Mikroupologistèc

kai

Yhfiakìc

'Elegqoc

Σχεδιαση Ελεγκτη Θεσης Τηλεπικοινωνιακης Αντεννας (Πιατο)

BroqÐdhc KwnstantÐnoc mc08006 AprÐlioc 2012

Eisagwg 
To prìblhma pou antimetwpÐzoume aforˆ ton èlegqo jèshc mÐac thlepikoinwniak c dÔo antènnac pou pou odhgeÐtai to apì ènan kinht ra suneqoÔc reÔmatoc. Oi

exis¸seic

dièpoun

sÔsthma

eÐnai,

u=R·i+L·
kai

di ˙ + Kem · θ dt

(1)

˙ ¨ Kem · i = b · θ + J · θ
ìpou,

(2)

u R = 2 Ohm: i L = 0.3 mH: Kem = 60 mN· m/A: θ J = 100 kg·m2 :
: h tˆsh sta ˆkra H : to rèuma pou H : h gwniak  ˆxona tou kinht ra,

tou

kinht ra tou

(eÐsodoc),

antÐstash diarrèei

kinht ra,

ton

kinht ra, tou kinht ra, rop c tou kinht ra,

autepagwg  H

stajerˆ

apìklish

tou

kinht ra,

H anakl¸menh rop  adrˆneiac ìlou tou sust matoc metˆ ton

b = 0.287 mN· m ·s/rad:
tou sust matoc metˆ ton

O

anakl¸menoc tou

suntelest c

ix¸douc

trib c

ìlou

ˆxona

kinht ra.

Apì

tic

diaforikèc

exis¸seic

1

kai

2

prokÔptoun

oi

akìloujec

exis¸seic

ka-

tˆstashc,

  x1 ˙ −R/L  x2  =  ˙ 0 x3 ˙ Kem /J

     x1 1/L 0 −Kem /L  ·  x2  +  0  ·u 0 1 0 −b x3 0
A B

y=

0 1 0
C

 x1 ·  x2  x3  i θ  ˙ θ

ìpou,

  x1 x =  x2  =  x3

1

To sÔsthma na eÐnai pl rwc parathr simo kai . lqry 2 . I = [1] antimetwpÐzoume dhlad  èna prìblhma bèltistou rujmist  exìdwn (LQR control). sumperaÐnoume dÔo proupojèseic O bèltistoc nìmoc anˆdrash eÐnai thc morf c: u = −K · x Gia ton upologismì tou mhtr¸ou kerd¸n thc K ja qrhsimopoi soume thn sunˆrthsh MATLAB. AparaÐthtec proupìjeseic gia na mporèsoume na efarmìsoume LQR èlegqo: • • To sÔsthma na eÐnai pl rwc elègximo . Exetˆzontac ìti kai oi ta mhtr¸a elegximìthtac throÔntai. parathrhsimìthtac. R = r0 · I.Mèroc I Analogik  SqedÐash me Bèltisto 'Elegqo 1 Bèltistoc nìmoc anˆdrashc Stìqoc mac eÐnai na brejeÐ o bèltistoc nìmoc anˆdrashc pou ja elaqisto- poieÐ to parakˆtw krit rio leitourgik c apìdoshc. ∞ J(u) = 0 y T · Q · y + uT · R · u · dt Q = q0 · I.

se sqèsh me ton pragmatikì pìlo pou brÐsketai sto -6. stikˆ sto sÔsthma miac kai brÐsketai Prèpei e- 3 .667. pÐshc na shmeiwjeÐ ìti to zeÔgoc twn migadik¸n pìlwn kineÐtai apì ton pragmatikì pìlo kaj¸c auxˆnetai to kèrdoc.8 6 x 10 −3 K1 4 2 0 0 x 10 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x 10 9 11 q0/r0 10 8 6 K2 4 2 0 0 x 10 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x 10 9 11 q0/r0 8 6 K3 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x 10 9 11 q /r 0 0 Sq ma 1: Metabol  twn kerd¸n anaˆdrashc gia auxanìmeno q0 r0 2 Gia Tìpoc riz¸n sust matoc kleistoÔ brìqou to sÔsthma kleistoÔ brìqou. oi exis¸seic katˆstashc pou isqÔoun eÐnai: x = (A − B · K) · x ˙ y =C ·x fantastikì zeÔgoc pìlwn polÔ pio kontˆ ston fantastikì ˆxona pio gr gora To eÐnai autì pou prosdÐdei ta qarakthri.

