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INTRODUCTION APPRECIATION A BRIEF HISTORY OF STATISTICS PART A PART B PART C FURTHER EXPLORATION REFLECTION CONCLUSION
interesting and meaningful and hence improve their thinking skills. Ministry of Education has prepared four tasks for us. We are expected to submit the project work within three weeks from the first day the task is being administered to us. reasoning and communication are highly encouraged and expected Experience classroom environments that stimulates and enhances effective learning. we are to gain valuable experiences and able to: Apply and adapt a variety of problem solving strategies to solve routine and nonroutine problems Experience classroom environments which are challenging. We are to choose and complete only ONE task based on our area of interest. Experience classroom environments where knowledge and skills are applied in meaningful ways in solving real -life problems Experience classroom environments where expressing ones mathematical thinking.This year the Curriculum Development Division. Failure to submit the written report will result in us not receiving certificate. . and to use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely Enhance acquisition of mathematical knowledge and skills through problem-solving in ways that increase interest and confidence Prepare ourselves for the demand of our future undertakings and in workplace Realize that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in solving real life problems and hence develop positive attitude towards mathematics. Acquire effective mathematical communication through oral and writing. Train ourselves not only to be independent learners but also to collaborate. This project can be done in groups or individually. to cooperate. and to share knowledge in an engaging and healthy environment Use technology especially the ICT appropriately and effectively Train ourselves to appreciate the intrinsic values of mathematics and to become more creative and innovative Realize the importance and the beauty of mathematics. and I gladly choose to do this individually. Upon completion of the Additional Mathematics Project Work.We students taking Additional Mathematics are required to carry out a project work while we are in Form 5.
For their strong support. I also would like to give thanks to all my friends for helping me and always supporting me to help complete this project work.. Mrs. Not forgetting too all the other people who were involved directly or indirectly towards making this project a reality. She has been a very supportive figure throughout the whole project. I thank you all . They have done a great job at collecting form 4 end of year result for additional mathematics and sharing information with other people including me. i would also like to thank all the teacher and my friend for helping me collect the much needed data and statistics for this. They have always been by my side and i hope they will still be there in the future. . Last but not least. I would like to express my gratitude to my beloved parents. Also for helping me to find the mark to complete this project. Najihah Binti Mustaffa as she gives us important guidance and commitment during this project work.First and foremost. Without them this project would never have had its conclusion. I would like to thank my Additional Mathematics teacher.
With its concerns with data. the meaning of "statistics" broadened. however. The term "mathematical statistics" designates the mathematical theories of probability and statistical inference. whose initial results were found in the17th and 18th centuries. probability and statistics have been in continual development. Today statistics is widely employed in government. In the early 19th century. summary. statistics had its origins in public administration and maintains a special concern with demography and economics. astronomy used probability models and statistical theories. Electronic computers have expedited statistical computation. statistics has great overlap with the decision science and microeconomics. Being concerned with the scientific method and inductive logic. statistics increasingly used probability theory. and analysis of data. By 1800. particularly in the analysis of games of chance(gambling). then including the discipline concerned with the collection. following Laplace. The development of statistical reasoning was closely associated with the development of inductive logic and the scientific method Statistics is not a field of mathematics but an autonomous mathematical science. and have allowed statisticians to develop "computerintensive" methods. statistics has overlap with information science and computer science. particularly the method of least squares. physical scientists used statistical reasoning and probability models to advance the new sciences of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. statistical theory has close association with the philosophy of science. and all the sciences.By the 18th century. social scientists used statistical reasoning and probability models to advance the new sciences of experimental psychology and sociology. business. which was invented by Legendre and Gauss Early probability theory and statistics was systematized and extended by Laplace. In the 19th century. with its emphasis on learning from data and making best predictions. like computer science or operations research. which are used in statistical practice. the term "statistics" designated the systematic collection of demographic and economic data by states. In the19th century. The relation between statistics and probability theory developed rather late. . Unlike mathematics.
medicines. etc. allied.). public health concerns (epidemiology. econometry. the creation of precise instruments for agricultural research. . Many universities maintain separate mathematics and statistic departments. education and public health. Statistics are generally regarded not as the subfield of mathematics but rather as a distinct. Statistic is also taught in department as diverse as psychology . biostatistics.STATISTICS TODAY During the 20th century. field.) necessitated substantial advances in statistical practices. and economic and social purposes(unemployment rate. Individuals and organisations use statistics to understand data and make informed decisions throughout the natural and social sciences. business. etc. and other area. industrial quality control. Today the used of statistic has broadened far beyond its origin.
