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# Batch: Jan - May 2008 R.

Ganesh Narayanan 1
Engineering Mechanics Statics
Instructor
R. Ganesh Narayanan
Department of Mechanical Engineering
IIT Guwahati
Batch: Jan - May 2008 R. Ganesh Narayanan 2
-These lecture slides were prepared and used by me to conduct lectures for 1
st
year B. Tech.
students as part of ME 101 Engineering Mechanics course at IITG.
- Theories, Figures, Problems, Concepts used in the slides to fulfill the course requirements are
taken from the following textbooks
- Kindly assume that the referencing of the following books have been done in this slide
- I take responsibility for any mistakes in solving the problems. Readers are requested to rectify
when using the same
- I thank the following authors for making their books available for reference
R. Ganesh Narayanan
1. Vector Mechanics for Engineers Statics & Dynamics, Beer & Johnston; 7
th
edition
2. Engineering Mechanics Statics & Dynamics, Shames; 4
th
edition
3. Engineering Mechanics Statics Vol. 1, Engineering Mechanics Dynamics Vol. 2, Meriam &
Kraige; 5
th
edition
4. Schaums solved problems series Vol. 1: Statics; Vol. 2: Dynamics, Joseph F. Shelley
R. Ganesh Narayanan 3
Engineering mechanics
- Deals with effect of forces on objects
Mechanics principles used in vibration, spacecraft
design, fluid flow, electrical, mechanical m/c design
etc.
Statics: deals with effect of force on bodies which
are not moving
Dynamics: deals with force effect on moving bodies
We consider RIGID BODIES Non deformable
R. Ganesh Narayanan 4
Scalar quantity: Only magnitude; time, volume, speed,
density, mass
Vector quantity: Both direction and magnitude; Force,
displacement, velocity, acceleration, moment
V = IvI n, where IvI = magnitude, n = unit vector
n = V / IvI
n - dimensionless and in direction of vector V
In our course:
y
x
z
j
i
k
i, j, k unit vectors
R. Ganesh Narayanan 5
Dot product of vectors: A.B = AB cos ; A.B = B.A (commutative)
A.(B+C) = A.B+A.C (distributive operation)
A.B = (A
x
i+A
y
j+A
z
k).(B
x
i+B
y
j+B
z
k) = A
x
B
x
+A
y
B
y
+A
z
B
z
Cross product of vectors: A x B = C; ICI = IAI IBI Sin ; AxB = -(BxA)
C x (A+B) = C x A + C x B
i j k
A
B

i . i = 1
i . j = 0
k i
j
k x j = -i;
i x i = 0
AxB = (A
x
i+A
y
j+A
z
k)x(B
x
i+B
y
j+B
z
k) = (A
y
B
z
- A
z
B
y
)i+( )j+( )k
i j k
A
x
A
Y
A
Z
B
X
B
Y
B
Z
R. Ganesh Narayanan 6
Force:
- action of one body on another
- required force can move a body in the direction of action,
otherwise no effect
- some times plastic deformation, failure is possible
- Magnitude, direction, point of application; VECTOR
Force
< P kN
Force,
P kN
Direction of motion
Body moves
Body does
not move
P, kN
bulging
R. Ganesh Narayanan 7
Force system:

P
WIRE
Bracket
Magnitude, direction and point of application
is important
External effect: Forces applied (applied force); Forces exerted by
bracket, bolts, foundation.. (reactive force)
Internal effect: Deformation, strain pattern permanent strain;
depends on material properties of bracket, bolts
R. Ganesh Narayanan 8
Transmissibility principle:
A force may be applied at any point on a line of action
without changing the resultant effects of the force
applied external to rigid body on which it acts
Magnitude, direction and line of action is important; not
point of application
P P
Line of
action
R. Ganesh Narayanan 9
Concurrent force:
Forces are said to be concurrent at a point if their lines of
action intersect at that point
A
F1
F2
R
F1, F2 are concurrent forces
R will be on same plane
R = F1+F2
Plane
Parallelogram law of forces
Polygon law of forces
A
F1
F2
R
F2
F1
A
F1
F2
R
Use triangle law
A F1
R
F2
R does not
pass through A
R = F1+F2 R = F1+F2
R. Ganesh Narayanan 10
Two dimensional force system
Rectangular components:
Fx
Fy
j
i
F
F = Fx + Fy; both are vector components in x, y direction
Fx = fx i ; Fy = fy j; fx, fy are scalar quantities
Therefore, F = fx i + fy j
Fx = F cos ; Fy = F sin
F = fx
2
+ fy
2 ;
= tan
-1
(fy/fx)
+ ve
+ ve
- ve
- ve
R. Ganesh Narayanan 11
Two concurrent forces F1, F2
Rx = Fx; Ry = Fy
DERIVATION
F2
F1
R
i
j
R. Ganesh Narayanan 12
Moment: Tendency to rotate; torque
Moment about a point: M = Fd
Magnitude of moment is
proportional to the force F and
moment arm d i.e, perpendicular
distance from the axis of rotation
to the LOA of force
UNIT : N-m
Moment is perpendicular to plane about axis O-O
Counter CW = + ve; CW = -ve
B
A
F
d
r
O
O
M

R. Ganesh Narayanan 13
Cross product:
M = r x F; where r is the position vector which runs from
the moment reference point A to any point on the
LOA of F
M = Fr sin ; M = Fd
M = r x F = -(F x r): sense is important
B
A
d
r

Sin = d / r
R. Ganesh Narayanan 14
Varignons theorem:
The moment of a force about any point is equal to the
sum of the moments of the components of the forces
about the same point
o
Q
P
R
r
B M
o
= r x R = r x (P+Q) = r x P + r x Q
Moment of P
Moment of Q
Resultant R moment arm d
Force P moment arm p; Force Q moment arm q
M
o
= Rd = -pP + qQ
Concurrent forces P, Q
Usefulness:
R. Ganesh Narayanan 15
Pb:2/5 (Meriam / Kraige):
Calculate the magnitude of the moment
about O of the force 600 N
1) Mo = 600 cos 40 (4) + 600 sin 40 (2)
= 2610 Nm (app.)
2) Mo = r x F = (2i + 4j) x (600cos40i-600sin40j)
= -771.34-1839 = 2609.85 Nm (CW);
mag = 2610 Nm
o
600N 4
2
A
in mm
40 deg
r
i
j
R. Ganesh Narayanan 16
Couple: Moment produced by two equal, opposite and
non-collinear forces
-F
+F
a
d
o
=>-F and F produces rotation
=>Mo = F (a+d) Fa = Fd;
Perpendicular to plane
Independent of distance from o,
depends on d only
moment is same for all moment
centers
M
R. Ganesh Narayanan 17
Vector algebra method
-F
+F
o
rb
ra
r
M = ra x F + rb x (-F) = (ra-rb) x F = r x F
CCW
Couple
CW
Couple
Equivalent couples
Changing the F and d values does not change a given couple
as long as the product (Fd) remains same
Changing the plane will not alter couple as long as it is parallel
R. Ganesh Narayanan 18
M
-F
+F
d
M
-F
+F
d
M
-F
+F
d
-2F
d/2 +2F
M
EXAMPLE
All four are equivalent couples
R. Ganesh Narayanan 19
Force-couple system
=>Effect of force is two fold 1) to push or pull, 2)
rotate the body about any axis
Dual effect can be represented by a force-couple
syatem
a force can be replaced by a force and couple
F
A
B
F
A
B
F
-F
B
F
M = Fd
R. Ganesh Narayanan 20
o
80N
o
80N
80 N
80 N o
80 N
Mo = Y N m
60deg
9 m
Mo = 80 (9 sin 60) = 624 N m; CCW
EXAMPLE
9
60 deg
R. Ganesh Narayanan 21
Resultants
To describe the resultant action of a group or system of forces
Resultant: simplest force combination which replace the original
forces without altering the external effect on the body to which
the forces are applied
R
R = F1+F2+F3+.. = F
Rx = Fx; Ry = Fy; R = ( Fx)
2
+ ( Fy)
2
= tan
-1
(Ry/Rx)
R. Ganesh Narayanan 22
F1
F2
F3
F1 D1; F2 D2; F3 D3
F1
F2
F3
M1 = F1d1;
M2 = F2d2;
M3 = F3d3
R= F
Mo= Fd
NON-CONCURRENT FORCES
R
d
Mo=Rd
How to obtain resultant force ?
R. Ganesh Narayanan 23
Principle of moments
Summarize the above process: R = F
Mo = M = (Fd)
Mo = Rd
First two equations: reduce the system of forces to a force-couple
system at some point O
Third equation: distance d from point O to the line of action R
=> VARIGNONS THEOREM IS EXTENDED HERE FOR NON-
CONCURENT FORCES
R= F
Mo= Fd
R
d
Mo=Rd
R. Ganesh Narayanan 24
STATICS MID SEMESTER DYNAMICS
Tutorial: Monday 8 am to 8.55 am
1. Vector Mechanics for Engineers Statics & Dynamics, Beer & Johnston; 7
th
edition
2. Engineering Mechanics Statics & Dynamics, Shames; 4
th
edition
3. Engineering Mechanics Statics Vol. 1, Engineering Mechanics Dynamics Vol. 2,
Meriam & Kraige; 5
th
edition
4. Schaums solved problems series Vol. 1: Statics; Vol. 2: Dynamics, Joseph F. Shelley
Reference books
R. Ganesh Narayanan 25
ENGINEERING MECHANICS
TUTORIAL CLASS: Monday 8 AM TO 8.55 AM
07010605 (5 Students) 07010601
Dr. Saravana Kumar 1205 07010449 (36 Students) 07010414 TG5
07010413 (13 Students) 07010401
Dr. M. Pandey 1202 07010353 (28 Students) 07010326 TG4
07010325 (25 Students) 07010301
R. Ganesh Narayanan 1G2 07010249 (16 Students) 07010234 TG3
07010233 (33 Students) 07010201
Dr. senthilvelan 1G1 07010149 (8 Students) 07010142 TG2
Prof. R. Tiwari L2 07010141 (41 Students) 07010101 TG1
To From
Tutors Class Room Roll Numbers Tutorial Groups
LECTURE CLASSES: LT2 (one will be optional):
Monday 3 pm to 3.55 pm
Tuesday 2 pm to 2.55 pm
Thursday 5 pm to 5.55 pm
Friday 4 pm to 4.55 pm
R. Ganesh Narayanan 26
Three dimensional force system
Rectangular components
Fx = F cos x; Fy = F cos y; Fz = F cos z
F = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k
= F (i cos x + j cos y + k cos z) = F (l i + m j + n k)
F = F nf
o
Fx i
Fy j
Fz k
F
z
x
y
l, m, n are directional cosines of F
R. Ganesh Narayanan 27
F
r
Mo
d

