 8 TREF 9 GE 10 ● Non-Structural Mass – NSM field on element property entries (mass per unit length or area) 1 PSHELL PSHELL 2 PID 20 3 MID1 1 4 T 0. Section 12.33 6 RHO 2.125 10 NAS120.E6 4 G 5 NU 0. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Mass properties are required for normal analysis analysis.1 5 MID2 1 6 12I/T3 7 MID3 8 TS/T 9 NSM 0.Software Corporation S12-30 .

NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NSM1. NSML1. Section 12.7 4 CID I22 5 M I31 49.2 3 G I21 176 13.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Concentrated Mass – Mass property fields on concentrated element entries CONMi and CMASSi 1 CONM2 2 EID I11 COMN2 15 16. NSML.9 6 X1 I32 7 X2 I33 8 X3 9 10 ● Non-structural mass can also be defined on non- structural mass entries: NSM. and NSMADD.7 3.Software Corporation S12-31 .

● For the steel tower structure in this case study. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. the SI system of units is used.861 kg/m3 ● Concentrated Mass m = 1000 kg each NAS120. It is up to you to use a consistent set of units. ● Units of Force = Newton Units of Length = meter Units of time = second Units of mass = kg ● Mass Density  = 7.Software Corporation S12-32 . Section 12.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Mass Units ● MD Nastran does not know units.

00259 = 5.1 = W x 0. If your problem definition is based on the weight unit of lbf.Software Corporation S12-33 .36 x 10-4 lbf sec2/in4 Concentrated Mass m = 5.284 lbf/in3 x 0.) ● Another common system of units is the English in-lbf-sec system: ● ● ● ● Units of Force = lbf Units of Length = in Units of time = second Units of mass = lbf sec2/in Mass Density r = 7.00259 = 7.6 lbf x 0.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Mass Units (Cont. use the following equation to convert lbf to the correct mass units: W=Mxg M = W x 1/g = W x 1/386. Section 12.710 lbf sec2/in each The consistent mass unit of lbf sec2/in must be used in this system of units.710 lbf sec2/in 0.36 x 10-4 lbf sec2/in4 NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.00259 2204.

SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Mass Units (Cont.1 = 1/g). WTMASS. NAS120. ● Mass Density  = 0.) ● Alternatively. This is a multiplier for the mass matrix (0. Section 12.284 lbf/in3 ● Concentrated Mass m = 2. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.00259 = 1/386.Software Corporation S12-34 . 0.205 lbf each ● Use PARAM.00259 in the model. the user of the English system of units can use lbf as the mass unit in the model and use the WTMASS parameter to convert lbf to the correct mass unit.

Section 12. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Let’s now continue with the case study. ● We want to determine the first 5 modes for the tower structure. NAS120.Software Corporation S12-35 .

SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER Set up the normal modes analysis NAS120. Section 12.Software Corporation S12-36 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

The mass properties of the model will be computed about this node. Generator. Click on Solution Parameters and enter a node ID for the Wt. Enter 0 to select the origin of the basic coordinate system. NAS120. Section 12.Software Corporation S12-37 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER Click on Solution Type and select Normal Modes analysis.

SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER Next.Software Corporation S12-38 . Section 12. NAS120. Click on Subcase Parameters and select the Lanczos method. Enter 5 in the number of desired roots box. click on Subcases and select the Default subcase. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

and animate the mode shapes.Software Corporation S12-39 . NAS120. one at a time. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER Run the analysis. Section 12. read the results into Patran.

f06 file NAS120. Section 12. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S12-40 .SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Examine the .

Software Corporation S12-41 .SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Examine the . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.f06 file (Cont.) NAS120. Section 12.

Section 12.01 23. 1 2 3 4 5 Frequency (Hz) Description 12.SECTION 12 COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ● Normal modes analysis summary: ● Total mass of structure is 85.01 12.70 Primary Bending Primary Bending Torsion Secondary Bending Secondary Bending NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.70 32.732 kg ● Mode No.43 32.Software Corporation S12-42 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S12-43 .EXERCISE Perform Workshop 13 “Normal Modes of a rectangular plate” in your exercise workbook. Section 12. NAS120.

NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 12.Software Corporation S12-44 .

SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D NAS120. Section 13.Software Corporation S13-1 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 13.Software Corporation S13-2 .

SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Topics covered in this case study: ● Linear buckling analysis NAS120. Section 13. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S13-3 .

Section 13. NAS120. The submarine must be capable of operating at depths up to 1000 ft.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Problem Description ● You have been presented with the conceptual design of a next-generation military submarine. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. The submarine pressure hull is a thick shell structure reinforced with ring frames.Software Corporation S13-4 . Will the pressure hull buckle under the pressure loading? ● Analysis Objective ● Perform a buckling analysis on the submarine pressure hull to determine the buckling load.

Software Corporation S13-5 Pressure hull . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Submarine Design SAIL AFT MBT ER RC FC FWD MBT Submarine General Spec: Overall Length = 350 ft DIA = 36 ft ER = Engine Room RC = Reactor Compartment FC = Forward Compartment AFT MBT = Aft Main Ballast Tanks FWD MBT = Forward Main Ballast Tanks NAS120. Section 13.

Section 13.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Pressure Hull Details 4 NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S13-6 .

● Compute the pressure: p = gh g = 64 lb/ft3 h = 1000 ft p = 64 x 1000 = 64. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S13-7 . Section 13.000 lb/ft2 = 445 psi NAS120. The water pressure load at this depth is the main design load.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Pressure loading ● The cruising depth for the submarine is 1000 ft.

● The two bulkheads are modeled with plate elements. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S13-8 . ● The ring frames (typical frames and King frames) are modeled with CBAR elements without offsets. Section 13. NAS120.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Getting started on the case study ● The pressure hull shell structure is modeled with plate elements. ● The model is shown in the next slide.

Software Corporation S13-9 .SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Pressure hull shell structure NAS120. Section 13. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Ring frames and bulkheads NAS120.Software Corporation S13-10 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 13.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. the water pressure load is p = 445 psi ● The pressure hull is fully fixed at one end point y x NAS120.Software Corporation S13-11 .SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Loads and Boundary Conditions ● At 1000 ft. Section 13.

Section 13.Software Corporation S13-12 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. we have been designing and analyzing structures to prevent them from material failure and excessive deflection.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● A structure can fail in a number of ways such as ● Yield failure (material yield strength exceeded) ● Ultimate failure (material ultimate strength exceeded) ● Excessive deflection ● Buckling ● So far in this course. NAS120. Let’s now examine the concept of buckling.

Q NAS120. Section 13.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● The Concept of Linear Buckling ● A compressive force P is applied to a P perfectly straight column. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. the straight form of equilibrium is stable. ● A lateral force is introduced to create a P  small lateral deflection  ● If the lateral deflection disappears when the lateral force is removed.Software Corporation S13-13 .

Software Corporation S13-14 . a condition is reached when the straight form of equilibrium becomes unstable and a small lateral force will produce a deflection which does not disappear when the lateral force is removed. ● The critical loads for the buckling of plates and shells are NAS120. the bent column is said to be buckled. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 13. ● This critical load Pcr is defined as the axial force which is sufficient to keep the column in such a slightly bent form.) ● If P is gradually increased. At this load. developed using this same concept.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● The Concept of Linear Buckling (Cont.

Software Corporation S13-15 .SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Thin-walled or slender structures are susceptible to buckling ● Examples of such structures are ● Columns ● Beams ● Plates ● Cylindrical shell. Section 13. conical shell. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. and spherical shell structures NAS120.

SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Theory of Linear Buckling ● The equilibrium equations for a structure subjected to a constant force system take the following form: [K]{u}={P} (1) ● Under loading. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 13. Write the equilibrium equations for this deformed state: ( [ K ] + [ KD ] ) { u } = { P } (2) NAS120.Software Corporation S13-16 . the structure deforms and internal loads are developed within the structure.

● The differential stiffness matrix is proportional to the internal forces in the structure.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Theory of Linear Buckling (Cont. The differential stiffness is the stiffness that results from including the higher-order terms (non-linear terms) of the strain-displacement relations. This allows us to rewrite Equation (2) as ( [ K ] + [ KD ] ) { u } = { P } (3) where  is an arbitrary scalar multiplier for the applied load NAS120.) ● The matrix [KD] is the differential stiffness matrix. It is also called the geometric stiffness matrix or the stress stiffness matrix.Software Corporation S13-17 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 13.

Section 13. the load does not change.) ● Now. let’s perturb the structure slightly from its equilibrium position by taking the derivative of both sides of Equation (3): ( [ K ] + [ KD ] ) { du } = { dP } (4) ● At the critical buckling load. as the displacement { du } takes place. Therefore. This leads to the eigenvalue problem for buckling: ( [ K ] + [ KD ] ) { du } =  ( [ K ] + [ KD ] ) {  } =  NAS120. the reference and the slightly perturbed (buckled) configurations are possible equilibrium positions. both.Software Corporation S13-18 (5) (6) . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Theory of Linear Buckling (Cont.

…n that make the term ([ K ] + [ KD ]) singular. ● To each eigenvalue i. Section 13. there is a corresponding distinct eigenvector { i } which represents the buckled shape.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Solution to the eigenvalue problem ● The solution is nontrivial (different from zero) only for specific values of  = i i = 1.Software Corporation S13-19 . ● The critical buckling loads for the structure are computed as { P }cri = i { P } NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. 2.

Section 13.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Solution to the eigenvalue problem (Cont.Software Corporation S13-20 . only the lowest eigenvalue 1 is of interest because it is associated with the lowest buckling load for the structure.) ● Usually. ● The eigenvalue  is also called the buckling load factor (BLF). August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. A structure has buckled if the buckling analysis indicates that BLF  1.0 NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● Nonlinear buckling analysis accounts for the pre-buckled deformations as well as material non-linearity. NAS120.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Linear Buckling vs. Section 13.Software Corporation S13-21 . Nonlinear Buckling ● Linear buckling analysis assumes that the structure in the pre- buckled configuration is perfectly straight and elastic.

Linear Buckling ● SOL 106 -.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Buckling Solutions in MD Nastran ● SOL 105 -. ● Some examples of nonlinear buckling problems are shown on the next slide.Nonlinear Buckling ● SOL 600 -. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Nonlinear Buckling ● SOL 105 may be applicable for column and plate structures with slight manufacturing imperfections or slightly eccentric loadings. Must use engineering judgment.Software Corporation S13-22 . Section 13. NAS120.

Section 13.Software Corporation Snap-Through of thin Shell (Large pre-buckled deflection and possible inelastic prebuckled behavior) S13-23 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Examples of nonlinear buckling problems Beam-Column Highly Eccentrically Loaded Column NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120. ● The first subcase controls the static analysis run (this step is used to determine the differential stiffness matrix [KD]).SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Rules for SOL 105 linear buckling analysis ● The Case Control must contain at least two subcases. Section 13. The METHOD entry must appear in this subcase to select an EIGRL or EIGB entry from the Bulk Data Section. ● The second subcase controls the buckling analysis run.Software Corporation S13-24 .