For example. Usually. more and more work places are conducting internal research or are becoming part of broader research studies.The first reason is to be able to effectively conduct research. is the difference in recorded absenteeism between psychiatric and obstetrics nurses large enough to conclude that there is meaningful difference in absenteeism between the two units? There are two possibilities: The first possibility is that the difference between the two groups is a result of chance factors. Without statistics we have no way of making an educated decision between the two possibilities. it may find its way into your life. Otherwise data might be collected that is uninterpretable. The second possibility is that there is a real difference between the two units with the psychiatric unit being more nurses missing work. a knowledge of measurements and statistics will be invaluable. time. the information contained in this section will be meaningless. a research methods or experimental psychology course). when this happens it results in a loss of data. In each of these instances. you will find them in something called the results section. however. A second point about research should be made. the two jobs have approximately the same amount of absenteeism. The ability to extract meaning from journal articles and the ability to critically evaluate research from a statistical perspective are fundamental skills that will enhance your knowledge and understanding in . many classes on the undergraduate level may require you to conduct research (for example. Most technical journals you will read contain some form of statistics. In reality. We will base this decision on our knowledge of probability and inferential statistics. you may find yourself assigned to one of these studies. in the study cited in Chapter One. Secondly. provides us with a tool to make an educated decision." While you may never plan to be involved in research. Now many a student may by saying to themselves: "But I never plan on doing any research. It is extremely important for a researcher to know what statistics they want to use before they collect their data. involvement in research will result from that decision. Thus. We will be able to decide which of the two possibilities is more likely to be true. The second reason to study statistics is to be able to read journals. Finally. and money. Unfortunately. Statistics. Certainly. An understanding of basic statistics will provide you with the fundamental skills necessary to read and evaluate most results sections. Without an understanding of statistics. Without the use of statistics it would be very difficult to make decisions based on the data collected from a research project. it you decide to continue your education and work on a masters or doctoral degree.
Most of us know enough about our cars to know when to take it into the shop. Usually. To summarize. well meaning individuals unintentionally report erroneous statistical conclusions. The fifth reason to have a working knowledge of statistics is to know when you need to hire a statistician. however. Like any other tool. and to know when you need to hire outside statistical help. it is also important to have enough statistical savvy to be able to discuss your project and the data analyses you want computed with the statistician you hire. Also. we don't attempt the repair ourselves because we don't want to cause any irreparable damage. We should be the same way about hiring a statistician. you want to be able to make sure that your statistician is on the right track. As with the mechanic discussed above. If you are in over your statistical head. we try to know enough to be able to carry on an intelligible conversation with the mechanic (or we take someone with us who can) to insure that we don't get a whole new engine (big bucks) when all we need is a new fuel filter (a few bucks). The third reason is to further develop critical and analytic thinking skills. To do well in statistics one must develop and use formal logical thinking abilities that are both high level and creative. Most students completing high school and introductory undergraduate coursework have at their disposal a variety of critical thinking and analytic skills. . you will be in a better position to evaluate the information you have been given. If you know some of the basic statistical concepts. statistics can be used or misused. the five reasons to study statistics are to be able to effectively conduct research. Conducting research is time consuming and expensive. More often. it does not make sense to risk an entire project by attempting to compute the data analyses yourself. It is very east to compute incomplete or inappropriate statistical analysis of one's data. In other words. to be able to read and evaluate journal articles. The study of statistics will serve to enhance and further develop these skills.related coursework. to act a an informed consumer. to further develop critical thinking and analytic skills. it is true that some individuals do actively lie and mislead with statistics. The fourth reason to study statistics is to be an informed consumer. Yes.
59 60.30 .60.70 .79 80 .99 Frequency. Pie Chart .39 40 .19 20 .80 .50 .89 90 .49 50 .40 .69 70 . Line Graph Number of student's additional mathematic TOV marks 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 15 10 2 29 38 28 Number of student's additional mathematic TOV marks 57 0 . f 0 5 29 57 38 28 15 10 2 A.90 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99 B.Class 0 .29 30 .20 .
59 60.69 70 .29 30 .30 .49 Mode = 40 Median = 50 Mean = 52.50 29 39 49 59 60.70 .19 20 . The mode is not suitable because the data does not seem to cluster about mode .40 .49 50 .90 69 79 89 99 0 5 29 38 28 15 10 2 Number of student's additional mathematic TOV marks 57 Modal Class = 40 . Bar Chart Number of student's additional mathematic TOV marks 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 .652 *The mean is a more suitable measure of central tendency because it reflects the central value around which the data seems to cluster.39 40 .79 C.Number of student's additional mathematic TOV marks 15 28 38 10 20 5 29 57 0 .19 20 .80 .
