E4-E5 Civil (Technica l

)

Rev date : 20-04-11

Chapter-1

STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF RCC BUILDING COMPONENTS

Raje ndra Mat hur Dy. Dir(BS-C) 09412739 232(M) e-mail–mathur_raje ndra@rediffmail.com

BS NL India

F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly

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E4-E5 Civil (Technica l)

Rev date : 20-04-11

Structural Design of RCC Building Components
1.0 Introduction The procedure fo r ana lysis and design of a given building wil l depend on t he t ype of building, its comple xit y, t he number of storie s et c. F irst the arc hitectural draw ings of t he building are studied , stru ctural s yst em is fina lized sizes of stru ctural members are decided and brought to the kno wledge of the co ncer ned arc hitect. T he p ro cedure for structural design will invo lve some steps whic h will depend on t he t ype of build ing and also its co mplexit y and the time ava ilable for structural design. Oft e n, the work is required to start soon, so t he steps in design are to b e arranged in such a wa y t he foundation d rawings c an be take n up in ha nd wit hin a reasonable period of time. Further, before start ing t he structural design, t he fo llowing informat ion o f data are requ ired: ( i) A set of arc hitectural drawings;( ii) Soil Inve st igatio n rep ort (S IR) of soil data in lieu thereof; ( iii) Locat ion o f t he place o r cit y in order to d ecide on wind and seismic lo adings;( iv) Data fo r lift s, water t ank c apacit ies on top, special roof featu res o r loadings, etc. Choic e of an appropriate structural s ys tem for a give n build ing is vital for its eco nom y and safet y. T here are two t yp e of build ing s ys te ms :(a) Load Bearing Maso nr y Buildings. (b) Framed Buildings. (a) Load Bearing Maso nry Buildings:Small build ings like ho uses w it h small sp ans of b eams, s labs ge nera ll y co nstructed as load b earing brick walls wit h r einforced co ncrete slab beams. This s ys tem is su ita ble for building up to four or les s stories.(a s s hown in fig. belo w). In such build ings crushing stre ngt h of bricks shall be 10 0 kg/ cm 2 mi n i mu m for fou r stories. This s ystem is adequate for vert ic al load s it also serves to res ists ho rizontal loads like w ind & eart hquake b y box act ion. Further, to ensu re its act ion a gainst earthquake , it is neces sar y to provide RCC Bands in horizo ntal & vertica l re inforcement in brick w all as per IS: 4326-1967( Ind ia n Sta ndards Code o f Practice fo r Earthquak e Resistant Construction of Buildings.) . In some

BS NL India

F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly

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E4-E5 Civil (Technica l)

Rev date : 20-04-11

Buildings, 115 mm thic k bric k wa lls are provided s ince t hese wa lls are incapable of su pporting vert ica l lo ads, beams ha ve to b e provid e alo ng t he ir lengt hs to sup port adjo ining s lab & t he we ight of 115mm thick b ric k w all of upp er storey. These b eams are to rest on 230 mm thic k b ric k w alls or reinforced concr ete columns if required. The des ign of Load Bearing Ma so nr y Build ings are d one as per IS:1905-1980 (Indian Standards Code of Practice for Structura l S afety of Bu ilding s: Masonry W alls(Second Revision).

Load bearing brick wall Structural syste m (b) Framed Buildings:In t hes e t yp es o f bu ildings re inforced concrete fram es are provided in both p rincipal dir ect ions to re sist vertical loads a nd t he vertica l

BS NL India

F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly

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E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 loads are tra nsmitt ed to vert ical fr am ing s ys tem i. even s ingle or double store y bu ildings a re mad e framed stru ctures for sa fet y reaso ns.0 m.like electric su bstation etc. This t yp e of s ystem is e ffect ive in res ist ing b oth vertical & horizo ntal lo ads.0 m to 7. T his s ystem is suitable for mu ltistoried build ing which is also effective in res ist ing horizo nta l loads due to earthquake. In this s ystem t he floor slabs.0m o r more ) . Fra med Structu ra l system BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 4 . generall y 1 00-150 mm thick w it h spans ranging from 3. In certa in eart hquake prone areas.e colu mns a nd Fou ndatio ns. The brick walls are to be regarded as no n load bearing filler w alls onl y. Also t he s ingle storey bu ildings of large sto re y he ight s (5 . are mad e framed structure as brick wa lls of lar ge heights are sle nder a nd load carrying capacit y of such wa lls redu ces du e to slend er ness.

E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 2. ga ined o ver the years. (i)IS 456 : 2000 – Plain a nd rein forced con crete – co de of practice (fourth revision) (ii) Loa ding Standards The se loads to be considered fo r structural design are specified i n the fo llowing load ing sta ndards: IS 875 (Part 1 -5 ) : 1987 – Cod e of practice fo r desig n loads (other than ea rthquak e) for building s an d structures (s econd re vi sion) Part 1 : Dea d loads Part 2 : Impo sed (live) loads Part 3 : W ind loa ds BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 5 . The des ign s hould b e carried so as to co nform to the follow ing Indian code for reinforced concrete d es ign. often. a nd often. publis hed b y the Bu reau o f Indian St a ndard s. b y spec ifying certai n es sent ia l minimu m requ ireme nt for design. t he codes e nsure a measure of cons istenc y among different designers. First l y. Thirdl y. The codes s erve at lea st four distinct functions. current trends. the result o f sophist icate a nal yses is mad e a va ilable in the form of a simple formu la or chart. These cod es are perio dica lly re vised to bring them in line with current r es earch. Fina lly. Secondl y. New Delhi: Purpose of Co des Nat iona l build ing co des ha ve b een formulated in differe nt co untries to la y down gu ideline s for the design a nd constructio n of stru cture. t he y e nsure ad equate stru ctural safet y. The cod es ha ve evo lved fro m the co llect ive wisdom of expert structural engineers.0 Ba sic Codes for Desig n. t he y have so me le gal validit y in t hat t he y protect the stru ctural designer from any liab ilit y d ue to structural failures that are caused b y inadequ ate sup ervis io n a nd/or fau lt y mater ial a nd co nstruct ion. t he y r ender t he t ask of t he designer relat ivel y simple.

General Design Consideration of IS: 456-2000. Working Stress Method may be used BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 6 . METHOD OF DESIGN – Structure and structural elements shall normally be designed by Limit State Method. which ser ve as u se fu l sup plement to the 1978 vers ion of the codes. many of the p rovisio ns continue to be va lid (especiall y wit h regard to stru ctural design provis io ns). IS 1 3920 : 1993 – Ductile deta iling o f reinforced co ncrete structur e subject to seis mic forces. Alt hou gh t he handboo ks need to be updated to bring t hem in line w ith t he rece nt l y revised (2000 versio n) o f t he Cod e. Sustain all loads and deformations of normal construction & use Have adequate durability Have adequate resistance to the effects of misuse and fire. The general design and construction of reinforced concrete buildings shall be governed by the provisions of IS 456 –2000 AIM OF DESIGN The aim of design is achievement of an acceptable probability that structures being designed shall. Where the Limit State Method cannot be conveniently adopted. with an appropriate degree of safety – Perform satisfactorily during their intended life.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 Part 4 : Snow loads Part 5 : Special loads and load combinatio ns IS 1893 : 2002 – Criteria for earthquak e resi sta nt design of structur e (fo urth revision). SP 16 : 1980 – Design Aids (fo r Reinforced Concret e) to IS 456 : 1978 SP 24 : 1983 – Exp lanatory handbook on IS 456 : 1978 SP 34 : 1987 – Handbook s on Concrete Reinforced and Detailing. Design Han dbook s The Bureau of Indian sta ndard s has als o publis hed t he follow ing ha ndbooks.

2 Nominal Covers to Meet Durability Requirement Minimum values for the nominal cover of normal weight aggregate concrete which should be provided to all reinforcement. including links depending on the condition of exposure described in 8.2.4.4.4 Nominal Cover to Reinforcement 26. Table 16 Nominal Cover to Meet Durability Requirements (Clause 26. It shall be not less than the diameter of the bar.1 Nominal Cover Nominal cover is the design depth of concrete cover to all steel reinforcements.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) MINIMUM GRADE OF CONCRETE Rev date : 20-04-11 The minimum grade of concrete for plain & reinforced concrete shall be as per table below – 26. 26.4. It is the dimension used in design and indicated in the drawings. including links.3 shall be as given in Table 16.2) Exposure Nominal Concrete Cover in mm not Less Than Mild Moderate Severe 20 30 45 BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 7 .

whose reinforcing bars do not exceed 12 mm. 26. a nominal cover of 25 mm may be used.4.2.3 Nominal Cover to Meet Specified Period of Fire Resistance Minimum values of nominal cover of normal-weight aggregate concrete to be provided to all reinforcement including links to meet specified period of fire resistance shall be as given in Table 16A. where concrete grade is M35 and above. reduction of 5 mm may be made.1 However for a longitudinal reinforcing bar in a column nominal cover shall in any case not be less than 40 mm. actual concrete cover should not deviate from the required nominal cover by + 10 mm For exposure condition ‘severe’ and ‘very severe’.4.2 For footing minimum cover shall be 50 mm.4.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Very Severe Extreme NOTES 1. BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 8 . 26. 3. 2. 26. In the case of columns of minimum dimension of 200 mm or under. or less than the diameter of such bar.2. Unless specified otherwise. 50 75 Rev date : 20-04-11 For main reinforcement up to 12 mm diameter bar for mild exposure the nominal cover may be reduced by 5 mm.

4 Minimum Dimensions of RC members for specified Period of Fire Resistance BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 9 .E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 21.