Software Corporation S13-25 .SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Rules for SOL 105 linear buckling analysis (Cont.) ● For multiple buckling solutions ● All static subcases must appear first ● The buckling subcases follow the last static subcase ● A METHOD entry must appear in each of the buckling subcases ● Each buckling subcase must contain a STATSUB command that references the appropriate subcase ID of the static subcase ● The use of offsets in bar. and plate elements in buckling analysis is not recommended. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 13. NAS120. beam.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 13.Software Corporation . TEMP. the following entries are required in the Nastran input data file: ● Executive Control Section ● SOL 105 ● Case Control Section ● SUBCASE 1 LOAD = M Defines static loading condition (LOAD.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● In order to perform a linear buckling analysis. DEFORM) ● SUBCASE 2 METHOD = N Selects eigenvalue extraction method ● Bulk Data Section ● ● EIGRL entry – Lanczos method (recommended) EIGB entry – Other eigenvalue extraction methods S13-26 NAS120.

It is not recommended to put 0.1 4 V2 3. Section 13. If all modes below a frequency are desired.Software Corporation . real). V2 Contents Set identification number (unique integer > 0) Vibration analysis: Frequency range of interest Buckling analysis: Eigenvalue range of interest (V1 < V2. 1 EIGRL EIGRL 2 SID 1 3 V1 0. S13-27 NAS120.0 for V1 (It is more efficient to use a small negative number or leave it blank). August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. set V2 to the desired frequency and leave V1 blank.2 5 ND 10 6 MSGLVL 7 MAXSET 8 SHFSCL 9 NORM 10 Field SID V1.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● The EIGRL entry ● Defines data needed to perform vibration or buckling analysis with the Lanczos Method.

SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● The EIGRL entry (Cont. Section 13. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. either "MASS" or "MAX" MASS MAX NAS120.Software Corporation Normalize to unit value of the generalized mass (default) Normalize to unit value of the largest displacement in the analysis set S13-28 .) Field ND MSGLVL MAXSET SHFSCL NORM Contents Number of roots desired (integer > 0 or blank) Diagnostic level (integer 0 through 3 or blank) Number of vectors in block Estimate of the first flexible mode natural frequency (real or blank) Method for normalizing eigenvectors.

SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Let’s now continue with the case study ● We want to determine the first 5 buckling loads for the submarine structure. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.Software Corporation S13-29 . Section 13.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D Set up the linear buckling analysis NAS120.Software Corporation S13-30 . Section 13.

SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D Click on Solution Type and select buckling analysis Click on Solution Parameters NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S13-31 . Section 13.

click on Eigenvalue Extraction Select the Lanczos method and enter 5 as the number of desired roots. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 13.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D Next. NAS120.Software Corporation S13-32 .

and plot the buckled shapes one at a time NAS120. Section 13. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. read the results into Patran.Software Corporation S13-33 .SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D Run the analysis.

Software Corporation S13-34 . Section 13.SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Examine the .f06 file { P }cr = { P } Pcr = 2.304 psi NAS120.93 x 445 psi = 1. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 13. 1 2 3 4 5 BLF 2. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.93 4.42 4.304 psi. This is equivalent to a critical buckling load of 1.22 Description Pressure hull buckling Pressure hull buckling Bulkhead buckling Bulkhead buckling Pressure hull buckling ● A follow-on nonlinear buckling analysis may be necessary to account for nonlinear effects. ● Mode No.93 2.50 5.Software Corporation S13-35 .SECTION 13 SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL – 3D ● Linear buckling analysis summary: ● The critical buckling load factor (BLF) is 2.93.

NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 13.EXERCISE Perform Workshop 14 “Buckling of a Submarine Pressure Hull” in your exercise workbook.Software Corporation S13-36 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S14-1 .SECTION 14 PARASOLID MODELING NAS120. Section 14.

Section 14.NAS120.Software Corporation S14-2 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

● The parasolid modeling tools described in this section use the parasolid kernel which requires the Parasolid Modeling license. Section 14. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S14-3 .PARASOLID MODELING TOOLS ● Patran has a set of powerful parasolid modeling tools to help the user create complex geometry in Patran. NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 14. cylinder.PARASOLID MODELING TOOLS (Cont. sphere. subtract.) ● Primitive Creation ● Block. cone. torus ● Optional on-the-fly (automatic) Boolean operation ● Solid Creation Operations ● Extrude ● Revolve ● Solid Editing Operations ● Boolean operations: add. intersect ● Edge blend: constant radius. chamfer ● Shell: create thin-wall solids ● Imprint: solid on solid ● Refit to Parasolid ● Auto update of CAE data after a solid editing operation NAS120.Software Corporation S14-4 .

PRIMITIVE CREATION ● A primitive is a solid that can be defined with several parameters. ● Patran has five different types of primitives: BLOCK CYLINDER CONE SPHERE TORUS NAS120.Software Corporation S14-5 . Section 14. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

The direction of the X. Section 14.PRIMITIVE CREATION BLOCK Create a rectangular solid by specifying Side lengths. The base origin defines the corner of the block and also depends on the Reference Coordinate Frame. and Z length are determined by the coordinate frame listed on the right. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S14-6 . Y. Users can also specify a negative side length to get the block defined in the opposite direction.

Y. or Z axis. Height.PRIMITIVE CREATION CYLINDER Define a cylinder using a Radius. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. and Location of the base.Software Corporation S14-7 . Section 14. This direction is defined on the Axis List. NAS120. The height can be defined along the X.

Software Corporation S14-8 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 14. a tube can be created.PRIMITIVE CREATION CYLINDER (Cont.) By entering a wall thickness. NAS120.

and Base Center Point. or Z axis. The direction is defined on the Axis List box.PRIMITIVE CREATION CONE Define a cone by specifying a Base Radius. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Height. Y. Top Radius.Software Corporation Top Radius Height Base Radius S14-9 . NAS120. Section 14. The height of the cylinder can run along the X.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120. Section 14.Software Corporation S14-10 .PRIMITIVE CREATION CONE (Cont. This option works the same way as the Thickness List option for the cylinder.) The Cone Primitive also has a Thickness box for making thin walled cones.

PRIMITIVE CREATION SHPERE Define a sphere by specifying a Radius and Center Point. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S14-11 . Section 14. NAS120.

or Z axis. Inner Radius.PRIMITIVE CREATION TORUS Define a torus by specifying a Center Point. Y. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. and Outer Radius. The centerline of the torus can run along the X. Section 14. NAS120.Software Corporation S14-12 . Users can define this direction on the Axis List box.

Software Corporation S14-13 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 14.PRIMITIVE CREATION MULTIPLE PRIMITIVES In the Center Point List box. This example shows 3 spheres created in one operation. users can create multiple primitives at once by entering multiple center points. NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.PRIMITIVE CREATION AUTOMATIC BOOLEAN OPERATION The Boolean Operation menu controls what kind of boolean to perform using the solid that will be modified. This menu comes up when the user first turns on the Modify/Solid option and clicks on the Boolean Operation button on any of the Primitive Solid menus. or the intersection of the resulting solid and the target solid. NAS120. The resulting solid is subtracted from the target solid. The user will get the solid that is common. The resulting solid is added to the target solid.Software Corporation S14-14 . Section 14.

the cylinder created will be automatically subtracted from the target solid.PRIMITIVE CREATION AUTOMATIC BOOLEAN OPERATION In this example. making the hole in one step. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 14.Software Corporation S14-15 = . Newly Created Primitive Solid (Cylinder) Finished Part Target Solid NAS120.

any surface can be extruded to create a complex (white) solid.SOLID CREATION EXTRUDE Extruding Surfaces: Using this option. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 14. Surface 1 NAS120.Software Corporation S14-16 .

Surface 1 NAS120.SOLID CREATION EXTRUDE (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S14-17 . Section 14.) Extruding Simple Surfaces: This option works only with simple (green) surfaces which are extruded into simple (blue) solids.

any surface can be revolved to create a complex (white) solid. Section 14. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Surface 1 NAS120.Software Corporation S14-18 .SOLID CREATION REVOLVE Revolving Surfaces: Using this option.

Surface 1 NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Revolving Simple Surfaces: This option works only with simple (green) surfaces which are revolved into simple (blue) solids.SOLID CREATION REVOLVE (Cont. Section 14.Software Corporation S14-19 .

subtract. chamfer ● Shell: create thin-wall solids ● Imprint: solid on solid ● Refit Parasolid NAS120.SOLID EDITING ● The following parasolid editing tools are available in Patran: ● Boolean operations: add. Section 14. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S14-20 . intersect ● Edge blend: fillet.

SOLID EDITING BOOLEAN OPERATIONS OVERVIEW ● This solid model represents the top part of a cell phone. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S14-21 . subtract. This is much faster than subtracting the solids one at a time. The holes for the keyboard are made using multiple solids for the subtraction. Section 14. The tabs on the top of this part can be added using a Boolean Add. The main body of this solid can be made by intersecting a thin walled cylinder with a simple block. NAS120. and intersect. It was created using the three types of Boolean operations: add.

This picture shows individual solids before an Add operation is performed.) Boolean Add option: Patran allows users to perform this operation on more than one solid at once.SOLID EDITING BOOLEAN OPERATIONS (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.Software Corporation S14-22 . Section 14.

Section 14.Software Corporation S14-23 .) The eight solids have been combined into one solid.SOLID EDITING BOOLEAN OPERATIONS (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.

the cylinder is subtracted from the block.) Boolean Subtract option: In this example. which is the target solid. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 14. NAS120.Software Corporation S14-24 .SOLID EDITING BOOLEAN OPERATIONS (Cont.

) Boolean Subtract option: This is the resulting solid. This would allow users to easily use multiple solids to create holes or to cut a solid. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 14.SOLID EDITING BOOLEAN OPERATIONS (Cont. The Boolean Subtract can also be used on multiple solids at once.Software Corporation S14-25 .

Section 14.Software Corporation S14-26 . NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SOLID EDITING BOOLEAN OPERATIONS (Cont.) Boolean Intersect option: Creates a new solid from what was common between the Target Solid and the Intersecting Solids.

SOLID EDITING BOOLEAN OPERATIONS (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Boolean Intersect option: Patran automatically deletes the solids used for this operation. If the user still wants to use these solids.Software Corporation S14-27 . Section 14. NAS120. it will be necessary to copy them BEFORE the operation.

NAS120. Chamfers were added to this solid using the same menu. For this model.SOLID EDITING EDGE BLEND OVERVIEW ● Users can also add fillets and chamfers to a solid using the Edge Blend tool. Section 14. an intersection of pipes.Software Corporation S14-28 . edge fillets were added using the Edit/Solid/Edge Blend tool under the Geometry menu. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

the user can add fillet to a single edge on a solid. Section 14. NAS120. Let’s consider this solid and add fillets to all its edges. to all edges on a face or to all edges on the solid.) Fillet option: With this option. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SOLID EDITING EDGE BLEND (Cont.Software Corporation Single edge on solid All edges on face All edges on solid S14-29 .