75 71402. x 4.39 40 .14 The standard deviation answer is getting from the square root of a variance which is also a measure of dispersion that has same unit as each value of data.5 2536.5 94. the range of this overall data have a greater dispersion. Standard Deviation= √ √ √ =15.25 34517. Thus.5 84. f 0 5 29 57 38 28 15 10 2 184 midpoint . So.5 845 189 9688 f(x2) 0 3001.5 1000.89 90 . my result is increase based on the comparison.5 34.5 64.5 54.25 112874.29 30 .5 480.99 ∑ frequency.25 112869. ∑ ∑ ̃ class 0 .5 2071 1806 1117.5 f(x) 0 122.Range= midpoint of highest class-midpoint of lowest class When comparing the range of two sets of data.79 80 .5 17860.19 20 .5 44.49 50 .5 24.59 60.69 70 .5 552266 (b) My TOV mark is higher than all three measure of central tendencies. the set with a greater range is said have a greater variation or dispersion. .5 116487 83253.5 74.
it is positive linear correlation which 0 < r < 1. (3) n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 55 Y 10 20 30 40 50 60 75 80 85 90 540 XY 10 40 90 160 250 360 525 640 765 900 3740 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 385 100 400 900 1600 2500 3600 5625 6400 7225 8100 36450 .X Y (2) 100 90 80 70 60 Marks 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 10 2 20 3 30 4 40 5 50 6 60 7 75 8 80 9 85 10 90 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 number each student spent in doing additional mathematics (h) Based on the graph above.
r = √ √ √ =0. I am agreed if more time is taking to make revision in additional mathematics. more mark will get.33x+2.33 .5 = 54 y-54=9. Based on data above. Since our result is 0.5) y= 9.33(x-5.992887. B(1) x 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 55 y 10 20 30 40 50 60 75 80 85 90 540 xy 10 40 90 160 250 360 525 640 765 900 3740 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 385 X= Y= b= = (2) = 5.992887 The range of the correlation coefficient is from -1 to 1. we can conclude that the strength of the linear relationship between x and y is strong.69 = 9.
(3)(i) Prediction of score for student who spent 7 hours per week is 66%. .
and to explore the forms of these relationships. So. where its use has substantial overlap with the field of machine learning.(ii) Regression analysis is widely used for prediction. . Regression analysis is also used to understand which among the independent variables are related to the dependent variable. I’m agreed that least square regression line is suitable in help me for prediction.
19 4.8 2.23 0.633 0.26 3.13 (1) .591 0.41 3.3 1.56 0.83 0.447 0.56 0.4 3.5 1.079 0.13 0.544 0.2 9.96 2.x y 1.35 0.9 1.380 0.51 2.
9 0.09.y 1.15 0. R²=0.6 0.55 0.8 0.25 0.7 0.2 0.85 0.3 1.05 0.522341*x+1.1 Series 1 f(x)=-1.1 0.05 0.7 0.1 1 0.2 0.85 0.5 0.8 0.5 0.35 0.1 1 0.25 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.09.7 0.45 0.522341*x+1.35 0.2 1.6 0.7 0.4 0.9 2 (i) graphically y 1. R²=0.1 0.09 x 0.65 0.2 0.4 0.15 0.45 0.9 0.3 1.2 1.65 0.4 0.1 Series 1 f(x)=-1.8 0.6 0.75 0.9998 yintercept =1.9 (ii) statistically .8 0.55 0.2 0.9998 x 0.75 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.6 0.
a= a=-1.0213 .018 = 1.654+ b= b=0.5 -0.
I Really Love You...... Sacrificing My Internet... You My Partner. And. From The Day I Start Learning..Additional Mathematics... Sacrificing My Anime. ... Countless Of Days... Sacrificing My Computer Games. Sacrificing My Facebook........ I Always Thought That You Will Be My Greatest Obstacle And Rival In Excelling In My Life.. I Realized Something Really Important In You.. From The Day I Heard Your Name.. You Are My Soul Mate..... Sacrificing My Video Games. From The Day I Born... After Sacrificing My Precious Time Just For You. From The Day I Was Able To Holding Pencil.. I LOVE YOU ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS.... You Are My Real Friend........ Countless Of Nights. But After Countless Of Hours.
statistics is a daily life necessity. Therefore. Especially in conducting an air -pollution survey. the stock market cannot be interpret and many more. drawing graphs and some problem solving. Without it. . It is not just widely used in markets but also in interpreting the condition of the surrounding like the air or the water. In conclusion. I saw that the usage of statistics is important in daily life.After doing research. answering questions. we should be thankful of the people who contribute in the idea of statistics. surveys cannot be conducted.
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