A
A - a plane in 3D structure
Mo = F d (TEDIOUS to find d)
or Mo = r x F = (F x r) (BETTER)
Evaluating the cross product
Described in determinant form:
i j k
r
x
r
Y
r
Z
F
X
F
Y
F
Z
Moment in 3D
Expanding
R. Ganesh Narayanan 28
Mo = (ryFz - rzFy) i + (rzFx rxFz) j + (rxFy ryFx) k
Mx = ryFz rzFy; My = rzFx rxFz; Mz = rxFy ryFx
Moment about any arbitrary axis :
F
r
Mo
n
o

## Magnitude of the moment M

of F about
= Mo . n (scalar reprn.)
Similarly, M

## = (r x F.n) n (vector reprn.)

Scalar triple product
rx ry rz
F
x
F
Y
F
Z

, , DCs of n
R. Ganesh Narayanan 29
Varignons theorem in 3D
o F1
F3
F2
r
B
Mo = rxF1 + rxF2 + rx F3 += (r x F)
= r x (F1+F2+F3+)
= r x (F) = r x R
Couples in 3D
B
M
A
r
ra
rb
d
-F
+F
M = ra x F + rb x F = (ra-
rb) x F = rxF
R. Ganesh Narayanan 30
Beer-Johnston; 2.3
F1 = 150N
30
F4 = 100N
15
F3 = 110N
F2 = 80N
20
Evaluate components of F1, F2, F3, F4
Rx = Fx; Ry = Fy
R = Rx i + Ry j
= tan
-1
(Ry/Rx)
Ry
Rx
R

## R = 199i + 14.3j; = 4.1 deg

2D force system; equ. Force-couple; principle of
moments
R. Ganesh Narayanan 31
F1
F2 R =3000 N
30 DEG
45 DEG
15 DEG
Find F1 and F2
3000 (cos15i sin 15j) = F1 (cos 30i Sin 30j)+ F2 (cos45i sin 45j)
EQUATING THE COMPONENTS OF VECTOR,
F1 = 2690 N; F2 = 804 N
R = F1 + F2
Boat
R. Ganesh Narayanan 32
o
A
B
20 DEG
C
OC FLAG POLE
OAB LIGHT FRAME
D POWER WINCH
D
780 N
Find the moment Mo of 780 N
about the hinge point
10m
10
10
T = -780 COS20 i 780 sin20 j
= -732.9 i 266.8 j
r = OA = 10 cos 60 i + 10 sin 60 j = 5 i + 8.6 j
Mo = r x F = 5014 k ; Mag = 5014 Nm
Meriam / kraige; 2/37
R. Ganesh Narayanan 33
Meriam / kraige; 2/6
Replace couple 1 by eq. couple p, -p; find
M = 100 (0.1) = 10 Nm (CCW)
M = 400 (0.04) cos
10 = 400 (0.04) cos
=> = 51.3 deg
M
P
-P
40
100
100
100
100N
100N
60