Multiple fillets blended at a corner Filleted edges NAS120.) Fillet option: The All Edges on Solid button was selected and a Constant Radius of 0.05 chosen.Software Corporation S14-30 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. The fillets were added in one operation. Section 14.SOLID EDITING EDGE BLEND (Cont.

SOLID EDITING EDGE BLEND (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. The parameters that have to be chosen are the Offset and the Angle. NAS120.) Chamfer option: This option works the same as the fillet option. The user can add chamfer to a single edge on a solid.Software Corporation Single edge on solid All edges on face All edges on solid S14-31 . to all edges on a face or to all edges on the solid. Section 14.

Chamfered edges NAS120. Section 14.) Chamfer option: This model has a few edges chamfered with different offsets and different angles. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SOLID EDITING EDGE BLEND (Cont.Software Corporation S14-32 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. This model was obtained from a solid that was hollowed out using the shell tool.SOLID EDITING SHELL OVERVIEW ● Users can remove the material on the interior of a solid using the Edit/Solid/Shell tool under the Geometry menu.Software Corporation S14-33 . Section 14. NAS120.

SOLID EDITING SHELL (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. The Solid Face List identifies the face or faces which will be pierced to allow the removal of material.) Shell option: Let’s remove the material from the interior of this solid. Section 14.Software Corporation S14-34 .1 in. leaving a wall Thickness of 0. NAS120.

) Shell option: The material is removed from the solid up to the wall thickness. Section 14. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.Software Corporation S14-35 .SOLID EDITING SHELL (Cont.

Software Corporation S14-36 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SOLID EDITING IMPRINT The Imprint tool imprints one or more solids onto other solids. For example. the cylinder on the right is imprinted onto the rectangular block. Section 14. NAS120.

SOLID EDITING IMPRINT (Cont.)

The imprinting broke the larger rectangular face into two faces. This tool is useful for creating congruent meshes across neighboring solids.

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-37

SOLID EDITING REFIT TO PARASOLID
● Non-Parasolid geometry can be converted

into Parasolid geometry by using the Refit tool. ● Once the geometry is converted to Parasolid geometry, the user can take advantage of all the new Parasolid editing tools described in this Section. ● Alternatively, the user may choose to let Patran automatically refit the geometry to Parasolid geometry. This automatic refit occurs whenever a Parasolid editing operation is requested and Patran detects that the solids involved are not Parasolid solids.
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S14-38

SOLID EDITING AUTO UPDATE OF CAE DATA

● The Auto Update Solid Mesh/LBC

toggle from the Preferences/Geometry form re-applies mesh parameters, loads and boundary conditions, and remeshes after geometry modification (such as a Boolean operation).

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-39

SOLID EDITING AUTO UPDATE OF CAE DATA (Cont.)
For example, the Parasolid solid on the right has been meshed with Tet10 elements. We now want to drill a hole through the solid using Boolean subtract.

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-40

SOLID EDITING AUTO UPDATE OF CAE DATA (Cont.)

A cylinder is created and it will be used to drill the hole.

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-41

SOLID EDITING AUTO UPDATE OF CAE DATA (Cont.)

Use Boolean Subtract to drill the hole. The solid is modified and the Tet mesh is automatically updated.

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-42

NEW SOLID MODELING TOOLS
● The following three Case Studies will demonstrate

the parasolid modeling tools
● Case Study 1: Lamp Housing ● Case Study 2: Tension Fitting ● Case Study 3: Valve Housing

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-43

CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING
● Model the lamp housing shown below using primitive

geometry, shell, fillets, and Booleans.

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-44

CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
Step 1: Model the base geometry using a primitive cone. Step 2: Use a shell operation to hollow out the cone. Step 3: Use a trimmed surface to model the outline of the tabs. Extrude the surface into a solid and use a Boolean Add to combine the tabs to the main solid. Step 4: Add the fillets to the solid.
NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-45

CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)

Define a primitive cone with the dimensions shown. The Thickness List option will not work in this case because it would remove material from both sides of the cone.

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-46

CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)

Use the Edit/Solid/Shell tool to remove the interior material from the solid, with a wall thickness of 0.25 in.

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-47

CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)

Defining a surface on the top of the base is easier if a coordinate system is placed on the top of the base. This will make defining coordinates and moving the tabs easier.

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-48

CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)

Define the base points for the tab such that they penetrate into the top of the cone. These coordinates reference the new coordinate system.
Point 1 Point 2

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-49

CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)

Define the left and right edges of the tab, 1.1 inch tall.

Point 1

Point 2

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-50

CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)

Define the rounded top edge of the tab. The coordinates of the center point are easier to define using the local coordinate system Coord1.

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-51

CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)

Create the bottom curve of the tab. Without this curve, there will not be a closed loop, which is required for a trimmed surface.

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-52

CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)

Use the chain tool to link the curves together.

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-53

CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)

Define the hole for the tab with a radius of 0.125 in.

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-54

CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)

Create a trimmed surface. This surface will be extruded to create the tabs.

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-55

CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)

Extrude the trimmed surface to create the tab using the local coordinate system Coord1.

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-56

CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)
There are two tabs on the top of the base. Use the Translate tool to copy the solid you created in the previous step.

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-57

CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)

Use a Boolean Add to combine all the solids together. Without the Boolean, it will not be possible to add the fillets in the next step.

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-58

CASE STUDY 1 – LAMP HOUSING (Cont.)

Apply fillets to the root of the tabs and the bottom lip of the cone.

NAS120, Section 14, August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-59

Software Corporation S14-60 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING ● Model the bathtub tension fitting shown below. using techniques similar to the last case study. Section 14.

Step 2: Use a shell operation to hollow out the bracket. angled.Software Corporation S14-61 . remove the top.CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. and front face of the base solid. For the shell. Step 3: Use a Boolean or the Modify/Solid option to add the hole on the back of the part. NAS120.) Step 1: Create an outline of the bracket as a trimmed surface and extrude the surface to create the base. Section 14. Step 4: Add fillets to the solid.

Section 14.CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont. This surface will be cut to create the outline of the bracket. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Start with a simple rectangular surface (5x2 in).Software Corporation S14-62 .

NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Translate the points shown below to create the cutting line for the outline.Software Corporation S14-63 . Section 14.CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont.

CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 14. This line will be used with the break tool to create the outline of the bracket.Software Corporation S14-64 .) Connect the two points to create a line.

Software Corporation S14-65 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Use the break tool to split the surface.CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont. Section 14. NAS120.

The resulting trimmed surface can be extruded to create the base for the part.CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Delete the extra surface. Section 14.Software Corporation S14-66 .

) Use the extrude Parasolid option on the extrude menu.Software Corporation S14-67 .CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont. Since this is a magenta surface. NAS120. Section 14. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. the blue solid option would not have worked.

and the front face of the solid. Section 14.Software Corporation S14-68 .CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Use the shell tool to remove the interior material from the solid. The shell operation needs to remove material from the top face. angled face. NAS120.

NAS120.CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont.Software Corporation S14-69 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) This is the hollowed out bracket. Section 14.

CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont.Software Corporation S14-70 . Section 14. NAS120. It only needs to pass through the solid. The height of the cylinder is not important.) Create a solid cylinder where the hole will be. the Modify/Solid option could be used to skip the Boolean Add operation. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Alternatively.

CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 14.) Use a Boolean Subtract to remove the cylinder and create a hole on the back face of the fitting. NAS120.Software Corporation S14-71 .

Software Corporation S14-72 .CASE STUDY 2 – TENSION FITTING (Cont.) Add the fillets to complete the model. Section 14. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING NAS120. Section 14.Software Corporation S14-73 .

2. Generate the cross section of the part and revolve it to create the part. Create the outer solid and inner cavity using primitive geometry and use a Boolean operation to subtract the two solids. less work from the user. ● We will use method 2 to create this part.CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont. Section 14.Software Corporation S14-74 . This requires less calculation and often. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) ● The valve housing shown in the previous slide can be created in two ways: 1.

Software Corporation S14-75 . Use a Boolean operation to combine the three solids into one. Step 3: Subtract the cavity from the outer solid. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont. Use another Boolean to combine all the solids.) Step 1: Model the outer solid with three primitives: two cones and a cylinder. NAS120. Section 14. This can also be done using cones and cylinders. Step 2: Model the inner cavity with solids.

CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont. Section 14. NAS120. Otherwise.Z Direction.) Since the user probably wants the cone to taper in the .Software Corporation S14-76 . the user would have to rotate the cone to get it to face the right direction. use a negative height. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.Software Corporation S14-77 . Section 14.CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.) Create the middle portion of the outer solid by extruding the bottom face of the cone into a cylinder (this is to make sure the solids are joined).

Section 14.) The end of the outer solid can be created using another Primitive Cone. But for good practice. NAS120.CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont. extrude the cylinder’s surface and scale at the same time to create a cone (4 inch high). to make the solids join exactly.Software Corporation S14-78 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

NAS120.) Use a Boolean Add to combine all the solids into one part. Section 14. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S14-79 .CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.

) Place the outer solid in its own group.Software Corporation S14-80 . This will help with the next set of steps.CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 14.

CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont. and Unpost All Other Groups to clean up the display.Software Corporation S14-81 . NAS120. Section 14. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Use the Make Current option to make sure any solids created join this group. define a group for the next set of solids.) Before creating the inner cavity.

) The first part of the cavity is a cylinder. 0). August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 14. 0. 4). 0.Software Corporation S14-82 . The base of the cylinder is at (0. NAS120.CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont. One alternative is to specify a negative height and an origin of (0.

NAS120.CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont. Use the Group Display mode to draw the outer solid in wireframe and the inner cavity in solid shaded mode. Section 14.Software Corporation S14-83 . it is difficult to see what is going on with the model. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) Even with the separate groups.

Section 14.Software Corporation S14-84 . NAS120.CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.) Draw the cutting_tool group in solid shaded mode. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 14.CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont. post both groups to the viewport.Software Corporation S14-85 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.) To display the settings on screen. NAS120.

NAS120. This can also be defined using a primitive.) The next part of the cavity is a cone. Section 14. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S14-86 .CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.

CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.) To define the rest of the cavity. Section 14. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. use a mirror operation. Defining a coordinate system in the middle of the part will help define the mirror plane.Software Corporation S14-87 . NAS120.

Software Corporation S14-88 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120. Section 14.) Use the Z-Axis of the new coordinate system to define the mirror plane.CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.

A primitive could also be used for this step. Section 14. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.Software Corporation S14-89 . extrude a face of one of the cones to make the cylinder.CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.) For the remaining solid.

) Combine all of the inner solids into one part. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.Software Corporation S14-90 . NAS120. Section 14.

Section 14. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CASE STUDY 3 – VALVE HOUSING (Cont.Software Corporation S14-91 .) Use a Boolean Subtract to remove the cavity from the outer shell. NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 14. NAS120.EXERCISE Perform Workshop 15 “Parasolid Modeling” in your exercise workbook.Software Corporation S14-92 .

