PROJECT REPORT ON WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT
KIRLOSKAR PNEUMATICS CO. LTD, HADAPSAR.
Submitted By: Rajesh Menon (M.B.A-II) In Partial Fulfillment for Degree of Master of Business Administration during the year 2006-07 VISHWAKARMA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, PUNE.
It is a matter of great satisfaction and pleasure to present this report on Working Capital Management of KIRLOSKAR PNUEMATIC CO. LTD. (KPCL), Pune 411013. I take this opportunity to owe my thanks to all
those involved in my training.
This project report could not have been completed without the guidance of our director, Dr. SHARAD L. JOSHI & project guide Prof. SMITA SOVANI. Their timely help & encouragement helped me to complete this project successfully.
I thank Mrs. VINEETA KAPOOR (SR. OFFICER
HRD) for giving
me opportunity to work at KPCL, as a FINANCE TRAINEE.
I am thankful to Mr. R.B. SHALIGRAM (SR. FINANCE MANAGER) and MR. R.R. TAVERGIRI (DGM, FINANCE) for their encouragement and able guidance at every stage of my training work.
I express my gratitude towards staff of KPCL, those who have helped me directly or indirectly in completing the training.
INDEX:No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Particulars: Executive Summary Objective & Scope of Project Company Profile Theoretical Background Research Methodology Data Analysis Findings Recommendations Bibliography Page No: 1 3 4 7 60 61 92 93 94
Some the points to be studied under this topic are: How much cash should a firm hold? What should be the firms credit policy? How to & when to pay the creditors of the firm? How much to invest in inventories?
. Working Capital Management is a very important facet of financial management due to: Investments in current assets represent a substantial portion of total investment. At Kirloskar Pneumatic up to date manufacturing facilities. Investment in current assets & the level of current liabilities have to be geared quickly to change sales. Stringent quality control procedures and systems. screw rotor machines. During the project I interviewed the executives & staff to collect the data. metallurgical laboratories. including CNC machines. The project was of 2 months duration. foundry.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Company being established as Kirloskar pneumatic company limited in 1958. The data collected were then compiled. & also made use of company records & annual reports. Pune. research & development. made an entry with manufacture of air compressor and pneumatic tools & soon diversified by including air conditioning & transmission equipments. tool room and integrated computer system. gear grinding machines. heat treatment facilities. My Project is the study of working capital management. The study was conducted at the head office of Kirloskar Pneumatic Co. Ltd. tabulated and analyzed. have all been set up with sole idea of achieving the highest standards of quality & performance.
Debtors of the company were high. they were increasing year by year.33:1. so more funds were blocked in debtors. KPCL s ratios satisfactory. Standard current ratio is 2:1 and for industry it is 1.
.By studying about the company s different areas I came to know certain things like: Acid test ratio is more than one but it does not mean that company has excessive liquidity. But now recovery is becoming faster. Working capital turnover ratio is continuously increasing that shows increasing needs of working capital.
5) To find out the utility of financial ratio in credit analysis & determinig the financial capacity of the firm.
. 3) Evaluating company s performance relating to financial statement analysis. 2) Through the net profit ratio & other profitability ratio. 4) To know the liquidity position of the company with the help of current ratio.OBJECTIVES:
1) To identify the financial strengths & weakness of the company. understand the profitability of the company.
including CNC machine stringent quality control procedures and system.
KPLC is among the first few companies in India to secure the ISO 9001certification in all its operations. tool room.
Companies products are manufactured under the survey of renowned inspection agencies such as Lloyd s. and an integrated computer system have all been set up with the sole idea of achieving the highest standards of quality and performance. And many more. Rand D. up to date manufacturing facilities. PDIL. Further diversification in the manufacture of hydraulic power transmission equipment followed. west Asia. ACD (Air compressor division) consist of two sub divisions o ACD machine shop o ACD assemb
. gear grinding machines. The result of its success in this area is reflected in company s association with virtually every project and industry in the country. Africa. and U. And are well accepted not only in India but also in countries of south east Asia.
At Kirloskar pneumatic. middle east. metallurgical and metrological labs. foundry.OVERVIEW OF KPCL
Established in 1958. DGS and D. gulf.
Kirloskar pneumatic is held in high esteem for process system engineering and turnkey project expertise. IRS. screw rotor machines. EIL. Kirloskar pneumatic company limited started with the manufacture of air compressors and pneumatic tools. Immediately thereafter the company expanded its activated in the field of air-conditioning and refrigeration amchiney. MMD. heat treatment facilities. Europe.S. NTPC. RITES.
CPT. Steel Industries. Driven at 7 to 9 KG/CM2 Centrifugal compressor Driven by 7 KG/CM2 & above.
All smallscale industries. Balanced opposed piston compressor driven at 3 to 9 KG/CM2. Cement.
IR. Textile industries. Ingersol rand. ELGI
Power. Demag.Product groups
FINANCE DEPARTMENT Major Major customers competito rs
Atlas copco. Petrochemic al.
All railways. Market share in % 25
Screw compressors diesel driven at 10KG/CM2 Screw compressors electric motor driven at 7 to 10KG/CM2.
well drilling operation.
Textile. ELGI. granites industries.
Just started. ELGI
Cement. Steel. Rlwys brake Compressor. Vertical reciprocating water culled.
.Organization Chart Mr.)
Finance and Budgeting (Sec. For Sales (Sec. Insurance & Internal Audit
Cost Accounts Drs.Suhas Kolhatkar (Vice President)
Asst. Vice President
General Ledger and Branches
Income and Sales Tax Cash Section & Purchase Bill Section
Excise. Customs Octroi.
for the most effective utilization of enterprise resources. efficient allocation of funds has a great scope. An essential precondition for sound and consistent assets management is establishing the sound and consistent assets management policies covering fixed as well as current assets. the fixed and current assets have to be combined in optimum proportions.
Working capital in simple terms means the amount of funds that a company requires for financing its day-to-day operations. Finance manager should develop sound techniques of managing current assets.INTRODUCTION:
Management is an art of anticipating and preparing for risks.
. In modern financial management. uncertainties and overcoming obstacles. in finance and profit planning.
WHAT IS WORKING CAPITAL?
Working capital refers to the investment by the company in short terms assets such as cash. any business organization cannot run smoothly or successfully. In other words it is the net cash inflow . it is also known as Circulating capital or Current capital for current assets are rotating in their nature. it means.
2) Working capital represents the total of all current assets.
3) Working capital is defined as The excess of current assets over current liabilities and provisions . Net Current Assets = Current Assets Current Liabilities. Net current assets or net working capital refers to the current assets less current liabilities. marketable securities. Without insufficient working capital.
DEFINITIONS OF WORKING CAPITAL:
The following are the most important definitions of Working capital:
1) Working capital is the difference between the inflow and outflow of funds. In other words it is the Gross working capital . In other words it is the Net Current Assets or Net Working Capital .
IMPORTANCE OF WORKING CAPITAL
Working capital may be regarded as the lifeblood of the business.
In the business the Working capital is comparable to the blood of the human body. Therefore the study of working capital is of major importance to the internal and external analysis because of its close relationship with the current day to day operations of a business. The inadequacy or mismanagement of working capital is the leading cause of business failures.
To meet the current requirements of a business enterprise such as the purchases of services, raw materials etc. working capital is essential. It is also pointed out that working capital is nothing but one segment of the capital structure of a business.
In short, the cash and credit in the business, is comparable to the blood in the human body like finance s life and strength i.e. profit of solvency to the business enterprise. Financial management is called upon to maintain always the right cash balance so that flow of fund is maintained at a desirable speed not allowing slow down. Thus enterprise can have a balance between liquidity and profitability. Therefore the management of working capital is essential in each and every activity.
WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION:
Working Capital is the key difference between the long term financial management and short term financial management in terms of the timing of cash. Long term finance involves the cash flow over the extended period of time i.e 5 to 15 years, while short term financial decisions involve cash flow within a year or within operating cycle. Working capital management is a short term financial management.
Working capital management is concerned with the problems that arise in attempting to manage the current assets, the current liabilities & the inter relationship that exists between them. The current assets refer to those assets which can be easily converted into cash in ordinary course of business, without disrupting the operations of the firm.
Composition of working capital Major Current Assets 1) Cash 2) Accounts Receivables 3) Inventory 4) Marketable Securities
Major Current Liabilities 1) Bank Overdraft 2) Outstanding Expenses 3) Accounts Payable 4) Bills Payable
The Goal of Capital Management is to manage the firm s current assets & liabilities, so that the satisfactory level of working capital is maintained. If the firm can not maintain the satisfactory level of working capital, it is likely to become insolvent & may be forced into bankruptcy. To maintain the margin of safety current asset should be large enough to cover its current assets. Main theme of the theory of working capital management is interaction between the current assets & current liabilities.