1
2
1
2
R. Ganesh Narayanan 34
80N
30 deg
60 N
40 N
50 N
2m
5m
45
2m
2m
1m
o
140Nm
Find the resultant of four forces and one
couple which act on the plate
Rx = 40+80cos30-60cos45 = 66.9 N
Ry = 50+80sin 30+60cos45 = 132.4 N
R = 148.3 N; = tan
-1
(132.4/66.9) = 63.2 deg
Mo = 140-50(5)+60cos45(4)-60sin45(7) = -237 Nm
o
R = 148.3N
63.2 deg
237 Nm
o
R = 148.3N
63.2 deg
148.3 d = 237; d = 1.6 m Final LOA of R:
o
R = 148.3N
b
x
y
(Xi + yj) x (66.9i+132.4j) = -237k
(132.4 x 66.9 y)k = -237k
132.4 x -66.9 y = -237
Y = 0 => x = b = -1.792 m
Meriam / kraige; 2/8
LOA of R with x-axis:
R. Ganesh Narayanan 35
Couples in 3D
B
M
A
r
ra
rb
d
-F
+F
M = ra x F + rb x F = (ra-
rb) x F = rxF
F
A
B
F
M = Fd
F
A
B
F
-F
r
B
Equivalent couples
R. Ganesh Narayanan 36
How to find resultant ?
R = F = F1+F2+F3+
Mo = M = M1+M2+M3+= (rxF)
M = Mx
2
+ My
2
+ Mz
2;
R = Fx
2
+ Fy
2
+ Fz
2
Mx = ; My = ; Mz =
R. Ganesh Narayanan 37
Equilibrium
Body in equilibrium - necessary & sufficient condition:
R = F = 0; M = M = 0
Equilibrium in 2D
Mechanical system: body or group of bodies which can be conceptually
isolated from all other bodies
System: single body, combination of bodies; rigid or non-rigid;
combination of fluids and solids
Free body diagram - FBD:
=> Body to be analyzed is isolated; Forces acting on the body are
represented action of one body on other, gravity attraction,
magnetic force etc.
=> After FBD, equilibrium equns. can be formed
R. Ganesh Narayanan 38
Modeling the action of forces
Meriam/Kraige
Imp
Imp
R. Ganesh Narayanan 39
FBD - Examples
Meriam/Kraige
Equilibrium equns. Can be
solved,
Some forces can be zero
Assumed sign can be
different
R. Ganesh Narayanan 40
Types of 2D equilibrium
x
F1
F2
F3
Collinear: Fx = 0 F1
F2
F3
F4
Parallel: Fx = 0; Mz = 0
F1
F2
F3
F4
X
Y
Concurrent at a point: Fx = 0; Fy = 0
X
Y
M
General: Fx = 0; Fy = 0; Mz = 0
R. Ganesh Narayanan 41
General equilibrium conditions
Fx = 0; Fy = 0; Fz = 0
Mx = 0; My = 0; Mz = 0
These equations can be used to solve unknown forces,
reactions applied to rigid body
For a rigid body in equilibrium, the system of external forces will
impart no translational, rotational motion to the body
Necessary and sufficient equilibrium conditions
R. Ganesh Narayanan 42
Written in three alternate ways,
A
B
C
D
P
Y
P
x
Q
Y
Q
x
R
Y
R
x
W
B
Y
A
X
A
Y
M
B
= 0 => will not provide new information; used to check the
solution; To find only three unknowns
A B
C
D
P Q R
Roller Pin
Fx = 0; Fy = 0; M
A
= 0
I
R. Ganesh Narayanan 43
Fx = 0; M
A
= 0; M
B
= 0
II
Point B can not lie on the line that passes through point A
First two equ. indicate that the ext. forces reduced to a single vertical force at A
Third eqn. (M
B
= 0) says this force must be zero
Rigid body in equilibrium =>
M
A
= 0; M
B
= 0; Mc = 0;
III
Body is statically indeterminate: more unknown reactions than
independent equilibrium equations
R. Ganesh Narayanan 44
Meriam / Kraige; 2/10
z
x
12 m
9
B
O
A
15
T = 10kN
Y
Find the moment Mz of T about the z-axis passing
thro the base O
3D force system
R. Ganesh Narayanan 45
F = T = ITI n
AB
= 10 [12i-15j+9k/21.21] = 10(0.566i-0.707j+0.424k) k N
Mo = rxF = 15j x 10(0.566i-0.707j+0.424k) = 150 (-0.566k+0.424i) k Nm
Mz = Mo.k= 150 (-0.566k+0.424i).k = -84.9 kN. m
R. Ganesh Narayanan 46
Merial / Kraige; 2/117
Replace the 750N tensile force which the cable exerts on point B by a force-
couple system at point O
R. Ganesh Narayanan 47
F = f , where is unit vector along BC
= (750) BC/IBCI = 750 (-1.6i+1.1j+0.5k/2.005)
F = -599i+412j+188.5k
r
ob
= OB = 1.6i-0.4j+0.8k
Mo = rob x F
= (1.6i-0.4j+0.7k) x (-599i+412j+188.5k)
Mo = - 363i-720j+419.2k
R. Ganesh Narayanan 48
Meriem / Kraige; 3/4
M
A
= (T cos 25) (0.25) + (T sin 25) (5-0.12)
10(5-1.5-0.12) 4.66 (2.5-0.12) = 0
T = 19.6 kN
T
25 deg
y
Ax
Ay
10 kN
0.5 m
4.66 kN
5m
1.5m
0.12 m
Fx = Ax 19.6 cos 25 = 0
Ax = 17.7 kN
Fy = Ay+19.61 sin 25-4.66-10 = 0
Ay = 6.37 kN
A = Ax
2
+ Ay
2
= 18.88kN
2D equilibrium
Find T and force at A; I-beam with mass of 95
kg/meter of length
95 kg/meter => 95(10
-3
)(5)(9.81) = 4.66kN
R. Ganesh Narayanan 49
A
B
40 50
30 10
60
60
a 80
mm, N
Beer/Johnston; 4.5
Find reactions at A, B if (a) a = 100 mm; (b)
a=70 mm
40
50 30 10
Bx
By
Ay
a = 100 mm
Ma = 0 => (-40x60)+(-50x120)+(-30x220)+
(-10x300)+(-Byx120) = 0
By = 150 N
Fy = 0 => By-Ay-40-50-30-10 = 0
= 150-Ay-130 = 0 => Ay = 20 N
a = 70 mm
By = 140 N Ay = 10 N
R. Ganesh Narayanan 50
A B
20 20 20 20
C
2.25
3.75
E
D
4.5
F
1.8
A B
20 20 20 20
C
2.25
3.75
E
D
4.5
F
1.8
150 kN
Ex
Ey
Find the reaction at the fixed end
E
DF = 7.5 m
Fx = Ex + 150 (4.5/7.5) = 0 => Ex = - 90 kN (sign change)
Fy = Ey 4(20)-150 (6/7.5) = 0 => Ey = 200 kN
M
E
= 20 (7.2) + 20 (5.4) + 20 (3.6) +20 (1.8) (6/7.5) (150) (4.5) +
M
E
= 0
M
E
= +180 kN.m => ccw
M
E
Beer/Johnston; 4.4
R. Ganesh Narayanan 51
Instructions for TUTORIAL
Bring pen, pencil, tagged A4 sheets, calculator, text books
Submitted in same tutorial class
Solve div II tutorial problems also
Solve more problems as home work
Tutorial : 10 % contribution in grading
Do not miss any tutorial class
QUIZ 1 FEB, 11
TH
, 2008
R. Ganesh Narayanan 52
3D equilibrium
3D equilibrium equns. can be written in scalar and vector form
F = 0 (or) F
X
= 0; F
Y
= 0; F
Z
= 0
M = 0 (or) M
X
= 0; M
Y
= 0; M
Z
= 0
F = 0 => Only if the coefficients of i, j, k are zero; F
X
= 0
M = 0 => Only if the coefficients of i, j, k are zero; M
X
= 0
R. Ganesh Narayanan 53
Modeling forces in 3D
R. Ganesh Narayanan 54
Types of 3D equilibrium
R. Ganesh Narayanan 55
Meriem / Kraige
B
A
7 m
6 m
2 m
y
x
z
By
Bx
G
W=mg=200 x 9.81
W = 1962 N
Ay
Az
Ax
h
3.5
3.5
7 = 2
2
+ 6
2
+ h
2
=> h = 3 m
r
AG
= -1i-3j+1.5k m; r
AB
= -2i-6j+3k m
M
A
= 0 => rAB x (Bx+By) + rAG x W = 0
(-2i-6j+3k) x (Bx i + By j) + (-i-3j+1.5k) x (-1962k) = 0
(-3By+5886)i + (3Bx-1962)j + (-2By+6Bx)k = 0
=> By = 1962 N; Bx = 654 N
F = 0 => (654-Ax) i + (1962-Ay) j + (-1962+Az)k = 0
=> Ax = 654 N; Ay = 1963 N; Az = 1962 N; find A
R. Ganesh Narayanan 56
Meriem / Kraige; 3/64
R. Ganesh Narayanan 57
I.H. Shames
Find forces at A, B, D. Pin connection at C; E has welded connection
R. Ganesh Narayanan 58
F.B.D. - 1
F.B.D. - 2
Mc = 0 => (Dy) (15) 200 (15) (15/2)
(1/2)(15)(300)[2/3 (15)] = 0
Dy = 3000 N
F.B.D. - 2
R. Ganesh Narayanan 59
F.B.D. - 1
MB = 0 => -Ay (13) +(3000) (21) 200
(34) (34/2-13) (300) (15) [6+2/3(15)]
= 0
Ay = -15.4 N
Fy = 0 => Ay+By+3000-200(34)-
(1/2)(300)(15) = 0
Sub. Ay here,
=> By = 6065 N
R. Ganesh Narayanan 60
2D, 3D force system
Rectangular components
Moment
Varignons theorem
Couple
Force-couple system
Resultant
Principle of moment
Equilibrium equations
Fx = 0; Fy = 0; M
A
= 0
Fx = 0; M
A
= 0; M
B
= 0
M
A
= 0; M
B
= 0; Mc = 0
2D
F = 0 (or) F
X
= 0; F
Y
= 0; F
Z
= 0
M = 0 (or) M
X
= 0; M
Y
= 0; M
Z
= 0
3D
R. Ganesh Narayanan 61
Structures
Truss: Framework composed of members joined at their ends to form a rigid
structures
Plane truss: Members of truss lie in same plane
Bridge truss
Roof truss
R. Ganesh Narayanan 62
Three bars joined with pins at end
Rigid bars and non-collapsible
Deformation due to induced internal strains is negligible
B D
C
A
Non-rigid
rigid
E
Non rigid body can be made rigid by
adding BC, DE, CE elements
B
C
D
A
A
B
c
R. Ganesh Narayanan 63
Instructions for TUTORIAL
Bring pen, pencil, tagged A4 sheets, calculator, text books
Submitted in same tutorial class
Solve div II tutorial problems also
Solve more problems as home work
Tutorial : 10 % contribution in grading
Do not miss any tutorial class
QUIZ 1 FEB, 11
TH
, 2008
R. Ganesh Narayanan 64
Structures
Truss: Framework composed of members joined at their ends to form a rigid
structures
Plane truss: Members of truss lie in same plane
Bridge truss
Roof truss
R. Ganesh Narayanan 65
Three bars joined with pins at end
Rigid bars and non-collapsible
Deformation due to induced internal strains is negligible
Non rigid body can be made rigid by
adding BC, DE, CE elements
B D
C
A
Non-rigid
rigid
E
B
C
D
A
A
B
c
Simple truss: structures built from basic triangle
More members are present to prevent collapsing => statically indeterminate truss;
they can not be analyzed by equilibrium equations
Additional members not necessary for maintaining equilibrium - redundant
R. Ganesh Narayanan 66
In designing simples truss or truss => assumptions are followed
1. Two force members equilibrium only in two forces; either tension or compression
2. Each member is a straight link joining two points of application of force
3. Two forces are applied at the end; they are equal, opposite and collinear for
equilibrium
4. Newtons third law is followed for each joint
5. Weight can be included; effect of bending is not accepted
6. External forces are applied only in pin connections
7. Roller or rocker is also provided at joints to allow expansion and contraction due to
temperature changes and deformation for applied loads
T
T
c
c weight
TWO FORCE MEMBERS
R. Ganesh Narayanan 67
Method of joints
This method consists of satisfying the conditions of equilibrium for the
forces acting on the connecting pin of each joint
This method deals with equilibrium of concurrent forces and only two
independent equilibrium equations are solved
Newtons third law is followed
Two methods to analyze force in simple truss
R. Ganesh Narayanan 68
Example
A
B
C
D
E
F
L
Fy = 0; Fx = 0
Finally sign can be changed if
not applied correctly
R. Ganesh Narayanan 69
Internal and external redundancy
external redundancy: If a plane truss has more supports than are necessary to
ensure a stable equilibrium, the extra supports constitute external redundancy
Internal redundancy: More internal members than are necessary to prevent collapse,
the extra members constitute internal redundancy
Condition for statically determinate truss: m + 3 = 2j
- Equilibrium of each joint can be specified by two scalar force equations, then 2j
equations are present for a truss with j joints
-The entire truss composed of m two force members and having the maximum of
three unknown support reactions, there are (m + 3) unknowns
j no. of joints; m no. of members
m + 3 > 2 j =>more members than independent equations; statically
indeterminate
m + 3 < 2 j => deficiency of internal members; truss is unstable
R. Ganesh Narayanan 70
A
C
E
F
D
B
1000
10
10
10
10
1000
I. H. Shames
Determine the force transmitted by each member;
A, F = 1000 N
Pin A
F
AB
F
AC
1000
A
Fx = 0 =>F
AC
0.707F
AB
= 0
Fy = 0 => -0.707F
AB
+1000 = 0
F
AB
= 1414 N; F
AC
= 1000 N
Pin B
B
F
BC
1414
F
BD
Fx = 0 => -F
BD
+ 1414COS45 = 0 => F
BD
= 1000 N
Fy = 0 => -F
BC
+1414 COS45 = 0 => F
BC
= 1000 N
1000
F
AC
F
AB
1414
F
BC
F
BD
R. Ganesh Narayanan 71
Pin C
B
1000
1000
F
CE
F
DC
1000
1000
1000
1000
F
DC
F
CE
Fx = 0 => -1000 + F
CE
+ F
DC
COS 45 = 0 => F
CE
= 1000 N
Fy = 0 => -1000+1000+ F
DC
COS 45 = 0 => F
DC
= 0
SIMILARLY D, E, F pins are solved
R. Ganesh Narayanan 72
B D
A
C
E
30 20
5 5
5
5 5
5 5
kN, m
Find the force in each member of the loaded
cantilever truss by method of joints
Meriem / Kraige (similar pbm. 6.1 in Beer/Johnston)
R. Ganesh Narayanan 73
ME = 0 => 5T-20(5)-30 (10) = 0; T = 80 kN
Fx = 0 => 80 cos 30 Ex = 0; Ex = 69.28 kN
Fy = 0 => Ey +80sin30-20-30 = 0 => Ey = 10kN
Fx = 0; Fy = 0
Find AB, AC forces
Fx = 0; Fy = 0
Find BC, BD forces
Fx = 0; Fy = 0
Find CD, CE forces
Fy = 0
Find DE forces
Fx = 0 can be checked
FBD of entire truss
FBD of joints
R. Ganesh Narayanan 74
Q = 100 N; smooth surfaces; Find
reactions at A, B, C
Q
Q
A
B
30
c
roller
100
100
R
A
Rc
roller
R
B
F = 0 => (-R
A
cos 60 - R
B
cos 60 + R
c
) i + (-2 x 100 + R
B
sin 60 + R
A
sin 60) j = 0
R
C
= (R
A
+ R
B
)/2
R
B
+ R
A
= 230.94
R
C
= 115.5 N
R
B
100
Rc
R
AB
30
F = 0 => (-R
AB
cos 30 - R
B
cos 60 + R
c
) i + (R
B
Sin 60 100 - R
AB
sin 30) j = 0
0.866 R
AB
+ 0.5 R
B
= 115.5; -0.5 R
AB
+ 0.866 R
B
= 100
R
AB
= 50 N (app.); R
B
= 144.4 N; R
A
= 230.94-144.4 = 86.5 N
R. Ganesh Narayanan 75
Method of joints
This method consists of satisfying the conditions of equilibrium for the
forces acting on the connecting pin of each joint
This method deals with equilibrium of concurrent forces and only two
independent equilibrium equations are solved
Newtons third law is followed
Two methods to analyze force in plane truss
Method of sections
R. Ganesh Narayanan 76
Methodology for method of joints
A
B
C
D
E
F
L
Fy = 0; Fx = 0
Finally sign can be changed if
not applied correctly
R. Ganesh Narayanan 77
5 B D
A
C
E
30 20
5 5
5 5
5 5
kN, m
R. Ganesh Narayanan 78
Method of sections
In method of joints, we need only two equilibrium equations, as we
deal with concurrent force system
In method of sections, we will consider three equilibrium
equations, including one moment equilibrium eqn.
force in almost any desired member can be obtained directly from
an analysis of a section which has cut the member
Not necessary to proceed from joint to joint
Not more than three members whose forces are unknown should
be cut. Only three independent equilibrium eqns. are present
Efficiently find limited information
R. Ganesh Narayanan 79
A
B
C
D
E
F
L
The external forces are obtained initially from method of joints, by
considering truss as a whole
Assume we need to find force in BE, then entire truss has to be
sectioned across FE, BE, BC as shown in figure; we have only 3
equilibrium equns.
AA section across FE, BE, BC; Forces in these members are
initially unknown
A
B
C
D
E
F
L
R
1 R
2
A
A
Methodology for method of sections
R. Ganesh Narayanan 80
Now each section will apply opposite forces on each other
The LHS is in equilibrium with R1, L, three forces exerted on the cut
members (EF, BE, BC) by the RHS which has been removed
IN this method the initial direction of forces is decided by moment about
any point where known forces are present
For eg., take moment about point B for the LHS, this will give BE, BC to
be zero; Then moment by EF should be opposite to moment by R1;
Hence EF should be towards left hand side - compressive
Section 1 Section 2
R. Ganesh Narayanan 81
Now take moment about F => BE should be opposite to R1
moment; Hence BE must be up and to the right; So BE is tensile
Now depending on the magnitudes of known forces, BC direction
has to be decided, which in this case is outwards i.e., tensile
M
B
= 0 => FORCE IN EF; BE, BC = 0
Fy = 0 => FORCE IN BE; BC, EF = 0
M
E
= 0 => FORCE IN BC; EF, BE = 0
Section 1 Section 2
R. Ganesh Narayanan 82
Section AA and BB are
possible
convenient
R. Ganesh Narayanan 83
Important points
IN method of sections, an entire portion of the truss is considered a
single body in equilibrium
Force in members internal to the section are not involved in the
analysis of the section as a whole
The cutting section is preferably passed through members and not
through joints
Either portion of the truss can be used, but the one with smaller
number of forces will yield a simpler solution
Method sections and method of joints can be combined
Moment center can be selected through which many unknown forces
pass through
Positive force value will sense the initial assumption of force direction
R. Ganesh Narayanan 84
Meriem/Kraige
Find the forces included in members KL,
CL, CB by the 20 ton load on the cantilever
truss
Section 1 Section 2
x
Moment abt. L => CB is compressive => creates CW moment
Moment abt. C => KL is tensile => creates CW moment
CL is assumed to be compressive
y
KL
20 T
C CB
CL
G
P
L
K
R. Ganesh Narayanan 85
y
KL
20 T
C CB
CL
G
P
L
K
x
Section 1 Section 2
M
L
= 0 => 20 (5) (12)- CB (21) = 0 => CB = 57.1 t (C)
Mc = 0 => 20 (4)(12) 12/13 (KL) (16) = 0; KL = 65 t (T)
Mp = 0 => find PC distance and find CL; CL = 5.76 t (C)
BL = 16 + (26-16)/2 = 12 ft
= tan
-1
(5/12) => cos = 12/13