E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 DESIGN LOAD Design load is the load to be taken for use in appropriate method of design. BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 10 . -X. accidental eccentricity during earthquake can be such that it causes clockwise or anticlockwise moments. Moreover.5 EL Earthquake load must be considered for +X. So both clockwise & anticlockwise torsion is to be considered. LOAD COMBINATIONS As per IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002 Clause no. the following load cases have to be considered for analysis: 1.2.9 DL ± 1. and in all.3. It is – Characteristic load in case of working stress method & Characteristic load with appropriate partial safety factors for limit state design. 25 cases must be considered. 6.1. +Z and –Z directions.5 (DL ± EL) 0. It is possible to reduce the load combinations to 13 instead of 25 by not using negative torsion considering the symmetry of the building. Thus.5 (DL + IL) 1.2 (DL + IL ± EL) 1. ±EL above implies 8 cases.

4 The simplifying assumptions as given in 22.1 b) When design live load does not exceed three-fourths of the design dead load.4. and 2) Design dead load on all spans with dull design live load on alternate spans. simplified methods may be used to obtain the moments and shears for structures that are symmetrical.4.2 Substitute Frame: For determining the moments and shears at any floor or roof level due to gravity loads.3.2 For deflection calculations. Note: For beams continuous over support 22. appropriate values of moment of inertia as specified in Annexure of IS 456-2000 should be used.1 to 22.1 Relative Stiffness: The relative stiffness of the members may be based on the moment of inertia of the section determined on the basis of any one of the following definitions: a) b) Gross Section Transformed Section Cracked Section The cross-section of the member ignoring reinforcement The concrete cross-section plus the area of reinforcement transformed on the basis of modular ratio The area of concrete in compression plus the area of reinforcement transformed on the basis of modular ratio c) The assumptions made shall be consistent for all the numbers of the structure throughout any analysis. the beams at that level together with columns above and below with their far ends fixed may be considered to constitute the frame. ARRANGEMENT OF LIVE LOAD 22. the load arrangement may be design dead load and design live load on all the spans. For lateral loads.4. For 22.1 (a) may be assumed. 22.4. 22.3 BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 11 .3 may be used in the analysis of frames. 22.4. STRUCTURAL FRAMES 22.4.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 STIFFNESS 22.4.3.1 a) Consideration may be limited to combinations of: 1) Design dead load on all spans with full design live load on two adjacent spans.

Where coefficients given in Table below are used for calculation of bending moments.05. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------BENDING MOMENT COFFICIENTS -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Span Moments Support Moments -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Types of Load Near Middle At Middle At Support At Other of End Span of interior next to the Interior span end support Supports -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Dead load and 1 1 1 1 imposed load +-+-(.2 Beams Over Free End Supports Where a member is built into a masonry wall which develops only partial restraint. For moments at supports where two unequal spans meet or in case where the spans are not equally loaded.)-(. the bending moments and shear forces used in design may be obtained using the coefficients given in Tables below. For such a condition shear coefficient given in Table below at the end support may be increased by 0.5. the average of the two values for the negative moment at the support may be taken for design. for beams of uniform crosssection which support substantially uniformly distributed load over three or more spans which do not differ by more than 15 percent of the longest. MOMENT AND SHEAR COFFICIENTS FOR CONTINUOUS BEAMS 22. redistribution referred to in 22. or such other restraining moment as may be shown to be applicable.1 Unless more exact estimates are made. more rigorous methods should be used. 22.5.)-(fixed) 12 16 10 12 BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 12 . the member shall be designed to resist a negative moment at the face of the support of W1/24 where W is the total design load and 1 is the effective span.7 shall not be permitted.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 unsymmetrical or very tall structures.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SHEAR FORCE COFFICIENTS -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Type of Load At End At Support Next At All Other Support to the end Support Interior Support Outer side Inner Side -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Dead load and imposed load 0. For non-monolithic construction the design of the member shall be done keeping in view 22.40 0.)-9 Note:For obtaining the bending moment.1 When the reaction in the direction of the applied shear introduces compression into the end region of the member.1 For monolithic construction.)-9 1 (.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 Imposed load (not fixed) 1 +-10 1 +-12 1 (.6.2.2. the coefficient shall be multiplied by the total design load.60 For obtaining the shear force. sections located at a 22.45 0.6. Critical Section for Shear The shears computed at the face of the Support shall be used in the design of the member at that section except as in 22. the moments computed at the face of the supports shall be used in the design of the members at those sections.55 0.60 0.2.60 0. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CRITICAL SECTIONS FOR MOMENT AND SHEAR 22.6.6.50 (fixed) Imposed load (not fixed) Note: 0.60 0. the coefficient shall be multiplied by the total design load and effective span.2 22.1 BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 13 .

E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 distance less than d from the face of the support may be designed for the same shear as that computed at distance d.0 Effective depth of a beam is the distance between the centroid of the area of tension reinforcement and the maximum compression fibre. creep and shrinkage occurring after erection of partitions and the application of finishes should not normally exceed span/350 or 20mm whichever is less.1 for limit state method and in accordance with B-1. CONTROL OF DEFLECTION 23. excluding the thickness of finishing material not placed monolithically with the member and the thickness of any concrete provided to allow for wear.2. The deflection shall generally be limited to the following: a) The final deflection due to all loads including the effects of temperature. b) The deflection including the effects of temperature. This will not apply to deep beams.1.2 for working stress method.2 The deflection of a structure or part thereof shall not adversely affect the appearance or efficiency of the structure or finishes or partitions. REDISTRIBUTION OF MOMENTS 22.1 For beams.7 Redistribution of moments may be done in accordance with 37. roofs and all other horizontal members should not normally exceed span/250. 23. EFFECTIVE DEPTH 23. where simplified analysis using coefficients is adopted. However. creep and shrinkage and measured from the as-cast level of the supports of floors. redistribution of moments shall not be done. the vertical deflection limits may generally be assumed to be satisfied provided that the span to depth ratio are not greater than the value obtained as below: a) Basic values of span to effective depth ratios for spans up to 10m: Cantilever Simply supported Continuous 7 20 26 BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 14 .

c) Depending on the area and the type of steel for tension reinforcement. the values in (a) may be multiplied by 10/span in metres. BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 15 . the value in (a) or (b) shall be modified as per Fig. the value of (a) or (b) be modified as per Fig. 5 e) For flanged beams. Note: When deflections are required to be calculated. 4 and 5 should be based on area of section equal to bf d. except for cantilever in which case deflection calculations should be made. 4 d) Depending on the area of compression reinforcement. the value of span to depth ratio be further modified as per Fig. 6 and the reinforcement percentage for use in fig. the method given Annexure ‘C’ of IS 456-2000 may be used.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 b) For spans above 10m.

3 Slabs Continuous Over Supports Slabs spanning in one direction and continuous over supports shall be designed according to the provisions applicable to continuous beams. Simply supported slab 35 Continuous slabs 40 For high strength deformed bars of grade Fe 415. Simply supported slab 28 Continuous slabs 32 23. For slabs spanning in two directions. the shorter of the two spans should be used for calculating the span to effective depth rations. 2.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 CONTROL OF DEFLECTION – SOLID SLABS 24.the values given above should be multiplied by 0.8. the span to overall depth rations given below may generally be assumed to satisfy vertical deflection limits for loading class up to 3 kN/m2. or as BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 16 . 23.5 m) with mild steel reinforcement.1 General The provisions of 32.4 Slabs Monolithic with Supports Bending moments in slabs (except flat slabs) constructed monolithically with the supports shall be calculated by taking such slabs either as continuous over supports and capable of free.2 for beams apply to slabs also. For two-way slabs of shorter spans (up to 3. NOTES 1.

the maximum area of tension reinforcement shall not exceed 0.1. 26. 26. then the effects on the supporting beam.The minimum area of tension reinforcement shall not be less than that given by the following:As = 0.4 Transverse reinforcement in beam for shear torsion BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 17 .5 REQUIREMENT OF REINFORCEMENT FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBER 26. 23. the bending of the web in the transverse direction of the beam.2 Compression reinforcement The maximum area of comparison reinforcement shall not exceed 0.1. Comparison reinforcement in beams shall be enclosed by stirrups for effective lateral restraint.1 % of the web area and shall be distributed on the equally on the two face at spacing not exceeding 300mm or web thickness whichever is less.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 members of a continuous frame work with the supports.5.5.5.04bD. and fy = characteristic strength of reinforcement in M/mm2 (b) Maximum reinforcement:.4. If such supports are formed due to beams which justify fixity at the support of slabs.85 bd fy where As = minimum area of tension reinforcement.1. side face reinforcement shall be provided along the two faces.1.04 bd. taking into account the stiffness of such support. b = breadth of beam or the breadth of the web of T-beam.5. 26. wherever applicable.1 Beams 26.1 Tension reinforcement (a) Minimum reinforcement:.1 For the purpose of calculation of moment in slabs in a monolithic structure.3 Side face reinforcement Where the depth of the web in the beam exceeds 750mm. The total area of such reinforcement shall be not less than 0. it will generally be sufficiently accurate to assumed direct members connected to the ends of such slab are fixed in position and direction at the end remote from their connection with the slab. shall also be considered in the design of the beams. such as.5. d = effective depth. 26.