SECTION 15 LINEAR CONTACT SIMULATION NAS120. Section 15. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S15-1 .

Section 15. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S15-2 .NAS120.

Software Corporation S15-3 . NONLINEAR ANALYSIS  Linear Analysis ● Kinematic relationship is linear. and the strains are small. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● Boundary conditions and loads do not change. and displacements are small. and the stiffness matrix does not change. Section 15. ● It follows that: ● Displacements are directly proportional to the loads ● Results for different loads can be superimposed NAS120. ● Element compatibility and constitutive relationships are linear.LINEAR VS. There is no yielding. ● The equilibrium is satisfied in the undeformed configuration.

LINEAR VS. ● ● Boundary conditions and loads may change. Section 15. ● Results for different loads cannot be superimposed. Large strain analysis: ● The element strains are nonlinear functions of element deformations. The displacements and rotations are large. NONLINEAR ANALYSIS (Cont.) ● Nonlinear Analysis ● Geometric nonlinear analysis: ● The kinematic relationship is nonlinear. Element may yield. ● Element forces are no longer equal to stiffness times displacements.Software Corporation S15-4 . ● Contact analysis: ● Deformable and rigid body contact is generally nonlinear. Material nonlinear analysis: ● Element constitutive relationship is nonlinear. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. It follows that: ● Displacements are not directly proportional to the loads. ● ● ● Follower forces: ● Loads are a function of displacements. but simple enough contact may be modeled linearly using MD R2 Nastran and Patran as shown on following slides. NAS120. Equilibrium is satisfied in deformed configuration.

● The primary benefit of the Permanent Glued contact is the joining of two dissimilar meshes. 108. and 112 support permanent glued contact. 107. 109. NAS120.Software Corporation S15-5 . ● Linear contact is defined as the full nonlinear contact algorithm of SOL 400 without material nonlinear requirements and the usual linear requirements of small strain and small rotation imposed. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. 111. Section 15. SOL101 supports linear contact analysis. SOLs 101. Permanent Glued Contact Modeling ● Beginning with MD R2 Nastran. 105. 103. ● Permanent Glued contact is defined as a special type of contact model which imposes the condition that between the contacting surfaces there is no relative normal or tangential motion.CONTACT IN MD NASTRAN LINEAR ANALYSIS  Linear Contact Modeling ● Beginning with MD R2 Nastran. 110.

Note that the linear GAP contact defined by PARAM. Section 15. Only surface to surface 3D contact is currently supported. ● If more detailed complex contact simulation is necessary. Both deformable-deformable and deformable-rigid contact is allowed. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CDITER.Software Corporation S15-6 . NAS120. ● If after running a model in SOL 101 the user determines that there are other nonlinear effects such as material nonlinearity or large rotation. ● The contact bodies need not be in initial contact. but should not be used in association with the surfaces defined for linear contact.n is still supported in Nastran. The grids of the contacting bodies need not be aligned. Bilinear Coulomb or bilinear shear friction is allowed. consider use of SOL 400 nonlinear simulation. the model can simply be switched to SOL 400 without having to redefine the contact surfaces. and the contact algorithm may be used to join dissimilar meshes with relative motion.LINEAR CONTACT ANALYSIS  Linear Contact Modeling ● SOL101 supports linear contact analysis provided that contact is the only nonlinearity in the analysis. and multiple contact bodies ● ● ● ● ● are allowed.

Software Corporation S15-7 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.CONTACT IN FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Why do we need it? Finite elements are based on the concept of “local support”— nodes and elements usually communicate only with their nearest neighbors. Section 15. Forces are transmitted between elements only via shared nodes No Common Node = No Communication NAS120.

standard finite element solutions are not sufficient for contact problems NAS120.) ● Elements not connected via a common node are not aware of each other and would pass right through each other in a standard finite element analysis ● Thus. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 15.Software Corporation S15-8 .CONTACT IN FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Why do we need it? (cont.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 15.Software Corporation S15-9 .POSSIBLE CONTACT BODIES ● Deformable body ● Body is deformable ● Stress and temperature distribution ● Rigid body ● Body is not deformable (rigid) ● No stress distribution ● Constant temperature NAS120.

Software Corporation .DEFORMABLE BODIES ● ● Each deformable body consists of one or more finite elements A deformable body does not need to completely correspond with a physical body v deformable contact body ● ● ● Include all elements in the contact body in a coupled analysis if heat transfer to the environment is taken into account Nodes or elements must belong to NO MORE than one deformable body Internally. FE data is transferred into segments and nodal points defining the boundary of the deformable body ● 2D: a segment corresponds to an element edge ● 3D: a segment corresponds to an element face S15-10 NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 15.

Bezier surface. spline ● surface of revolution.RIGID BODIES ● A rigid body is defined by means of a number of geometrical entities ● Discrete description ● straight line. NAS120. poly-surface ● Analytical description ● NURBS curve or surface ● cone surface ● sphere surface Bezier Surface ● Patran uses the analytical NURBS description – more on this later.Software Corporation Ruled Surface S15-11 . 4-point patch. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ruled surface. circular arc. Section 15.

as they can provide a continuously varying slope as well as continuity of the normal vector along the surface ● The number of subdivisions for analytical entities is used for searching purposes (it might influence the amount of memory allocated) ● Each rigid body may have a prescribed motion ● Velocity ● Position ● Force or moment NAS120.RIGID BODIES ● Internally.Software Corporation S15-12 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 15. the geometry of a rigid body is stored: ● Piecewise linearly for each discrete entity ● Exactly for analytical entities ● Analytical entities (NURBS) are more accurate for curved geometries.

LINEAR CONTACT SETUP ● Contact bodies are specified in Patran as shown. ● Linear SOL 101 MD Nastran R3 analysis is performed. NAS120. Section 15.Software Corporation S15-13 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

CONTACT DETECTION IN A STATIC ANALYSIS NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S15-14 . Section 15.

Software Corporation S15-15 . Section 15. inside distance tolerance 4) Node inside element. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. outside distance tolerance 2) Node outside element. outside distance tolerance NAS120. inside distance tolerance 3) Node inside element.POSSIBLE CONTACT SITUATIONS contacting (touching) body 1 2 3 4 distance tolerance contacted (touched) body 1) Node outside element.

Section 15. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S15-16 .1) NODE OUTSIDE ELEMENT. OUTSIDE DISTANCE TOLERANCE ● Bodies are not in contact ● Contacting node remains in current position NAS120.

INSIDE DISTANCE TOLERANCE Contacting node is projected onto segment of contacted body ● According to internal equilibrium (mass preservation) ● Remains in contact if necessary force is less than separation force NAS120.2) NODE OUTSIDE ELEMENT.Software Corporation S15-17 ● . Section 15. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 15. INSIDE DISTANCE TOLERANCE ● Contacting node is pushed back onto segment of contacted body ● According to internal equilibrium NAS120.3) NODE INSIDE ELEMENT.Software Corporation S15-18 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

contact will not be found NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. OUTSIDE DISTANCE TOLERANCE ● Node penetrated ● Increment will be recycled with modified time step ● If this situation occurs at beginning of analysis.4) NODE INSIDE ELEMENT.Software Corporation S15-19 . Section 15.

resulting in a loss of accuracy ● Nodes might “penetrate” the surface by a large amount NAS120. Section 15. increasing the computational costs ● Contact tolerance too large: ● Nodes are considered in contact prematurely. therefore.Software Corporation S15-20 .DISTANCE TOLERANCE ● The size of the contact tolerance has a significant impact on the computational costs and the accuracy of the solution ● Contact tolerance too small: ● Detection of contact is difficult. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. leading to higher costs ● More nodes are likely to be considered penetrating leading to increase in increment splitting.

this tolerance is evaluated from: ● 1/20x “smallest element edge“ for continuum elements ● 1/4x “smallest thickness“ for beam and shell elements y Lmin x NAS120. Section 15.Software Corporation S15-21 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.DISTANCE TOLERANCE ● ● ● Measured normal to the contacted body May be user-defined By default.

specify a tolerance in the contact table for a specific contact pair NAS120. Section 15.Software Corporation S15-22 .DISTANCE TOLERANCE ● Recommended usage is to leave the tolerance blank and let SOL 101 evaluate this ● If necessary. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

9) disttol disttol disttol (1-B) disttol (1+B) ● ● ● ● Improves accuracy since the distance below which a node comes into contact is reduced Reduces increment splitting since the distance to cause penetration is increased The default/recommended value is B = 0. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.95 . a bias into a contact body is recommended (0.Software Corporation .9 for most contact analyses For analyses involving frictional contact. the contact tolerance is biased to the inside by a factor of 0. Section 15.9 Can be changed within the range of bias factor 0 < B < 1 (default: 0.BIAS FACTOR ● ● By default.99) S15-23 NAS120.0.

9 NAS120.BIAS FACTOR Where in the GUI? 0. Section 15.Software Corporation S15-24 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

● Perform SOL101 Linear Static Analysis. NAS120.Software Corporation S15-25 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY ● Import the MD Nastran input file: 2plates. Keep in mind that while contact is present the analysis is still linear and does not include nonlinear effects such as large displacement. ● Configure contact table under Subcase Parameters. ● Define any other loads and boundary conditions.bdf ● Define a contact body for each plate. ● Postprocess results. Section 15.

Software Corporation S15-26 .bdf NAS120. Section 15.PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY Import the file: 2plates. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S15-27 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 15.PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY Define a contact body for each plate under Loads/BCs NAS120.

Software Corporation S15-28 . NAS120. Section 15.PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY Define other Loads/BCs to apply force and constrain ends. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY Select Contact Table under Subcase Parameters. NAS120. Section 15. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S15-29 .

NAS120. G indicates Glued Contact. Section 15. T indicates Touch Contact. you may disable self contact (via the diagonal entries) to decrease solution time. and Blank indicates no contact.PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY In the contact table. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Be sure to click OK to implement changes.Software Corporation S15-30 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S15-31 .PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY Perform Linear Static Analysis. NAS120. Section 15.

and that linear assumptions were not violated. Section 15.PLATE CONTACT CASE STUDY Plot analysis results. NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S15-32 . Verify that contact took place.

Section 15.Software Corporation S15-33 . Perform Workshop 17 “Glued Contact” in your exercise workbook.EXERCISE Perform Workshop 16 “3D Contact” in your exercise workbook. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. NAS120.

NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S15-34 . Section 15.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 16.SECTION 16 RESULTS POSTPROCESSING NAS120.Software Corporation S16-1 .

Software Corporation S16-2 .NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 16.

Patran Results) NAS120. etc.PATRAN RESULTS APPLICATION ● Manages the Display. Transformation. Output. Deformation.Software Corporation S16-3 .) ● Soon to be the “Single Source” Post-Processing tool for all of MSC. Animation & Calculation of Result Quantities ● Application based on “Tools” (Fringe. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 16.Patran (Insight IsoSurfaces is the last tool to be incorporated into MSC.