R. Ganesh Narayanan 86
Meriem/Kraige
Find the force in member DJ of the truss
shown. Neglect the horizontal force in
supports
Section 2 cuts four members, but we have only
3 equi. Equns
Hence consider section 1 which cuts only 3
members CD, CJ, KJ
Consider FBD for whole truss and find
reaction at A
MG = -Ay (24) +(10) (20) + 10(16) + 10
(8) = 0
Ay = 18. 3 kN => creates CW moment
Force direction
Moment abt. A => CD, JK Eliminated; CJ will be upwards creating CCW moment
Moment abt. C => JK must be towards right creating CCW moment
ASSUME CD TO HAVE TENSILE FORCE
R. Ganesh Narayanan 87
MA = 0 => CJ (12) (0.707) 10 (4) -10( 8) =0; CJ = 14.14 Kn
MJ = 0 => 0.894 (CD) (6) +18.33 (12)-10(4)-10(8) = 0; CD = -18.7 kN
CD direction is changed
From section 1 FBD
From section 2 FBD
MG = 0 => 12 DJ +10(16)+10(20)-18.3 (24)-
14.14 (0.707)(12) = 0
DJ = 16.7 kN
R. Ganesh Narayanan 88
I.H. Shames
FBD - 1
FBD - 2
From FBD-2
MB = 0 => -(10)(500)+30 (789)- F
AC
Sin 30 (30) = 0
F
AC
= 1244.67 N
From FBD -1
Fx = 0 => F
DA
Cos 30 (1244.67) cos 30 1000 sin 30 = 0 ;
F
DA
= 1822 N
Fy = 0 => (1822)Sin 30 + (1244.67) sin 30 +F
AB
1000 Cos 30 = 0; F
AB
= -667 N
R. Ganesh Narayanan 89
Frames and machines
Multi force members: Members on which three or more forces acting
on it (or) one with two or more forces and one or more couples acting
on it
Frame or machine: At least one of its member is multi force member
Frame: Structures which are designed to support applied loads and
are fixed in position
Machine: Structure which contain moving parts and are designed to
transmit input forces or couples to output forces or couples
Frames and machines contain multi force members, the forces in
these members will not be in directions of members
Method of joints and sections are not applicable
R. Ganesh Narayanan 90
Inter-connected rigid bodies with multi force members
Previously we have seen equilibrium of single rigid bodies
Now we have equilibrium of inter-connected members which
involves multi force members
Isolate members with FBD and applying the equilibrium equations
Principle of action and reaction should be remembered
Statically determinate structures will be studied
R. Ganesh Narayanan 91
Force representation and FBD
Representing force by rectangular components
Calculation of moment arms will be simplified
Proper sense of force is necessary; Some times arbitrary assignment
is done; Final force answer will yield correct force direction
Force direction should be consistently followed
R. Ganesh Narayanan 92
Frames and machines
Multi force members: Members on which three or more forces acting
on it (or) one with two or more forces and one or more couples acting
on it
Frame or machine: At least one of its member is multi force member
Frame: Structures which are designed to support applied loads and
are fixed in position
Machine: Structure which contain moving parts and are designed to
transmit input forces or couples to output forces or couples
Frames and machines contain multi force members, the forces in
these members will not be in directions of members
Method of joints and sections are not applicable
R. Ganesh Narayanan 93
Inter-connected rigid bodies with multi force members
Previously we have seen equilibrium of single rigid bodies
Now we have equilibrium of inter-connected members which
involves multi force members
Isolate members with FBD and applying the equilibrium equations
Principle of action and reaction should be remembered
Statically determinate structures will be studied
R. Ganesh Narayanan 94
Force representation and FBD
Representing force by rectangular components
Calculation of moment arms will be simplified
Proper sense of force is necessary; Some times arbitrary assignment
is done; Final force answer will yield correct force direction
Force direction should be consistently followed
R. Ganesh Narayanan 95
AF
AE
BD
Full truss
K, J are un-necessary
here
R. Ganesh Narayanan 96
Meriem/Kraige
A
B
C
D
E
F
30 lb
50 lb
12
12
30 ft
20 ft
20 ft
Find the forces in all the frames;
neglect weight of each member
Ax
Ay
50 lb
30 lb
Cx
Cy
Mc = 0 => 50 (12) +30(40)-30 (Ay) = 0; Ay = 60 lb
Fy = 0 => Cy 50 (4/5) 60 = 0 => Cy = 100 lb
FBD of full frame
R. Ganesh Narayanan 97
ED:
MD = 0 => 50(12)-12E = 0 => E = 50 lb
F = 0 => D-50-50 = 0 => D= 100 lb
(components will be eliminated)
EF: Two force member; E, F are
compressive
EF: F = 50 lb (opposite and equal to E)
AB:
MA = 0 => 50(3/5)(20)-Bx (40) = 0 => Bx = 15 lb
Fx = 0 => Ax+15-50(3/5) = 0 => Ax = 15 lb
Fy = 0 => 50 (4/5)-60-By = 0 =>By = -20 lb
BC: Fx = 0 => 30 +100 (3/5)-15-Cx = 0 => Cx = 75 lb
FBD of individual members
D
Fx = -50 (cos 53.1)+15+15 = -30+15+15 = 0
F
Fx
Fy
53.1 deg
E
R. Ganesh Narayanan 98
A
B
C
E
D
60
100
150
480 N
160
60
80
Find the force in link DE and components of
forces exerted at C on member BCD
A
B
C
E
D
100
150
480 N
160
Ax
Ay
Bx
80

## Fy = 0 => Ay-480 = 0 =>Ay = 480 N

MA = 0 => Bx (160)-480 (100) = 0 => Bx = 300 N
Fx = 0 => 300+Ax = 0 => Ax = -300 N
FBD of full frame
= tan
-1
(80/150) = 28.07 deg
R. Ganesh Narayanan 99
FBD of BCD
B
C
D
480 N
300
Cx
Cy
F
DE
Mc = 0 => -F
DE
sin 28.07 (250) 300(80)-480 (100) = 0; F
DE
= -561 N
Fx = 0 => Cx (-561) cos 28.07 +300 = 0 => Cx = -795 N
Fy = 0 => Cy (-561) sin 28.07 480 = 0 => Cy = 216 N

E
D
F
DE
F
DE
DE: Two force member
D
F
DE
A
E
Ax
Ay
F
DE
Cy
Cx
FBD of AE
FBD of DE
R. Ganesh Narayanan 100
A
B
C
D
E
F
400 kg
3m
2m
1.5m
0.5m
1.5m
1.5m
R =0.5 m
Find the horizontal and vertical
components of all the forces; neglect
weight of each member
Meriem/Kraige
FBD of full frame
Ay
Ax
0.4 x 9.81 = 3.92
MA = 0 => 5.5 (-0.4) (9.81) + 5Dx = 0 => Dx = 4.32 kN
Fx = 0 => -Ax + 4.32 = 0 => Ax = 4.32 kN
Fy = 0 => Ay 3.92 = 0 => Ay = 3.92 kN
Dx
R. Ganesh Narayanan 101
FBD of individual members
3.92
4.32
3.92
Bx
By
4.32
Cx
Cy
A
D
3.92
3.92
3.92
3.92
F
C
E
Cx
Cy
Ex
Ey
E
Ey
Ex
Bx
By
B
3.92
3.92
A
B
C
D
E
F
400 kg
3m
2m
1.5m
0.5m
1.5m
1.5m
R =0.5 m
Apply equilibrium equn. And solve for
forces
R. Ganesh Narayanan 102
Machines
Machines are structures designed to transmit and modify forces. Their main purpose
is to transform input forces into output forces.
Given the magnitude of P, determine the
magnitude of Q.
Taking moments about A,
P
b
a
Q bQ aP M
A
= = =