1. The spacing of the stirrups shall not exceed the list of x1. y1 are respectively the short & long dimensions of the stirrup. 26. BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 18 . Sv = stirrups spacing along the length of the member B = breadth of the beam or breadth of the web of flange beam.1. where x1.5 Maximum spacing of shear reinforcement Maximum spacing of shear reinforcement means long by axis of the member shall not exceed 0. and fy = characteristic strength of the stirrups reinforcement in N/mm2 which shall not taken greater than 415 N/mm2 Where the maximum shear stress calculated is less than half the permissible value in member of minor structure importance such as lintels.87 fy Where Asv = total cross-sectional area of stirrups legs effective in shear. In no case shall be spacing exceed 300mm.6 Minimum shear reinforcement Minimum shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups shall be provided such that: Asv bsv 0. x1+y1/4 and 300 mm. 26. In T-beams and I-beams.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 The transverse reinforcement in beam shall be taken around the outer most tension & compression bars.5. such reinforcement shall pass around longitudinal bars located close to the outer face of the flange.75 d for vertical stirrups and d for inclined stirrups at 45” where d is the effective depth on the section under consideration.7 Distribution of torsion reinforcement When a member is designed for torsion torsion reinforcement shall be provided as below: a) the transverse reinforcement for torsion shall be rectangular closed stirrups placed perpendicular to the axis of the member.1.5.4 0.5. this provision need not to be complied with. 26.

5.1 and 26. Sufficient space must be left between bars to enable vibrator to be immersed.5.2 Minimum Distance between Individual Bars (a) The horizontal distance between two parallel main reinforcing bars shall usually be not-less than the greatest of the following: (i) Dia of larger bar and (ii) 5 mm more than nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate. When the cross sectional dimension of the member exceed 450 mm additional longitudinal bar shall be provided to satisfied the requirement of minimum reinforcement & spacing given in 26.1. bars shall be vertically in line and the minimum vertical distance between bars shall be 15 mm.2 Slabs The rule given in 26. (b) When needle vibrators are used it may be reduced to 2/3 rd of nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate.5.5. 2/3rd of nominal maximum size of aggregate or the maximum size of bars.2.3.3.2 shall apply to slabs in addition to those given in the appropriate clause. 26.1 Minimum reinforcement BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 19 . 26.5.2.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 b) Longitudinal reinforcement shall be place as closed as is practicable to the corner of the cross section & in all cases. 26. whichever is greater.2. (c) Where there are two or more rows of bars. there shall be atleast one longitudinal bar in each corner of the ties.

BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 20 . 26.8% nor more than 6% of the gross sectional area of the column. D-1. Torsion reinforcement . each with layers of bars placed parallel to the sides of the slab and extending from the edges a minimum distance of one-fifth of the shorter span.Slab Torsion reinforcement is to be provided at any corner where the slab is simply supported on both edges meeting at that corner.2 Maximum diameter The diameter of reinforcing bars shall not exceed one eight of the total thickness of slab.3 Columns A.3 Maximum distance between bars . D-l. It shall consist of top and bottom reinforcement. 26.9 Torsion reinforcement equal to half that described in D-l.12 percent when high strength deformed bars or welded wire fabric are used.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 The mild steel reinforcement in either direction in slabs shall not be less than 0. However. Longitudinal Reinforcement a. Although it is recommended that the maximum area of steel should not exceed 4% to avoid practical difficulties in placing & compacting concrete.15 percent of the total cross-sectional area. The cross sectioned area of longitudinal reinforcement shall be not less than 0.5.10 Torsion reinforcements need not be provided at any comer contained by edges over both of which the slab is continuous. The area of reinforcement in each of these four layers shall be three-quarters of the area required for the maximum mid-span moment in the slab.3.2.Slabs 1) The horizontal distance between parallel main reinforcement bars shall not be more than three times the effective depth of solid slab or 300 mm whichever is smaller. 26.8 shall be provided at a corner contained by edges over only one of which the slab is continuous. 2) The horizontal distance between parallel reinforcement bars provided against shrinkage and temperature shall not be more than five times the effective depth of a solid slab or 300 mm whichever is smaller. this value can be reduced to 0.5.

SHEAR 40. • 300mm. g.1 For solid slabs.2. b = breadth of the member. f.d where Vu = shear force due to design loads. These bars must be in contact with the helical reinforcement & equidistance around its inner circumference.3. shall the nominal shear stress in beams should not exceed given in Table 20. c. Spacing of longitudinal should not exceed 300 mm along periphery of a column.1 Nominal Shear Stress The nominal shear stress in beams of uniform depth shall be obtained by the following equation: τv = Vu/ b. the minimum percentage steel must be based on the area of concrete resist the direct stress & not on the actual area. Spacing of lateral ties should not exceed least of the following:• Least lateral dimension of the column. and d = effective depth. BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 21 . 40. the nominal shear stress shall not exceed half the appropriate values given in Table 20. even with shear reinforcement. In any column that has a larger cross sectional area than that required to support the load.2. A reinforced concrete column having helical reinforcement must have at least six bars of longitudinal reinforcement with the helical reinforcement.15% of cross sectional area. in which the longitudinal reinforcement is not taken into account in strength calculations. d. Transverse Reinforcement a. In case of pedestals. B. The minimum member of longitudinal bars provided in a column shall be four in rectangular columns & six in circular columns.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 b. The diameter of lateral ties should not be less than ¼ of the diameter of the largest longitudinal bar in no case should not be less than 6 mm. e. • 16 times the smallest diameter of longitudinal bars to be tied. The bar should not be less than 12 mm in diameter so that it is sufficiently rigid to stand up straight in the column forms during fixing and concerting. bw. b.3 With Shear Reinforcement Under no circumstances. 40. which for flanged section shall be taken as the breadth of the web. nominal reinforcement should be not be less than 0.

4 Design of Shear Reinforcement When τv. minimum shear reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with 26. the strength of shear reinforcement Vus shall be calculated as below: a) For Vertical Stirrups: BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 22 . b) Bent-up bars along with stirrups.1. is less than τc given in Table 19. given in Table 19. their contribution towards shear resistance shall not be more than half that of the total shear reinforcement.3 Minimum Shear Reinforcement When τv. is exceeds τc . shear reinforcement shall be provided in any of the following forms: a) Vertical stirrups.5. 40.6. Shear reinforcement shall be provided to carry a shear equal to Vu – τ c b d. and where bent-up bars are provided.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 40.

= 0. spacing of the stirrups or bent-up bars along length of the member. shall be taken as the breadth of the web bw.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 Vus = 0.87 fy Asv d ___________ (Sin ά + Cos ά) Sv c) For single bar or single group of parallel bars.87 fy Asv d ___________ Sv b) For inclined stirrups or a series of bars bent up at different cross – section: 0. = up greater than 415 N/mm2. characteristic strength of the stirrup or bentreinforcement which shall not be taken ά = bar and angle between the inclined stirrup or bent up and the axis of the member not less than 45 o. design shear strength of the concrete. d = effective depth BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 23 .87 fy Asv Sin ά Sv = the = breadth of the member which for flanged beams. all bent up at the same cross sections: Vus = Vus Where Asv = total cross –sectional area of stirrups legs or bent-up bar within a distance Sv. τv τc b fy = = nominal shear stress.

in case of stirrups and transverse ties.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 DEVELOPMENT LENGTH OF BARS 26.2 Development of Stress in Reinforcement The calculated tension or compression in any bar at any section shall be developed on each side of the section by an appropriate development length or end anchorage or by a combination thereof. when Bar is bent – • Through an angle of at least 90 degrees (round a bar of at least its own dia) & is continued beyond for a length of at least 8 φ.2. τbd = design bond stress σ st = stress in bar at the section considered at design load Design bond stress in limit state method for plain bars in tension is given in clause 26.1 For deformed bars conforming to IS 1786 these values are to be increased by 60 %. Development length Ld is given by Ld = φσ st /4τbd φ = nominal diameter of bar. Shear reinforcement (STIRRUPS) Development length and anchorage requirement is satisfied. the values of bond stress for bars in tension is to be increased by 25 percent B.1. For bars in compression. or BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 24 .

1 a) The top as well as bottom reinforcement shall consist of at least two bars throughout the member length. 6. 6. where fck and fy are in MPa.2. The definition of seismic zone and importance factor are given in IS 1893-2002.2 For all buildings which are more than 3 storeys in height.1. shall not be less than ρmin = 0.4 The depth D of the member shall preferably be not more than 1/4 of the clear span.3 The positive steel at a joint face must be at least equal to half the negative steel at that face.2. 6. high strength deformed steel bars. 6. produced by the thermomechanical treatment process. However. having elongation more than 14.5 percent and conforming to other requirements of IS 1786 : 1985 may also be used for the reinforcement. of grades Fe 500 and Fe 550.3.1.3 Steel reinforcements of grade Fe 415 (see IS 1786 : 1985 ) or less only shall be used. at any section. b) The tension steel ratio on any face.2 Longitudinal Reinforcement 6. BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 25 .025. shall not exceed ρmax = 0.2 The maximum steel ratio on any face at any section.3 The width of the member shall not be less than 200 mm.2 The member shall preferably have a width-to-depth ratio of more than 0. the minimum grade of concrete shall be M20 (fck = 20 MPa ). IV or V The provisions for reinforced concrete construction given in IS 13920-1993 shall apply specifically to monolithic reinforced concrete construction.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) • • Rev date : 20-04-11 Through an angle of 135 degrees & is continued beyond for a length of at least 6 φ or Through an angle of 180 degrees and is continued beyond for a length of at least 4 φ DUCTILE DETAILING AS PER IS: 13920 • Provisions of IS 13920-1993 shall be adopted in all reinforced concrete structures which are located in seismic zone III. 5. 6. Precast and/or prestressed concrete members may be used only if they can provide the same level of ductility as that of a monolithic reinforced concrete construction during or after an earthquake. Flexure Members 6.1.24(fck)1/2 /fy .2. CODAL PROVISIONS OF IS 13920 5.