CONCEPT OF WORKING CAPITAL:
There are 2 concepts: Gross Working Capital Net Working Capital
Gross working capital: - It is referred as total current assets. Focuses on, Optimum investment in current assets: Excessive investments impairs firm s profitability, as idle investment earns nothing. Inadequate working capital can threaten solvency of the firm because of its inability to meet its current obligations. Therefore there should be adequate investment in current assets. Financing of current assets: Whenever the need for working capital funds arises, agreement should be made quickly. If surplus funds are available they should be invested in short term securities. Net working capital (NWC) defined by 2 ways,
Difference between current assets and current liabilities Net working capital is that portion of current assets which is financed with long term funds. NET WORKING CAPITAL = CURRENT ASSETS LIABILITIES CURRENT
If the working capital is efficiently managed then liquidity and profitability both will improve. They are not components of working capital but outcome of working capital. Working capital is basically related with the question of profitability versus liquidity & related aspects of risk.
Implications of Net Working Capital:
Net working capital is necessary because the cash outflows and inflows do not coincide. In general the cash outflows resulting from payments of current liability are relatively predictable. The cash inflows are however difficult to predict. More predictable the cash inflows are, the less NWC will be required. But where the cash inflows are uncertain, it will be necessary to maintain current assets at level adequate to cover current liabilities that are there must be NWC.
To finance current assets required for running of the business.For evaluating NWC position. If firm wants to reduce the risk.
If the firm wants to increase profitability. Investment in current assets and level of current liability has to be geared quickly to change in sales. the profitability will decrease. The importance of WCM is reflected in the fact that financial managers spend a great deal of time in managing current assets and current liabilities. Sales are necessary for earning profits.
The extent to which profit can be earned is dependent upon the magnitude of sales. Firm s aim is to maximize the wealth of share holders and to earn sufficient return from its operations. Its importance stems from two reasons: Investment in current asset represents a substantial portion of total investment. However. Business undertaking required funds for two purposes: To create productive capacity through purchase of fixed assets.
WCM is a significant facet of financial management.
PLANNING OF WORKING CAPITAL:
Working capital is required to run day to day business operations. The term risk is defined as the profitability that a firm will become technically insolvent so that it will not be able to meet its obligations when they become due for payment.
The term profitability is measured by profits after expenses. sales do not
. The risk of becoming technically insolvent is measured by NWC. Firms differ in their requirement of working capital (WC). the risk will definitely increase. an important consideration is trade off between probability and risk.
there is need for WC in the form of current asset to deal with the problem arising out of immediate realization of cash against good sold.
WORKING CAPITAL CYCLE:
A firm requires many years to recover initial investment in fixed assets. This is referred to as the operating or cash cycle.convert into cash instantly.
. On contrary the investment in current asset is turned over many times a year. there is invariably a time lag between sale of goods and the receipt of cash. hence proper balance should be maintained between two. WC management affect the profitability and liquidity of the firm which are inversely proportional to each other. To convert the sale of goods into cash. Investment in such current assets is realized during the operating cycle of the firm. Sufficient WC is necessary to sustain sales activity.
g. collect dues from debtors more quickly) or reduce the amount of money tied up (e. you could reduce the cost of bank interest or you'll have additional free money available to support additional sales growth or investment.. leasing etc.. computers.Each component of working capital (namely inventory. get longer credit or an increased credit limit. equity.g.. remember that this is now longer available for working capital.g. Similarly. receivables and payables) has two dimensions . if you can negotiate improved terms with suppliers e. TIME . When it comes to managing working capital . they remove liquidity from the business
. Similarly. Therefore.. vehicles etc. If you do pay cash. if available. for fixed assets e. you effectively create free finance to help fund future sales...loans. plant.. and MONEY. It can be tempting to pay cash. If you can get money to move faster around the cycle (e.. consider other ways of financing capital investment . As a consequence. these are cash outflows and.TIME IS MONEY.. if you pay dividends or increase drawings. if cash is tight. reduce inventory levels relative to sales).g. the business will generate more cash or it will need to borrow less money to fund working capital. like water flowing down a plughole..
You consume more cash. Your receivables soak up cash.. Move inventory (stocks) slower.
You free up cash. Collect receivables (debtors) slower.. You increase your cash resources. Get better credit (in terms of duration or amount) from suppliers.
Then . Shift inventory (stocks) faster.. You release cash from the cycle..If you .
. Collect receivables (debtors) faster.
This cash can be again used for financing raw material. entering into production process/stock & the inflow of cash from debtors (sales). etc. work in progress will get converted into sundry debtors. This time period is dependent upon the length of time within which the original cash gets converted into cash again. These three combined together will constitute work in progress. Then it has to pay labour costs & incurs factory overheads. work in progress etc. work in progress. finished goods and finally into cash again. thus there is complete cycle from cash to cash wherein cash gets converted into raw material. Sundry debtors will be realized in cash after the expiry of the credit period.. Some raw materials will be available on credit but.
. cash will be paid out for the other part immediately. The cycle is also known as operating cycle or cash cycle. suppose a company has certain amount of cash it will need raw materials. Short term funds are required to meet the requirements of funds during this time period. After the production cycle is complete.Operating cycle:
The working capital cycle refers to the length of time between the firms paying the cash for materials.
60 working capital. Conversion of work-in-progress into finished stock. company holds raw material on average for 60 days. The duration may vary depending upon the business policies. finished goods are held for 30 days & 30 days credit is extended to debtors. and Conversion of accounts receivable into cash.. i.e. In the form of an equation. However. For example. and be predicted with reliability once the production targets and cost of inputs are known. 2 Manufacture of the product and 3 Sales of the product (cash / credit). control & management of working capital. the third phase results in cash inflows which are not certain because sales and collection which give rise to cash inflows are difficult to forecast accurately. 15 + 15 + 15 + 30 + 30 days is the total of
First and second phase of the operating cycle result in cash outflows.Working capital cycle can be determined by adding the number of days required for each stage in the cycle. Thus the working capital cycle helps in the forecast. it gets credit from the supplier for 15 days. 1 Acquisition of resources. Conversion of raw-material into work-in-progress. The total days are 120. It indicates the total time lag & the relative significance of its constituent parts. the operating cycle process can be expressed as follows:
. In light of the facts discusses above we can broadly classify the operating cycle of a firm into three phases viz. Operating cycle consists of the following: Conversion of cash into raw-materials. Conversion of finished stock into accounts receivable through sales.
Operating cycle = R + W + F + D R = Raw material storage period
W = Work in progress holding period F = Finished goods storage period D = Debtors collection period C = Credit period availed
Finished Goods Conversion Period . required to invest in current assets for smooth and uninterrupted functioning.Operating cycle for manufacturing firm:
The firm is therefore.Inventory Conversion Period .Net Operating Cycle .Raw Material Conversion Period .
RMCP WIPCP FGCP ICP RCP
.Payables Deferral Period
Payables (PDP) NOC GOC
.Receivables Conversion Period .Gross Operating Cycle
.Work in Progress Conversion Period .
on the basis of information presented in the Balance sheet and CMA statement of Kirloskar Pneumatics Company Limited. PDP is the result of such an incidence and it represent the length of time the firm is able to defer payments on various resources purchased. Usually. the NOC also represents the cash collection from sale and cash payments for resources acquired by the firm and during such time interval between cash collection from sale and cash payments for resources acquired by the firm and during such time interval over which additional funds called working capital should be obtained in order to carry out the firms operations. Debtors / receivables conversion period and the creditors conversion period and based on such calculations we can find out the length of the operating cycle (in days) both gross as well as net operating cycle.
On the basis of financial statement of an organization we can calculate the inventory conversion period. WIPCP and FGCP. the working capital position is directly proportional to the Net Operating Cycle. the length of GOC is the sum of ICP and RCP. In short. the length of gross as well as net operating cycle is calculated as follows:
. ICP is the total time needed for producing and selling the products.Here. As mentioned above. Hence it is the sum total of RMCP. The difference between GOC and PDP is know as Net Operating Cycle and if Depreciation is excluded from the expenses in computation of operating cycle. firm acquires resources on credit basis. On the other hand. RCP is the total time required to collect the outstanding amount from customers.
260.0 4 2080.Particular s Material Cost Labour Cost Direct Expenses Prime Cost + Manufactu ring Exp.2 2
330.5 9 3681.2 3
22120.2 2 2103.47
1003.0 2 1977.1 7
315. Cost of Productio n +Opening WIP .71
1261.5 2 2733.9
14834.0 2 3336.Closing WIP Cost of Goods Produced +Opening FG -Closing FG Cost of Goods Sold
. Payables Deferral Period = Average Creditors x 360 = 87 days Cost of Goods Sold
Gross operating Cycle = 54 + 21 + 5 + 123 = 203 days Net Operating Cycle = 203 87 = 116 days
Operating Cycle for the year 2003-04 1 RMCP = 59 days
2 WIPCP = 24 days 3 FGCP = 4 days
4 Debtors Conversion Period = 149 days 5 Payable Deferral Period = 132 days.Operating Cycle for the year 2004-05
a. FGCP =
x 360 = 5 days
Cost of Goods Sold
d. WIPCP =
x 360 = 21 days
Cost of Production
c. RMCP =
x 360 = 54 days
b. Debtors Conversion Period
= Average Debtors x 360 = 123 days Cost of sales
Gross operating Cycle = 59 + 24 + 4 + 149 = 236 days Net Operating Cycle = 236 132 = 104 days
Operating Cycle for the year 2002-03
= 48 days
2 WIPCP = 23 days 3 FGCP = 5 days
4 Debtors Conversion Period = 181 days 5 Payable Deferral Period = 162 days.
Gross operating Cycle = 48 + 23 + 5 + 181 = 257 days Net Operating Cycle = 257 162 = 95 days
Operating Cycle for the year 2001-02
a. Debtors Conversion Period = 112 days e. Payable Deferral Period = 137 days. WIPCP = 27 days c.