Graph. ● ● ● ● Graph. Deformation. Result Cases. Section 16. Marker. Marker. Fringe. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Marker. Fringe. Ranges Delete: Plots.PATRAN RESULTS APPLICATION ● There are 5 Actions to the Results Form. each of which has it’s own Objects: ● Create: Quick Plot. Contour. Report Post: Plots. Report NAS120. Graph. Contour.Software Corporation S16-4 . Results. Report. Cursor. Result Data Use Templates: Deformation. Cursor. Freebody Modify: Deformation. Fringe. Animation.

all you need to do. Section 16.PATRAN RESULTS APPLICATION ● Results Forms are designed such that for any of the Objects being created. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S16-5 . but are NOT necessary for the Object/Tool creation NAS120. at a minimum. to create a Result Object/Tool is to Select: ● Object ● Result Case ● Result Type ● Position (when applicable) ● Quantity (when applicable) ● Whether to Animate the Tool upon creation ● Apply ● The other 3-4 Form Icons may be used to customize the Object/Tool at any stage of it’s creation.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Results Quick Plot Tool NAS120.Software Corporation S16-6 . Section 16.

editing settings. coordinate transformation. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.pcl.Patran NAS120. yet simplified.pcl variables ● Changing settings means Quitting out of MSC.Patran.) can only be changed by settings. etc.RESULTS: QUICK PLOT ● A combined. version of the Deformation & Fringe Tools ● Designed so that a minimum of 4 clicks would be needed to create a combined Deformation/Fringe plot ● 4 Icon Menu Options: ● Select Results ● Fringe Attributes ● Deform Attributes ● Animation Options ● Data Manipulation (averaging. Section 16. & restarting MSC.Software Corporation S16-7 .

This will not do a Max/Min Fringe “carpet plot” single picture.Software Corporation S16-8 . If you want to display on only certain pieces of what is being displayed. you must create a group of that area and post it by itself NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. ● However. where each frame/picture is one of the Result Cases Selected.RESULTS: QUICK PLOT ● Other limitations: ● Process multiple Result Cases at once. Section 16. the fringe animation will allow you to have either a constant range/spectrum. but the display will show a pseudo- animation (1 cycle). like Create/Fringe. or a variable range/spectrum during the animation ● Display results on whatever is in the current viewport.

Software Corporation S16-9 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RESULTS: QUICK PLOT ● Select Results ● Select one or more Result Cases ● Optionally select a Fringe and/or Deformation Result Type ● For Fringe. Select the Position(s) and the Component of interest ● Optionally Animate the plot(s) NAS120. Section 16.

Patran – Results_Postprocessing – Numerical Methods – Derivations ) NAS120. Y-Component.RESULTS: QUICK PLOT ● Result Quantities ● For Vector Type Results: ● Magnitude.Patran “knows” how to take Tensorial Data and calculate Result Quantities that are not generated by the Analysis Code ● MSC.Software Corporation S16-10 .Patran On-Line help describes the computed Quantity Derivations in great detail ( Using MSC. Section 16. X-Component. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Z-Component are Available ● For Tensor Type Results: ● Many values shown were not computed by the Analysis code ● MSC.

Software Corporation S16-11 .Patran translators convert Engineering strain values to Scientific (True/Tensor) strain values by dividing the shear strain components by 2. such as Shear Stresses or Shell Forces. xy = xy/2 ● ● Analysis codes such as MSC. & ZX Component vs.Nastran & ABAQUS calculate Engineering strain values MSC.e. Component MSC.Patran does this conversion (True/Tensor) to calculate other result components and to transform results into other coordinate systems ● To distinguish between “Engineering” and “True/Tensor” strain values. the above 6 quantities were made available ● Keep in mind that these 6 quantities are shown whenever any tensor result is selected.True/Tensor Strain Results ● ● Tensor Result Quantities ● XY.. XY.RESULTS: QUICK PLOT ● Engineering vs. YZ & ZX Engr. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Be aware that the Engineering Components are intended only for Shear Strains and no other results.Patran to display the same results as the analysis code. NAS120. Section 16. and to allow MSC. i. YZ.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RESULTS: QUICK PLOT True Shear Strain Engineering Shear Strain NAS120.Software Corporation S16-12 . Section 16.

if multiple Result Cases are selected. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 16. F (Bars/Beams) ● Z1 / Z2 (2D Shell Elements) ● One or more positions may be selected ● For Quick Plot. i=1 to Max Ply (Laminate Shells) ● Center. C. since the other results tools will process multiple result cases into 1 picture NAS120.Software Corporation S16-13 . multiple positions can be selected for 1 or more result cases since only 1 Result Case is operated on at a time ● For Other Result Tools. D.RESULTS: QUICK PLOT ● Position Sub Form ● Select & Filter Positions on elements to be displayed ● Several Types ● Non-Layered (2D & 3D Solids) ● Layeri. only 1 position may be selected. E.

Software Corporation S16-14 . That way a layer with shells. For instance if both top and bottom stresses are selected then only the top will be reported. Section 16. or from multiple result cases at a singular result position Merge: This option will Plot the first existing value encountered from any particular layer or Result Case. or from multiple result cases at a singular result position Minimum: Plot the Minimum value for each element from either the multiple result positions selected. or from multiple result cases at a singular result position Sum: Plot the Sum value at each element from either the multiple result positions selected.RESULTS: QUICK PLOT ● Position Sub Form (cont) ● Options ● Maximum: Plot the Maximum value for each element from either the multiple result positions ● ● ● ● selected. and a layer with beam elements can all be displayed simultaneously on the graphics screen in one operation. or from multiple result cases at a singular result position Average: Plot the Average value at each element from either the multiple result positions selected. This is useful for layers that are associated with certain element types. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. a layer with solid. NAS120.

Section 16. especially when comparing results to MSC. Discrete/Flat are all targeted towards nodal type fringe plots ● Element Fill is targeted towards Centroidal fringe plots (“checker board” pattern) ● Fringe overlaid onto elements can be shrunk using the shrink factor ● Great in combination with Show Fringe Label toggle when wanting to display fringe values without colors.Nastran . Continuous.Software Corporation S16-15 .F06 file ● Element edge color & display can be altered ● Edit label style & title content placed on Fringe Plot ● Easy Access to Spectrum & Range controls NAS120.RESULTS: QUICK PLOT ● Fringe Attributes ● Controls the Display of Fringe plots ● Option to display Spectrum & Max/Min summary legend ● Control Fringe Style ● Discrete/Smooth. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

The resulting value is the scale factor applied to the deformations to be displayed ● True Scale always recommended for non-linear analyses & scale factor type plots (i. multiplied by the Scale Factor on the form.. 100x displacements shown) ● Option to show/unshow Undeformed shape ● Control Undeformed shading characteristics in this form as well ● Result Titles & Label styles on plot may be adjusted NAS120. Section 16.Software Corporation S16-16 .e. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RESULTS: QUICK PLOT ● Deform Attributes ● Provides ability to modify the “look” of a deformed results plot ● Deformation shading controlled by Render Style on this form (not Toolbar shading icons) ● Model scale is default scale interpretation ● Model Scale is defined as the maximum length of the model’s bounding box in the current viewport.

RESULTS: QUICK PLOT ● Animation Options ● Choose to Animate Fringe and/or Deformation plots (available when a single result case selected) ● Constant Range Value option available when multiple result cases are selected ● Two Animation Methods (single result case only) ● Modal: Animate from –1x to 1x the displayed result values ● Ramped: Animate from 0x to 1x the displayed result values ● Animation Graphics Control ● ● ● ● ● 2D: Animate without the ability to change view of the model 3D: Animate with the ability to change view of the model Preview: Shows only 1 cycle of the Animation VRML: Generate a VRML file format of the Animation (single result case only) MPEG: (Single result case only) Generate an MPEG-1 recording of the displayed Animation (suggest using default window size to get a manageable MPEG file) ● Select the number of frames to display for the Animation ● Must use the Animate button on the Select Results Form Icon to initiate the Animation NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S16-17 . Section 16.

Section 16.Results Deformation Tool NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S16-18 .

Section 16.Software Corporation S16-19 .RESULTS: DEFORMATION ● The Deformation Tool is specifically designed to deal with Displacement-type Plots ● Provides GUI based flexibility in customizing Deformation Plots that is not provided in Quick Plot ● The Deformation Result listbox may include “nondisplacement” type results because all vector type results are listed ● Form settings may be saved to a “plot name” on the database NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 16.RESULTS: DEFORMATION ● Anatomy of Form ● Similar to Quick Plot in Format ● 5 Icon menu Options ● Select Results ● Target Entities ● Display Attributes (same as Quick Plot) ● Plot Options ● Animation Options ● Have an additional option to Modify the Tool (which QP does not have) NAS120.Software Corporation S16-20 .

RESULTS: DEFORMATION ● Select Results ● The form is essentially the same as shown in Quick Plot ● One exception is that multiple Result Cases may be processed at one time ● Based on this.Software Corporation S16-21 . Section 16. there are Result Case Filter Buttons that may appear ● When there are Result Case names that contain the same Subcase/Subtitle. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. <Type of Subcase> NAS120. they can be displayed in either a compressed or expanded format ● Note: Result Case Name is actually made up of 2 parts: <Nastran Subtitle>.

RESULTS: DEFORMATION ● Result Case Filtering ● Two Icons appear when you have multiple Result Cases using the same prefix ● Compress/Expand Toggle Icon ● Select Subcase Filter Icon ● The default is to have a Compressed listing if more than 30 Result Case Names have the same Prefix ● settings. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.pcl variable controls this: ● pref_env_set_integer( "result_loadcase_abbreviate". Section 16. 30 ) Compressed Format ● The Filter Icon only appears if the Compress/Expand Toggle Icon is depressed (activated) Expanded Format NAS120.Software Corporation S16-22 .

or add another Filter result NAS120. ● String: Text within Result Case Names (may use wildcards for search) ● Subcase ID’s: Filter by ID or range of ID’s ● All: Select all Result Cases ● Procedure: ● Select one or more Result Case sets ● Choose Filter Method.. Section 16. & Value ● Hit Filter & Apply. time. etc. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RESULTS: DEFORMATION ● Result Case Filtering ● When in Compressed format. Variable.Software Corporation S16-23 .) the filter method variables may change ● Filter Types ● Global Variable: Frequency. non-linear.. you must enter the Filter Form to select Result Cases ● Depending on the Analysis type (modal.

Section 16. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S16-24 After . Before NAS120. the important change is “0 of 40” to “11 of 40”. That is your indication that Result Cases have been selected.RESULTS: DEFORMATION ● Result Case Name Filtering ● Notice that even though the Result Case block is highlighted.