4 The contribution of bent up bars and inclined hoops to shear resistance of the section shall not be considered. A rectangular hoop is a closed stirrup.1 Lap splices shall be provided only in the central half of the member length. 7. BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 26 .3. Columns 7.6 The longitudinal bars shall be spliced. it need not be less than 100 mm.1.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 6. In rectangular columns.4 Special Confining Reinforcement This requirement shall be met with. in frames which have beams with centre to centre span exceeding 5 m or columns of unsupported length exceeding 4 m. A vertical hoop is a closed stirrup having a 135° hook with a 10 diameter extension (but not < 75 mm) at each end that is embedded in the confined core 6. 6. as per 7.3. 7. However.1 Web reinforcement shall consist of vertical hoops.3.4 The steel provided at each of the top and bottom face of the member at any section along its length shall be at least equal to one-fourth of the maximum negative moment steel provided at the face of either joint 6. 7. However. 7.2. except where special confining reinforcement is provided.3. elsewhere.2.2. at a spacing not exceeding 150 mm 6.3. in beams with clear span exceeding 5 m.3 Web Reinforcement 6. only if hoops are provided over the entire splice length.4.4. the beam shall have vertical hoops at a spacing not exceeding d/2. 6.2 The minimum dimension of the member shall not be less than 200 mm. and (b) 8 times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal bar. the shortest dimension of the column shall not be less than 300 mm. 7.1.2 The minimum diameter of the bar forming a hoop shall be 6 mm.2 Longitudinal Reinforcement 7.3 Transverse Reinforcement 7.3 The ratio of the shortest cross sectional dimension to the perpendicular dimension shall preferably not be less than 0.1 Transverse reinforcement for circular columns shall consist of spiral or circular hoops.3 The spacing of hoops shall not exceed half the least lateral dimension of the column.5 The spacing of hoops over a length of 2d at either end of a beam shall not exceed (a) d/4. Hoops shall be provided over the entire splice length at spacing not exceeding 150 mm centre to centre. Not more than 50 percent of the bars shall be spliced at one section. rectangular hoops may be used. however. the minimum bar diameter shall be 8 mm. unless a larger amount of transverse reinforcement is required from shear strength considerations.3. It should be proportioned as a tension splice. having a 135° hook with a 10 diameter extension (but not < 75 mm) at each end that is embedded in the confined core.

1 Special confining reinforcement shall be provided over a length lo from each joint face.6 The spacing of hoops used as special confining reinforcement shall not exceed 1/4 of minimum member dimension but need not be less than 75 mm nor more than 100 mm.4. 7. The spacing of hoops shall not exceed 150 mm. 8 JOINTS OF FRAMES 8. special confining reinforcement shall extend at least 300 mm into the footing or mat.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 7. BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 27 .1 The special confining reinforcement as required at the end of column shall be provided through the joint as well. unless the joint is confined as specified by 8. The length ‘lo’ shall not be less than (a) larger lateral dimension of the member at the section where yielding occurs. 7.2 A joint which has beams framing into all vertical faces of it and where each beam width is at least 3/4 of the column width. where flexural yielding may occur under the effect of earthquake forces. and (c) 450 mm. and on either side of any section.2 When a column terminates into a footing or mat. (b) 1/6 of clear span of the member. towards midspan. may be provided with half the special confining reinforcement required at the end of the column.4. 8.4.2.

16-0.LIABLE TO OVER CROWDING 4.CLASS ROOMS.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 DEAD LOADS – UNIT WEIGHTS OF SOME MATERIALS/BUILDING COMPONENTS As per IS-875(Part-1)-1987 UNIT WEIGHT MATERIAL PLAIN CONCRETE REINFORCED CONCRETE BRICK MASONRY STONE MASONRY TIMBER CEMENT-PLASTER LIME -PLASTER STEEL AC SHEET -ROOFING GI SHEET -ROOFING MANGLORE TILES STEEL WORK -ROOFING kN/m3 24 25 19-20 21-27 6-10 21 18 78.0 5.0 4.0-10 10.0 BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 28 .5 0.0 2.5 4.THEATRES ETC .BOOK STORES GARRAGES –LIGHT VEHICLES –HEAVY VEHICLES STAIRS-NOT LIABLE TO OVER CROWDING .WITH FIXED SEATING .15 0.WORK ROOMS.0 5.WITHOUT FIXED SEATING FACTORIES & WAREHOUSES STACK ROOM IN LIBRARIES .5 4. RESTAURANTS.65 0.0 5.0 7.0 TYPE OF FLOOR USAGE RESIDENTIAL OFFICIAL – WITH SEPARATE STORAGE – WITHOUT SEPARATE STORAGE SHOPS.16 0.23 kN/m2 LIVE LOADS ON FLOORS AS PER IS-875(Part-2)-1987 LIVE LOAD (kN/m2) 2.WAITINGS ROOMS.

5 0.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 LIVE LOADS ON FLOORS OF T.E.DDF ROOM.POWER PLANT. BATTERY ROOM MDF ROOM WEATHER MAKER LIVE LOADS ON ROOFS ROOF WITH ACCESS ROOF WITHOUT ACCESS 1.BLDGS LIVE LOAD (kN/m2) 6.75 BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 29 .0 10.0 6.0 TYPE OF FLOOR USAGE SWITCH ROOM(NEW TECHNOLOGY) OMC ROOM.0 12.

the structural system is finalized. elevations. The structural arrangements of a building is so chosen as to make it efficient in resisting vertical as well as horizontal loads due to earthquake.0 Steps for Design of a Multi-Storeyed Building:Manual Method of Analysis & Design:Step1: Study of architectural Drawings:. All working drawings i.e. floor beams. Now the building is ready for structural design to start. are all marked and numbered on the architectural plans. The span of slabs co chosen that thickness of slab 100-150mm and slab panels. Step2: Finalization of structural Configuration. are studied thoroughly & discrepancy if any brought to the notice of concern Architect for rectification/correction.Before proceeding for structural design of any building it is ensure that approved working drawings are available in the office. The problems coming in finalization of structural configuration may also be intimated to concern Architect for rectification/correction if any.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 3. and columns. BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 30 . sections. After receiving corrected working drawing from the architectural wing. each floor plan.

& columns decided. But in computer aided analysis & design it can be revised easily.l. Step3 (a): Preliminary Sizes of structural members. including partitions and the live load expected on the floor. on short beam of slab panel = w B/4. on long beam of slab panel = w B/4 x [2-(B/L)] Where w is the total load on the slab panel in Kn/Sqm & L & B are long span & short spans of slab panel respectively. The depth of beam is generally taken as 1/12 th (for Heavy Loads) to 1/15 th (for Lighter Loads) of span.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 ISOMETRIC V IEW OF FR AMED STRUCTU RE Step3: Load Calculation and analysis. walls.d. etc. columns. the load from slab (including Live load & Dead Load) is transferred on to the adjoining beams using formulas given below|:For computation of shear force on beams & reactions on columns. • Beam : The width the beam generally taken as the width of wall i.e 230 or 300 mm. The width of beam is help full in placement of reinforcement in one layer & more width is help full in resisting shear due to torsion. Procedure for vertical load calculation on Columns: Step(i): First.d.Size of column depends upon the moments from the both the direction and the axial load. BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 31 . finish plaster. • Slab:. beams. The linear loading of beams. also calculated. parapets.l.The thickness of the slab decided on the basis of span/d ratio assuming appropriate modification factor. the loading intensity of slab is calculated taking into account the dead load of the slab. In manual load calculation preliminary sizes of structural members should be judicially fixed as once load calculation & analysis is done it is not easy to revise the same. • Column:. Before proceeding for load calculation preliminary sizes of slabs. Preliminary Column size may be finalized by approximately calculation of axial load & moments. etc. an equivalent uniformly distributed load per linear meter of beam may be taken as : Equivalent u. depending on the usage of the floor or roof.0 Equivalent u. For each floor or roof.

are added to get the load on beam (in running metre). self weight of beam etc. is T.3. Step(iii):The load (in running metre) on each beam is calculated as in Step 1 & Step 2.) I BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 32 .3 o f IS-1893-2002 Design base s hear v b V b = Ah W (F) Where A h = Des ign Horizo ntal acce lerat ion spectrum value as per 6. Calculation o f horizontal loads on buildings (As per is-18 93-2002) Sample ex ample fo r horizontal lo ad calculation (I) (II) BUILDING IS ON SEISMIC ZONE-IV FOUNDATION TYPE ISOLATED FOOTINGS As per clau se 7.1 of IS:1893-2002. Step(vi):These loads at various floors on each column are then added to get the total loads on each column.5 (Assuming t ha t the b ld g. the weight of wall (if any). Step(v):Step (i) to Step (v) is repeated for each floor. The loads calculated in Para-II above at various floor levels are modified as per the requirement of Para 7.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) Rev date : 20-04-11 Step(ii): Over this load. Bldg.2 of the code = (Z/2 ) (I/R) (Sa/g) Where Z = Zone factor as p er table 2 o f IS Cod e (1893-2002 ) = 0. Step4: HORIZONTAL (SEISMIC) LOAD CALCULTAION: The Horizontal Load Calculation or the Load Calculations for Seismic case is carried out as per the Indian Standard Code IS:1893-2002. The Seismic Shear at various floor levels is calculated for the whole Building using the values from IS 1893-2002.5.1893-2002) = 1.24 (in this case) = Importance factor as p er table 6 of IS. Step(iv):Then the loads from the beams are transferred to the columns.E.4. footing and the whole building.