0
R. Ganesh Narayanan 103
Center of mass & center of gravity
A B
C
W
G
A
B
C
W
G
W
G
A
B
C
G
Body of mass m
Body at equilibrium w.r.t. forces in the cord and resultant of gravitational
forces at all particles W
W is collinear with point A
Changing the point of hanging to B, C Same effect
All practical purposes, LOA coincides with G; G center of gravity
BODY
R. Ganesh Narayanan 104
dw
G
w
z
Y
X
Moment abt. Y axis = dw (x)
Sum of moments for small regions through out the
body: x dw
Moment of w force with Y axis = w x
x dw = w x
Sum of moments Moment of the sum
W = mg
r
r
X = ( x dm) / m
X = ( x dw) / w Y = ( y dw) / w Z = ( z dw) / w
Y = ( y dm) / m Z = ( z dm) / m
1
2
R. Ganesh Narayanan 105
r = ( r dm) / m
In vector form,
= m/V; dm = dv
X = ( x dv) / dv
Y = ( y dv) / dv
Z = ( z dv) / dv
= not constant through out
body
3
4
Equns 2, 3, 4 are independent of g; They depend only on mass distribution;
This define a co-ordinate point center of mass
This is same as center of gravity as long as gravitational field is uniform and parallel
R. Ganesh Narayanan 106
Centroids of lines, areas, volumes
X = ( x
c
dv) / v Y = ( y
c
dv) / v Z = ( z
c
dv) / v
Suppose if density is constant, then the expression define a purely
geometrical property of the body; It is called as centroid
Centroid of volume
X = ( x dA) / A Y = ( y dA) / A Z = ( z dA) / A
Centroid of area
X = ( x dL) / L Y = ( y dL) / L Z = ( z dL) / L
Centroid of line
R. Ganesh Narayanan 107
x
y
h
x
y
dy
Find the y-coordinate of centroid of the triangular area
AY = y dA
b h (y) = y (x dy) = y [b (h-y) / h] dy = b h
2
/ 6
b
X / (h-y) = b/h
0
h
0
h
Y = h / 3
R. Ganesh Narayanan 108
Beams
Structural members which offer resistance to bending due to
applied loads
Reactions at beam supports are determinate if they involve only three
unknowns. Otherwise, they are statically indeterminate
R. Ganesh Narayanan 109
External effects in beams
Reaction due to supports, distributed load, concentrated loads
Internal effects in beams
Shear, bending, torsion of beams
v
v
M M
SHEAR
BENDING TORSION
R. Ganesh Narayanan 110
Cx
W
D
E
B
C
F
G
A
SECTION - J
F
D
J
T
V
M
V SHEAR FORCE
F AXIAL FORCE
M BENDING MOMENT AT J
T
D
Cy
F
BE
A
X
A
Y
J
A
A
J
F
V
M
Internal forces in beam
compression
Tension
R. Ganesh Narayanan 111
Shear force and bending moment in beam
To determine bending moment and shearing
force at any point in a beam subjected to
concentrated and distributed loads.
1. Determine reactions at supports by
treating whole beam as free-body
FINDING REACTION FORCES AT A AND B
R. Ganesh Narayanan 112
2. SECTION beam at C and draw free-body
diagrams for AC and CB. By definition,
positive sense for internal force-couple
systems are as shown.
DIRECTION OF V AND M
SECTION C
SECTION C
SECTION C
+ VE SHEAR FORCE
+VE BENDING MOMENT
V
M
V
M
R. Ganesh Narayanan 113
EVALUATING V AND M
Apply vertical force equilibrium eqn. to AC, shear force at C, i.e.,
V can be determined
Apply moment equilibrium eqn. at C, bending moment at C, i.e.,
M can be determined; Couple if any should be included
+ ve value of V => assigned shear force direction is correct
+ ve value of M => assigned bending moment is correct
R. Ganesh Narayanan 114
Evaluate the Variation of shear and bending
moment along beam
Beer/Johnston
MB= 0 =>R
A
(-L)+P (L/2) = 0; R
A
= +P/2
R
B
= +P/2
SECTION AT C
Between A & D
SECTION AT E
Between D & B
R. Ganesh Narayanan 115
SECTION AT C; C is at x distance from A
Member AC:
Fy = 0 => P/2-V = 0; V = +P/2
Mc = 0 => (- P/2) (X) + M = 0; M = +PX/2
Any section between A and D will
yield same result
V = +P/2 is valid from A to D
V = +P/2 yields straight line from A
to D (or beam length : 0 to L/2)
M = +PX/2 yield a linear straight line
fit for beam length from 0 to L/2
R. Ganesh Narayanan 116
SECTION AT E; E is at x distance from A
CONSIDER AE:
Fy = 0 => P/2-P-V = 0; V = -P/2
ME = 0 => (- P/2) (X) +P(X-L/2)+ M = 0; M = +P(L-X)/2
EB CAN ALSO BE CONSIDERED
R. Ganesh Narayanan 117
V = V
0
+ (NEGATIVE OF THE AREA UNDER THE LOADING
CURVE FROM X
0
TO X) = V
0
- w dx
M = M
0
+ (AREA UNDER SHEAR DIAGRAM FROM X
0
TO X) = M
0
+ V dx
c1
Slide 117
c1
cclab9, 1/24/2008
R. Ganesh Narayanan 118
Beer/Johnston
: 0 =

A
M
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0 cm 22 N 400 cm 6 N 480 cm 32 =
y
B
N 365 =
y
B
: 0 =

B
M
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0 cm 32 cm 10 N 400 cm 26 N 480 = + A
N 515 = A
: 0 =

x
F 0 =
x
B
The 400 N load at E may be replaced by a 400 N force and 1600 N-cm couple at
D.
Taking entire beam as free-body, calculate
reactions at A and B.
Determine equivalent internal force-couple
systems at sections cut within segments AC,
CD, and DB.
R. Ganesh Narayanan 119
: 0
2
=

M ( ) 0 6 480 515 = + + M x x
( ) cm N 35 2880 + = x M
From C to D:

= : 0
y
F
0 480 515 = V
N 35 = V
: 0
1
=

M
( ) 0 40 515
2
1
= + M x x x
2
20 515 x x M =
From A to C:

= : 0
y
F
0 40 515 = V x
x V 40 515 =
V = 515 + (-40 X) = 515-40X = 515 - 40 dx
M = 515-40x dx = 515x-20 x
2
0
x
0
x
R. Ganesh Narayanan 120
Evaluate equivalent internal force-couple systems
at sections cut within segments AC, CD, and DB.
From D to B:

= : 0
y
F
0 400 480 515 = V
N 365 = V
: 0
2
=

M
( ) ( ) 0 18 400 1600 6 480 515 = + + + M x x x
( ) cm N 365 680 , 11 = x M
R. Ganesh Narayanan 121
Shear force & Bending moment plot
AC: (35X12) + (1/2 x 12 x 480) = 3300
0 to 3300
CD: 3300 +(35X6) = 3510
3300 to 3510
DB: 365 x 14 = 5110
5110 to 0
AREA UNDER SHEAR FORCE DIAGRAM GIVES BM DIAGRAM
R. Ganesh Narayanan 122
300 lb
4 ft
4
2 2
100 lb/ft
Find the shear force and
bending moment for the
loaded beam
R. Ganesh Narayanan 123
Machine
R. Ganesh Narayanan 124
R. Ganesh Narayanan 125
Friction
Earlier we assumed action and reaction forces at contacting surfaces
are normal
Seen as smooth surface not practically true
Normal & tangential forces are important
Tangential forces generated near contacting surfaces are
FRICTIONAL FORCES
Sliding of one contact surface to other friction occurs and it is
opposite to the applied force
Reduce friction in bearings, power screws, gears, aircraft propulsion,
missiles through the atmosphere, fluid flow etc.
Maximize friction in brakes, clutches, belt drives etc.
Friction dissipated as heat loss of energy, wear of parts etc.
R. Ganesh Narayanan 126
Friction
Dry friction
(coulomb friction)
Fluid friction
Occurs when un-lubricated surfaces are
in contact during sliding
friction force always oppose the sliding
motion
Occurs when the adjacent layers in a
fluid (liquid, gas) are moving at different
velocities
This motion causes friction between
fluid elements
Depends on the relative velocity
between layers
No relative velocity no fluid friction
depends on the viscosity of fluid
measure of resistance to shearing action
between the fluid layers
R. Ganesh Narayanan 127
Dry friction: Laws of dry friction
W
N
W weight; N Reaction of the surface
Only vertical component
P applied load
F static friction force : resultant of many forces acting over
the entire contact area
Because of irregularities in surface & molecular attraction
A
W
P
N
F
A
R. Ganesh Narayanan 128
P
W
N
F
A B
P is increased; F is also increased and continue to oppose P
This happens till maximum Fm is reached Body tend to move till F
m
is reached
After this point, block is in motion
Block in motion: F
m
reduced to F
k
lower value kinetic friction force and it
remains same related to irregularities interaction
N reaches B from A Then tipping occurs abt. B
F
m
F
k
F
p
Equilibrium Motion
More irregularities
interaction
Less irregularities
interaction
R. Ganesh Narayanan 129
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE:
F
m
proportional to N
F
m
=
s
N;
s
static friction co-efficient
Similarly, F
k
=
k
N;
k
kinetic friction co-efficient

s
and
k
depends on the nature of
surface; not on contact area of
surface

k
= 0.75
s
R. Ganesh Narayanan 130
Four situations can occur when a rigid body is in contact with a
horizontal surface:
We have horizontal and vertical force equilibrium equns. and
F = N
No motion,
(P
x
< F
m
)
F
m
F
k
F
p
Equilibrium Motion
R. Ganesh Narayanan 131
No motion Motion
No friction Motion impending
It is sometimes convenient to replace normal force N and friction force
F by their resultant R:
s s
s m
s
N
N
N
F

=
= =
tan
tan
k k
k k
k
N
N
N
F

=
= =
tan
tan
s angle of static
friction maximum angle
(like F
m
)

k
angle of kinetic
friction;
k
<
s
R. Ganesh Narayanan 132
Consider block of weight W resting on board with variable inclination
angle .
Angle of inclination =
angle of repose; =
s
R Not vertical
ANGLE OF INCLINATION IS INCREASING
R. Ganesh Narayanan 133
Three categories of problems
All applied forces are given, co-effts. of friction are known
Find whether the body will remain at rest or slide
Friction force F required to maintain equilibrium is unknown
(magnitude not equal to
s
N)
Determine F required for equilibrium, by solving equilibrium equns; Also find
N
Compare F obtained with maximum value F
m
i.e., from F
m
=
s
N
F is smaller or equal to F
m
, then body is at rest
Otherwise body starts moving
Actual friction force magnitude = F
k
=
k
N
Solution
First category: to know a body slips or not
R. Ganesh Narayanan 134
A 100 N force acts as shown on a 300 N block
placed on an inclined plane. The coefficients of
friction between the block and plane are
s
= 0.25
and
k
= 0.20. Determine whether the block is in
equilibrium and find the value of the friction force.
Beer/Johnston
: 0 =

x
F ( ) 0 N 300 - N 100
5
3
= F
N 80 = F
: 0 =

y
F
( ) 0 N 300 -
5
4
= N
N 240 = N
The block will slide down the plane.
F
m
< F
F
m
=
s
N = 0.25 (240) = 60 N
= 36.9 DEG
= 36.9
DEG
R. Ganesh Narayanan 135
If maximum friction force is less than friction force
required for equilibrium, block will slide. Calculate
kinetic-friction force.
( ) N 240 20 0
N
.
F F
k k actual
=
= =
N 48 =
actual
F
F
m
F
k
F
p
Equilibrium Motion
R. Ganesh Narayanan 136
Meriam/Kraige; 6/8
M
30
Cylinder weight: 30 kg; Dia: 400 mm
Static friction co-efft: 0.30 between cylinder and surface
Calculate the applied CW couple M which cause the cylinder
to slip
30 x 9.81
N
A
F
A
= 0.3 N
A
N
B
F
B
= 0.3 N
B
M
C
Fx = 0 = -N
A
+0.3N
B
Cos 30-N
B
Sin 30 = 0
Fy = 0 =>-294.3+0.3N
A
+N
B
Cos 30-0.3N
B
Sin 30 = 0
Find N
A
& N
B
by solving these two equns.
M
C
= 0 = > 0.3 N
A
(0.2)+0.3 N
B
(0.2) - M = 0
Put N
A
& N
B
; Find M
NA = 237 N & NB = 312 N; M = 33 Nm
R. Ganesh Narayanan 137
Meriam/Kraige; 6/5
Wooden block: 1.2 kg; Paint: 9 kg
Determine the magnitude and direction of (1) the friction
force exerted by roof surface on the wooden block, (2)
total force exerted by roof surface on the wooden block
= tan
-1
(4/12) = 18.43
Paint
Wooden
block
12
4
Roof
surface

