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CHAPTER 4 : THE
4.1 1. 2. 3. Air 1. 2. 3. 4.
VARIETY OF RESOURCES ON EARTH
THE DIFFERENT RESOURCES ON EARTH Human beings, animals and plants need food, water, air and shelter in order to survive. The Earth has the resources needed to sustain life. The resources are air, water, soil, minerals, fossil fuels and living things.
Air is needed by all living things to survive. The atmosphere is a layer of air that envelops the Earth. Air is a mixture of gases. Air contains gases such as oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are two very important gases that support life on Earth. a. Oxygen i. Used for respiration by living things ii. Used in combustion of materials iii. Used in industries iv. Released during photosynthesis. b. Carbon dioxide i. Used by green plants to carry out photosynthesis ii. Used in fire extinguishers iii. Released during respiration and combustion. Water covers a total of about three quarters of the Earth. The sources of water are oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, rainfall and ground water. Importance of water a. To animals/human i. It provides a medium for chemical process and body metabolism ii. It is the main component of the blood iii. It transports nutrient to all cell in the body iv. It caries excretory products to the kidneys for excretion. v. It helps to control the body temperature. b. To plants i. It helps to maintain the turgidity of plant cells. ii. It is used in photosynthesis. iii. Need for the germination of seeds.
Water 1. 2. 3.
Dissolves minerals slats in the ground for absorbtion by the root of plants v. zinc. fruit.Science Form 1 note GOOD LUCK Teacher zaidi@maher2010 iv. 6. Examples of minerals are feldspar. Some animals for example. 5. tigers and snakes feed on other animals. 5. quartz. air and water. materials for making clothes and building materials from plants and animals. The soil organic matter includes • Organic litter such as fallen leaves. Green plants are able to make their own food by carrying out photosynthesis. 2. Importance of soil • Source of minerals and fossil fuel • Source of clay for making pottery • Source of sand for making glass and cement • Base for agricultural activities • Foundation for construction of houses. Soil contains mineral matter. Animal are not able to make their own food. tin. The presence of air and water in the soil makes soil a natural habitat for various types of plants and animal. • Microorganism living in the soil. 3. silver and gold. 7. Soil refers to the outer layer of the Earth. Minerals are inorganic substances found naturally on land and in seas or oceans. We can obtain food. Plants and animals are resources needed by human beings. aluminium. Some animals for example. 2. 4. 3. 6. 2. . Mineral 1. Cool down the plant (transpiration) Soil 1. iron. 8. Flora and fauna (plants and animals) are also natural resources that sustain life. Aquatic plants and animals are also important resources for sustaining life. building. Living things Importance of plants and animals 1. giraffes and elephants feed on plants. road and other structures. Air and water are found in pore spaces between the soil particles. fuel. 4. animal dropping etc. organic matter. • humus formed from the composition of organic litter. Helps to support aquatic plants vi. twigs.
4. magnesium. Metal PMR 06 There are 91 types of metals that have been identified so far. Fossil fuels are formed from the remains of animals and plants that have died millions of years. chorine . phosphorus. Examples of metal: mercury. 06 Elements. iron. Products of fractional distillation are petrol. Fossil Fuels 1. 3. silver. Element can be grouped into metals and non-metal. GOOD LUCK Teacher zaidi@maher2010 Some minerals for example aluminium and iron are mined because they can be used as raw materials in various industries. Coal and natural gas can be burnt as fuel directly after they mined. Example of non-metal: hydrogen. 2. coal and natural gas. iodine. platinum. 5. 4. Elements are substances that are made up of only one type of particle. Petroleum can be separated into different parts by fractional distillation before use. Examples of elements are copper. carbon. 06 1. oxygen. An element cannot be broken down into any simpler substances by physical or chemical methods. lead. sulphur. 5. sodium. ( LPG ). gold Examples of metals and non metals Metals Metals Aluminium Tin Silver Potassium Copper Iron Mercury State (at room temperature) Solid Solid Solid Solid Solid Solid Liquid Non metals State (at room Non metals temperature) Carbon Solid Sulphur Solid Iodine Solid Bromine Liquid Oxygen Gas Chlorine Gas Hydrogen Gas Non-metal PMR 06 There are 19 types of non-metals that have been identified so far. sulphur and aluminium. diesel. gold.Science Form 1 note 3. 2. kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas. COMPOUND AND MIXTURE PMR 04. ELEMENTS. There are more than 110 elements. carbon. There are three types of fossil fuels. petroleum. PMR 04. bromine. 3. potassium. nitrogen.