10 0.10≤T≤ 0.50 if 0. Mo ment res ist ing fram e = Avera ge resp ons e acceler at io n co effic ient for soil t yp e & app ropriate natural period s and lamp ing of the stru cture. Or the va lue of (Sa/g) ma y be calcu lat ed o n the bas is o f Follow ing. 7 5 (Fo r RC Frame build ing) = 0. or hard soil site s (Sa/g) = 1+15 T if 0.40 =1. C.00≤T≤ 0.36/T if 0.55≤T≤ 4. Value of (Sa/g) is to b e read fro m fig 2 on page 16 of IS Code dep ending upo n Soil condit io n & Fundament a l Natural period T.10 BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 33 .6 of IS Code) T h = 0. T = 0. Fu ndamental Nat iona l Per iod (Second s) (Clau se 7.40≤T≤ 4.00≤T≤ 0.0 0/T if 0.075 h 0 . For calcu lat ing of (Sa/g) value as above we have to calculate va lu e of T i.00≤T≤<0.09 h /d 1 / 2 Where h and d = height of bu ild ing in Meter = Base d imension of t he bu ilding at the plinth leve l in Meter alo ng t he considered directio n o f the lat era l fo rce.0 (for ordinar y R. Formulas :(i) For ro cky.00 (ii) Fo r mediu m soil site s (Sa/g) = 1+15 T if = 2. 7 5 (For S teel fram e build ing) = Height of building in Meter In case of building wit h bric k in fills wall s.0 85 h 0 .e.10≤T≤0.5 0 if = 1.E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) R (OMRF) (S a /g) Rev date : 20-04-11 = Response reduction factor as per table 7 of IS code = 3.10 = 2.55 0.00 (iii) Fo r soft so il sites (Sa/g) = 1+15 T if 0.

E4-E5 Civil (Technica l) = 2.50 =1.6 7/T

Rev date : 20-04-11 if 0.10≤T≤0.67 if 0.67≤T≤ 4.00

W= Seismic we ight of the building as per clause 7.4.2 of the code.
A

B

2 bays @ 7.5 m C/C

C

4 bays @ 4.0 m C/C TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN Bldg. is three storey with Each storey of 5.0m height

164.9

157.99

47.01

Frame with EQ Loads

BS NL India

F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly

Page : 34

Calculating Seismic weight of building per frame for fra me (B) Le ngt h bld g = 16.00 M C/C distance of frames = 7.50 M De nsit y of R. C.C = 25 KN/m 3 Floor slab = 0.15×1 6.00×7 .50×25 = 450 KN (A) Co lu mn b elow slab = 0.300×(0.70 -0.15)×16.00×25 = 0.30×0 .55×16 .00×25=66 KN (B) Co lu mns = 0.30×0 .60×(5.00+5.00)/2 ×25× 5 = 112.5 KN (C)

Live load = 600 kg/m 2 = 6.00 kn/m 2 As per table 8 of cod e when live load is above 3.0 0 kn/m 2 5 0% of live load to be considered for lamp mass ca lcu lat ion. Lu mp mass at First Floor = 0.50×6.00×16×7.50 = 360 KN (D) To tal lamp mass first floor & seco nd floo r (Assuming same L.L. on S.F.) (A)+(B)+(C)+(D) = 450+66+112.50+360 = 988.50 KN (ii) Wight lamped at terrace Flo or slab:= 0.13×16.00×7.50×25 = 390 KN (E)

Beam be low slab = 0.23×(0.60-0.15)×16.00×25 = 0.23×0.45×16.00 ×25 = 41 .4.KN (F) Co lu mns = 0.30×0.600×5.00 /2×25×5 = 56.25 KN (G) L.L. = Nil Du ring Eart hqu ake = 0. ( As per the clau se 7.3.2 o f the code the imposed lo ad o n roof need not to be considered ) To tal lamped mass at terrace level = (E)+(F)+(G) = 39 0+41.40+56.25=487.65 KN To tal weight o f b uilding p er framed per inner frame F.F = S.F. = Terrace = 988.50 KN 988.50 KN 487.65 KN 2464.65 KN

BS NL India

F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly

Page : 35

Putting a ll values in Fo rmulas (F) V b = Des ign base she ar = (z/z)(I/R(Sa/ g) w Va lu e of T = 0.09 h/Vd H = Height of bldg. = 15.00 m (3 x5.0=15.00m ) d = 16.00 m T = 0.09×15.00/V 16.00 = 0.3375 = 0.34 For med ium soils For T = 0.34 Sa/ g = 2.50 V b = 0.24 /2×1.50 /3.00×2 .50×2465.65 = 369.85 KN Distribution base shea r is d one using formula (clau se 7.7) Fi = w
i

h

i

2

/ ∑ w

j

h

j

2

x Vb

Where F i = Des ign lat eral force at floor i W i = Seis mic weight of floor i h i = he ight of floor in m from base. n = number of stor y’ s in t he build ing is equal to number of le vels at whic h ma ss es are located. V b = 369.85 KN Floor F.F. S.F. Terrace le vel W i KN 988.50 988.50 487.65 h i (m) W i h i 2 6.00 355 86 11.00 119608.5 16.00 124800 2 ∑w i h i = 279994.5 F i 47.01 KN 157.99 164.85 ∑ = 369.85 KN

Step5. VERTICAL LOAD AN ALY SIS: a) GENERAL: The skeleto n frame work of a mult i sto ried R.C. C. fr amed structu re is made up of a s ys tem of columns, beams and slabs. It is presumed that t he re inforcements are a lwa ys so arranged t hat all joint s of the frame are mono lithic. In view of t he u ncertain propert y of m ateria l cre ep, shr inkage and a nu mber of app ro ximate s imp lif yi ng assumptions made in t he detailed anal ys is of mu lti storied framed structures (such as condit io ns

BS NL India

F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly

Page : 36

However wit h certain as sumptions. the weight of wall ( if an y). Step(ii) : Over t his load. Procedur e for Frame analysis for ca lculation of mo ments in Columns & beam s: Step(i): F ir st. C.0 Equiva le nt u. the load from slab (including Live load & Dead Load ) is transferred on to the adjo ining beams us ing formulas given below|:For computatio n of Bend ing Moment s in beams . it is po ssib le to anal yz e t he fram es and get resu lts whic h will be ad equate for design purposes.l. b) METHOD O F ANALYSIS: BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 37 .of end restraints et c. To simplif y ana l ysis t he t hre e dimensio nal mult isto ried R.l.d. self weight of beam etc.C. Step(iv):St ep (i) to Step (iii) is repeated for each flo or Step(v):T hen t hese loads are us ed as u. Step(iii):T he load (in running Meter) on each beam is ca lculated as in Step 1 & Step 2.d. t he wo rk invo lved is enormous. It is assumed that each of these p laner frames act indep end ent l y o f t he frame s. o n lo ng beam of slab pane l = w B/6 x [ 3-(B/L) 2 ] where w is t he to tal lo ad on the slab p anel in K n/Sqm & L & B are long span & s hort sp ans of s lab panel respect ive l y. an equ ivale nt uniforml y d istr ibuted load per linear mete r of beam ma y be take n as : Equiva le nt u. framed stru cture are considered as comb inat ions of p laner framed in two d irectio ns.) it is co ns id ered s uffic ient to obtain reaso nable accurac y of a nal ysis fo r the d es ign of structu re. If the normal mo ment distr ibution is ap plied to all joints.d. are added to get the load on beam (in running Meter).l on a part icular fr ame for ana lysis b y mome nt distrib ution met ho d as described in t he ne xt sect io n. o n s hort beam of slab p ane l = w B/3.

The metho d is describ ed in the fo llowing step s. c) HARDY CROSS METHOD OF MOMENT DISTRI BUTION: In t his met hod. Taking t he frame as a who le. Unlock the joint one by one by applying imaginary external moments at each joint which nullifier the unbalanced moment at the joint. or ii. Lo ok t he jo ints and calculat e the fixed -e nd moments. Generall y fr ames are a nal yzed floor-wise for the worst co ndit ions of loading. it become nec es sar y to e volve simp ler met hods. Some of these are :a. and it ha s been become quite therefore.) Kani’s method of iteratio n. There fore. E nter them in t he calcu lat io n scheme. b.) Hard y cross met hod of moment distr ibution. Enter t hem in t he calculat ion sc hem e. The frame is a nalyzed b y this method either: i. it is. Ca lculated t he d istrib ution fa ctor at a ll joints fro m t he st iffnes s. T he who le frame ana l ys is ca n be carried out for several a lternat ive loading arrangeme nts for obtaining ma ximum po sit ive and ne gat ive bending mome nt. Step1: Step2: Step3: Step4: Ca lculate the st iffnes s of a ll members. Distribute the imaginary external moment among all members BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 38 . Poiso n’s met hod of virtual work etc.Ana l ys is of lar ge fram ed structures beams to o Cu mbersome with the class ical met hod of structure ana l ys i s su ch a Clape yron’s t heorem of t hree moments. Cast ingiliano’s t herefore o f leas t work. o fte n the ‘balancing’ and ‘carry-o ver’ co nst itu te one c ycle found the ‘carry-o ver’ values conver ge fa st e nough to ins ignifica nt a fter four c ycle of o peratio n. Floor-wise as suming t he co lu mns to be fixed for ends. Enter them in t he calculat io n scheme. adequ ate to stop the compu tation a fter fo ur cyc les.