## (2) Total force = 10.2 x 9.81 = 100.06 N UP

N
F
10.2x 9.81
X
Y
(1) Fx = 0 => -F+100.06 sin 18.43 => F = 31.6 N
Fy = 0 => N = 95 N
Second category: Impending relative motion when two or
three bodies in contact with each other
R. Ganesh Narayanan 138
Beer/Johnston
20 x 9.81 = 196.2 N
N1
F1
T
30 x 9.81 = 294.3 N
F2
For 20 kg block For 30 kg block
F1
P
N1
N2
(a)
R. Ganesh Narayanan 139
(B)
490.5 N
N
P
R. Ganesh Narayanan 140
Beer/Johnston
A
B
6 m
2.5 m
A 6.5-m ladder AB of mass 10 kg leans against a wall as shown.
Assuming that the coefficient of static friction on
s
is the same at
both surfaces of contact, determine the smallest value of
s
for which
equilibrium can be maintained.
A
B
F
B
N
B
F
A
N
A
W
1.25 1.25
O
Slip impends at both A and B, F
A
=
s
N
A
, F
B
=
s
N
B
Fx=0=> F
A
N
B
=0, N
B
=F
A
=
s
N
A
Fy=0=> N
A
W+F
B
=0, N
A
+F
B
=W
N
A
+
s
N
B
=W; W = N
A
(1+
s
2
)
Mo = 0 => (6) N
B
- (2.5) (N
A
) +(W) (1.25) = 0
6
s
N
A
- 2.5 N
A
+ N
A
(1+
s
2
) 1.25 = 0

s
= -2.4 2.6 = > Min
s
= 0.2
R. Ganesh Narayanan 141
Wedges
Wedges - simple machines used to raise heavy
loads like wooden block, stone etc.
Loads can be raised by applying force P to
wedge
Force required to lift block is significantly less
than block weight
Friction at AC & CD prevents wedge from sliding
out
Want to find minimum force P to raise block
A wooden block
C, D Wedges
R. Ganesh Narayanan 142
0
: 0
0
: 0
2 1
2 1
= +
=
= +
=

N N W
F
N N
F
s
y
s
x

FBD of block
( )
( ) 0 6 sin 6 cos
: 0
0
6 sin 6 cos
: 0
3 2
3 2
= +
=
= +

=

s
y
s s
x
N N
F
P
N N
F

FBD of wedge
N
3
6
F
3
6
R. Ganesh Narayanan 143
Two 8 wedges of negligible weight are used to move
and position a 530-N block. Knowing that the
coefficient of static friction is 0.40 at all surfaces of
contact, determine the magnitude of the force P for
which motion of the block is impending
Beer/Johnston

s
= tan
1
s = tan
1
(0.4) = 21.801
21.8
R1
FBD of block
20
21.8
530
R2
530
R2
R1
41.8
91.8
46.4
(R2/Sin 41.8) = (530/sin 46.4)
R2 = 487.84 N
Using sine law,
slip impends at wedge/block
wedge/wedge and block/incline
R. Ganesh Narayanan 144
P = 440.6 N
R. Ganesh Narayanan 145
Beer/Johnston
A 6 steel wedge is driven into the end of an ax handle
to lock the handle to the ax head. The coefficient of
static friction between the wedge and the handle is
0.35. Knowing that a force P of magnitude 60 N was
required to insert the wedge to the equilibrium position
shown, determine the magnitude of the forces exerted
on the handle by the wedge after force P is removed.
P = 60 N
s = tan
1
s= tan
1
(0.35 ) = 19.29
19.29
3
19.29
3
6
By symmetry R1= R2; in EQUILIBRIUM
Fy = 0: 2R1 sin 22.29 60 N =0
R1 = R2 = 79.094 N
WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF P IS REMOVED ?
R1 R2
R. Ganesh Narayanan 146
Vertical component of R1, R2 will be eliminated
Hence, H1 = H2 = 79.094 N cos22.29 = 73.184 N
Final force = 73.184 N
Since included angle is 3(<
s
) from the normal, the
wedge is self-locking and will remain in place.
No motion
R. Ganesh Narayanan 147
Screws
Used for fastening, transmitting power or motion, lifting body
Square threaded jack - screw jack
V-thread is also
possible
W- AXIAL LOAD
M APPLIED MOMENT ABOUT AXIS OF SCREW
M = P X r
L LEAD DISTANCE Advancement per revolution
HELIX ANGLE
M
Upward
motion
R. Ganesh Narayanan 148

2r
L
W

R
P = M/r
One full thread
of screw
To raise load
M
F
angle of friction
R
P
w
+
tan (+) = P/W = M/rW
=> M = rWtan (+)
= tan
-1
(L/2r)
To lower load unwinding condition

P = M/r
W
R
<
Screw will remain in place
self locking
=> M = rWtan (-)
= In verge of un-winding
Moment required to
lower the screw
R. Ganesh Narayanan 149

P = M/r
W
R

## > Screw will unwind itself

=> M = rWtan (-)
Moment required to
prevent unwinding
R. Ganesh Narayanan 150
Beer/Johnston
A clamp is used to hold two pieces of wood together
as shown. The clamp has a double square thread of
mean diameter equal to 10 mm with a pitch of 2 mm.
The coefficient of friction between threads is
s
=
0.30.
If a maximum torque of 40 Nm is applied in
tightening the clamp, determine (a) the force exerted
on the pieces of wood, and (b) the torque required to
loosen the clamp.
Lead distance = 2 x pitch = 2 x 2 = 4 mm
r = 5 mm
( )
30 . 0 tan
1273 . 0
mm 10
mm 2 2
2
tan
= =
= = =
s s
r
L

= 3 . 7
= 7 . 16
s

## (double square thread)

R. Ganesh Narayanan 151
a) Forces exerted on the wooded pieces
M/r tan (+) = W
W = 40 / (0.005) tan (24) = 17.96 kN
b) the torque required to loosen the clamp
M = rWtan (-) = 0.005 (17.96) tan (9.4)
M = 14.87 Nm
R. Ganesh Narayanan 152
The position of the automobile jack shown is
controlled by a screw ABC that is single-
threaded at each end (right-handed thread at A,
left-handed thread at C). Each thread has a pitch
of 2 mm and a mean diameter of 7.5 mm. If the
coefficient of static friction is 0.15, determine the
magnitude of the couple M that must be applied
to raise the automobile.
Beer/Johnston
FBD joint D:
Fy = 0 => 2F
AD
sin254 kN=0
F
AD
= F
CD
= 4.73 kN
By symmetry:
4 kN
F
AD
F
CD
25 25
D
R. Ganesh Narayanan 153
FBD joint A:
4.73 kN
F
AC
F
AE
= 4.73
25
25
A
Fx = 0 => F
AC
2(4.73) cos25=0
F
AC
= 8.57 kN
L = Pitch = 2 mm
W = F
AC
= 8.57

R
Joint A
P = M/r
(7.5)

## Here is used instead of used earlier

M
A
= rWtan (+) = (7.5/2) (8.57) tan (13.38) = 7.63 Nm
Similarly, at C, M
c
= 7.63 Nm (by symmetry); Total moment = 7.63 (2) = 15.27 Nm
R. Ganesh Narayanan 154
Journal & Thrust bearing
Journal bearings provide lateral support to rotating shafts
Thrust bearings provide axial support
Journal bearing - Axle friction
Thrust bearing - Disc friction
shaft
bearing
shaft
bearing
R. Ganesh Narayanan 155
Friction between two
ring shaped areas
Friction in full circular area
- DISK FRICTION (Eg., Disc clutch)
Consider Hollow shaft (R1, R2)
M Moment required for shaft
rotation at constant speed
P axial force which maintains
shaft in contact with bearing
R. Ganesh Narayanan 156
Couple moment required to overcome friction
resistance, M
Equilibrium conditions and moment equations are
necessary to solve problems
R. Ganesh Narayanan 157
A .178 m-diameter buffer weighs 10.1 N. The
coefficient of kinetic friction between the buffing pad
and the surface being polished is 0.60. Assuming
that the normal force per unit area between the pad
and the surface is uniformly distributed, determine
the magnitude Q of the horizontal forces required to
prevent motion of the buffer.
Beer/Johnston
O
M
Q - Q
0.2 m
Mo = 0 => (0.2) Q M = 0; Q = M / 0.2
M = 2/3 (0.6) (10.1) (0.178/2) = 0.36 Nm
Q = M / 0.2 = 0.36/0.2 = 1.8 N
R. Ganesh Narayanan 158
Belt friction
Draw free-body diagram for PP element of belt
( ) 0
2
cos
2
cos : 0 =

+ =

N T T T F
s x

( ) 0
2
sin
2
sin : 0 =

+ =

T T T N F
y
dT / T =
S
d
dT / T =
S
d
T
1
T
2
0

ln (T
2
/T
1
) =
S
; T
2
/T
1
= e
S
Consider flat belt, cylindrical
drum
angle of
contact
R. Ganesh Narayanan 159

V- Belt
T
2
/T
1
= e
S /sin (/2)
ln (T
2
/T
1
) =
S
; T
2
/T
1
= e
S
Applicable to belts passing over fixed drums; ropes wrapped around a post; belt
drives
T2 > T1
This formula can be used only if belt, rope are about to slip;
Angle of contact is radians; rope is wrapped n times - 2n rad
In belt drives, pulley with lesser value slips first, with S remaining same
R. Ganesh Narayanan 160
Beer/Johnston
A flat belt connects pulley A to pulley B. The
coefficients of friction are
s
= 0.25 and
k
= 0.20
between both pulleys and the belt.
Knowing that the maximum allowable tension in the
belt is 600 N, determine the largest torque which can
be exerted by the belt on pulley A.
Since angle of contact is smaller, slippage will occur on pulley B first. Determine
belt tensions based on pulley B; = 120 deg = 2/3 rad
( )
N 4 . 355
1.688
N 600
688 . 1
N 600
1
3 2 25 . 0
1 1
2
s
= =
= = =
T
e
T
e
T
T

R. Ganesh Narayanan 161
( )( ) 0 N 600 N 4 . 355 m c 8 : 0 = + =
A A
M M
m c N 8 . 1956 =
A
M
Check for belt not sliping at pulley A:
ln (600/355.4) = x 4/3 => = 0.125 < 0.25
R. Ganesh Narayanan 162
A 120-kg block is supported by a rope which is
wrapped 1.5 - times around a horizontal rod. Knowing
that the coefficient of static friction between the rope
and the rod is 0.15, determine the range of values of P
for which equilibrium is maintained.
Beer/Johnston
P
W = 9.81 X 120 =
1177.2 N
= 1.5 turns = 3 rad
For impending motion of W up
P = W e
s
= (1177.2 N) e
(0.15)3
= 4839.7 N
For impending motion of W down
P = W e
s
= (1177.2 N) e
(0.15)3
= 286.3 N
For equilibrium: 286 N P 4.84 kN
R. Ganesh Narayanan 163
In the pivoted motor mount shown, the weight W of the
175-N motor is used to maintain tension in the drive
belt. Knowing that the coefficient of static friction
between the flat belt and drums A and B is 0.40, and
neglecting the weight of platform CD, determine the
largest couple which can be transmitted to drum B when
the drive drum A is rotating clockwise.
Beer/Johnston
For impending belt slip: CW rotation
= radians
Obtain FBD of motor and mount; M
D
= 0 => find T1 and T2
Obtain FBD of drum at B; M
B
in CCW; M
B
= 0; Find M
B
T1 = 54.5 N, T2 = 191.5 N
M
B
=10.27 N.m
R. Ganesh Narayanan 164
Virtual work
We have analyzed equilibrium of a body by isolating it with a FBD
and equilibrium equations
Class of problems where interconnected members move relative to
each other; equilibrium equations are not the direct and
conventional method
Concept of work done by force is more direct => Method of virtual
work
R. Ganesh Narayanan 165
Work of a force
U = +(F cos ) S (+ ve)
F
A