H apìkrish terh <<prospˆjeia>> tou kajarˆ sto Sqhma 4.15 10 5 Imaginary axis 0 −5 −10 −15 −7000 −6000 −5000 −4000 Real axis −3000 −2000 −1000 0 Sq ma 2: Tìpoc riz¸n tou sust matoc kleistoÔ brìqou. 3 Sto Sugkritikèc apokrÐseic exìdou Sq ma 3 apeikonÐzetai h epÐdrash pou èxei h epilog  tou ìrou apìkrish tou sust matoc. q0 aÔxhsh tou lìgou r0 BebaÐwc kˆti tètoio epenerght  (hl. kinht ra) odhgeÐ se sust matoc. tou sunepˆgetai to kai taqÔterh megalÔfaÐnetai q0 r0 sthn opoÐo kai 4 .

9 89 890 8900 89000 890000 8 6 θ (o) 4 2 0 −2 0 20 40 time (s) 60 80 100 Sq ma 3: Sugkritikèc apokrÐseic exìdou tou gia diaforetikèc timèc tou q0 r0 5 .10 8.

80 60 Imax (A) 40 20 0 0 10 10 2 10 q0/r0 4 10 6 Sq ma 4: Mègisth èntash reÔmatoc ston kinht ra gia diaforetikèc timèc tou q0 r0 6 .

Epomènwc nìmoc anˆdrashc eÐnai.7A r0 = 890000 odhgeÐ se mègisto reÔma . Epilègontac ènac lìgo ikanopoihtikìc K= 2.3981 2. .2562 · 10−4 943.5070 · 103 7 .4 IkanopoÐhsh krithrÐwn sqedÐashc Se aut  th fˆsh thc sqedÐashc prèpei na frontÐsoume h èntash tou reÔmatoc i na mhn xepernˆ to ìrio koresmoÔ twn 82A q0 81.

5 Metabol  deÐkth leitourgik c apìdoshc J ∗ = min J(u) u 10 10 10 9 10 8 J* 10 7 10 6 10 5 10 4 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 q0/r0 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 Sq ma 5: J∗ sunart sei tou q0 r0 8 .

FFT to s ma elègqou suneqoÔc sust matoc prìkuptei diˆgramma Power Spectrum of u=−Kx 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 Power 0. sÔsthma èqei mìnimh katˆstash 9 . AnalÔwntac to me qr sh 1.Mèroc II Anˆlush Sust matoc gia UlopoÐhsh se Mikroupologist  1 H Epilog  qrìnou deigmatolhyÐac epilog  tou qrìnou deigmatolhyÐac pou ja epilèxoume gia thn yhfiak  ulopoÐhsh tou sust matoc elègqou ja exarthjeÐ apì to fˆsma twn suqnot twn tou s matoc tou elègqou u = −K · x .5 2 Frequency (Hz) 1: Fˆsma suqnot twn s matoc 2.5 1 1.5 3 Sq ma elègqou. H thn anˆlush tou s matoc ègine se mèqri autì T = 20s to qrìno kajìti to ìpwc blèpoume brejeÐ apì sth apìkrish tou sust matoc .

10 .05 0 0 5 10 Time (seconds) sust matoc 15 20 Sq ma 2: Apìkrish suneqoÔc qrìnou.Response to Initial Conditions 0.15 Amplitude 0.1 0.

Basizìmenoi sto diˆgramma 1 kai èqontac katˆ nou to Je¸rhma Deig- matolhyÐac epilègoume suqnìthta deigmatolhyÐac fs = 2 · 2.5 = 5Hz Ts = 1 = 0.2s fs 11 .

9999 0.995 · 10−5 T 12 .991 · 10−6 5. G = 0 0.5 5. To sÔsthma thc diakritoÔ qrìnou ja perigrˆfetai sÔsthma exis¸sewn diaforˆ morf c: xk+1 = Φ(Ts ) · xk + G(Ts ) · uk ìpou. xk = Sthn perÐptws  mac gia ik θk θ˙k prokÔptei: T −2.2  .999 · 10−8  Ts = 0.03 1 0.799 · 10−8 Φ= 8.2 SÔsthma DiakritoÔ Qrìnou 'Eqontac epilèxei qrìno deigmatolhyÐac mporoÔme na broÔme to sÔsthma diakritoÔ qrìnou pou antistoiqeÐ sto sÔsthmˆ suneqoÔc qrìnou pou perigrˆfetai apì tic diaforikèc apì èna exis¸seic 1 kai 2.2s  0 −0.7 · 10−9  1.

% Number o f u n o b s e r v a b l e s t a t e s unob = length ( Phi )−rank (Ob) To apotèlesma thc ektèleshc tou parapˆnw k¸dika: unco=0 unob =0 Epomènwc to sÔsthma eÐnai kai elègximo kai parathr simo .3 Elegximìthta kai Parathrhsimìthta Sust matoc apì Deigmatolhptikˆ Dedomèna Gia ton èlegqo thc elègximìthtac kai thc parathrhsimìthtac tou sust matoc katafeÔgoume stic antÐstoiqec entolèc thc Matlab. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Co=c t r b ( Phi .G) . 13 . %Number o f u n c o n t r o l l a b l e s t a t e s unco=length ( Phi )−rank ( Co ) Ob = obsv ( Phi .G) .