89 7 7 1. 47 0. 43 0. C ALCUL ATI ON OF D I ST R IB UTIO N F ACTO R FOR F R AM E AN AL Y SI S Le n gth of me mbe r Cm S N O . 36 0. Enter t he carr y-o ver mome nts at t he far in the scheme. 89 3 7 9. Le f t be a m B -II I 2 R ig h t bea m Lo w e r C o l. 00 6 00 3 50 6 00 7 00 3 50 7 00 3 50 3 50 6 00 3 50 6 00 3 50 7 00 3 7 9. 58 0. 00 22 7 81 2. 50 22 7 81 2. 00 22 7 81 2. 50 22 7 81 2. 50 54 0 00 0. 21 0. 50 22 7 81 2. 01 0. A. 43 1 80 2. 22 2 97 3. Le f t be a m 3 C -II I Lo w e r C o l. 46 0. 89 3 7 9. 30 0. Ba lance t he unb alanced moment o btained from the last carr y-o ver operation. F. 63 0.II 4 R ig h t bea m Lo w e r C o l. B A. 54 1 42 2. 43 6 5 0. 32 0. till the carry-o ver moments become in significa nt. 26 BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 39 .Step5: Step6: Meeting at t he joint in proportion to the ir re lat ive st iffnes s and enter t hese va lue in t he scheme. Le f t be a m B -II 5 Up pe r c o l. 50 54 0 00 0. 00 6 5 0. Add the init ial fixed-end moments. J O IN T M EMB ER Siz e i n Cm M o ment o f I ne rt ia C m 4 ( I) K= I/ L S um K D . 69 7 7 1. 89 9 0 0. 50 22 7 81 2. bala ncing moment s and carr y-o ver mome nt s to get t he final end moments in b eam & co lumns. 50 54 0 00 0. 21 0.II I 1 R ig h t bea m Lo w e r C o l. 50 54 0 00 0. 39 0. 00 22 7 81 2. Step7: Step8: A sample of moment distribu tio n met hod is s how n on next two pages. 89 6 5 0. Repeat steps 4 & 5. Up pe r c o l. 69 6 5 0. R ig h t bea m 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 D 45 45 45 60 45 60 45 45 45 45 60 45 60 22 7 81 2. 39 0. 37 1 03 0. 69 6 5 0. 50 22 7 81 2. This operation is called balancing. 23 1 68 1. 89 7 7 1. 43 6 5 0.

FE M 6 . 0 6 -2 6. 4 7 -5. 31 2 07 3. 0 0 31 . 69 5 4 2. 52 . 0 0 0.4 6 III U. 89 5 4 2. 00 22 7 81 2. 00 U. 50 3 50 7 00 3 50 3 50 3 50 6 00 4 20 6 00 3 50 7 00 4 20 7 00 3 50 4 20 6 5 0. Lo w e r C o l. 89 6 5 0. d .66 2. 50 22 7 81 2. 63 B AL Tot al 57 . 41 0. l . 43 5 4 2. 37 0. 28 FRME ANA LYS IS BY MO MEN T DIS TRIBUTION METHO D 7 . 41 -10 . 22 0. 08 1 2. 0 2 -9 8. Up pe r c o l. Le f t be a m C -II 6 Up pe r c o l. 28 0 . 89 7 7 1. 50 22 7 81 2. R ig h t bea m 8 Lo w e r C o l. 41 7 7 1. 3 7 84 . 33 1 96 4. 23 0. 0 8 3 0X4 5 In t . 21 0. 69 6 5 0. 08 BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 40 . 94 0 6. 14 0. 0 0 5 2. L 2 4 0 . 9 2 1. 50 22 7 81 2. 4 1 15 . 66 4. 4 6 3. 89 7 7 1. 24 1 57 2.Lo w e r C o l. 0 0 5. 00 22 7 81 2. 0 8 0 4 5. 14 84 . 73 0. D. 21 0. FEM 9 8. 31 0. O.04 In t . 63 0. 9 6 57 . 7 4 1 1. 39 0. 16 0. 8 2 -11 5. 62 1 7.I 7 R ig h t bea m Lo w e r C o l. 7 6 5 3. 50 54 0 00 0. 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 45 60 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 60 45 60 45 45 22 7 81 2. A. 5 2 5. Le f t be a m C -I 9 Up pe r c o l. 41 3 7 9. 14 . 99 0. 5 4 0.36 3 0X6 0 0 bal .6 6 5 3. 28 0. 89 3 7 9. 42 0. 89 6 5 0. 4 3 0. Lo w e r C o l. 50 54 0 00 0. 50 22 7 81 2. 50 22 7 81 2. 43 6 5 0. 92 C. 54 2 . 00 22 7 81 2. 00 2 . 4 8 1 04 . 34 0. Le f t be a m B -I Up pe r c o l. 33 2 34 4. 50 54 0 00 0. 50 22 7 81 2. 43 6 5 0. 50 22 7 81 2. 41 0.

2 2 29 . 7 4 -7 . O. 3 7 3 4. 81 B AL C. 25 C. 0 3 8 . 4 2 -1 5. 0 0 17 . 63 -0 . 00 1 0. 2 5 0. 7 8 0 0. 66 4 0. 6 6 34 .73 In t . 14 . 2 2 7 . 5 0. 2 3 75 . 00 2 0 1. 0 0 5 1. 54 2 5. 3 In t .26 0. 0 6 -0. 46 -17 .3 1 0 29 . 05 6. 55 85 . 0 1 4. 04 1 10 . 32 0 0. 3 9 -0.3 1 20 0. 22 B AL -17 . 43 0 0. 01 2. 29 . 58 5. 5 5 6 7. 39 II 25 0 . 99 3 2.Tot al 38 . 41 I 28 6 . O. 63 0. 39 0. 4 2 BA L C. 43 BA L C. O. 99 2 2. 28 B AL C.3 3 30 BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 41 . 44 0 0 .0 8 1 2. 4 4 -9 5. 6 7 3 0. 22 1 2. 1 8 3. 0 0 0. 26 1 5. 00 1. 25 0 0 . O. 26 . 4 7 -8 1. 8 2 Tot al 41 . FEM 8 1. 8 7 15 . 32 2 0. 6 7 1. 2 8 67 . 17 . 43 75 . 1 1 -0 . 2 8 7 . 4 7 0 0. 87 1 2. 2 2 0. O. 3. FE M 6 . 5 0 2 5.

ii) Portal met hod . FE M 0. 33 1 1. IS:13920-1993 etc.33 0. Approximate methods are used for prelim inar y designs only. 0 0 20 . 54 1 02 . 3 9 1 22 . We will no t d iscuss t hes e met ho ds in d et ail a s no w mo dern co mputer package as STAAD PRO is ava ilable fo r a nal ysis. 3 7 8 3. Beams. 2 4 84 .e (i) Slope deflect io n or matrix met hods (ii) Factor method. 16 In t . BA L 22 . For fina l d esign we ma y use e xact met hod i. 0 8 -4.0 . 5 4 0 3 4.FOUNDATIO NS. 34 0 28 . 09 0 8. 4 6 0. S labs a nd are to be carried out as per the var ious clauses of IS codes. 8 7 -12 9. 08 2 .7 6 3 2. 1 6 3. O. IS 456-2000. Beam s a nd Slabs are dis cu ss ed in details in follow ing s ect io n. HORIZONTAL LOAD ANALYS IS:Frame ana lysis for horizo nta l loads calculated in step 4 is carr ied ou t b y us ing :(a)Approximate Method:i) Cant ilever met hod. 7 1 -2 3. 0 1 0 . Foundatio n. 02 0. 8 6 0 3. BEAMS & SLABS: After load calcu lat io n & anal ys is for vert ica l & horizonta l lo ads. FEM C. 2 3 0. 3 6 2. 0 1 -12 2. 00 6 .Found ations. 16 10 . The D es ign of Co lumn. 5 0 4 7. 56 0 -6 . BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 42 . 7 8 6.2 8 84 . 3 0 1. 2 5 65 .31 In t . IS :1893-2002. 8 9 4. design o f Columns . 5 0 12 . Step7: DESIGN OF COULMN. 54 A B C Step6.

A. For framed structure effect ive height of column d epends upon re lat ive st iffness of t he colum n & vario us beams fram ing into the column at its two ends. slender ne ss effects in e ac h sto re y ar e cons idered for each column group. The step confirms t he s ize of columns assumed in t he archite ctural draw ings. Fo r effect ive column height refer table 28 (Annexu re E) of IS : 456 -2000. (iv) Mini mu m Eccentricit y: . (iii) Slenderness limits fo r column s: . T he design o f each colum n is carr ied o ut from the top of foundatio n to t he roo f.The u nsupported length l. Imp ortant Considerations in design o f Columns:(i)Effecti ve heig ht of column :.T he effective height of a column is defined as t he height b etween t he po int s o f contr a flexure of t he buckled co lumn. Fu rther.Wit h t he know ledge of (i) Vertical load (ii) Moment s du e to horizont al loads on eit her a xis. varyi ng t he amount of stee l reinforcement fo r suitable grou ps for ease in des ign. act ing on each co lumn.A ll columns s ha ll b e des igned for minimum eccentric it y equal to u nsu pported le ngt h of colu mn/500 plus least latera l dime nsio n/30. Or e mi n ≥ l/500+ D/30 ≥ 20 mm BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 43 . (Refer Annexure E of IS: 456-2000.The u nsupported lengt h betwee n end re straint s s hall no t e xceed 60 times t he least lat era l dime nsio n of a column.) (ii)Un suppo rted Leng th: .( iii) Mo ments due to vertical lo ads on eit her axis. at a ll flo or leve ls of the b uilding. colum ns are design ed b y charts of SP-16(Desig n Aids) w it h a load factor of 1. it s ha ll be the clear d ist a nce b etwee n the floor & under sid e of t he s hallower beam fram ing into the colu mns in each dire ct ion at t he next higher floor leve l. Design o f columns : .5 for vertical lo ad effect a nd w it h a load fa ctor of 1.2 for the combined effect s of t he vertic al and t he horizont a l loads. o f a compression member sha ll be take n as t he c lear dis tance betwee n end restraint s except that :In beam & s lab co nstruct ion. subject to a minimum of 20 mm.