carbon. chloride. . The particles can only be separated by chemical methods such as electrolysis or by using strong heat and cannot be separated by physically methods. Water can be broken down into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas by electrolysis. chlorine Properties of metals and non-metals metals Have shiny surface Malleable (can be shaped) Ductile (can be stretched) Have high melting point Good conductors of heat and electricity Non-metals Have dull surface Brittle Not ductile Have low melting point Poor conductor of heat and electricity. chlorine Calcium chloride (lime water) Calcium. sulphur. Carbon dioxide is a compound made up of one carbon particle and two oxygen particles. oxygen Sodium chloride (Common salt) Sodium. Compounds Component elements Water Oxygen. hydrogen Carbon dioxide Carbon. 2. sulphur. phosphorus Bromine Hydrogen. nitrogen. 4. 08 1. Hydrogen. neon. oxygen. Compounds are substances that are made up of two or more types of particles. krypton. oxygen 3. xenon. Hydrogen. oxygen Nitric acid Hydrogen.Science Form 1 note GOOD LUCK Teacher zaidi@maher2010 Solid Liquid Gas Examples of non-metals State at room temperature Examples of non-metals Carbon. helium. argon. oxygen Hydrochloric acid Hydrogen. 5. Compounds PMR 04. chlorine Baking soda Sodium. For example : water made up of one oxygen particle and two hydrogen particles. iodine. These particles combine chemically according to a fixed proportion. oxygen Sugar Carbon. oxygen Sulphuric acid Hydrogen. radon.
chemical method. water vapour. Components Oxygen. filtration. sand. dust. soil. compound Element Compound It is made up of only one • It is made up of more • type of particle than one type of particle which combined chemically • • New substance are formed. milo powder. 2. salt Water. • • Heat is released or absorbed. sugar. minerals. The different types of particles in a mixtures are not chemically combined and they can mix in any proportion. milk Petrol. No new substance are formed. coffee etc. properties of components are not formed. Can be separated by physical method: Example: using magnet.. • • Ration of component is fixed. water. air. • • New properties are formed. distillation. Ration of component are not formed. 4. bitumen Stones. air. Example : Gold • Example : Sugar • . and mixture Mixture It is made up of more than one type of particle which combined physically. It can easily separated into its components by physical method. hydrogen. Mixtures are substances that are made up of two or more types of particles which combine physically. The components of a mixture can be separated easily by physical methods such as evaporation and filtration or by the use of magnet. evaporation ….Science Form 1 note GOOD LUCK Teacher zaidi@maher2010 Mixtures 1. water. • Can be separated by chemical method (electrolysis) It cannot be broken • It can be broken down • down into simpler into simpler substances substances by any by chemical method. Examples : blood. Example : Soil • • • Comparison between an element. kerosene. humus. diesel. bacteria and other substances. inert gases. mineral salts. Mixtures Air Salt solution Milo drink Petroleum Soil 3.
contains oxygen needed for respiration. clothing and shelter. Minerals. cleaning and bathing. The Earth`s resources fulfill our basic needs. machines. cooking. . contains carbon dioxide needed for photosynthesis. used to run motor vehicles. 2. Our basic needs are oxygen. used to generate electricity. Water. used to run machines. PMR 05 Components of a mixture can be separated by any of these methods. needed for drinking. needed by plants to grow well. washing. 1. needed by our body to function normally.Science Form 1 note GOOD LUCK Teacher zaidi@maher2010 Separation of Mixtures. THE IMPORTANCE OF EARTH`S RESOURCES. Air. food. • Filtration • Sieving/Sifting • Evaporation • Distillation • Using a magnet • Precipitation • Extraction • Chromatography. computers and other inventions. Figure below gives an overview of the importance of the resources on Earth to human beings. Fossil Fuels. 3. needed by our body systems to function normally. used as raw materials for buildings. water.
tammat . Enables humans to carry out farming. PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES ON EARTH 1. Examples of efforts in preservation are the setting up of forest reserves. - support plants from falling. food. 2.Science Form 1 note GOOD LUCK Teacher zaidi@maher2010 Living Things. 6. pigments spices. We can show that we appreciate the importance of Earth`s resources by using the resources wisely and not in wasteful ways. national parks and marine parks. habitat to various types of living things. Preservation ensures that we do not lose our natural resources to development such us farming. clothing. building materials. 5. Recycling refers to the processing of waste materials to become useful things in order to save Earth`s resources. housing or tourism. clothing. 4. Conservation of resources ensures that we maintain sufficient quantities of resources for future generation to use. animals provide us with food. state parks. Reusing refers to using discarded or unwanted materials to save on nature`s resources. Conservation also means using Earth`s resources wisely and not in wasteful ways. Conservation means the sustainable use and management of Earth`s resources. THE IMPORTANCE OF APPRECIATING EARTH`S RESOURCES TO HUMAN BEINGS 1. These efforts ensure that the flora and fauna in these protected areas would still be around for the future generations to see. 3. 7. colouring and medicines. mining and building constructions. 5. Soil. 4. 3. 2. Reducing means using less resources to ensure that will be there for our future use as well as for the future generations. Preservation means maintaining certain areas of Earth in their natural condition. supplies plants with minerals and water. industry. reuse and recycle. You may practice reduce. companion and labour. plants provide us with oxygen.
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