A
S
F
A

A
S
U = +F (cos S)
Work done U by the force F on the body during
displacement is the compt. Of force in the
displacement direction times the displacement
Work is a scalar quantity as we get same result regardless
of direction in which we resolve vectors
F
A

A
S
U = -(F cos ) S
U = 0 if S = 0 and = 90 deg
R. Ganesh Narayanan 166
F
A
A
dr
A1
A2
Work done by force F during
displacement dr is given by, dU = F.dr
dU = (Fx i + Fy j + Fz k).(dx i + dy j + dz k)
= Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz
U = F.dr = Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz
We should know relation between the force and their coordinates
Work of a couple
d
M
dU = M d
U = M d
F
-F
Moment can be taken
instead of forces
R. Ganesh Narayanan 167
Forces which do no work
ds = 0; cos = 0
reaction at a frictionless pin due to rotation of a body around the
pin
reaction at a frictionless surface due to motion of a body along the
surface
weight of a body with cg moving horizontally
friction force on a wheel moving without slipping
Only work done by applied forces, loads, friction forces need to
be considered
R. Ganesh Narayanan 168
Sum of work done by several forces may be zero
bodies connected by a frictionless pin
=> W.D by F and F is opposite and will cancel
bodies connected by an inextensible cord
internal forces holding together particles of a rigid
body
Rigid body
A, B particles
F, -F are acting as shown
Though dr, dr are different, components of these
displacements along AB must be equal, otherwise
distance between the particles will change and this is
not a rigid body; so U done by F and F cancel each
other, i.e, U of internal forces = 0
R. Ganesh Narayanan 169
Principle of virtual work
Imagine the small virtual displacement of particle which is
acted upon by several forces F1, F2, .. Fn
Imagine the small displacement A to A
This is possible displacement, but will not occur
AA ---- VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENT, r (not dr)
Work done by these forces F1, F2, .Fn during virtual
displacement r is called VIRTUAL WORK, U
U = F1. r + F2. r + ..+ Fn. r = R . r
Total virtual work of the
forces
Virtual work of
the resultant
R. Ganesh Narayanan 170
Principle of virtual work for particle
Principle of virtual work for rigid body
Principle of virtual work for system of interconnected rigid bodies
Work of internal forces is zero (proved earlier)
R. Ganesh Narayanan 171
Applications of Principle of virtual work
Mainly applicable to the solutions of problems involving machines or mechanisms
consisting of several interconnected rigid bodies
Wish to determine the force of the vice on the block for a given force
P assuming no friction
Virtual displacement is given; This results in x
B
and y
c
.
Here no work is done by Ax, Ay at A and N at B
TOGGLE VISE
R. Ganesh Narayanan 172
U
Q
= -Q x
B
; U
P
= -P y
c
In this problem, we have eliminated all un-known reactions, while
MA = 0 would have eliminated only TWO unknowns
The same problem can be used to find for which the
linkage is in equilibrium under two forces P and Q
Output work = Input work
R. Ganesh Narayanan 173
Real machines
For an ideal machine without friction, the output work is equal to the input
work; 2Ql cos = Pl sin
In real machine, output work < input work => because of presence of
friction forces
( )

=
+ =
= =
tan
cos sin cos 2 0
0
2
1
P Q
Pl Pl Ql
x F y P x Q U
B C B
Output work = Input work
friction force work
Q = 0 if tan = => = , angle of friction
R. Ganesh Narayanan 174
Mechanical efficiency
Mechanical efficiency of m/c, = Output work / Input work
For toggle vise, = 2Ql cos / Pl sin
Substituting Q = P (tan ) here
= 1 cot
In the absence of friction forces, = 0 and hence = 1 => Ideal m/c
For real m/c, < 1
R. Ganesh Narayanan 175
Beer/Johnston
Determine the magnitude of the couple M
required to maintain the equilibrium of the
mechanism.
Virtual displacement = , xD, Work done by Ex,
Ey, A is zero
By virtual work principle,
U= U
M
+ U
p
= 0
M + P x
D
= 0
x
D
= -3l sin can be obtained from
geometry
M = 3Pl sin
R. Ganesh Narayanan 176
Beer/Johnston
A hydraulic lift table consisting of two identical
linkages and hydraulic cylinders is used to raise a
1000-kg crate. Members EDB and CG are each
of length 2a and member AD is pinned to the
midpoint of EDB.
Determine the force exerted by each cylinder in
raising the crate for = 60
o
, a = 0.70 m, and L =
3.20 m.
Work done is zero for Ex, Ey, Fcg; Work done by W, F
DH
will be considered
R. Ganesh Narayanan 177
W, y are in opposite
direction, (-)sign will come
F
DH
, s are in same direction,
(+) sign will come
1)
2) Express y, s in terms of
y = 2a cos ; s = (aL sin/s)
---- (1)
Substituting y & s in (1) gives,
-(1/2) W (2a cos ) + (F
DH
) (aL sin/s) = 0
F
DH
= W (s/L) cot
3) Apply numerical data
F
DH
= (1000 X 9.81) (2.91/3.2) cot 60 = 5.15 kN
S is obtained from this triangle
R. Ganesh Narayanan 178
The mechanism shown is acted upon by the force P.
Derive an expression for the magnitude of the force Q
required for equilibrium.
Beer/Johnston
Y
F
W.D. by Ay, Bx, By will be zero
U = 0 => +Q (X
A
) - P (Y
F
)
Find X
A
and Y
F
in terms of
(Check calculation of X
A
and Y
F
)
U = Q(2l cos ) - P(3l sin ) = 0
Q Bx
By
P
Ay
Yf
X
A
X
A

x
y
R. Ganesh Narayanan 179
Work of force using finite displacement
Work of force F corresponding to infinitesimal displacement,
dr = dU = F. dr
Work of F corresponding to a finite displacement of particle
from A1 to A2 and covering distances S1, S2,
U
1-2
= F . dr or U
1-2
= (F cos) ds = F (S2-S1)
A2
A1
S2
S1
S1, S2 distance along the path traveled by the particle
Area under curve = U
1-2
Similarly, work of a couple of moment M, dU = M d
U
1-2
= M d = M (2-1)
2
1
R. Ganesh Narayanan 180
Work of a weight
y W
Wy Wy
Wdy U
Wdy dU
y
y
=
=
=
=

2 1
2 1
2
1
Work is equal to product of W and
vertical displacement of CG of body;
Body moves upwards; Body moving
downwards will have +ve work done
( )
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1
2
1
kx kx
dx kx U
dx kx Fdx dU
x
x
=
=
= =

Work of a spring
F = k x
k spring
constant, N/m
+ve work done is expected if x2 < x1, i.e.,
when spring is returning to its un-deformed
position
( ) x F F U
2 1
2
1
2 1
+ =

## R. Ganesh Narayanan 181

Potential Energy
Work of a weight:
2 1 2 1
Wy Wy U =

## The work is independent of path and depends only on

positions (A1, A2) or Wy
potential energy of the body with
respect to the force of gravity W
r
= =
g
V Wy
( ) ( )
2 1
2 1 g g
V V U =

Vg
1
< Vg
2
=> PE is increasing with displacement in this
case, work done is negative
Work is positive, if PE decreases
Unit of PE Joule (J)
R. Ganesh Narayanan 182
Work of a spring
( ) ( )
=
=
=

e
e e
V
V V
kx kx U
2 1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1
potential energy of the body with
respect to the elastic force F
r
Here PE increases, work done is (-ve)
Now in general, it is possible to find a function V, called potential energy, such
that, dU = -dV
U
1-2
= V1 V2 => A force which satisfies this eqn. is conservative force
Work is independent of path & negative of change in PE for the
cases seen
R. Ganesh Narayanan 183
Potential energy & equilibrium
Considering virtual displacement, U = -V = 0
=> (dV / d) = 0 => position of the variable defined by single independent
variable,
In terms of potential energy, the virtual work principle states that if a system is in
equilibrium, the derivative of its total potential energy is zero
(V/) = 0
Example:
Initial spring length = AD
Work is done only by W, F
For equilibrium, U = (V
e
+ V
g
)
1
2
R. Ganesh Narayanan 184
Total potential energy of the system, V = V
g
+ V
e
For W
For F
dv/d = 4kl
2
sin cos Wl sin = 0
= 0 and = cos
-1
(W/4kl)
R. Ganesh Narayanan 185
P O
C
k
B
A

b
b
b
b
Two uniform links of mass, m are connected as
shown. As the angle increases with P applied in
the direction shown, the light rod connected at A,
passes thro pivoted collar B, compresses the
spring (k). If the uncompressed position of the
spring is at = 0, find the force which will
produce equilibrium at the angle
Compression distance of spring, x = movement of A away from B; X = 2b sin /2
U = (Ve + Vg)
Find Ve, Ve; Vg, Vg; U (of P)
Vg = 0
Ve = k x
2
; Vg = mgh
U = P (4b sin /2)
2Pb cos /2 = 2kb
2
sin /2 cos /2 + mgb sin /2
P = kb sin /2 + mg tan /2
4bsin/2
R. Ganesh Narayanan 186
Meriam/Kraige, 7/39
For the device shown the spring would be un-stretched
in the position =0. Specify the stiffness k of the spring
which will establish an equilibrium position in the
vertical plane. The mass of links are negligible.
Spring stretch distance, x = 2b-2b cos
Ve = k [(2b)(1-cos )]
2
= 2kb
2
(1-cos )
2
Vg = -mgy = -mg (2bsin) = -2mgbsin
V = 2kb
2
(1-cos )
2
- 2mgbsin
For equilibrium, dv / d = 4kb
2
(1-cos ) sin - 2mgb cos = 0
=> K = (mg/2b) (cot /1-cos )
k
b
b
b

m
y
Vg = 0
R. Ganesh Narayanan 187
0 =
d
dV
0 =
d
dV
d
2
V / d
2
< 0 d
2
V / d
2
> 0
Must examine higher
order derivatives and are
zero
AB
AB
Stability of equilibrium (one DOF )
R. Ganesh Narayanan 188
Knowing that the spring BC is un-stretched when = 0,
determine the position or positions of equilibrium and state
whether the equilibrium is stable, unstable, or neutral.
Beer/Johnston
( ) ( ) cos
2
2
1
2
2
1
b mg a k
mgy ks
V V V
g e
+ =
+ =
+ =
( )( )
( )( )( )