The ma ximum a xial load & moments act ing a long t he lengt h of the colu mn are cons idered for the design of the colum n sect ion eit her b y t he working str ess method or limit st at e met hod. The area of longitud inal steel & it s distr ibution. Determ inat ion o f the cross sect iona l dime ns ion. BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 44 . II. III. It is eit her in the form of circular rings of pol ygo na l lin ks (lateral t ies). Co lu mn d es ign requ ired:I.T he design o f colu mn is complex s ince it is sub jected to axia l loads & mome nt s which ma y ver y ind ependentl y. Trans verse st ee l. t he d irect io n und er (v)Design Approach: .Where l= unsu pported length of colu mn in mm. D=Lateral dimens io n o f column in cons iderat ion in mm. The trans verse reinfo rcem ent is provided to impart effect ive lat eral support aga inst bu ckling to ever y longitu dina l b ar.

BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 45 .

( iv) Raft fo undations of the t yp es (a) Slab (b) beam-slab.B. plint h b eams are provided to support brick walls a nd also to act as eart hq uake t ies in ea ch p rincipal d ire ct ion.. b) Depth of foundation:Depth of foundation below ground level may be obtained by using Rankine's formula p .1 + Sin Ø h = Where h = p = γ = Ø = Minimum dep th of found ation Gross bearing cap acit y De nsit y of soil Angle of Repo se of soil BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 46 . fou ndatio ns must be d es igned to prevent e xcess ive sett lement or rotation.With the knowledge o f the column lo ads and moments at base a nd the soil data. Imp ortant Considerations in design o f Fo undations:a) Introduction: .. are a lso designed at t his sta ge.... Often....Foundations ar e structural element s that transfer loads from the bu ilding or ind ividual column to the eart h. Plint h beams. retaining wal l if any... found ations for columns are designed The follow ing is a lis t o f different t ypes of fou ndatio ns in o rd er to prefere nce w ith a view to economy: (i) Ind ividual footings (ii) Co mbina t ion of individual a nd co mbined fo otings ( iii) Strip fo otings wit h r eta ining wall act ing as str ip beam wherever applic able. Desig n o f foundations: . being cons idered as part of fo undations. to minimize differentia l sett lement and to provide adequate safet y aga inst slid ing and over turning. The bric k wa ll footings are also designed at this st a ge.. If t he se loads are to be properl y transmitted.γ 2 1 – Sin Ø .

crack ing & developmen t i) To determine the area required for proper transfer of total load on the soil. iii) Thick ness of the ed ge of footin g:-(Refere nce c lause 34. 100 q o ----------.c) Recom mend atio ns o f IS 456 -2000.+ 1 Fck Tan α (s hould not be les s tha n) 0. the angle between the plane passing through the bottom edge of the pedestal and the corresponding junction edge of the column with pedestal and the horizontal plane shall be governed by the expression. iv) Dimen sion of p edestal:In the case of plain Cement Concrete pedestals.9 x Where qo fc k = Ca lculated maximum bearing pressure at the b ase of the pedestal/ fo oting in N/mm 2 Character ist ic strength of concrete at 28 da ys in N/mm 2 = BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 47 .1 .2) The t hickness at t he ed ge s hall not be less t han 15 cm for footing on soils. bending. s ha ll gove rn t he genera l deta ils. Code o f Practice for Structura l Safety of Building s: s hallow found atio n. limit state design. shear. Plan Ar ea o f foo ting = To tal Load inclu ding Se lf We ight ------------------------------------Allowable bearing capacit y of soil ii) IS 1904 – 1978. the total load (the combination of dead. live and any other load without multiplying it with any load factor) need be considered.

Co lumn P LA IN CONCRE TE PEDES TA L α (v) Bend in g Moment (Refere nce Clauses.2.3.2.1 & 34 .2) COLUM N BASE PEDESTAL X Y FAC E O F PE D ES TA FAC E O F CO LUMN X Y BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 48 .3 .34.

and over the entire area of the footing or.4. the critical section for this condition shall be assumed as a vertical section located from the face of the column.d τv < τc ( τc = Design Shear Strength of Concrete Based on % of longitudinal tensile reinforcement refer Table 61 of SP-16) BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 49 . (vi)Shear (Reference Clause 33. FOR ONE WAY BENDING ACTION For one way shear action.1) The shear strength of footing is governed by the following two factors:a) The footing acting essentially as a wide beam. the nominal shear stress is calculated as follows:Vu τv = Where τv Vu b d = = = = Shear stress Factored vertical shear force Breadth of critical section Effective depth ------b.2. one side of the said plane.ISOLATED COLUMN FOOTING The bending Moment will be considered at the face of column. pedestal or wall at a distance equal to the effective depth of the footing in case of footings on soils. with a potential diagonal crack intending in a plane across the entire width. Pedestal or wall and shall be determined by passing through the section a vertical place which extends completely across the footing.

the nominal shear stress is calculated in accordance with lause 31.5 time the effective depth away from the face of column or pedestal.d BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 50 . Punching shear shall be around the perimeter 0.6.2 of the code as follows:Vu τv Where τv b0 d Vu = = = = Shear stress Periphery of the critical section Effective depth Factored vertical shear force = ---------b0. For two way shear action. the following should be checked in punching shear.C R I T IC A L SECTIO N B A d d CRITICAL SECTION FOR ONE -WAY SHEAR (FOR TWO WAY BENDING ACTION) For two may bending action.

(viii) Reinforcement:.2.3 of code (as discussed 4. 2 = -----B+1 Reinforcement in central Band width -------------------------------------------------Total reinforcement in short direction Where B = Long side of footing --------------------------Short side of footing BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 51 .3) The critical section for checking the development length in a footing shall be assumed at the same planes as those described for bending moment in clause 34.When shear reinforcement is not provided.2.12% & max spacing should not be more than 3 times effective depth or 450 mm whichever is less. The total reinforcement shall be laid down uniformly in case of square footings.5 + Bc (But not greater than 1) Short dimension of column or pedestal Bc = ---------------------------------------------------Long dimension of column or pedestal τc = 0. (Reference Clause 34.4. there shall be a central band.25 fek N/mm2 Note:-It is general practice to make the base deep enough so that shear reinforcement is not required.5 of the handout) and also at all other vertical planes where abrupt changes of section occur. τc] Where Ks = 0.3) Only tensile reinforcement is normally provided. The reinforcement in the central band shall be provided in accordance with the following equation.The Min % of steel in footing slab should be 0. the nominal shear stress at the critical section should not exceed [Ks. (vii)Development Length (Reference Clause 34. For rectangular footings. equal to the width of the footings.

5) Column bars of diameter larger than 36 mm. in compression only can be dowelled at the footing with bars of smaller diameters.91 = For limit state method of design.5% of cross sectional area of the supported column or pedestal. which is sloped or stepped footing may be taken as the area of the lower base of the largest frustum of a pyramid or cone contained wholly with in the footing and having for its upper base. reinforcement must be provided for developing the excess force.(ix)Transfer of Load at the Base of Column (Reference Clause 34. Loaded area at the column base. the permissible bearing stress shall be = 45 fek If the permissible bearing stress is exceeded either in column concrete or in footing concrete. 4) Enough development length should be provided to transfer the compression or tension to the supporting member. At the same time.4) The compressive stress in concrete at the base of column or pedestal shall be transferred by bearing to the top of supporting pedestal or footing. 2) A minimum of four bars must be provided. The reinforcement may be provided either by extending the longitudinal bars into the footing or by providing dowels in accordance with the code as give in the following:1) Minimum area of extended longitudinal bars or dowels must be 0. The bearing pressure on the loaded area shall not exceed the permissible bearing stress in direct A1 Compression multiplied by a value equal to but not greater than 2 Where A1 = Supporting area for bearing of footing. the dowel must extend vertically into the footing a distance equal to the development length of the dowel. -----A2 A2 4. the area actually loaded and having side slope of one vertical to two horizontal. 3) If dowels are used their diameter should not exceed the diameter of the column bars by more than 3 mm. BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 52 . Te dowel must extend into the column a distance equal to the development length of the column bar.

