Nelle, Solange Maubecin, Maira Montoya Cuestas, Liliana Villalba, Constanza

LINGUISTICS
Contrastive Analysis
Goal
Means

Microlinguistics & Macrolinguistics

Framework

Levels

Categories

Models

Contrastive Analysis

GOAL

MEANS

Explanation of L2 learning

Description of the language

Psychology

Linguistic

MICROLINGUISTICS:

It is a branch of linguistics that concerns itself with the study of language systems in the abstract, without regard to the meaning of expressions. The language is reduced to the abstract elements of syntax and phonology. Thus the language is analyzed for their own sake and without reference to their social function.

MACROLINGUISTICS:

It is a field of study concerned with the language in its broadest sense and including cultural and behavioural features associated with language. It embraces different aspects of language.

 Semantics: the study of
meaning, changes in meaning and the principles that govern the relation ship between sentences or words and their meanings.

 Sociolinguistics: a descriptive
study of the effects of any and all aspects of society on the way language is used and the effects of language used on society.

Macrolinguistics

 Ethnomethodology: It refers
to the analysis and interpretation of every spoken interaction.

 Discourse Analysis: It is
concerned with how we build up “meaning” in the larger communicative rather than grammatical units, meaning in a text, paragraph, conversation, etc rather than a single sentence.

Macrolinguistics

 Speech-act Theory: an approach
to the meaning of language which stresses the use made of language, rather than the literal meaning of the combined words. Emphasis what we do with language rather than what we say.

FRAMEWORK

Levels
Phonology Grammar Lexis

Categories
Unit Structure Class System

Models
Structural or Taxonomic

Transformational Generative Contrastive Generative

Case

LEVELS OF LANGUAGE
Level of phonology Level of lexis Level of morphology Level of syntax Procedural Orientation:
Phonology Morphology

Syntax

Mixing Levels:

Nowadays mixing is sometimes necessary to account for some fact of language.

TWO STEPS
The stage of description The stage of juxtaposition for comparison

Crossing levels: Examples
We knew where it was: We found out where it was: Sabíamos donde estaba Supimos donde estaba
From lexis to grammar

I don´t lend my books to anyone:

Je ne prete pas mes livres á n´importe qui From phonology to lexis

I don´t lend my books to anyone:

Je ne prete pas mes livres á
Personne

Lo conoces Lo conoces?

You know him Do you know him?

From phonology to grammar

All these are examples of:

Interlingual level shift

CATEGORIES OF GRAMMAR

There are four categories : unit, structure, class and system. They are universal , that is they are necessary and sufficient as a basis for the description of any language.

Category:
The Units of grammar are:

UNIT

Sentence – Clause – Phrase – Word - Morpheme

Rank Scale

UNIT In CA a single sentence in L1 correspond on a one-to-one basis with a single sentence in L2.
Example:

1)- Ix povitaskal (R): I've finished dragging them out in
all directions one at a time (E)

2)- Salimos anoche (S): Nous sommes sortis heir
soir (F)

3)-

Dash: Gaze: Peer: Mutter:

caminar con prisa mirar fijamente y por un largo tiempo mirar algo con atencion, detenidamente hablar bajo, entre dientes

UNIT
CA is concerned with the possibilities of maintaining 1:1 correspondence of units at ranks below sentence. Example:

The pupil (who has fallen asleep) is Peter. (E) Der eingeschlafene Schuler ist Peter. (G)

Interlingual Rank Shift

St. Cl. Phr. Wd. Morph.

(R)Ona docitala etu knigu (E) She has finished reading the book on/a/do/cita/l/a/et/u/knig/u= 10

1 1 1 1

2 2

4 6

10 8

She/has/finish/ed/read/ing/this/book=8

Category:

STRUCTURE

“A structure is an arrangement of elements ordered in “places” (Halliday)

Example: Tom (S) took (P) the keys(C) from the table (A)

STRUCTURE CA have traditionally focused on the category structure: linear arrangement of clauses, phrases and words Examples:
1)- My father, who plays chess, is very patient. Mein Vater, der Schach spielt, ist sehr geduldig. Clause

2)- La porte étroite / La casa blanca

The white house

Phrase

3)- Past participle: gespielt / played Nouns plurals: Apfel-Apfel: / Apple-Apples

Word

Category:

CLASS

 There are restrictions on which units can operate at given places in structures.
Example:

V Londone tumano (R) : * In London is foggy (E)

London is foggy
…eine unter meinem Wagen schelafende Katze… : * a sleeping under my car cat…

…A cat sleeping under my car…

Category:

SYSTEM

 Each language allows its speaker choices from sets of elements which are not determined by the place which the element occupies in the structure.

CHOICE: “The selection of one particular term at one particular place

on the chain in preference to another term or other terms which are also possible at that place”
 Systems operate over the domains of units: systems of sentences, of clauses, of groups, of words and of morphemes. Example: systems at clause rank: “mood”

Indicative
Declarative Interrogative

Imperative

 Language may differ, not in demanding different structural exponents, but in offering different ranges of options.

System number

System of case

Singular vs. Plural (E)

Singular, Plural, Dual (A)

Common and Genitive (E)

Nominative, accusative, genitive, instrumental, prepositional and dative (R)

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