Gross operating Cycle = 64 + 27 + 9 + 112 = 212 days Net Operating Cycle = 212 137 = 75 days
Types of working capital: 1) PERMANENT AND 2) VARIABLE WORKING CAPITAL
. FGCP = 9 days
= 64 days
the need for working capital. For example. It is permanent in the same way as the firms fixed assets are. or TEMPORARY working capital.
BALANCED WORKING CAPITAL POSITION
The firm should maintain a sound working capital position. the permanent capital is difference between permanent and temporary working capital can be depicted through figure. work-in-process and finished goods will fall if the market is slack. and investment in receivable may also increase during such periods. investment in raw material. or fixed. therefore.The need for current assets arises because of the operating cycle. or VARIABLE. Both excessive as
. Both kinds of working capital PERMANENT and
TEMPORARY . On the other hand. needed to support the changing production and sales activities is called FLUCTUATING.sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing.are necessary to facilitate production and sale through the operating cycle.
The extra working capital. The operating cycle is a continuous process and. will fluctuate. the need for current assets is felt constantly. But the magnitude of current assets needed is not always a minimum level of current assets which is continuously required by the firm to carry on its business operations. It should have adequate working capital to run its business operations. This minimum level of current assets is referred to as permanent. over and above permanent working capital. working capital. Depending upon the changes in production and sales. extra inventory of finished goods will have to be maintained to support the peak periods of sales.
While temporary working capital is fluctuating. However. but temporary-working capital is created by the firm to meet liquidity requirements that will last only temporary working capital. It is shown that permanent working capital is stable over time.
well as inadequate working capital positions are dangerous from the firm s point of view. Excessive working capital not only impairs the firm s profitability but also result in production interruptions and inefficiencies.
The dangers of excessive working capital are as follows:
It results in unnecessary accumulation of inventories. Thus, chances of inventory mishandling, waste, theft and losses increase. It is an indication of defective credit policy slack collections period. Consequently, higher incidence of bad debts results, which adversely affects profits. Excessive working capital makes management complacent which degenerates into managerial inefficiency. Tendencies of accumulating inventories tend to make speculative profits grow. This may tend to make dividend policy liberal and difficult to cope with in future when the firm is unable to make speculative profits.
Inadequate working capital is also bad and has the following dangers:
It stagnates growth. It becomes difficult for the firm to undertake profitable projects for non- availability of working capital funds. It becomes difficult to implement operating plans and achieve the firm s profit target.
Operating inefficiencies creep in when it becomes difficult even to meet day commitments. Fixed assets are not efficiently utilized for the lack of working capital funds. Thus, the firm s profitability would deteriorate. Paucity of working capital funds render the firm unable to avail attractive credit opportunities etc.
The firm loses its reputation when it is not in a position to honour its short-term obligations.
As a result, the firm faces tight credit terms.
An enlightened management should, therefore, maintain the right amount of working capital on a continuous basis. Only then a proper functioning of business operations will be ensured. Sound financial and statistical techniques, supported by judgment, should be used to predict the quantum of working capital needed at different time periods. A firm s net working capital position is not only important as an index of liquidity but it is also used as a measure of the firm s risk. Risk in this regard means chances of the firm being unable to meet its obligations on due date. The lender considers a positive net working as a measure of safety. All other things being equal, the more the net working capital a firm has, the less likely that it will default in meeting its current financial obligations. Lenders such as commercial banks insist that the firm should maintain a minimum net working capital position.
DETERMINANTS OF WORKING CAPITAL
There are no set rules or formula to determine the working capital requirements of firms. A large number of factors, each having a different importance, influence working capital needs of firms. Also, the importance of factors changes for a firm over time. Therefore, an analysis of relevant factors should be made in order to determine total investment in working capital. The following is the description of factors which generally influence the working capital requirements of firms. Nature of Business Sales and Demand Conditions Technology and Manufacturing Policy Credit Policy
Availability of Credit Operating Efficiency Price Level Changes
Nature of Business:
Working capital requirements of a firm are basically influenced by the nature of its business. Trading and financial firms have a very small investment in fixed assets, but require a large sum of money to be invested in working capital. Retail stores, for example, must carry large stocks of a variety of goods to satisfy varied and continuous demand of their customers. Some manufacturing business, such as tobacco manufacturers and construction firm, also have to invest substantially in working capital and a nominal amount in fixed assets. In contrast, public utilities have a very limited need for working capital and have to invest abundantly in fixed assets. Their working capital requirements are nominal because they may have only cash and supply services, not products. Thus, no funds will be tied up in debtors and stock (inventories). Working capital requires most of the manufacturing concerns to fall between the two extreme requirements of trading firms and public utilities. Such concerns have to make adequate investment in current assets depending upon the total assets structure and other variables.
Sales and Demand Conditions:
The working capital needs of a firm are related to its sales. It is difficult to precisely determine the relationship between volume of sales and working capital needs. In practice, current assets will have to be employed before growth takes place. It is , therefore, necessary to make advance planning of working capital for a growing firm on a continuous basis. A growing firm may need to invest funds in fixed assets in order to sustain its growing production and sales. This will, in turn, increase investment in current assets to support enlarged scale of operations. It should be realized
Seasonal fluctuations not only affect working capital requirements but also create production problems for the firm. Under boom. the firm s investment in inventories and debtors will also increase. This act of firm will require further additions of working capital. specially the temporary working capital requirement of the firm.that a growing firm needs funds continuously. To meet their requirements of funds for fixed assets and current assets under boom further additions of working capital. firms try to reduce their short term borrowings. sales will increase. Under recessionary conditions. it will be more expensive during slack periods when the firm has to sustain its working force and physical facilities without adequate production and sales. Similarly. when there is a decline in the economy. A firm may. On the other hand. correspondingly. When there is an upward swing in the economy. It would not be able to pay dividends to shareholders. firms generally resort to substantial borrowing. additional investment in fixed assets may be made by some firms to increase their productive capacity. increasing production may be expensive for the firm. Sales depend on demand conditions. irrespective of seasonal changes in order to utilize its resources to the fullest extent. thus. It uses external sources as well as internal sources to meet increasing needs of funds. sales will fall and consequently. levels of inventories and debtors will also fall. It is. Imperative that proper planning be done by such companies to finance their increasing needs for working capital. During periods of peak demand. Such
. follow a policy of steady production. Such a firm faces further financial problems when it retains substantial portion of its profits. therefore. To meet their requirements of funds for fixed assets and current assets under boom period. These business variations affect the working capital requirements. Most firms experience seasonal and cyclical fluctuations in the demand for their products and services.
depending on its size. Longer the manufacturing cycle.a policy will mean accumulation of inventories during off season and their quick disposal during the peak season. For example. financial arrangements for seasonal working capital requirements can be made in advance. if there are alternative technologies of manufacturing a product. may range between six to twenty. Thus. On the other hand. In order to minimize their investment in working capital. soaps. The increasing level of inventories during the slack season will require increasing funds to be tied up in the working capital for some months. it should be ensured that manufacturing cycle is completed within the specified period. However. chocolate etc. Any delay in manufacturing process will results in accumulation of work. larger will be the firm working capital requirements. This needs proper planning and coordination at all levels of activity. may be a few hours. An extended manufacturing time span means a larger tie.
Technology and Manufacturing Policy
The manufacturing cycle (or the inventory conversion cycle) comprises of the purchase and use of raw material the production of finished goods. some firms. the technological process with the shortest manufacturing cycle may be chosen. seasonal fluctuations generally conform to a steady pattern. Therefore.four months. Once a manufacturing technology has been selected. the manufacturing cycle of products such as detergent powder. especially firm
. the manufacturing cycle in the case of a boiler.inprocess and waste of time. the financial plan or arrangement should be flexible enough to take care of some abrupt seasonal fluctuations. Unlike cyclical fluctuations.up of funds in inventories.
Depending upon the individual case. But a firm has the flexibility of shaping its credit policy within the constraint of industry norms and practices. Slack collection procedures can increase the chance of bad debts.Manufacturing industrial products have a policy of asking for advance payment from their customers. They will manufacture the original product line during its increasing demand and when it has an off. The credit terms to be granted to customers may depend upon the norms of the industry to which the firm belongs. A steady production policy will cause inventories to accumulate during the off. the firm should follow a rationalized credit policy based on the credit standing of
. without rating the creditworthiness of customers.up of large funds in book debts. other products may be manufactured to utilize physical resources and working force. In order to ensure that unnecessary funds are not tied up in debtors. will be detrimental to the firm and will create a problem of collections. service and financial enterprises do not have a manufacturing cycle.