C. The slab des ign for particular floo r may be do ne in tabular form as shown below.2 & A nne xure D o f IS : 4 56-2000. The design of flo or slab is carried out as per clau se 24. BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 53 .The s labs are designed as one-wa y or two-way pa nels. taking t he edge co ndit ions o f t he supporting ed ges in to account. The Bending mo ment coefficie nts are to be taken from table.4 & 37.1. De sign o f floor s labs and beams is taken up wit h t he F irst Floor & upwards .26 of the code depending upon the sup port condit ion & be nding mo ment calcu lated & reinforcement steel ma y be calculat ed from the charts of SP -16. with t he loading alread y dec ided as per fu nctio nal use of slab panel. Des ign of F loor slabs :-.

l 1 2 = 1 7 3 x 1 0 Α y ( + ) α y () m u y + 1 6 = 7 x 1 4 m u y Ste e . 3 7 BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 54 .l 1 7 = 7 x 1 5 18 1 4 1 5 Tw o Ad j . (Cas e No. 2 5 1 1 5 . 6.m w S h or t sp an lx m 1.5 0 5.SLAB DESIGN Name of pr oj ect:Level of sl a b s l a b S l a Ed g e b c o nd it io n I D To tal l oa d in KN / Sq . 5 8 0 1 2 0 0 . 5 l * y w / * l lx x *l x t h i c k n e s s i n m m S t e e l i n s h o r t s p a n lo ng s pa n ly m Sh o r t s pa n M ome nt K N -M L o ng s pa n mom e nt KN M St ee l in lo ng sp a n α x ( + ) Α x ( ) mu x + 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1= 7 x 9 S m t u e x e . 4 9 7 . 0 5 6 0 . 0 4 7 5 . 7 8 1 1 . Ed g S e. 7 6 0 . 4) S 2 8. 0 7 5 8. 0 3 5 0 . 50 3 . 1 Di sc ont .

The each section is designed for factored Moment. of the IS:456-2000. The beam design can be easily done by a computer program which will give reinforcement at various critical sections along the length of the beam and also shear stirrups required it saves considerable time and labour of a designer. Bent. BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 55 . Design of floor Beams:-.60 kN. The effect of the shear due to vertical and horizontal loads is also similarly taken care of. directly we get the following reinforcement for a moment of resistance of 9. The beams are designed as continuous beams.2 for the combined effects of the vertical and the horizontal loads.5 for vertical load effect and with a load factor of 1. The variation in the live load position is taken into account by following the two-cycle moment distribution.e at two supports & at Mid span. D. The moments due to horizontal loads are added to the above moments. Shear & equivalent shear for Torsion if any at a section.m per Metre width: 8 mm dia at 13 cm spacing or 10 mm dia at 210 cm spacing Reinforcement given in the table is based on a cover of 15 mm or bar diameter whichever is greater.Method of calculation of steel from Tables of SP-16 for slab design Determine the main reinforcement required for a slab with the following data: Factored moment Mu 9. monolithic with reinforced concrete columns with their far ends assumed fixed. In manual method span of a beam is generally designed at three sections i. Check for Deflection:-Slab is also checked for control of Deflection as per clause 23. It may be noted that the shear component due to wind or earthquake may be significant and it may affect the size and the range of shear stirrups.up bars are not effective for earthquake shear due to its alternating nature. Each section of the beam is designed for load factor of 1.mper Metre width Depth of slab 10 cm Concrete mix M 20 Characteristic strength a) 415 N/mm2 METHOD OF REFERRING TO TABLES FOR SLABS Referring to table 35 (for fck=20 & fy = 415 N/mm2).1. the moments are applied a face correction to reduce them to the face of the members.1 & Fig 4. 24.2.60 kN.

556 x 300x 565/100 =942.556 A st =0.565 X0.Dou bly Reinforced Bea m (i)Deter mine the main reinforcements r equired for a rectangular with the following data: Size o f b eam 30×60 cm Co ncret e mix M 20 Character ist ic strength of 415/Nmm 2 Re inforcement Facto red mo ment 320Kn.76 X 10 3 X 0.76/1000 X (1000 ) 2 = 2.32 kN.42mm 2 =9.76 N/ mm 2 = 2.300 X0. Effect ive d epth= 6 00 – 2 5 – 20 /2 = 565 mm Fro m Tab le D for f y = 415 N/ mm 2 and f c k = 20 N/mm 2 M u.Singly Reinfo rced Beam Determine t he main te nsio n reinforceme nt required for a rectangular b eam sect io n wit h t he following data: Size o f b eam 30 X 60 cm Co ncret e mix M 20 Character ist ic strength 415 N/mm 2 o f reinfo rcement Facto red mo ment 170 kN. p t = 0.m is less t han M u.76 X 10 3 kN/m 2 M u.78 Fro m Tab le 2.m Actu al mome nt of 170 kN.76 X 10 3 bd 2 = 2. l i m/ bd 2 = 2.42 cm 2 Ex ample2 . Example1. l im = 2. Re ferring to table 2 of SP-16 we have to ca lculate Mu/bd 2 Mu/bd 2 = 170 x10 6 /(300x 565 x565) = 1. l i m.m As su ming 2 0 mm dia bars wit h 25 mm clear cover.m BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 56 .565 = 264. The sect ion is t here fo re to be d esigned as a s ingl y reinfo rced (under-reinforced) recta ngu lar sect io n.Two examples of beam design are given below illustrating calculation of steel reinforcement with help of SP-16.

32 KN-M Actu al mome nt of 320 Kn.34 and d ’ /d = 0. p c = 0.51 cm 2 (ii) Determine the Shear reinforcement (vertical stirrup s ) required for the same beam section if factored shear force is V u =250 KN. p t = 1.18 =139.10. Re inforcement from Table 50 Mu/bd 2 = 320 × 10 6 / (300 ×565 2 ) = 3.18 kN She ar to b e carried b y st irrups V u s =V u .82 kN V u s /d = 139.062 Ne xt higher value of d 1 /d = 0. N/mm τ v < τ ma x ( 2. fo r f y = 415 N/mm 2 and f c k = 20N/mm 2 Mu 2 lim/bd 2 = 2.207 x 300x 565/100 =350.47 BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 57 .152 x 300x 565 /100 =1952.152.5 = 2.15 τ c =0.M is greater than Mu 2 lim he nce t he s ect io n is to be designed as a doubly reinforced section.64 mm 2 =19. From table 6 1 for p t =1.47 kN/ cm Referr ing to tab le 6 2 for steel f y = 415 N/mm 2 Provid e 8 mm diameter two le gged vert ical st irrups at 140 mm sp acing.8 N /mm 2 ) he nce se ct ion is adeq uate regarding s he ar stress.76 × 10 3 KN/m 2 Mu 2 lim= 2.As su ming 2 0 mm dia bars wit h 25 mm clear cover. 2 S hear stress τ v = V u /bd = 250 × 10 3 /(300× 565) =1. D=600-25 – 20/ 2 =565 mm Fro m tab le D.82/56.τ c × b× d = 250 . will be used for referr ing to Table 5 0 For Mu/bd 2 = 3.5 65 = 264.1 10.76 N/mm 2 = 2.86 mm 2 =3.52 cm 2 And A sc = 0.65 × 300 ×565/1000=110 .65 N/mm 2 Shear capac it y of co ncrete se ct ion = τ c × b× d = 0.207 A st = 1.1 .565×0.34 N/mm 2  d ’/d = (25+10)/565 = 0.76 × 10 3 ×0.300×0.

TABLES FOR DESIGN BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 58 .

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DETAILING AS PER IS 13920 BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 72 .

MIN 2 BARS FOR FULL LENGTH ALONG TOP AND BOTTOM FACE AS > MIN.5 m sp an & wit h Fe415 stee l reinforceme nt and load ing cla ss upto 3KN/m 2 ? 4. (a) What are t he basic values o f span to effect ive depth rat ios for beams as per IS 456 for sp an upto 10meter for – (i) Cant ilever (ii) Simpl y supported (iii) Co nt inuou s (b) What are t he basic values of sp an to overa ll depth ratio s for two -way slabs upto 3. What are t he provisions o f IS 456 for nominal cover to meet durabilit y requireme nt s ? A s per IS 456 how much minimum cover should be provided for – a) Co lumn b) Footing 5. Bd AS < MAX Bd 50 m max 50 m max d db 2d 2d HOOP SPACING > d /2 HOOP SPACING < d/4 and 8 db B = BREADTH OF BEAM db = DIAMETER OF LONGITUDINAL BAR BEAM REINFORCEMENT 37 Questions:1. Which are t he important BIS Codes/ ha ndou ts used for structu ral design of RCC build ings ? 2. In w hich seismic zones provis io ns of IS 13920 is to be ad opted fo r all re inforced concrete structu res? 3. (a) What are t he minimu m reinforceme nt provis ion of IS 4 56 for beams in respect of: (i) Tension re inforcement BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 73 .

What is t he minimum ecce ntr icit y for whic h all columns s hould be designed? List out minimum a nd maximum lo ngitudina l reinfo rcement req uired to b e provided in co lu mns ? G ive in brief provisions for maximum spacing of lateral t ies in a column? 12. How mu ch m inimum reinforceme nt must be provided in s labs ? 8. How vert ical loads on co lumns are ca lculat ed? G ive name s of s impler met hods of ana l ysis of structures. As per IS189 3 give formulae for calculating – a) Des ign Base S hear (V b ) b) Des ign Hor izonta l accelerat io n (A h ) 9. How man y minimum longitudina l reinforcement bars sho uld be provided in:a) Circular co lu mn b) Rect a ngular column 14. 11. Give formulae for calculat ing t ime p eriod as per IS1 893 for – a) RCC Frame Building b) RCC Building Br ick in fill walls 10. What is t he maximum permis s ible spacing for s hear reinforcement in b eams? E xpla in IS 4 56 provis ions for side fa ce reinforcement in beams.(ii) Shear re inforcement (b) What are t he IS 456 provisio ns for ma ximum reinforcement in beams for:(i) Compress ion reinfo rcement (ii) Tension re inforcement 6. What are t he cr itic al sect ions in isolat ed fo oting design fo r the follow ing:a) Bending mo ment b ) One wa y s hear c) Two way shear 13. 7. What is the minimum diamet er bar that can be u sed in longitudina l reinforcement in colu mn? --------------------- BS NL India F or Inter na l Cir culation O nly Page : 74 .

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