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Last update: 11 May 2005
Mutual Inductance and Inductance Calculations by Maxwell’s Method
Antonio Carlos M. de Queiroz
acmq@ufrj.br
Abstract—The classical book by James Clerk
Maxwell, “A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism”
(1873) [1], described an interesting method for the
calculation of inductances, derived from a method that
calculates mutual inductances. The method was
implemented in the program Inca, available at
http://www.coe.ufrj.br/~acmq /programs. This article
discusses the implementation, and also discusses several
other formulas for inductance and mutual inductance
calculation.
I. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE
The mutual inductance between two current filaments
can be calculated by Neumann’s formula:
∫∫
→ →
⋅
π
µ
=
r
ds ds
M
'
4
0
(1)
where ds and ds’are incremental sections of the
filaments, the dot means scalar product, and r is the
distance between them. The exact integral is obtained
from an adequate parametrization of the geometry of the
filaments.
701.]
†
The mutual inductance between two coaxial
filamental circles, one with radius a and another with
radius A, with distance between centers b, can be cal
culated as:
( )
( )
∫∫
∫∫
π π
ϕ − ϕ − + +
ϕ ϕ ϕ − ϕ
π
µ
=
ϕ =
ϕ =
ϕ − ϕ = ε
ϕ − ϕ − + + =
ε
π
µ
=
2
0
2
0
2 2 2
0
12
2 2 2
0
12
' cos 2
' ) ' cos(
4
; ' '
;
; '
; ' cos 2
; '
cos
4
Aa b a A
d d Aa
M
d A ds
d a ds
Aa b a A r
ds ds
r
M
(2)
This integral can be exactly solved in the form:
( )
2 2
0 12
2
;
2 2
b a A
Aa
k
E
k
K
k
k Aa M
+ +
=
(
¸
(
¸
+ 
¹

\

− µ − =
(3)
†
Numeration in Maxwell’s book.
where K and E are the complete elliptic integrals of first
and second kinds with modulus k:
( )
( ) ϕ ϕ − = = π =
ϕ −
ϕ
= = π =
∫
∫
π
π
d k k k E
k
d
k k K
sin 1 E ) 2 / , E(
sin 1
F ) 2 / , F(
2
0
2 2
2
0
2 2
(4)
To calculate the mutual inductance between two con
centrical coils with integer number of turns, the coils 1
and 2 are first decomposed on sets of n
1
and n
2
circular
closed loops, and the total mutual inductance is obtained
from the evaluation of:
∑∑
= =
=
1 2
1 1
n
i
n
j
ij total
M M
(5)
where M
ij
is the mutual inductance between the loops i
and j. (It’s possible to have one of the coils with the last
turn incomplete. (3) gives the right answer when one of
the turns covers just θ radians if multiplied by θ/(2π).)
II. SELFINDUCTANCE
693.]
†
The inductance of a coil with uniform section,
where the radius of curvature is large compared with the
dimensions of the transverse section of the conductor,
can be calculated by computing the mutual inductance
between two filamental conductors placed at a distance
equal to the geometrical mean distance or every pair of
points in the section of the conductor. The geometrical
mean distance for a round conductor with radius r is:
r e r R 7788 . 0
4
1
= =
−
(6)
The calculation in this way assumes uniform current in
the wire.
Inductance of a solenoid
In the case of a solenoid with integer number of turns,
the double sum (5) can be greatly simplified, because
there are only 2n1 different terms to compute, instead of
the n
2
of the general case. Considering the turn numbers
as i in one coil and i’ in the other, placed vertically at a
distance R, the mutual inductance between turn 1 and
turn 1’, M
11’
, appears n times, M
21’
and M
12’
appear n1
times, M
31’
and M
13’
appear n2 times, and so on, until
Created: 14 March 2003. Last update: 11 May 2005
M
n1’
and M
1n’
that appear just 1 time. If the image coil
were assembled outside or inside, instead of above, just
n different terms would be necessary, but the coils would
be different, and the error probably larger. See
Kirchhoff’s formula below for a similar approach.
The Pascal routine used in Inca (with the drawing
routines and messages removed) is shown below:
{
Inductance of a solenoid by Maxwell’s
method, using elliptic integrals
Rounds the number of turns, n≥1
}
function MaxwellLEl(n,h,r,b,d:real):real;
var
a1,c,b1b2,RM,z1,z2,z10,soma,turn1,
turn2:real;
v,vt:integer;
begin
vt:=round(n);
RM:=d/2*exp(0.25); {g. m. d.}
a1:=h/vt;
b1b2:=RM;
z10:=b+a1/2;
z1:=z10;
z2:=z10;
for v:=1 to vt do begin
c:=2*r/sqrt(sqr(2*r)+sqr(z1z2b1b2));
EF(c);
turn1:=r*((c2/c)*Fk+(2/c)*Ek);
if v=1 then soma:=vt*turn1
else begin
c:=2*r/sqrt(sqr(2*r)+sqr(z1z2+b1b2));
EF(c);
turn2:=r*((c2/c)*Fk+(2/c)*Ek);
soma:=soma+(vt(v1))*(turn1+turn2);
end;
z1:=z1+a1;
end;
MaxwellLEl:=4e7*pi*soma;
end;
Flat and conical coils
A conical of flat coil doesn’t admit this simplification,
but can still be decomposed in a series of circular rings.
The mutual inductance between two coaxial conical coils
can be still calculated by (5), and the self inductance can
be calculated as the mutual inductance between two
identical coils separated by (6).
Evaluation of the elliptic integrals
The complete elliptic integrals can, in principle, be
evaluated by the series:
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − 
¹