The credit policy of the firm affects the working capital by influencing the level of debtors.reason periods and the firm will be exposed to greater inventory costs and risks. depending on the circumstances of individual firm. Thus. if costs and risks of maintaining a constant production policy. A strategy of constant production may be maintained in order to resolve the working capital problems arising due to seasonal changes in the demand for the firm product. can have the advantage of diversified Activities and solve their working capital problems. A high collection period will mean tie. Non-manufacturing firms. different terms may be given to different customers. varying its production utilized for manufacturing varied products. The firm should be discretion in granting credit terms to its customers. Thus.season. A liberal credit policy. production policies will differ from firm to firm.
it can certainly ensure efficiency and effective use of its materials. helps in releasing the pressure on working capital. The use of working capital is improved and pace of cash conversion cycle is accelerated with operating efficiency.customers and periodically review the creditworthiness of the exiting customers.
. A firm will need less working capital if liberal credit terms are available to it. The case of delayed payments should be thoroughly investigated. the availability of credit from banks also influences the working capital needs of the firm.
Price Level Changes
The increasing shifts in price level make functions of financial manager difficult. The firm will be effectively contributing in keeping the working capital investment at a lower level if it is efficient in controlling operating costs and utilizing current assets. Better utilization of resources improves profitability and. labour and other resources.
The operating efficiency of the firm relates to the optimum utilization of resources at minimum costs.
Availability of Credit
The working capital requirements of a firm are also affected by credit terms granted by its creditors. A firm which can get bank credit easily on favorable condition will operate with less working capital than a firm without such a facility. thus. Although it may not be possible for a firm to control prices of materials or wages of labour. Similarly.
REQUIREMENTS OF FUNDS
Funds Requirements of company
Purchase of Fixed Assets
Establishment work exp. Some will face no working capital problem.He should anticipate the effect of price level changes on working capital requirement of the firm. Same levels of current assets will need increased investment when price are increasing. However. Further. while working capital problems of other may be aggravated. which requires short-term funds.
Goods in Process
Fixed working capital
Every company requires funds for investing in two types of capital i. Generally. companies which can immediately revise their product price levels will not face a server working capital problem. and working capital. It is possible that some companies may not be affected by rising price will be different for companies. rising price levels will require a firm to maintain higher amount of working capital. which requires long-term funds.
.e. effects of increasing general price level will be felt differently by firm as individual price may move differently. fixed capital.
This is called overtrading. Early warning signs include:
Pressure on existing cash
. you can easily over-stretch the financial resources of the business.SOURCES OF WORKING CAPITAL
Long-term source (Fixed working capital) a) Loan from financial institution b) Floating of Debentures c) Accepting public deposits d) Issue of shares e) Cash credit f) Commercial paper
Short-term source (Temporary working capital) a) Factoring b) Bill discounting c) Bank overdraft d) Trade credit
Sources of additional working capital include the following:
Existing cash reserves Profits (when you secure it as cash!) Payables (credit from suppliers) New equity or loans from shareholders Bank overdrafts or lines of credit Term loans
If you have insufficient working capital and try to increase sales.
The market value of a share is the amount at which a share is being sold on the stock exchange and may be radically different from the nominal value. Since the profits of companies can vary wildly from year to year. The nominal value of a share is the issue value of the share . If a share is sold at a premium. When they are issued.Exceptional cash generating activities e. 10 for every share it issues. the company selling the share will receive Rs. shares are usually sold for cash.it is the value written on the share certificate that all shareholders will be given by the company in which they own shares. as many shares are these days. offering high discounts for early cash payment Bank overdraft exceeds authorized limit Seeking greater overdrafts or lines of credit Part-paying suppliers or other creditors Paying bills in cash to secure additional supplies Management pre-occupation with surviving rather than managing Frequent short-term emergency requests to the bank (to help pay wages. Shares sold at par are sold for their nominal value only . at par and/or at a premium.g.so if Rs. In bad years. pending receipt of a cheque). dividends may be nothing whereas in good years they may be substantial. 37
. so can the dividends paid to ordinary shareholders. An ordinary share gives the right to its owner to share in the profits of the company (dividends) and to vote at general meetings of the company.10 share is sold at par. LONG TERM SOURCES ISSUE OF SHARES
Ordinary shares are also known as equity shares and they are the most common form of share in the UK. then the issue price will be the par value plus an additional premium.
LOANS FROM OTHER FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS The term debenture is a strictly legal term but there are other forms of loan or loan stock. the debenture holders will be preferential creditors and will be entitled to the repayment of some or all of their money before the shareholders receive anything. the debenture holder has a legal interest in that asset and the company cannot dispose of it unless the debenture holder agrees. If the debenture is for land and/or buildings it can be called a mortgage debenture. Then.
A secured debenture is one that is specifically tied to the financing of a particular asset such as a building or a machine. If the business fails.DEBENTURES Debentures are loans that are usually secured and are said to have either fixed or floating charges with them.
SHORT TERM SOURCES FACTORING Factoring allows you to raise finance based on the value of your outstanding invoices. Debenture holders have the right to receive their interest payments before any dividend is payable to shareholders and. A loan is for a fixed amount with a fixed repayment schedule and may appear on a balance sheet with a specific name telling the reader exactly what the loan is and its main details. even if a company makes a loss. Factoring also gives you the opportunity to outsource
. it still has to pay its interest charges. just like a mortgage for a private house.
The factor pays you a set proportion of the invoice value within a pre-arranged time . Once you have set up a factoring arrangement with a Factor. you invoice your customer and send a copy of the invoice to the factor and most factoring arrangements require you to factor all your sales.
OVERDRAFT FACILITIES Many companies have the need for external finance but not necessarily on a long-term basis. three weeks or even longer. A company might have small cash flow problems from
. The invoice discounter will then pay the remainder of the invoice. The invoice discounter makes a proportion of the invoice available to you once it receives a copy of an invoice sent. it must deposit the funds in a bank account controlled by the invoice discounter. most factors offer you 80-85% of an invoice's value within 24 hours. 'Confidential invoice discounting' ensures that customers do not know you are using invoice discounting as the client company sends out invoices and statements as usual. The major advantage of factoring is that you receive the majority of the cash from debtors within 24 hours rather than a week. Different invoice discounters will impose different requirements.typically. The requirements are more stringent than for factoring.
INVOICE DISCOUNTING Invoice discounting enables you to retain the control and confidentiality of your own sales ledger operations. it works this way: Once you make a sale. less any charges. Once the client receives payment. The client company collects its own debts.your sales ledger operations and to use more sophisticated credit rating systems.
So if the company borrows only a small amount. such as a supplier of raw materials. 25. 25. Why do they include lines of credit as a source of finance? They ll. By a 'line of credit' they mean that a creditor.
TRADE CREDIT This source of finance really belongs under the heading of working capital management since it refers to short-term credit. it only pays a little bit of interest.000 for 30 days and it can do whatever it likes with that money as long as it pays the creditor on time. Bank overdrafts are given on current accounts and the good point is that the interest payable on them is calculated on a daily basis. will allow us to buy goods now and pay for them later. Under these circumstances.000 for a company. Take a look at any company's balance sheet and see how much they have under the heading of Creditors falling due within one year' . if they manage their creditors carefully they can use the line of credit they provide for us to finance other parts of their business. Contrast the effects of an overdraft with the effects of a loan. If that company is allowed an average of 30 days to pay its creditors then they can see that effectively it has a short term loan of Rs. a company will often go to its bank and arrange an overdraft.time to time but such problems don't call for the need for a formal long-term loan.let's imagine it is Rs.
financial charges like interest.CASH MANAGEMENT:
Cash management is one of the key areas of WCM. They provide short term investment outlet to excess cash and are also useful for meeting planned outflow of funds. operating expenses. such as cheques. wages. Thus requirement of cash balances to meet routine need is known as the transaction motive and such motive refers to the holding of cash to meet anticipated obligations whose timing is not perfectly synchronized with cash receipts.
. payment for purchases. Transaction motive:
Transaction motive refer to the holding of cash to meet routine cash requirements to finance the transactions which a firm carries on in a variety of transactions to accomplish its objectives which have to be paid for in the form of cash. cash is the common denominator to which all current assets. such as marketable securities & time deposits in banks. dividends etc. receivables & inventory get eventually converted into cash. drafts and demand deposits in banks. that is.
Motives for holding cash Cash with reference to cash management is used in two senses: It is used broadly to cover currency and generally accepted equivalents of cash.g. Apart from the fact that it is the most liquid asset. E.
CASH IS MAINTAINED FOR FOUR MOTIVES: A. Cash is oil of lubricate the ever-turning wheels of business: without it the process grinds to a shop. It includes near-cash assets. taxes. They serve as a reserve pool of liquidity that provides cash quickly when needed. The main characteristic of these is that they can be readily sold & converted into cash.
the speculative motive represents a positive and aggressive approach.B.
. A chance to speculate on interest rate movements by buying securities when interest rates are expected to decline. in that firms must make provisions to tide over unexpected contingencies. The more unpredictable are the cash flows. Precautionary motive:
A firm has to pay cash for the purposes which can not be predicted or anticipated. Delay purchase of raw material on the anticipation of decline in prices. The unexpected cash needs at the short notice may be due to: Floods. Speculative motive:
It refers to the desire of the firm to take advantage of opportunities which present themselves at unexpected moment & which are typically outside the normal course of business. If the precautionary motive is defensive in nature. Make purchases at favorable price. the larger is the need for such balance. strikes & failure of customer Slow down in collection of current receivables Increase in cost of raw material Collection of some order of goods as customer is not satisfied The cash balance held in reserves for such random and unforeseen fluctuations in cash flows are called as precautionary balance.