RESULTS: DEFORMATION ● Target Entities ● Select what entities to display Deformations upon ● Current Viewport: All entities currently posted ● Nodes/Elements: Select specific Nodes or Elements ● Groups: Select entities by Groups ● Materials: Select entities by Material sets ● Properties: Select entities by Property sets ● Element Types: Select entities by Element Type (BAR2.) ● Additional Display Control: ● Elements or Nodes. Available for all Target Entity Options except for Nodes & Elements NAS120. etc. QUAD4. Section 16.Software Corporation S16-25 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 16.RESULTS: DEFORMATION ● Plot Options ● Controls 3 things ● Coordinate Transformations ● Results Scaling ● Allows Deformations to be scaled above and beyond scale factor on Display Attributes ● Constant or PCL function scaling available ● Saving Plot Settings to Database NAS120.Software Corporation S16-26 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Software Corporation S16-27 .RESULTS: DEFORMATION ● Coordinate Transformation ● As Is: No Transformation. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Patran. Numbers Exactly from Solver Code ● CID: Transformed WRT a Selected Coordinate Frame (which can be created on the fly in MSC.Patran Global Axes ● Nodal: Transformed into the Node’s Analysis Coordinate System NAS120.Nastran Basic) ● Default: Transformed WRT the Projected MSC. Section 16.Patran Global Axes (MSC. does not have to be part of the Analysis) ● Projected CID: Transformed WRT a selected Projected Coordinate Frame Axis onto an Element ● Global: Transformed WRT the MSC.

Section 16. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S16-28 . an automatically overwritten name is created containing the last plot settings using the format: ● <First 3 letters of Plot Type>_default_<plot tool> ● Example: DEF_default_Deformation NAS120.RESULTS: DEFORMATION ● Save Deformation Plot As: ● Name saved to database which contains all settings and results used to generate the plot ● May be posted at a later time using Results->Post/Plots form ● Up to 31 characters may be used to define the name ● Nomenclature used for plot names are: ● <First 3 letters of plot type>_<saved name> ● Example: DEF_john plot ● Note that if a name is not used to save the settings.

modal. Section 16. time) NAS120. global variable) ● Modal goes from –1x to 1x the values being displayed ● Ramped goes from 0x to 1x the values being displayed ● Global Variable changes due to Analysis/Results type. ramp.Software Corporation S16-29 . frequency. examples being load case id. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RESULTS: DEFORMATION ● Animation Options ● Need to Have Animate Switch turned on (Select Results) before coming to this form ● Select Animation Method depending on result/analysis type (none.

Make sure #Frames = #steps selected NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S16-30 .RESULTS: DEFORMATION ● Animation Options ● Animation Graphics ● ● ● ● ● 2D: Display in Viewport w/ no rotation 3D: Display in Viewport w/ rotation Preview: 1 cycle of Animation shown VRML: Save Animation to this file format MPEG: Make an MPEG-1 recording of the Animation (make sure to use Default Window Size switch for a manageable MPEG file) ● Select Number of Frames for Animation ● Extrapolation: ● Linear: Good for single case Animations (1 static subcase deformation) ● Closest Value: Intermediate frames will show values closest known values ● None: Best when doing multiple result cases or time steps. Section 16.

Software Corporation S16-31 . Section 16. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RESULTS: DEFORMATION ● Animation Control Form ● Appears after an Animation starts ● May pause and change frame to display manually ● Can change the sequence ● Provides options for what to do after stopping the Animation NAS120.

Software Corporation S16-32 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 16.Results Fringe Tool NAS120.

& quantity. display options ● 5 Icon menu Options ● Select Results (same as Quick Plot for selection.Software Corporation S16-33 . Section 16.RESULTS: FRINGE ● The Fringe Tool provides fringing capabilities that are not provided in Quick Plot ● GUI based results transformation. averaging options.Patran results to MSC. same as Deformation for the rest) ● Target Entities ● Display Attributes (same as Quick Plot) ● Plot Options ● Animation Options (same as Deformation) ● One of the more misunderstood tools in attempting to correlate MSC.Nastran results ● May Process Multiple Result Cases NAS120. position. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

etc.) NAS120. Section 16. BAR2.RESULTS: FRINGE ● Target Entities ● Options ● Current Viewport: Plot Results on all entities posted in Viewport ● Elements/Connectors: Plot Results on selected Elements/Connectors posted in Viewport ● Groups: Plot Results on selected Groups posted in Viewport ● Materials/Properties: Plot Results on selected Material/Property sets assigned to elements posted in Viewport ● Element Types: Plot results on specific Element Types posted in Viewport (QUAD4. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S16-34 .

RESULTS: FRINGE ● Target Entities (cont’d) ● Additional Display Control ● Free Faces: More applicable to 3D Solids. plot results on all faces of targeted elements ● Free Edges: Plot Fringe Results on only Free Edges of elements. no fill ● Edges: Plot Fringe Results on all edges of elements. Section 16.Software Corporation S16-35 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. no fill NAS120. plot results on Free Faces & not internal shared faces ● Faces: More applicable to 3D Solids.

Software Corporation S16-36 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 16.RESULTS: FRINGE • Examples of Edge Control for 2D Shell Models • Edge Display Control Example • Free Edge Display Control Example NAS120.

combined with Arbitrary Clipping Planes.Software Corporation Example w/ All Faces S16-37 . Display Control for Faces. Section 16. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. can provide additional Results investigation • Example w/ Free Faces • NAS120.RESULTS: FRINGE • In Solids.

along with Display Attribute Options will produce correct correlation with MSC.Software Corporation S16-38 .F06 results NAS120.Nastran . Section 16.RESULTS: FRINGE ● Plot Options ● “The Mother of All Results Forms” ● Controls Coordinate Transformation. Value Filtering. & Averaging Techniques ● Save Fringe Plot Options & Scaling Options similar to what was shown for Deformations ● Proper combination of Averaging Selections. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Nastran Basic) Default: Transformed WRT the Projected MSC. does not have to be part of the Analysis) Projected CID: Transformed WRT a selected Projected Coordinate Frame Axis onto an Element Global: Transformed WRT the MSC. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Patran Element Axes NAS120.Patran Global Axes Material: Transformed WRT the Element’s Material Coordinate System ● Not supported for solid elements ● Element IJK: Transformed WRT the MSC. Numbers Exactly from Solver Code ● CID: Transformed WRT a Selected Coordinate Frame (which can be created on ● ● ● ● the fly in MSC.Patran.Software Corporation S16-39 .RESULTS: FRINGE ● Coordinate Transformation ● As Is: No Transformation. Section 16.Patran Global Axes (MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. you can Filter what Values are shown on a Fringe Plot ● ● ● ● None: No Value Filtering is Applied Minimum: Values BELOW this Setting will NOT be Displayed Maximum: Values ABOVE this Setting will NOT be Displayed Range: Only Show Values BETWEEN the Min/Max Settings Defined for this Range ● Exclude: Show all Displayed Values EXCEPT those WITHIN this Min/Max Range ● Entities falling outside the Filter Parameters are shown with a black fill (for black backgrounds) NAS120. Section 16.RESULTS: FRINGE ● Within Plot Options.Software Corporation S16-40 .

RESULTS: FRINGE ● Example of Fringe Results Filtering NAS120.Software Corporation S16-41 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 16.

RESULTS: FRINGE ● Results Averaging ● Many Mistakes are made by not knowing the defaults of these 3 Results Averaging values and what they do ● Some of the Options shown for Domain/Method/Extrapolation are designed for Gauss Point Results ● MSC. and how to use them to get correct correlation with the MSC.Software Corporation S16-42 .Nastran uses Gauss Point Locations to INTERNALLY calculate values. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. but they are not allowed to be output to the F06/OP2/XDB/T16/MASTER ● Let’s talk about how the options operate.Nastran . Section 16.F06 file NAS120.

etc. Tri3. posted or not posted ● Material: Only Average Nodal Values common with Elements that have the same Material Property ● Property: Only Average Nodal Values common with Elements that have the same Property sets ● Target Entities: Average Nodal Values among Elements defined in the Target Entities portion of the Fringe Form (2nd Icon) ● Element Type: Only Average Nodal Values common among elements of the same type (Quad4. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RESULTS: FRINGE ● Averaging Definition: Domain ● All Entities: Average Nodal Values among ALL elements.Software Corporation S16-43 .) ● None: No averaging performed at all NAS120. Section 16.

the difference computed and displayed. such as from a Stress Tensor. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. and then use the Averaged values to Derive the Invariant ● Difference: At a node. then Average the Invariants coming from each Element contribution at a common Node ● Average/Derive: Compute the Average of the Element-Nodal components used in an Invariant calculation.Software Corporation S16-44 . compute the Invariant first. Section 16. ● Sum: Sum all the Element-Nodal values common to a Node and plot that Sum NAS120. the Maximum & Minimum Element-Nodal value is determined.RESULTS: FRINGE ● Averaging Definition: Method ● Derive/Average: When computing Invariants. Must use Domain option other than NONE to make this work properly. Sometimes called a Stress Jump Plot when plotting Stresses. Quality check method.

find the Maximum value. Section 16.RESULTS: FRINGE ● Averaging Definition: Extrapolation ● This has more meaning for Analysis codes that output Gauss Point Results ● Definitions for MSC. use the value at the Centroid ● Min: Review all the Result Values within an Element.Software Corporation S16-45 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. use the values at the Nodes ● Average: If Elemental Nodal Results exist. and assign that value to all Result locations within that Element NAS120. find the Minimum value. and assign that value to all Result locations within that Element ● Max: Review all the Result Values within an Element. Average the values within an element and assign that value to each Node in the element ● Centroid: If Centroidal values exist.Nastran Results are a bit different and will be discussed here ● Shape Function: If Elemental Nodal values exist.

Software Corporation S16-46 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. If the averaged result appears to be the same as the unaveraged result. then the mesh is considered adequate ● “Smooths” peaking results or results approaching a singularity ● Minuses ● “Blind” Averaging can hide real peak results ● Never Average: ● ● ● ● ● Across Different Material Boundaries Across Different Thicknesses Across Elements with Different Coordinate Systems Across Elements not in the same Plane Amongst Different Element Types NAS120. Section 16.RESULTS: FRINGE ● Comments on Averaging ● There are pluses & minuses about Averaging ● Pluses ● Great way to determine if your mesh has enough density to predict the results.

Section 16.RESULTS: FRINGE ● Averaging Examples ● 4 Regions. 2 Different Materials ● 4 Regions. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S16-47 . 4 Different Properties/Thicknesses NAS120.

Software Corporation . No Averaging: Good! ● Nodal Results. Section 16. it is determined that the model does not have enough mesh density. Average All Entities: Bad! ● Nodal Results. ● Nodal Results.RESULTS: FRINGE ● Note that reviewing the Unaveraged and Averaged Nodal Results. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. No Averaging: Good! S16-48 NAS120. Average Amongst Common Materials: Good! (Provided Elements w/ Common Materials Have same Element Coordinate Axes ● Element Centroid Results. Results can’t be trusted.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S16-49 .Results Marker Tool NAS120. Section 16.