Gia ulopoi soume èlegqo metablht¸n katˆstashc pou br kame gia to suneqèc montèlo prèpei na broÔme tou antÐstoiqouc pìlou tou suneqoÔc sust matoc kleistoÔ brìqou sto diakritì epÐpedo.0002i 14 .0002i 0.9998 − 0.Mèroc III SqedÐash Nìmou Elègqou gia UlopoÐhsh se Mikroôpologist  1 Yhfiak  Anˆdrash Metablht¸n Katˆstashc Sth Fˆsh I ulopoi same èlegqo me anˆdrash metablht¸n katˆstashc gia to suneqèc thc montèlo tou sust matoc.0004 · 103 − 0.0357 0.0004 · 103 i ProkÔptoun oi parakˆtw pìloi diakritoÔ sust matoc kleistoÔ brìqou: 0.0004 · 103 i −0.9998 + 0. z = eTs ·s Ts = 5 · 10−4 s Apì touc pìlouc tou suneqoÔc sust matoc: −6. na Sth Fˆsh ton II br kame to diakritì montèlo egkatˆstashc.6667 · 103 −0.0004 · 103 + 0.

5 0 −0.5 x 10 −4 Imaginary axis −2 0 0.1 0 −0.8 0.2 Imaginary axis 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.4 −7000 −6000 −5000 −4000 Real axis −3000 −2000 −1000 0 Sq ma 1: Pìloi suneqoÔc sust matoc kleistoÔ brìqou.3 0.2 0.5 1 0.0.5 −1 −1.7 0.9 1 Sq ma 2: Pìloi diakritoÔ sust matoc kleistoÔ brìqou.4 0. 2 1.3 −0. 15 .2 −0.6 0.1 −0.5 Real axis 0.

4997 · 103 kerd¸n gia th suneq  ulopoÐhsh diˆnusma K= ParathroÔme ìti 2.2498 · 10−4 938. 16 .9073 2.4999 · 103 kai stic dÔo peript¸seic ta kèrdh eÐnai praktikˆ ta Ðdia.2496 · 10−4 937.Gia na upologÐsoume to kèrdoc anˆdrashc pou topojeteÐ touc pìlouc tou sust matoc stic jèseic pou upologÐsame prin qrhsimopoioÔme thn entol c thc Matlab place KD = To antÐstoiqo 2.0832 2.

10 θ( ) 5 0 −5 0 10 θ( ) θ( ) o o Continuous Discrete o 5 10 Continuous 5 0 −5 0 10 20 Time (s) Sugkritik  15 Time (s) 10 5 0 −5 0 20 25 Discrete 30 30 10 20 Time (s) diakritoÔ 30 Sq ma 3: apìkrish suneqoÔc kai sust matoc. 17 .

Oi Sto antÐstoiqa me to KD basizìmenoi to sthn Arq  thc na sugklÐnei 10 forèc duadikìthtac gr gora sto 0. Gia exartˆtai dhlad  kai apì to arqikì h sfˆlma ektÐmhshc eÐnai to Ðdia x ˜ .2 Me thn EktÐmhsh Katˆstashc mèsw Parathrht  thn eisagwg  tou parathrht  sto q¸ro to sÔsthma gÐnetai èkthc tˆxhc kai èqei parakˆtw perigraf  katˆstashc: xk ˙ ˙ x ˜ = 6×1 (Φs − G · KD )3×3 (G · KD )3×3 [0]3×3 (Φ − L · C)3×3 x=x−x ˜ ˆ · 6×6 xk x ˜ 6×1 To L upologÐzetai . Sto diakritì kˆti H apìkrish tou sust matoc anˆdrashc me parathrht  èqei plèon 6 arqikèc sunj kec. tètoio antistoiqeÐ me Ôywsh sth dèkath dÔnamh. kai h arqikì sfˆlma apo tìso diaforopoieÐtai apìkrish tou sust matoc parathrht . Gia x (0) = ˜ 10 π 180 0 18 . au  tou ame mhdenikì arqikì sfˆlma ektÐmhshc apìkrish 'Oso me sust matoc pokleÐnei anˆdrashc to 0 metablht¸n katˆstashc. pìloi epilègontai pedÐo ètsi ¸ste sfˆlma x ˜ suneqèc sunhjÐzame na touc paÐrnoume megalÔterouc apì autoÔc tou sust matoc kleistoÔ brìqou.

19 .10 8 6 θ( ) o State Variable Feedback State Variable Estimate Feedback 4 2 0 −2 0 5 10 15 Time (s) me   20 25 30 Sq ma 4: SÔgkrish apokrÐsewn qwrÐc parathrht .

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