C. Thus. precautionary cash provides a cushion to meet unexpected contingencies. The speculative motive helps to take advantages of: An opportunity to purchase raw material at reduced price on payment of immediate cash.
FACTORS DETERMININING CASH NEEDS:
1) Synchronization of cash . To meet the cash disbursement needs In the normal course of business firms have to make payment of cash on a continuous and regular basis to the supplier of goods. Cash budget point out when the firm will have excess or shortage of cash. To minimize the funds committed to cash balances First of all if we keep high cash balance. Expenses incurred as a shortfall are called short costs. Basic objective is to meet payment schedule that is to have sufficient cash to meet the cash disbursement needs of the firm. But it also implied that the large funds will remain idle. 2) Short cash Cash period reveals the period of cash shortages. Every
shortage of cash whether expected or unexpected involves a cost depending upon the security.need for the cash balances arises from the non-synchronization of the inflows & outflows of cash. it will ensure prompt payment together with all the advantages. as cash is the non-earning asset and firm will have to forego profits. For this purpose cash budget is to be prepared. Therefore we should have optimum level of cash balance. low cash balance mean failure to meet payment schedule.
II. employees and so son. First need in determining cash needs is.OBJECTIVES OF CASH MANAGEMENT:
I. Also the collection is done from the de4btorw. On the other hand. duration & frequency of shortfall & how the shortage is covered.
There are following costs included in the short cash
. the extent of non-synchronization of cash receipts & disbursements.
dividends etc. month. capital expenditure. Penalty rates: By a bank to meet a shortfall in compensating balances. This loss of interest is primarily the excess cost. week etc. handling of securities etc. Impact can be reduced through: Improved forecasting of tax payments. unexpected delays in collection &disbursements. defaults and unexpected cash needs. 3) Uncertainty the first requirement in cash management is
Precautionary cushion to cope with irregularities in cash flows. If large funds are idle the implication is that the firm has missed the opportunity to invest those funds and has thereby lost interest. Loss of cash discount: that s a loss because of temporary shortage of cash.
2) Procurement & Management cost
cost associated with establishing
and operating cash management staff and activities.cost associated with excessively large cash balances is known as excess cash balance cost.Transaction cost: this is usually the brokerage incurred in relation to the some short-term near-cash assets like marketable securities.
DETERMINING THE CASH NEEDS:
Cash needs can be determined though preparing cash budget. for year. Borrowing costs: these include interest on loan. Cost associated with deterioration of credit rating. commitment charges & other expenses relating to loan. Increased ability to borrow through overdraft facility.
1) Excess cash balance . They are generally fixed and accounted for by salary.
It should be realized that it is in the area of billing that the company control is high and there is a sizeable opporltunity to free up cash.Cash reports. For this purpose following can be helpful: 1 Prompt billing often there is time lag between the disptachof goods
or provision of service and the sending of bills. providing a comparison of actual development with forecast figures. Concentration banking. By preparing and sending the bills promptely. 2 Expeditious collection of cheques . This task assumes special importance on account of the fact that there is generally tendency amongst divisional manager to keep cash balance in excess of their needs.expediting collecgion of cheques is important and there are to methods 1. Lock box method
. Hence a finance manager must devise a system whereby each division of organization retains enough cash to meet its day-to-day requirements without having surplus balance on hand. For this treasure should work with controller and others in : Accelerating invoice data Mailing bills promptly Identifying payment locations. a firm can esure earlier remittance. 2. For this methods have to be employed to: Speed up the mailing time of payment from customers Reduce the time during which payments received by the firm remain uncollected and speed up the movement funds to disbursement banks. are helpful in controlling and revising cash forecasts on a continual basis The important cash reports are The daily cash reports Daily treasury reports The monthly cash report Monitoring collection and receivables: The Finance Manager must control the levels of cash balance at various points in the organization.
Payments collected in different collection centres are deposited in local banks which in turn transfer them to the concentration banks
Lock box method: Silent features are as follows A number of post office boxes are rented by the company in different locations. Controlling payables/disbursements: by proper control of payables company can manage cash resources.The major bank account of the company is wet up with a concentration bank. reducing unproductive bank balance and investing surplus funds more effectively. Proper synchronization of inflows and outflows helps a company to get greater mileage from cash resources. Centralized disbursement payables and their
disbursements may be centralized. Customers are advised to mail their remittances to collection centre close tgo them. but balance in banks book is not reduced till the payment is made by bank. generally situated in the same place where the company is head quartered. Float: when firm issues cheques they reduce the balance in their books.l Customersare advised to mail there remittances to the lock boxes. This involves
Payment should be made as and when it fall due. This helps in consolidating the funds at head office scheduling payments. Banks are authosized to picked up the cheques from the lock boxes and depositthem in the companies account. This amount of cheques issued by the firm but not paid for by the bank is referred to as payment
.Concentration banking : (decentralized collection) key elements are.
The balance in the bank s book however is cleared. Difference between payment float and collection float is called as net float . the opportunity costs of maintaining cash rise as the cash balance increases. Such an action is referred to as playing the float It is considered risky. the total costs of holding cash are at a minimum when the size of the cash balance is C . they extend credit to the firm for a period at the end of which they are paid. When the cheques are deposited with bank the firm increases the balance in its books. Accruals: accruals can be defined as current liabilities that represent a service or goods received by a firm but not yet paid for. However. The amount of cheques deposited by the firm in the bank but not cleared is referred to as collection float . Weekly is more important as compared to monthly. loan repayment or some other purposes. Hence trading or transaction costs will tend to diminish if cash balance becomes larger. For example remuneration to employee s that render services in advance and receive payment later. In a way. When the net float is positive the balance in the books of bank is higher than the balance in the books of firm. This represents optimal cash balance.
OPTIMAL CASH BALANCE
It a firm maintains a small cash balance. rent to lessors.float . it has to sell its marketable securities more frequently than if it holds a large cash balance. taxes to government. Deployment of surplus funds: Company s often have surplus funds for short period of time before they are required for capital expenditure. Other examples. At
. When the firm enjoys the positive float (net) it may issue cheques even if it have an overdrawn bank account in its books. From the figure.
the one end they are invested in term deposit in bank and on other end are invested in equity shares. They can be invested in several options like
Units of the unit 1964 scheme: This is the most important mutual fund scheme in India. 10.
.The sale & purchase price of units are not squarely based on the net asset per unit.00/. as should be the case for a truly open ended scheme. The units have face value of Rs. It has the following featuresIt is a open ended scheme as it accepts funds from investors & also permits to withdraw their investments.
Trade references. which will provoke a series of questions. providing that the companies approached are a representative sample of all the clients suppliers. This can be extremely useful. However. the major sources of information available to companies in assessing customers credit worthiness are: Bank references. These are: Capacity: will the customer be able to pay the amount agreed within the allowable credit period? What is their past payment record? How large is the customer's business capital. able to make payments on time? Character: do the customers management appear to be committed to prompt payment? Are they of high integrity? What are their personalities like? Collateral: what is the scope for including appropriate security in return for extending credit to the customer? Conditions: what are the prevailing economic conditions? How are these likely to impact on the customers ability to pay promptly? Whilst the materiality of the amount will dictate the degree of analysis involved. Such references can be misleading. as they are usually based on direct credit
. what is the financial health of the customer? Is it a liquid and profitable concern. particularly when the customer is encountering financial difficulties.Assessing the credit worthiness of customers
Before extending credit to a customer. Companies already trading with the customer may be willing to provide a reference for the customer. which can render such references uninformative. a supplier should analyze the five Cs of credit worthiness. These may be provided by the customers bank to indicate their financial standing. the law and practice of banking secrecy determines the way in which banks respond to credit enquiries.
credit managers should be aware that many failing companies preserve solid payment records with key suppliers in order to maintain supplies. payment records with other suppliers. or for limited companies. bank and newspaper reports. the supplier will have access to their past payment record.experience and contain no knowledge of the underlying financial strength of the customer. The use of such agencies has grown dramatically in recent years. from Companies House. staff should gain an impression of the efficiency and financial resources of customers and the integrity of its management. Personal contact. in return for a fee. Through visiting the premises and interviewing senior management. While subject to certain limitations past accounts can be useful in vetting customers. General sources of information. Past experience. Obtaining information from a range of sources such as financial accounts. court judgments. However. They will provide a credit rating for different companies. For existing customers. Where the credit risk appears high or where substantial levels of credit are required. Credit agencies. Sales staffs who have their ears to the ground can also prove an invaluable source of
. but they only do so at the expense of other creditors. many companies go into liquidation with flawless payment records with key suppliers. credit agencies can prove a mine of information. Financial accounts. Indeed. Credit managers should scout trade journals. The most recent accounts of the customer can be obtained either direct from the business. the supplier may ask to see evidence of the ability to pay on time. This demands access to internal future budget data. business magazines and the columns of the business press to keep abreast of the key factors influencing customers' businesses and their sector generally.