Vector or Tensor Plots ● Displacements & Constraint Forces are Vectors ● Element Stresses/Strains/Forces are Tensors ● Vector Plot is an Arrow Plot ● Tensor Plot can be as detailed as a 6 component Tensor Cube ● Scalar Plots are simply a marker shape with a number/value alongside of it ● This saves a person from doing a Fringe plot and turning off the fringe colors.RESULTS: MARKER ● Scalar. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S16-50 . and turning on the fringe value labels ● 5 Icon Menu Choices ● Select Results (same as Deformation) ● Target Entities ● Display Attributes ● Plot Options (same as Fringe) ● Animation Options (same as Deformation) NAS120. Section 16.

etc. Section 16. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RESULTS: MARKER ● Target Entities ● Options ● Current Viewport: Plot Results on all entities posted in Viewport ● Nodes/Elements/Connectors: Plot Results on selected Nodes/Elements/Connectors posted in Viewport ● Groups: Plot Results on selected Groups posted in Viewport ● Materials/Properties: Plot Results on selected Material/Property sets assigned to elements posted in Viewport ● Element Types: Plot results on specific Element Types posted in Viewport (QUAD4. BAR2.) ● Additional Display Control ● Nodes: Display on Nodes ● Elements: Display on Elements ● Free Faces: (3D) Display on Free Element Faces ● Free Edges: (2D or 3D) Display on Free Element Edges ● Corners: Display on Component’s or Structure’s Free Corners NAS120.Software Corporation S16-51 .

Vectors & Tensor Boxes ● Control Label Style ● Now includes it’s own Label Font Size!!! ● Control Result Title. or Tensor Cubes ● Control Scaling of Scalar Symbols. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Vector Arrows.RESULTS: MARKER ● Display Attributes ● Controls the look of Scalar Symbols. Section 16.Software Corporation S16-52 . Spectrum & Range NAS120.

Software Corporation S16-53 .RESULTS: MARKER ● Another Application of Marker/Tensor ● Crow’s Foot Plots ● Turn off Tensor Box ● Select “in-plane” Normal & Shear components ● Scale Arrows & Labels correspondingly ● Great Application for Utilizing Results Templates NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 16.

Results Cursor Tool NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S16-54 . Section 16.

Vector. picked entities will have results labels shown at their location NAS120. or Tensor Tool that when activated. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Patran Results ● Create a Scalar. Section 16.Software Corporation S16-55 .RESULTS: CURSOR ● One of the Insight Tools that has been migrated into MSC.

Section 16.Software Corporation S16-56 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RESULTS: CURSOR ● Cursor/Scalar shows a single value at either an Element or a Node ● Cursor/Vector shows a column of values at either an Element or Node ● Cursor/Tensor shows a ½ diagonal matrix of values at either an Element or a Node ● Keep in mind to treat Tensor values as Tensors and Vector values as Vectors to save on confusion with Tensor/Vector conversions NAS120.

Software Corporation S16-57 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RESULTS: CURSOR ● Display Attributes ● Reduced feature form to modify/create titles & change label style ● Plot Options ● Reduced feature form to control CID Transformation & Result Averaging NAS120. Section 16.

Software Corporation S16-58 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 16.Results Contour Tool NAS120.

RESULTS: CONTOUR ● Another of the Insight tools brought into MSC. Section 16.Patran Results ● Generates “old style” Contour Line plots in color or Black & White ● Fringe Post-Processing rules apply for this tool NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S16-59 .

Section 16.Software Corporation S16-60 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RESULTS: CONTOUR ● 5 Options on form are similar to other forms we have discussed: ● Select Results (Same as Deformation) ● Target Entities ● Display Attributes ● Plot Options (Same as Fringe) ● Animation Options (Same as Deformation) NAS120.

Groups.Software Corporation S16-61 . Materials.RESULTS: CONTOUR ● Target Entities ● Only display on Current Viewport. Section 16. Elements. Properties. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. and Element Types ● ADC only Free Faces ● Display Attributes ● Similar in look to other forms ● Spectrum/Constant switch allows color lines or single color lines ● Modify Contour Line Style & Width ● Label Spacing may be controlled ● Suggest setting to Min to get the maximum number of Contour Letter Labels ● Title & Label Style Controls NAS120.

Section 16.Results Graph Tool NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S16-62 .

or other Results ● 4 Icon Menu Options ● Select Results ● Target Entities ● Display Attributes ● Plot Options (same as Fringe) ● Graphs created using XY-Plot Windows ● Additional Graph/Window Control not available in this Tool is managed by the XY-Plot Application NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S16-63 . Coordinate Axes. Section 16. Defined Path Length.RESULTS: GRAPH ● A Tool to Plot Results in XY-Plot Format ● Plot Results vs.

an Arbitrary Path Length which can be defined by Points/Nodes. Another Result.Software Corporation S16-64 . Fringe or Deformation is the X-Axis selection option menu ● Three choices ● Coordinate: Plot Results vs.) ● Result: Plot Results vs. etc. Elements. such as Stress vs.RESULTS: GRAPH ● Select Results ● Only difference to form vs. Section 16. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. or Beams/2D Element Edges ● Target Entities / Display Control changes accordingly to the selection of the X-Axis Quantity NAS120. Strain for a NonLinear Analysis ● Path Length: Plot Results vs. Location WRT a Selected Coordinate Frame Axis by selecting a Target Entity Appropriate to the Result type (Nodes. Geometric Curves/Edges.

RESULTS: GRAPH ● Display Attributes ● Subset of Display Options for the XY-Curves that will be generated ● Control the Fit and Style of the curve ● Control Axis Titles. Section 16. Scales. & Label Format ● Control Name of XY-Window created ● Option to Append Curves to a Single XY-Plot Window ● Default is to make a separate Window for every XY-Graph created by this Results Tool NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S16-65 .

Results Animations NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 16.Software Corporation S16-66 .

Section 16. VRML & MPEG are the same as the Animate options on Tool forms like Fringe & Deformation ● Single Panel Form (No Icon menu choices) NAS120.RESULTS: ANIMATION ● Stand-Alone Animation Tool for Existing Results Plots ● 2D & 3D Graphics. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S16-67 . Preview.

Ramp. GV) ● Choose appropriate options for the selected method ● Select the number of frames for the animation and the Interpolation type ● For multi-case animations.RESULTS: ANIMATION ● Procedure ● Before using. just go to Post/Plots. up to 4 Animation Methods may be Available ● None: No Animation Settings ● Global Variable: Animate based on Multiple Result Cases / Time Steps / Frequencies ● Modal: Animate from -1x to 1x the displayed result values ● Ramp: Animate from 0x to 1x the displayed result values ● After Method Selection.Software Corporation S16-68 . the Plots to Animate Listbox will show the method as the first part of the Plot name (Modal. and Post existing Plots of interest ● After Selecting Plot of Interest & depending on how the Result Plot was made. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. there MUST be Result Plots posted to the Current Viewport ● If not. Section 16. the number of frames should be the same as the number of cases/steps NAS120.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 16.Software Corporation S16-69 .Results Report Tool NAS120.

If not. Append to File. Results Types. Create New File NAS120. If not.RESULTS: REPORT ● Facility to Export & Format Results Reports from the MSC. Positions. Section 16. & Entities to have in the Report ● 4 Icon Menu Options ● Select Results ● Target Entities ● Display Attributes ● Plot Options (same as Fringe) ● 3 Methods ● Preview: Show Report in Unix Shell or DOS STDOUT Window ● Overwrite File: If File Exists.Patran Database ● Select Results Cases. Create New File ● Append File: If File Exists.Software Corporation S16-70 . Overwrite. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Quantities.

Software Corporation S16-71 . Property Name & ID.. 3rd Invariants. & Layer ID ● X. ACID. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. 2nd. XY Engr.RESULTS: REPORT ● Selecting Results ● Normal Procedure of Selecting Results Case(s) & Result Type ● Depending on Result Type. Section 16. Y. Z Locations ● X. Y. Material Name & ID NAS120. Max/Mid/Min Principal. Select Result Position & Quantity/Quantities ● Example Quantities for Stress Tensor: ● NSHAPE (element code). 1st. ZX. ZX Engr. Max/Min 2D Principal. Components ● Von Mises. Tresca & Tresca 2D. Z. Subcase. XY. Loadcase. Hydrostatic.YZ Engr. YZ. Max Shear & Max Shear 2D ● CID. Octahedral..

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. etc.RESULTS: REPORT ● Target Entities ● Depending on the Target Entity Type (Current Viewport. the Additional Display Control (ADC) may vary ● Example: Element All Data will Export Nodal & Centroidal Stress Information for the Stress Tensor NAS120. Section 16.Software Corporation S16-72 . Groups.).

Software Corporation S16-73 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. • Sorting Options Provides a Way to Sort the Data Report with Several Options NAS120. etc. Section 16.RESULTS: REPORT ● Display Attributes ● Since there is no “Display” for this Results Type. Column Headings & Order. Value Formatting. Titles. the Attributes are Report & Data Formatting • Format Allows You to Layout the Report with Specific Margins.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RESULTS: REPORT ● Sample Report Output File S16-74 NAS120.Software Corporation . Section 16.

Software Corporation S16-75 . Section 16.Results Create Tool NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RESULTS: CREATE RESULTS ● One can Create Analysis Results (within Solver & Engineering Guidelines) without Re-running the Analysis ● 7 Methods of Results Creation ● ● ● ● ● ● Combine Maximum / Minimum Sum Average PCL Function Demo (Facility to Create Sample/Test Results To Demonstrate the Results Tools) NAS120. Section 16.Software Corporation S16-76 .

RESULTS: RESULTS/COMBINE ● Select Result Cases to Combine ● Within Spreadsheet.Software Corporation S16-77 . Input Optional Scale Factors & Result Quantities to Combine ● Up to 31 Characters may be used for the New Result Case Name & New Subcase Name ● Think of it as a 62 character max. Section 16.Patran does not store the Metadata about how the combination was created NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. descriptor ● Very useful since MSC.

Plot Options ● Multiple Results Cases May be Selected ● Note: Resulting Max/Min Case will not indicate which Result Case the Max/Min Value came from ● Up to 62 Characters (31 Result.RESULTS: RESULTS/MAX OR MIN ● 3 Icon Menu Options ● Select Results. Section 16. 31 Subcase) May be used for New Result Case Name ● Only one Quantity per New Result Case at a time NAS120.Software Corporation S16-78 . Target Entities. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

RESULTS: RESULTS/MAX OR MIN ● Select Target Entities to be Saved in this Result Case (Entire Model. Elements.) ● Plot Options Similar to Fringe except for Comparison Criteria ● Method to determine a Max/Min value to be stored to newly created Result Case ● Saved Max/Min quantity is a Scalar Value. Section 16. etc. regardless of how it was computed NAS120.Software Corporation S16-79 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RESULTS: RESULTS/SUM OR AVERAGE ● Create a New Result Case by Summing a Result Array. Section 16.Software Corporation S16-80 . such as Stress Tensor in 3 ways: ● Select Multiple Results Cases @ one Position ● Select Single Result Case & Multiple Positions ● Select Multiple Results Cases & Multiple Positions ● ● ● ● Entire Result Array Processed (not just one component) Option to do an Algebraic or Absolute Sum Results saved in same format as the Array that was being Summed Results/Average works the same way except that the New Results are either Averaged by the number of Results Cases Selected or Number of Positions Selected NAS120.

but only want to operate on the Octahedral Invariant. Vector. or Tensor Quantities ● Example: Select Stress Tensor. Different PCL Functions may be used to Scale Different Components ● Option to Save PCL Scaled Results as Scalar.RESULTS: RESULTS/PCL FUNCTION ● Create a Result Case by Scaling a Result Array using a PCL Function ● Depending on the Result Array. Tensor. Save Result as Scalar ● This Option can be Important since Scalar. & Vector Results have their own characteristics in the Results Application NAS120. Section 16. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S16-81 .