\

⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅
− 
¹

\

⋅
⋅
− 
¹

\

−
π
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + 
¹

\

⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅
+ 
¹

\

⋅
⋅
+ 
¹

\

+
π
=
5 6 4 2
5 3 1
3 4 2
3 1
2
1
1
2
6 4 2
5 3 1
4 2
3 1
2
1
1
2
6
2
4
2
2
2
6
2
4
2
2
2
k k
k E
k k k K
(7)
A problem is that if R is much smaller than the radius of
the loops, the modulus k in (3) tends to 1 in the integrals
involving a turn and its adjacent copy, and the evaluation
of K becomes problematic. The series converges very
slowly, and easily millions of terms must be used.
Numerical integration is an alternative when this
happens, but it must be performed with high resolution
due to the large derivatives of the integrand close to the
end of the interval (about 100000 intervals with an
uniform Simpson’s rule are necessary for good precision
up to k = 0.999999999). It is possible to use different
series, that converge quickly for k close to 1 [15].
However, a very simple algorithm exists, the AGM
(arithmeticgeometric mean) method, the produces
accurate values quickly. A Pascal function that evaluates
F(c) and E(c) using the AGM method, implemented in
the Inca program, is:
{
Complete elliptic integrals of first
and second classes  AGM method.
Returns the global variables:
Ek=E(c) and Fk=F(c)
Doesn’t require more than 7 iterations for
c between 0 and 0.9999999999.
Reference: Pi and the AGM, J. Borwein and
P. Borwein, John Wiley & Sons.
}
procedure EF(c:real);
var
a,b,a1,b1,E,i:real;
begin
a:=1;
b:=sqrt(1sqr(c));
E:=1sqr(c)/2;
i:=1;
repeat
a1:=(a+b)/2;
b1:=sqrt(a*b);
E:=Ei*sqr((ab)/2);
i:=2*i;
a:=a1;
b:=b1;
until abs(ab)<1e15;
Fk:=pi/(2*a);
Ek:=E*Fk
end;
True spiral coils
The equation that gives the mutual inductance between
two general coaxial conical coils is a more general
version of (1) (see fig. 1):
∫ ∫
π π
− + − + −
+ +
π
µ
=
1 2
2
0
2
0
2
2 1
2
2 1
2
2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1 0
12
) ( ) ( ) (
4
n n
z z y y x x
dz dz dy dy dx dx
M
(8)
where, for i=1 and 2:
[ ] [ ]
i i i
i i i i i i i i i i
i i i i
i i i i i i i i i i
i
i
i
i
i i
i
d a dz
d g x dy d g y dx
b a z
g r y g r x
n
h
a
n
r s
g
θ =
θ θ + = θ θ + − =
+ θ =
θ θ + = θ θ + =
π
=
π
−
=
; sin ; cos
;
; sin ) ( ; cos ) (
;
2
;
2
(9)
Created: 14 March 2003. Last update: 11 May 2005
It’s assumed that both spirals start at the same angle.
This apparently irreductible integral [7] can be solved
numerically. The selfinductance of a conical coil can be
calculated by considering two identical coils separated
by a vertical distance R’, that is R with a small
correction for the inclination of the wire:
r
r n h
R R
π
π +
=
2
) 2 ( ) / (
'
2 2
(10)
s
r
b
h
i
i
i
i
Fig. 1. Conical coil.
where h is the height of the coil, r is the radius of the
turns (always measured between wire centers), and n is
the number of turns. For a conical coil, the geometrical
average of the radii is used, and the correction is
approximate (the distance between wires varies along
two stacked identical conical coils). The numerical
integration must be done with high resolution, due to the
small distance between the filaments.
True solenoidal coils
For solenoidal coils, considering two coaxial solenoids
with radii r
1
and r
2
, numbers of turns n
1
and n
2
, heights
h
1
and h
2
, and base heights b
1
and b
2
, (8) becomes:
( )
( ) ( )
∫ ∫
π π
− + ϕ − ϕ + ϕ − ϕ − +
ϕ ϕ + ϕ − ϕ
π
µ
=
1 2
2
0
2
0
2
2 1 2 1 2 1
2
2
2
1
2 1 2 1 0
' ' cos 2
' ) ' cos(
4
n n
b b a a r r r r
d d a a r r
M
(11)
where a
1
=h
1
/(2πn
1
) and a
2
=h
2
/(2πn
2
).
For the selfinductance calculation, the program uses
two identical coils separated vertically by R’ (10). The
same simplification of the case with circular windings
appears, with only 2n integrations over single turns
being necessary for the evaluation of the integral.
III. EXPLICIT FORMULAS FOR INDUCTANCE
The Inca program also implements several formulas
reported in the literature for the calculation of
inductances of solenoids. In all cases, the formulas were
adapted for inductances in Henrys and dimensions in
meters.
Wheeler’s approximate formula [2], for solenoids.
Works well when the turns are closely spaced, giving a
result similar to Lorenz’ formula (14). A version of it for
dimensions in meters is:
r h
n r
L
9 . 0
2 2
0
+
π
µ =
(12)
Wheeler’s formula for flat coils [2] can be put in the
form:
r s
n s r
L
28 60
) (
54 . 2
1000
4
2 2
0
−
+
π
µ
=
(13)
Lorenz’ formula [3], models a solenoid as a cylindrical
current sheet, and works well for solenoids with thin
windings of closely spaced turns. This equation is seen
in several texts (see (16)) with slightly different
equivalent forms:
n
h
r h
r
k
K
k
k
E
k
k r
L
= ε
+
=
(
¸
(
¸
−
+
−
+ −
ε
µ =
;
4
4
;
1 1 2
1
3
8
2 2
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
3
0
(14)
Kirchhoff’s formula [4], decomposes the coil in circular
turns, as done in Maxwell’s method, and combines
mutual inductances between turns calculated by elliptic
integrals with f(0), an approximation for the self
inductance of a single loop. α is the wire radius. For the
case of a solenoid (the formula below) there is a
simplification similar to the one described for Maxwell’s
method, with only n different mutual inductances that are
calculated by Maxwell’s formula:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
n
h r
r f
z r
r
k
E K k
k
r
z f
n f f n f n nf L
= ε 
¹