the customer may switch to an alternative.. fragmented customer base. its credit policy will
. with a cost/benefit analysis of the impact of such sales. a supplier with a strong market share may be able to impose strict credit terms on a weak.information. Industry norms: unless a company can differentiate itself in some manner (e. incorporating the likelihood of payment on time and the possibility of bad debts. trade credit may represent an important source of finance. one may add. Market position: the relative market strengths of the customer and supplier can be influential. Credit terms granted to customers Although sales representatives work under the premise that all sales are good (particularly. please customers and boost sales. For example. unrivalled after sales service).g. the credit manager must take a more dispassionate view. it must have sufficient resources to be able to offer credit and ensure that the level of credit granted represents an efficient use of funds. Financial resources of the respective businesses: from the supplier's perspective. where commission is involved!). particularly where finance is constrained. Profitability: the size of the profit margin on the goods sold will influence the generosity of credit facilities offered by the supplier. Where a customer does survive the credit checking process. If margins are tight. credit advanced will be on a much stricter basis than where margins are wider. more understanding supplier. They must balance the sales representative's desire to extend generous credit terms. These include: Order size and frequency: companies placing large and/or frequent orders will be in a better position to negotiate terms than firms ordering on a one-off basis. For the customer. the specific credit terms offered to them will depend upon a range of factors. If credit is not made available.
by doing so. Whilst it may appear nonsensical to spend time chasing a small debt. Business objectives: where growth in market share is an objective. trade credit may be used as a marketing device (i. Ultimately.. a company may send a powerful signal to its customers that it is serious about the application of its credit and collection policies. follow up disputed invoices speedily. The main elements of a trade policy are: Terms of trade: the supplier must address the following questions: which customers should receive credit? How much credit should be advanced to particular customers and what length of credit period should be allowed? Cash discounts: suppliers must ponder on whether to provide incentives to encourage customers to pay promptly. issue statements and reminders at appropriate intervals. liberalized to boost sales volumes). Collection policy: an efficient system of debt collection is essential. A clear policy must be devised for overdue accounts. Materiality is important. with appropriate procedures (such as withdrawing future credit and charging interest on overdue amounts).e. a balance must be struck between the cost of implementing a strict collection policy (i. the risk of alienating otherwise good customers) and the
.. Suppliers will have to get a feel for the sensitivity of demand to changes in the credit terms offered to customers. and generate management reports such as an aged analysis of debtors. A number of companies have abandoned the expensive practice of offering discounts as customers frequently accepted discounts without paying in the stipulated period.e. A good accounting system should invoice customers promptly.generally be guided by the terms offered by its competitors. and followed up consistently.
This means that if the clients debtors do not pay what they owe. which guarantees against bad debts. and frequently do. These include disputes over invoices.
. Provision of finance. the factor will not ask for his money back from the client. so that cash is received earlier than if the company waited for its credit customers to pay. arise. problems can.tangible benefits resulting from good credit management
Problems in collecting debts
Despite the best efforts of companies to research the companies to whom they extend credit. whereby the factor immediately advances about 80% of the value of debts being collected. late payment. Three basic services are offered. involving invoicing and the collecting of debts. deduction of discounts where payment is late. and the troublesome issue of bad debts. There are two types of factoring service: Non-recourse factoring is where the factoring company purchases the debts without recourse to the client. Credit insurance. so this next section concentrates solely on the frequently examined method of factoring. Space precludes a detailed examination of debtor finance.
Factoring an evaluation
Factoring involves raising funds against the security of a company's trade debts. frequently through subsidiaries of major clearing banks: Sales ledger accounting.
on the other hand. Service fees typically range from 0. finance provided is linked to sales.Recourse factoring. With 80% of the value of debtors paid up front (usually electronically into the clients bank account. the remaining 20% is paid over when either the debtors pay the factor (in the case of recourse factoring). in contrast to overdraft limits.5 . the firm can maintain optimal stock levels. the business can pay its suppliers promptly (perhaps benefiting from discounts) and because they have sufficient cash to pay for stocks.
provides faster and more predictable cash flows.
. management can concentrate on managing. when the debt becomes due (non-recourse factoring). or. rather than chasing debts. Factors usually charge for their services in two ways: administration fees and finance charges. the cost of running a sales ledger department is saved and the company benefits from the expertise (and economies of scale) of the factor in credit control .3% of annual turnover. by the next working day). similar to that of a bank overdraft. For the finance made available. which tend to be determined by historical balance sheets. factors levy a separate charge. growth can be financed through sales. is where the business takes the bad debt risk. rather than having to resort to external funds.
Working capital management is of critical importance to all companies. Companies must strike a balance between minimizing the risk of insolvency (by having sufficient working capital) with the need to maximize the return on assets. though attitudes are rapidly changing. the administration fee can be quite high depending on the number of debtors. which demands a far less conservative outlook. having the factor in the middle can lead to a confused three-way communication system. the volume of business and the complexity of the accounts. By paying the factor directly. Traditionally the involvement of a factor was perceived in a negative light (indicating that a company was in financial difficulties). Moreover. customers will lose some contact with the supplier.Disadvantages
the interest charge usually costs more than other forms of short-term debt. which hinders the debt collection process. where disputes over an invoice arise. Ensuring that sufficient liquid resources are available to the company is a pre-requisite for corporate survival.
which take account of stock holding and purchasing costs? Do you know the cost to the company of carrying stock? Do you have alternative sources of supply? If not. It is important to look after your creditors slow payment by you may create ill feeling and can signal that your company is inefficient (or in trouble!). Management of your creditors and suppliers is just as important as the management of your debtors.
Purchasing initiates cash outflows and an over-zealous purchasing function can create liquidity problems. credit terms. get quotes from major suppliers and shop around for the best discounts.MANAGING PAYABLES (CREDITORS)
Creditors are a vital part of effective cash management and should be managed carefully to enhance the cash position. How many of your suppliers have a returns policy? Are you in a position to pass on cost increases quickly through price increases to your customers? If a supplier of goods or services lets you down can you charge back the cost of the delay? Can you arrange (with confidence!) to have delivery of supplies staggered or on a just-in-time basis? There is an old adage in business that if you can buy well then you can sell well. and reduce dependence on a single supplier.
.is it tightly managed or spread among a number of (junior) people? Are purchase quantities geared to demand forecasts? Do you use order quantities. Consider the following: Who authorizes purchasing in your company .
no earlier . average stock-holding periods will be influenced by the nature of the business.
The key issue for a business is to identify the fast and slow stock movers with the objectives of establishing optimum stock levels for each category and. put another way. a fresh vegetable shop might turn over its entire stock every few days while a motor factor would be much slower as it may carry a wide range of rarely-used spare parts in case somebody needs them. they are able to conserve substantial cash. components etc. JIT is a good model to strive for as it embraces all the principles of prudent stock management. minimize the cash tied up in stocks.INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
Managing inventory is a juggling act.
Factors to be considered when determining optimum stock levels include: What are the projected sales of each product? How widely available are raw materials. arrive at the factory early that morning. Because JIT manufacturers hold stock for a very short time. thereby.
Nowadays. This helps to minimize manufacturing costs as JIT stocks take up little space. delays for customers etc.no later. many large manufacturers operate on a Just-In-Time (JIT) basis whereby all the components to be assembled on a particular today. how long each item of stock sit on shelves before being sold. Insufficient stocks can result in lost sales.
The key is to know how quickly your overall stock is moving or. Excessive stocks can place a heavy burden on the cash resources of a business.?
. For example. minimize stock holding and virtually eliminate the risks of obsolete or damaged stock. Obviously.
Consider having part of your product outsourced to another manufacturer rather than make it yourself. accommodation costs and interest charges. try the following: Review the effectiveness of existing purchasing and inventory systems.it gets more difficult to sell the longer you keep it. Review your security procedures to ensure that no stock "is going out the back door!" Higher than necessary stock levels tie up cash and cost more in insurance. which is not working for you. Know the stock turn for all major items of inventory. For better stock control. Apply tight controls to the significant few items and simplify controls for the trivial many. Sell off outdated or slow moving merchandise .
.How long does it take for delivery by suppliers? Can you remove slow movers from your product range without compromising best sellers? Remember that stock sitting on shelves for long periods of time ties up money.
. Reports in the company. Discussion with the head of the department. in manufacturing processes. Getting information by observations e.
The data is collected through the secondary sources like: Annual Reports of the company. Magazines. Office manuals of the departmen.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The information is collected through the primary sources like: Talking with the employees of the department.g. Policy documents of various departments.
DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION
19 1.80 8385. A.6 0.R.4 0.21
10996.6 1.5 9336.32 1.39 1.45
QUICK ASSETS Acid Test Ratio = ------------------------------QUICK LIABILITIES
Q.2 0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06
Interpretation: A quick ratio of 1:1 or more is considered as satisfactory or of sound liquidity position.17
1. In the year 2002-03. compared to previous year.4 1.T.L.57 7917. Q. quick assets and current assets decreased but the decreased rate of current
.47 1.2 1 0.29
10423.8 0.A.08 8605.
29 and 1.21 in 2003-04 and 04-05 respectively. so quick ratio increased from 1.29 to 1.45 to 1.52 to 1.liabilities is greater than the decreased rate of quick ratios. so quick ratio decreased from 1. And It has further decreased to 1.52.17 in 2005-06. In 2003-04 and 04-05 there was a decrease in quick assets and increase in current liabilities.