Results Modify/Post/Delete NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S16-82 . Section 16.

Patran will Confirm to User if this Operation is to be Performed NAS120. MSC. Marker.RESULTS: MODIFY ● We have discussed the Creation Tools in Results ● The Modify Function is Available for 5 Tools: ● Deformation. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 16.Software Corporation S16-83 . the Plot Type will be Modified ● If Modifying a Saved Plot Name Under Create. Contour. One has to have a Plot Type Saved to the Database ● When Entering Form. Cursor. Select Results has a Button for Existing <Tool> Plots ● After Selecting a Plot. Report ● To use. Fringe. Graph. All Icon Menu Forms Affected by the Plot Changes are Modified ● Upon Apply.

or Result Cases ● If Using XDB.Software Corporation S16-84 . Section 16. this option will do the same thing as Analysis-Delete/(XDB or MASTER or T16) Attachment NAS120. Result Data (Arrays). August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.RESULTS: POST & DELETE ● Post ● Saved Plot Names & Ranges May be Posted to Viewport Any Time After Being Created ● Great Way of Regenerating Plots EXACTLY the way they were Created the First Time ● No Guessing What Settings Were Used ● Delete ● Option to Delete Plots. MASTER. or T16/T19.

Software Corporation S17-1 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.SECTION 17 MODEL CHECKOUT NAS120. Section 17.

NAS120. Section 17. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S17-2 .

MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS  Pre-Analysis ● Understand the structure and the elements ● Make small models – understand the problem ● Use pilot models in areas of uncertainty ● If you are not familiar with using the element type or SOLution you expect to use. ● Model checks before the analysis ● Geometry ● Pre-processor (or Undeformed plots) ● Look at connections between different element types ● Based on knowledge of elements ● Based on loads ● Look at corners (QUAD plates) ● Shrink plots NAS120. Section 17.Software Corporation S17-3 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. make simple models and compare the answers to theoretical results (with a simple model. you should be able to obtain excellent correlation with theoretical results).

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Rigid Body Motion Adequate Constraints NAS120.MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS (CONT) ● Check for Rigid Body Motions (singularities) ● Sufficient Nodal Displacement should be specified so that the 6 “rigid body” modes of movement are fixed.Software Corporation S17-4 . Section 17.

Section 17. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS (CONT) ● Rigid Body Motions ● Forgetting to “Equivalence in Patran or other preprocessors is a very common error. Rigid Body Motion Adequate Constraints NAS120.Software Corporation S17-5 .

 (or G). and  ● Property entry – be sure to get the correct properties.Software Corporation S17-6 . (One of the most commonly made errors is not specifying MID2 for “bending” plates. and  ● Plates and Shells ● Check aspect ratios. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 17. and warpage ● Check orientation – Z. any corners. surfaces consistent ● Check attachments – especially any depending on in-plane rotational stiffness.MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS (CONT) ● Elements ● Beam and bar ● Check that I1 and I2 have proper orientation and values ● Check all end releases (in member coordinates) ● Verify all offsets (in output coordinate system of GRIDs) ● Material – need E. taper. and “shells” ● Verify any offsets (in element coordinate system) ● Material – need E.) NAS120.  (or G).

beams = mass/unit length ● Plates = mass/unit area ● Submit with PARAM. special modeling effort is required ● Material – need E.Software Corporation . Section 17. If any attachments depend on rotational stiffness. and  ● Mass properties ● Check  on MATi entries ● Check NSM on property entries ● Bars. GRDPNT.  (or G). xxxx  where xxxx = ID of GRID point to calculate mass properties about ● Always check center of gravity and total weight (mass) versus known values S17-7 NAS120.MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS (CONT) ● Solids ● Check aspect ratios ● Check taper ● Check attachments. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

Section 17. and Z directions independently ● Check load paths (GPFORCE) ● Check reactions (SPC FORCE) ● Does total = applied load? ● Are the reactions at the correct locations and do they have the correct orientation? ● In Dynamics.Software Corporation  g = acceleration due to gravity S17-8 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.● MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS (CONT) Loadings: ● Verify they are correct (OLOAD RESULTANT) ● Constraints: ● Verify that they are defined (often they are forgotten) ● Verify they are correct (location and orientation – in output coordinate system of the GRID points) ● Verify that they are applied (SPC CASE CONTROL command) ● Static Checks – ALWAYS RUN STATICS FIRST!!! ● Apply 1–g in X. approximate frequency: f  1 2 g d  where d = center of gravity displacement in direction of applied g-load NAS120. Y.

Remove known constraints and check for ● ● ● ● unconstrained motion under applied loads or imposed displacements.” that is. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. with no reactions. Section 17. or Use the Case Control Command GROUNDCHECK. Thermal equilibrium check – if thermal loads are to be considered.Software Corporation S17-9 . It should expand “freely. element forces. to check for over-constrained systems. or stresses NAS120.MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS (CONT) ● Equilibrium check – verify model is not over-constrained ● Run free-free. Check  on MATi entries Check for unconstrained thermal expansion – on a copy of your model ● Apply a determinate set of constraints ● Use the same  for all materials ● Apply a uniform T to the structure.

● Controlled by either: AUTOSPC = Yes (case control) Or Param.autospc.yes ● User action is not needed as feature is turned on by default in most solution sequences. MD Nastran attempts to automatically deal with them. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.AUTOSPC ● If obvious singularities exist. NAS120. Section 17.Software Corporation S17-10 .

Section 17.HOW AUTOSPC WORKS GRID 99 Stiffness Terms T1 Hexa Element GRID 99 T2 T3 R1 R2 R3 NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S17-11 .

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.HOW AUTOSPC WORKS (Cont.) GRID 99 Stiffness Terms ● Successful Elimination of Zero Stiffness terms Hexa Element GRID 99 T1 T2 T3 R1 R2 R3 NAS120. Section 17.Software Corporation S17-12 .

PROBLEMS WITH AUTOSPC ● No Elimination of Solid Solid T1 Bar T1 T2 T3 R1 R2 R3 Element Zero Stiffness terms Bar Element GRID 99 T2 T3 R1 Hexa Element R2 R3 NAS120.Software Corporation S17-13 . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 17.

PROBLEMS WITH AUTOSPC (Cont.) ● No Elimination of Solid Combined Stiffness Terms T1 T2 T3 Element Zero Stiffness terms Bar Element GRID 99 R1 Hexa Element R2 R3 NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S17-14 . Section 17.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.PROBLEMS WITH AUTOSPC (Cont. Section 17.Software Corporation S17-15 .) ● 3 Mechanisms ! Bar Element GRID 99 Hexa Element NAS120.

) ● Solutions Manual SPC MPCs (later) Rigid Links (later) GRID 99 Bar Element Hexa Element NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S17-16 .PROBLEMS WITH AUTOSPC (Cont. Section 17.

Section 17.spcgen.pch File ● Param.Software Corporation S17-17 .prgst.1 or PUNCH keyword in AUTOSPC Case Control Command ● Disable the printout of a table of singularities ● Param.AUTOSPC ● Controlling AUTOSPC ● All ‘failed’ DOFs are written to Grid Point Singularity Table ● Can get very large – obscure real problems ● Write out ‘failed’ DOFs to . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.no or NOPRINT keyword in AUTOSPC Case Control Command ● Re-use generated SPC1 data selectively NAS120.

GOOD MODELING PRACTICE ● Essentials ● Mesh Density – fit for purpose ● Mesh Quality – fit for purpose ● Loading Boundary Conditions ● Displacement Boundary Conditions NAS120. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Section 17.Software Corporation S17-18 .

Software Corporation S17-19 . Section 17.) ● Mesh Density – fit for purpose NAS120.GOOD MODELING PRACTICE (Cont. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

GOOD MODELING PRACTICE (Cont.Software Corporation S17-20 .) ● Loading Boundary Conditions ● Simple Point Loading? Poor stress distribution locally Good stress distribution locally NAS120. Section 17. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.

August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S17-21 .) ● Loading Boundary Conditions ● More sophisticated loading? NAS120. Section 17.GOOD MODELING PRACTICE (Cont.

Software Corporation S17-22 .e. topological and geometric) and compare results ● Check stress discontinuities ● Compare values to “hand calc” or small model results NAS120. Do they equal the applied loads ( applied loads are printed as “OLOAD RESULTANT” in superelement solutions)? ● Check load paths – use grid point force balance to “trace” loads ● Check stress contours for “consistency” ● “Sharp” corners indicate bad modeling ● Use different options (i. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.. Section 17.MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS (CONT)  After the Analysis ● Statics ● Check EPSILON and MAXRATIO ● Epsilon > 10-9 may indicate trouble ● MAXRATIO > 106 may indicate trouble ● Check reactions.

0)? ● More than six “rigid-body” modes in free-free? ● Any “rigid-body” modes in constrained modes? ● Check mode shapes. Section 17. Are they in the expected range? (Did you forget WTMASS???) ● If free-free.0) modes? ● Are there any mechanisms (f=0.MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MODEL CHECKS (CONT) ● Dynamics – normal modes ● Check frequencies. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. and Identify modes ● Plots and/or animation ● Effective weight and kinetic energy (Case Control Commands MEFFMASS and EKE) help to identify “significant” modes NAS120.Software Corporation S17-23 . are there six “rigid-body” (f=0.

NASTRAN (particularly the elements). August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. Perform hand analysis or use a simple model first. ● Estimate the cost (labor and computer costs) before you start. ● Use independent checks (if available).HOW TO AVOID SERIOUS MODELING MISTAKES ● Take the time to understand the structure and how it behaves under load. NAS120. ● Take the time to understand MSC.Software Corporation S17-24 . Run small samples each time you try something new. Section 17.

NAS120.CHECK FOR BAD MODES ● Identify your modes using one or more of the following: ● Plot your eigenvectors and identify them ● Use Case Control Commands EKE. ● Watch for warnings on orthogonality checks ● Look for extraneous low frequency modes – these often indicate incorrect modeling. Section 17. and MEFFMASS to print kinetic energy and modal effective mass . August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation S17-25 .

SOME RECOMMENDATIONS ● Understand the important things BEFORE you get into trouble!!! ● Understand your structure and how you expect it to perform ● Understand your loading ● Understand your model ● Understand how to use the program ● Understand the limitations of the method ● Use simple sample problems (preferably with known solutions) to understand the MSC. August 2008 Copyright 2008 MSC. then progress to the more complicated solutions.Software Corporation S17-26 . ● ALWAYS perform a static solution first.Nastran solution. NAS120. Section 17.

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