8699 . 0
m 3 . 0 s m 81 . 9 kg 10
m 08 . 0 m kN 4
sin
sin 0
2
2 2
2
=
= =
= =
mgb
ka
mgb ka
d
dV
= = = 7 . 51 rad 902 . 0 0
R. Ganesh Narayanan 189
( )( ) ( )( )( )

cos 43 . 29 6 . 25
cos m 3 . 0 s m 81 . 9 kg 10 m 08 . 0 m kN 4
cos
2 2
2
2
2
=
=
= mgb ka
d
V d
at = 0: 0 83 . 3
2
2
< =
d
V d
unstable
at = 51.7
o
:
0 36 . 7
2
2
> + =
d
V d
stable
R. Ganesh Narayanan 190
Spring AB of constant 2 kN/m is attached to two
identical drums as shown.
Knowing that the spring is un-stretched when =
0, determine (a) the range of values of the mass
m of the block for which a position of equilibrium
exists, (b) the range of values of for which the
equilibrium is stable.
Beer/Johnston (10.81)
A
B
A
B
R. Ganesh Narayanan 191
(Sin varies from 0 to 1)
(Cos varies from 1 to 0)
R. Ganesh Narayanan 192
XV = ( x
c
dv) YV = ( y
c
dv) ZV = ( z
c
dv)
Centroid of volume:
XA = ( x
c
dA) YA = ( y
c
dA) ZA = ( z
c
dA)
Centroid of area:
Moments of inertia : The moment of inertia of an object about a given axis
describes how difficult it is to change its angular motion about that axis.
First moment of volume
w.r.t. yz plane
Symmetry plane
Centroid of
volume
x
c
dv = 0
R. Ganesh Narayanan 193
Consider a beam subjected to pure bending.
Internal forces vary linearly with distance from
the neutral axis which passes through the section
centroid.
X-axis => neutral axis => centroid of section
passes
F = k y A vary linearly with distance y
moment second
moment first 0
2 2
= =
= = = =
=

dA y dA y k M
Q dA y dA y k R
A ky F
x
r
M
X
= y F = k y
2
A;
Moment of inertia of beam
section w.r.t x-axis, I
X
(+VE)
R. Ganesh Narayanan 194
Second moments or moments of inertia of an area with
respect to the x and y axes,

= = dA x I dA y I
y x
2 2
For a rectangular area,
3
3
1
0
2 2
bh bdy y dA y I
h
x
= = =

I
Y
= x
2
dA = x
2
h dx = 1/3 b
3
h
0
b
Rectangular moment of inertia
R. Ganesh Narayanan 195
The polar moment of inertia is an important parameter in problems involving
torsion of cylindrical shafts and rotations of slabs.

= dA r J
2
0
The polar moment of inertia is related to the rectangular moments of
inertia,
( )
x y
I I
dA y dA x dA y x dA r J
+ =
+ = + = =

2 2 2 2 2
0
Polar moment of inertia
R. Ganesh Narayanan 196
Consider area A with moment of inertia I
x
. Imagine that
the area is concentrated in a thin strip parallel to the x axis
with equivalent I
x
.
A
I
k A k I
x
x x x
= =
2
k
x
= radius of gyration with respect to the x axis
A
J
k A k J
A
I
k A k I
O
O O O
y
y y y
= =
= =
2
2
2 2 2
y x O
k k k + =
Radius of gyration
R. Ganesh Narayanan 197
Beer/Johnston
( )
h
h h
x
y y
h
h
b
dy y hy
h
b
dy
h
y h
b y dA y I
0
4 3
0
3 2
0
2 2
4 3
(

=
=

= =

12
3
bh
I
x
=
Determine the moment of inertia of a
triangle with respect to its base.
For similar triangles,
dy
h
y h
b dA
h
y h
b l
h
y h
b
l
=

=
dA = l dy
Determination of MI by area of integration
R. Ganesh Narayanan 198
y
MI of rectangular area:
dA = bdy
x
b
h
y
dy
Ix = y
2
dA = y
2
bdy = 1/3 bh
3
; Iy = 1/3 hb
3
0
h
MI - Ix and Iy for elemental strip:
y
dIx = 1/3 dx (y
3
) = 1/3 y
3
dx
dIy = x
2
dA = x
2
y dx or 1/3 x
3
dy
x
Y
X
dA = Ydx
From this, MI of whole area can be
calculated by integration
dx
dy
About centroidal axis (X, Y): Ix = 1/12 bh
3
; Iy = 1/12 b
3
h
X
Y
R. Ganesh Narayanan 199
y
x
a
b
y = k x
5/2
Find MI w.r.t Y axis
Beer/Johnston (9.1)
R. Ganesh Narayanan 200
Triangle: bh
3
/12 (about base)
Circular area: /4 r
4
(about dia)
Rectangular area: bh
3
/3 (about base)
R. Ganesh Narayanan 201
Parallel axis theorem
Consider moment of inertia I of an area A with respect
to the axis AA

= dA y I
2
The axis BB passes through the area centroid and
is called a centroidal axis.
( )

+

=
+

= =
dA d dA y d dA y
dA d y dA y I
2 2
2 2
2
2
Ad I I + =
dA
A A
y
C B B
d
y
C Centroid
BB Centroidal axis
MI of area with
centroidal axis
0
Parallel axis theorem
J
o
= J
c
+ Ad
2
First moment of
area
R. Ganesh Narayanan 202
Moments of Inertia of Composite Areas
The moment of inertia of a composite area A about a given axis is
obtained by adding the moments of inertia of the component areas A
1
,
A
2
, A
3
, ... , with respect to the same axis.
x
y
It should be noted that the radius of gyration of a composite area is not
equal to sum of radii of gyration of the component areas
R. Ganesh Narayanan 203
MI of some common geometric shapes
R. Ganesh Narayanan 204
Moment of inertia I
T
of a circular area with respect to a
tangent to the circle T,
( )
4
4
5
2 2 4
4
1
2
r
r r r Ad I I
T

=
+ = + =
Application 1:
Application 2:
Moment of inertia of a triangle with respect to a
centroidal axis,
( )
3
36
1
2
3
1
2
1
3
12
1
2
2
bh
h bh bh Ad I I
Ad I I
A A B B
B B A A
=
= =
+ =

I
DD
= I
BB

+ ad
2
= 1/36 bh
3
+ 1/2bh (2/3h)
2
= bh
3
R. Ganesh Narayanan 205
Find the centroid of the area of the un-equal Z section. Find the
moment of inertia of area about the centroidal axes
shames
Ai xi yi Aixi Aiyi
2x1=2 1 7.5 2 15
8x1=8 2.5 4 20 32
4x1=4 5 0.5 20 2
Ai = 14 Aixi = 42 Aiyi = 49
1
2
3
Xc = 42/14 = 3 in.; Yc = 49/14 = 3.5in
y
x
1
6
2
1
4
1
1
2
3
Xc, Yc
I
xcxc
= [(1/12)(2)(1
3
)+(2)(4
2
)] + [(1/12)(1)(8
3
)+(8)(1/2)
2
] +
[(1/12)(4)(1
3
)+(4)(3
2
)] = 113.16 in
4
Similarly, Iycyc = 32.67 in4
R. Ganesh Narayanan 206
Beer/Johnston:
Determine the moment of inertia of the shaded area
with respect to the x axis.
Rectangle:
( )( )
4 6
3
1
3
3
1
mm 10 2 . 138 120 240 = = = bh I
x
3
Half-circle:
moment of inertia with respect to AA,
( )
4 6 4
8
1
4
8
1
mm 10 76 . 25 90 = = =

r I
A A
R. Ganesh Narayanan 207
( )( )
( )
2 3
2
2
1
2
2
1
mm 10 72 . 12
90
mm 81.8 a - 120 b
mm 2 . 38
3
90 4
3
4
=
= =
= =
= = =

r A
r
a
moment of inertia with respect to x,
( )( )
4 6
3 6 2
mm 10 20 . 7
10 72 . 12 10 76 . 25
=
= =

Aa I I
A A x
=25.76x10
6
(12.72x10
3
) (38.2)
2
moment of inertia with respect to x,
( )( )
4 6
2 3 6 2
mm 10 3 . 92
8 . 81 10 72 . 12 10 20 . 7
=
+ = + =

Ab I I
x x
4 6
mm 10 9 . 45 =
x
I
x
I =
4 6
mm 10 2 . 138

4 6
mm 10 3 . 92
R. Ganesh Narayanan 208
Product of inertia, Ixy

= dA xy I
xy
[Similar to Ixx (or Ix), Iyy (or Iy)]
When the x axis, the y axis, or both are an axis of symmetry,
the product of inertia is zero.
The contributions to Ixy of dA and dA will cancel out
Parallel axis theorem for products of inertia:
A y x I I
xy xy
+ =
Centroid C is defined by x, y
R. Ganesh Narayanan 209
Moment of inertia, Product of inertia about rotated axes
Given

=
= =
dA xy I
dA x I dA y I
xy
y x
2 2
we wish to determine moments and product of
inertia with respect to new axes x and y
x, y rotated to x, y

2 cos 2 sin
2
2 sin 2 cos
2 2
2 sin 2 cos
2 2
xy
y x
y x
xy
y x y x
y
xy
y x y x
x
I
I I
I
I
I I I I
I
I
I I I I
I
+

=
+

+
=

+
+
=

## The change of axes yields

Ix+Iy = Ix+Iy
R. Ganesh Narayanan 210
y
x
a

Imax
Imin
Assume Ixx, Iyy, Ixy are known for the reference axes x, y
At what angle of , we have maximum and minimum I
Minimum angle will be at right angles to maximum angle
These axes are called Principal axes & MI are Principal MI
Principal axes & Principal MI
Imax, min = (Ix+Iy/2) (Ix-Iy/2)
2
+ Ixy
2
tan 2 = 2Ixy / (Iy-Ix)
R. Ganesh Narayanan 211
For the section shown, the moments of inertia with
respect to the x and y axes are I
x
= 10.38 cm
4
and I
y
=
6.97 cm
4
.
Determine (a) the orientation of the principal axes of the
section about O, and (b) the values of the principal
moments of inertia about O.
Apply the parallel axis theorem to each rectangle,
( )

+ =

A y x I I
y x xy
Note that the product of inertia with respect to centroidal axes parallel to the xy
axes is zero for each rectangle.
56 . 6
28 . 3 75 . 1 25 . 1 5 . 1
0 0 0 5 . 1
28 . 3 75 . 1 25 . 1 5 . 1
cm , cm , cm , cm Area, Rectangle
4 2
=
+
+
A y x
III
II
I
A y x y x
R. Ganesh Narayanan 212
( )
=
+ =

=
255.4 and 4 . 75 2
85 . 3
97 . 6 38 . 10
56 . 6 2
2
2 tan
m
y x
xy
m
I I
I

= =
7 . 127 and 7 . 37
m m

( )
2
2
2
2
min max,
56 . 6
2
97 . 6 38 . 10
2
97 . 6 38 . 10
2 2
+
|

\
|

+
=
+
|
|

\
|

+
=
xy
y x y x
I
I I I I
I
4
min
4
max
cm 897 . 1
cm 45 . 15
= =
= =
I I
I I
b
a