(in Lacs) Period in Month Rs.26
2005 -06 3.5 0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 I.H.94
2004 -05 5.0 0
2002 -03 5.28
3.R Rs.0 0
1.5 2 1.30
2003 -04 4.5 1 0.31
2001 -02 6.0 0
12.T.5 3 2.0 0
12. (In Lacs) I.P
2.H.Inventory Holding Period: -
12 MONTHS Inventory Holding Period = ---------------------------------------------INVENTORY TURNOVER RATIO
Particula rs I.43
63.28 that suggests that there was an increase in sales and decrease in inventory turnover ratio.
. This shows an increase in inventory holding period.Interpretation: In the year 2002-03 there was a decrease in inventory turnover ratio. In the year 2005-06 it is 3. In 2003-04 there was an increase in holding period and in 2004-05 it was 2.
59 2.58 2.58 5 4.04 3 4 2001 -02 12 2002 -03 12 2003 -04 12 2004 -05 12 2005 -06 12
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
6.8 6.04 4 D.P in month 1.15 5.C.Debtors Collection Period: -
12 MONTHS Debtors collection period = ------------------------------------------DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO Particula rs Period in month DT ratio D.P in month
.59 5.C.4 5 3 4.
Interpretation: There is an increase in both debtors and sales. collection period is decreasing year by year. so avg. That shows that recovery from debtors is improving.
35 2.Creditors Turnover Ratio: -
12 MONTHS Creditors payment period = ------------------------------------------CREDITOR TURNOVER RATI Particula rs Period in months C.07 3.43 3.35 4. There is continuous increase in purchases and continuous decrease in creditors.R C.95 4.05 2.T.10 10.50 2001 -02 12 2002 -03 12 2003 -04 12 2004 -05 12 2005 -06 12
12 10 8 6 4 2 0
10.P 1. 71
.9 8.24 5.P.07 3. so payment period is decreasing year by year.5 cpp
Interpretation: In case of KPCL.49 8.9 0 1.05 5.
06 683.5 1 0. 98 1.3 5 I.5 7 EBIT 542.0 7 2003 -04 587. 92 916.5 0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 I. 07 155.R
.5 2 1. 35 96. 88 1. 83 3.R 0.16 676.37 907. 91 55.Interest Coverage Ratio: -
EBIT Interest coverage ratio = --------------------------INTEREST Particul ars INTERE ST EBT 200102 1458. 35 1. 41
4 3.C.5 3 2.0 0 2004 -05 521.50 2002 -03 852.30 1710.C.4 2 1222. 81 200506 488.
37 to 1.30 to 3. There was a decrease in interest as well as EBIT but the decrease rate is higher than the decrease rate of EBIT.Interpretation: In case of KPCL.16 and in the year 2004-05 there was decrease in interest and increase in EBIT so the ratio increased from 1.06 to 1.
.30 and further it is increasing from 1. so the ratio increased from 1.50 in 2005-06 because EBIT has increased with a substantial amount.16. in the year 2002-03 there was a decrease in interest and increase in EBIT so ratio increased from 0. in the year 2003-04.16 to 1.
93 0.5 1 0.36 2.T.51 2005 -06 4636 .39 4003 . it implies that for every rupee of outside liability.
Interpretation: The D/E ratio is 1:1.52 2.12 1.T.83 5421 .86
2.58 Total Debt D.R. In case of our organization there is an improvement in the D/E ratio year by 74
.32 2002 -03 3360 . R. 7696 . CAP.20 2003 -04 3446 .5 2 1.63 7377 .91 2004 -05 3586 .08 1.E.Debt to Equity Ratio: -
TOTAL DEBTS Debt to Equity Ratio = -----------------------------------------EQUITY (SH.5 0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 D. + R & S) Particul ars Equity 2001 -02 3323 .27 6599 .E.
to 1. There is continuous decrease in total debt and there is continuous increase in shareholder s equity (i.
.51 in 2004-05. Reserves and Surpluses) with increasing rate so the ratio is decreasing from 2.91 in 2003-04 and to 1.86 in 2005-06.year.e.20 in 2002-03.32 to 2. and to 0.
78 3036 5.90
5 4.5 0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06
.x 100 SALES Partic ulars G/P 2001 -02 265.5 3 2.5 4 3.86 1.75 1.16 4.75 2003 -04 376.94 1.61 1.74 2004 -05 386.7 4 SALE S G/P Margi n 1726 7.6 7 2617 3.54 2002 -03 339.5 1 0.5 2 1.Gross Profit Margin: -
GROSS PROFITS Gross Profit Margin = --------------------------.5 3 2164 6.48 2005 -06 1489.7 0 1939 6.
54 to 1.
.90.48 and in the year 2005-06 it has shot up to 4. so ratio of GP has decreased from 1. in the year 2003-04 there was decrease in sales and in gross profit. so the ratio of GP and sales has slightly decreased from 1. (percentage of increase in gross profit is lower than the percentage of increase in sales).74 to 1.75 to 1.75.74 and in the year 2004-05 similar to 2002-03 there was an increase in sales and a decrease in gross profit.Interpretation: In the year 2002-03 there was an increase in sales as well as increase in gross profit so ratio of GP increased from 1.
77) Sales 1726 7.500
4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 2001. profit (loss) margi n (5.16 3.440 2002 -03 48.22 0. 20 3036 5.200302 03 04 2004.32 ) 1939 6.75 0.7 8 2641 4.200505 06
N.94 0.31 2004 -05 152.250 2164 6.99 2003 -04 95.61 N.578 2005 -06 1066.2002.Net Profit Ratio: -
NET PROFIT (AFTER TAX & INTEREST) Net Profit Ratio = --------------------------------------------------------X 100 SALES Partic ulars PAT 2001 -02 (918. profit (loss) margin
A (OP+C L) AVER AGE F. 97
2147.A (A) TOTA L C.04
3017 0. 693
1489 5. except for 2001-02.67
.A (OP+C L) AVG CURR
4295. it shows a continuous increase
Total Assets Turnover Ratio: -
NET SALES Total Assets Turnover ratio: ---------------------------------------AVERAGE TOTAL ASSETS
Partic ulars TOTA L F.35
1128 7. 62
2927 7. 81
1508 5. Therefore. where there was a loss.65
3022 3. After that there is a continuous increase in PAT as well as in sales from 2002-03 to 2005-06. 38
1518.Interpretation: Net profit ratio is increasing year after year.33
1511 1. 49
83 1680 6.35 to 1. so the ratio decreased from 1.A.12 2164 6.35 1939 6.61 T. In the year 2002-03 there was an increase in average total assets.75 1. 08
(2001-02) (2005-06) (2002-03)
Interpretation: There is a continuous increase in sales. in 2003-04 and 2004-05 there is a change in average assets and decrease
. R 1.ENT ASSET S (B) AVG.27 2617 3.86 1. TOTA L ASSET S SALES 1726 7.46 1703 2.46 1725 9.94 1.32 8441.59 1280 5.56 3036 5.T.12.16 3.
12 to 1.
. so ratio increased from 1.in average total assets.27 to 1.59.27 and from 1.55 respectively. For the year 2005-06 ratio is 3.
16 13.75 11. FIXE D ASSE TS SALE S F.A.Fixed Assets turnover ratio: NET SALES Fixed Assets turnover ratio: .53
1910.61 11. 98
2617 3. 27
3036 5. 62
3821.94 9. 38
1939 6. 69
4486.86 13. FIXED ASSETS
Partic ulars TOTA L OF FA (OP+ CL) AVG. 49
03 10 8 6 4 2 0 11. In the year 2003-04 and 2004-05 there was a decrease in average fixed assets and an increase in sales. In the year 2002-03.03. so ratio increased from 9. so ratio decreased from 11.37 11.70 respectively.11 to 13.7 14 12 9.11
(2001-02) (2002-03) (2003-04) (2004-05) (2005-06)
(2001-02) (2002-03) (2003-04) (2004-05) (2005-06)
Interpretation: Here we have seen there has been a continuous increase in sales.
.37 to 9. But it is slightly decreasing in 2005-06.03 to 11. there was an increase in average fixed assets as well as in sales but the growth rate of average fixed assets was higher.11 and from 11.
6 7 225 74.1 6 292 77.7 7 150 85.53 1.28 1.R 1.3 6 146 38.0 2 148 95.8 6 297 90.T .5 4 (200 304) 216 46.6 5 (200 203) 193 96.9 4 302 23.3 5
. CUR RENT ASSE TS C.43 1.A.07 112 87.7 5 301 70.76 2.3 3 151 11.7 1 (200 506) 303 65. CURRENT ASSETS Partic ulars (200 102) SALE S 172 67.6 1 CUR RENT ASSE TS AVG.0 4 (200 405) 261 73.Current Assets turnover ratio: -
SALES Current assets turnover ratio: ------------------------------------AVG.
5 0 1.07 1.R 2. but as the growth rate of sales is higher when compared to decreased rate of current assets so the ratio has decreased from 1. Current assets had decreased in 2002-03 and 2004-05 and increased in 2003-04.2.76
Interpretation:A better current assets turnover ratio is always good for a firm and in case of our organization. Further it has increased to 1.T.53 to 1.07 in 2005-06.5 2 1.
.43 in 2003-04 and to 2.A. the turnover ratio is moving positively during the past 4 years.53 1.28 1.43 C.28 in 2001-02 to 2002-03.5 1 0.
2004 -05 26.C.86 6007.36
2003 -04 21.16 5328 .T .20
WOR KING CAPIT AL W.64 6.61
2002 -03 19.52
2.39 6.75 6746.Working Capital turnover ratio
NET SALES Working Capital turnover ratio = ----------------------------------NET WORKING CAPITAL
Partic ulars Sales
2001 -02 17. 03
2.52 2.26 7.T.C.21
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2. 32
2005 -06 3036 5.
7 in 2005-06.A high working capital turnover ratio indicates efficiency in utilization of resources and the ratio has improved from 2. Hence we can see that the component of working capital is consistently reducing which is considered as a positive sign from the point view of the finance
.52 in 2001-02 to 5.
22 1913.91 4037.99 223.63 11652.01 488.Profit and Loss account
Particular Year (A) INCOME Sales Add.49 597.04 505.95 12720.47 2633.76 249.07 3681.06
19360.58 192.16 33693.16
-916.8 3250.56 688.65
Materials Consumed:Materials Consumed: Stores & spaces consume: WIP & finish goods Manufacturing Expenses: Employee's Emoluments: Interest & other Fin.lacs) 2005-06 2006-07
17058.94 9599.13 1212.99 852.27 214.68 19991.03 587.96 3336.84 -380.1 277.08 46. Other Income Total Income (B) EXPENDITURE Amount (Rs.83 30807.21 593.35 4060. Charges Sundry Expenses: Depreciation: Total Expenditure Net Profit before Tax (A-B) Provision for Tax Net Profit After Tax 8870.16 82 212.56 2.81
30365.59 32441.8 2526.37
26879.91 20044.39 -188.74 22362.64 1458.51 3597.45 1443.42 4718.72
27035.95 895.68 683.8 15817.23 -120.52 21624.25 260
16592.lacs) 2001-02 Amount (Rs.84 3.77 346.12 3115.22 621.77
96.02 22459.05 3946.58 12412.97 1636.76
.lacs) 2003-04 Amount (Rs.85 6.62 10866.lacs) 2002-03 Amount (Rs.9 2722.lacs) (Rs.17
155.49 20607.12 20215.47 223.27 1116.42 1424.81 3598.03 152.lacs) 2004-05 Amount Amount (Rs.67 31101.37 5084.17 225.46 17573.59 19691.97 4007.75 95.32 521.75 34250.16
1809.2 -918.58 557.43 835.92 1.00 736.42 18502.
749985197 529139497 220845700 2764184 223609884
745342117 542178336 203163781 2764184 205927965
717930907 537061079 180869828 2764184 183634012
718557289 524722052 193835237 4723646 198558883
777226949 777226949 533470985 575222000 243755964 202004949 6384589 NIL
Total Technical Know-how
Current Asset.BALANCE SHEET
SOURCES OF FUNDS:
Shareholders 1 funds: a) Capital b) Reserve & Surplus
128443380 128443380 335195910 457620000
2 Loan Funds: a) Secured loans b) Unsecured loans
380016497 391862000 20376994 13285000
TOTAL APPLICATION OF FUNDS:
1102011578 1073799531 1004539568
1 Fixed asset: a) Gross Block b) LessDepreciation Net block Capital WIP exp. Loans & 4 Advances
1) Inventories 2) Sundry Debtors 3) Cash & Bank balance 4) Loans & advances Less .Current Liabilities & provisions 1) Liabilities 2) Provisions Net Current Assets Miscellaneous Expenditure 5 (To the extent not written off or adjusted) Deferred revenue expenditure in respect of VRS Pension scheme
309469261 849477102 22043337 342161013
294045465 875751450 26143472 303263771
429724069 884099843 8159330 195816844
418963322 897711768 5590022 139006705
366814500 401247000 904486832 938053000 74504328 801369
918023088 725400000 15620580 16700000
31494649 NIL 900790730
1102011578 1073799531 1004539568
32 176.77 220.00 7917.12
771. Total Current Liabilities Net Current Assets Decrease in working capital 228.71
262.Statement of changes in working capital (2002-03).43 3421.67
.66 14992.74 41.45 8757.03
3094.20 228.51 261.46 6846.00 388.70 8494.87
2940.32 7074. Particulars
A) Current Assets a) Inventories b) Sundry debtors c) Cash and bank d) Loans & advances Total Current Assets B) Current Liabilities a) Sundry creditors b) Provisions.33 178.01 2.43 3032.
45 8757.9 1942.47
7741.04 by decrease in cash & bank balance & loans & advances.64 14992.17 15178.03
1356.Statement of changes in working capital (2003-04). Total Current Liabilities Net Current Assets 6560.53 327.43 3032.24 8841 81.32 176.79 83.81 1614.19
688.00 7917.75 8431.49
A) Current Assets a) Inventories b) Sundry debtors c) Cash and bank d) Loans & advances Total Current Assets B) Current Liabilities a) Sundry creditors b) Provisions.25
Decrease in working capital
Interpretation: This statement shows the decrease in Working Capital in the year 2003.44 1.43
2940.94 6746.59 1958.84 1074.9 327.
.51 261.12 174.32
loans & advances. Particulars
A) Current Assets a) Inventories b) Sundry debtors c) Cash and bank d) Loans & advances Total Current Assets B) Current Liabilities a) Sundry creditors b) Provisions.07 14612.72
107.32 136.9 1390.49
Interpretation: The statement shows the decrease in Working Capital in the year 2004-05 by decrease in cash & Bank balance.Statement of changes in working capital (2004-05).63 8977. inventories. Total Current Liabilities Net Current Assets
Decrease in working capital
875.12 55.12 25.69 568.75 8431.93 1.81
739.59 1958.24 8841 81.37 3.03 8605.
07 14612.43 5328.9 1390.49
67.86 745.14 183.03 8605.49
Interpretation: This statement shows the increase in Working Capital in the year 2005-06 by increase in cash & bank balance.12 55. inventories & debtors.86 153.01
Decrease in working capital
3668.74 689.Statement of changes in working capital (2005-06).64
521.20 9336.23 156. In the final analyses
9180.14 9044. Total Current Liabilities Net Current Assets
4189.20 756.37 3.88
577.63 8977. Particulars
A) Current Assets a) Inventories b) Sundry debtors c) Cash and bank d) Loans & advances Total Current Assets B) Current Liabilities a) Sundry creditors b) Provisions.17
1436.58 14664.04 1206.
02 1238.Projection of changes in working capital (2006-07).21
7254.20 9336.65 Increase in working capital 1889.80
1926.43 5328.23 156.58 14664.81
647.23 10.86 745.47 9280.64
637. Total Current Liabilities Net Current Assets
.82 1889.14 9044.00 7218. Particulars
A) Current Assets a) Inventories b) Sundry debtors c) Cash and bank d) Loans & advances Total Current Assets B) Current Liabilities a) Sundry creditors b) Provisions.00 7421.33 235.01
344.02 31.00 14639.53 108.00 167.
6746.50 14992.00 7241.63 8977.43 5328.33 178.45 8757.77 220.9
4189.12 7741.03 B] C.
Interpretation: This table shows the Working Capital position for the last 5 years & the projected Working Capital for 2006-07.58
3032.46 Net Current liabilities [A-B] 6846.24 8841 81.53 108.43
2940.64 14639.03 8605.23 156.70 8494.Statement showing Net Current Assets / Net Working Capital
Particulars 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07
A] C.81 6007. Assets a) Inventories b) S.20 7254.20 9336.01 8429.04
4012.00 7398.4 9180.47 9280. 8385.64
1958.04 8431.72 14664. d) Loans & Advances Total Amt.00
1390.44 1. Liabilities a) Creditors b) Provisions Total Amt.51 261.01
3421.00 167.14 9044. Debtors c) Cash & bank balance.75 8431.37 3.12 55.86 745.19 8602.32 176
4) Debtors of the company were high.
7) Working capital turnover ratio is continuously increasing that shows increasing needs of working capital.FINDINGS
1) Defence sales order of Rs. KPCL s ratios satisfactory.
6) Debtors turnover ratio is improving from 2001-02 to 2005-06.
3) Acid test ratio is more than one but it does not mean that company has excessive liquidity.
9) Production capacity is not utilized to the full extent
. But now recovery is becoming faster. so the sales has decreased. 9 cr was not there for the first quarter of 2005-06.
2) Standard current ratio is 2:1 and for industry it is 1.
8) Interest coverage ratio is increasing from last four years. which means inventory is used in better way so it is good for the company.33:1.increase in ratio is beneficial for the company because as ratio increases the number of days of collection for debtors decreases.
5) Inventory turnover ratio is improving from 2001-02 to 2005-06. they were increasing year by year. so more funds were blocked in debtors.
1) It can be said that overall financial position of the company is normal but it is required to be improved from the point of view of profitability.
4) Company should not rely on Long-term debts.
5) Company should try to increase Volume based sales so as to stand in the competition.
2) Net operating cycle is increasing that means there is a need to make improvements in receivables/debtors management.
3) Company should stretch the credit period given by the suppliers.
. Website of Kirloskar. Financial Management Satish Inamdar. Google. Ltd.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Financial Management Prassanna Chandra. Annual reports of Kirloskar Pneumatic Co.
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