\

−
α
µ =
+
=
− − µ =
ε − + + ε − + ε − + =
;
4
7 8
Ln 0
;
4
4
; 2 2
; 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 0
0
2 2
2
2
2
0
L
(15)
This formula can be easily adapted for coils of any shape
that can be decomposed into coaxial circular rings.
Russell [15] gives a derivation of f(0), as an
Created: 14 March 2003. Last update: 11 May 2005
approximation for an expression using elliptic functions:
( )
r
r
k
E K r f
α −
=

¹

\

+ − µ = ;
4
1
2 ) 0 (
0
(16)
Snow’s formula [5][6] adds a complicated correction to
Lorenz’ formula. The result is similar to Maxwell’s or
Kirchhoff’s formulas using circular turns, but the
calculation is faster, without the summation. a is the coil
radius, b is the coil height, and c is the wire diameter.
The number of turns n shall be integer:
)
`
¹

¹

\

+
−
+
+
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸

¹

\
 θ
− − 
¹

\

−
−
−


¹

\

+ 
¹

\

−
π
− 
¹

\
 π
+ 
¹

\

−
π +
¹
´
¦
(
¸
(
¸
−
− + π
π
µ
=
π
= θ = θ = = θ =
−
4 ln '
' 1
' 1
ln
'
1
2
'
2 3
2
8
1 1
4 2
ln
3
1
ln
4
1
2
2
) 1 (
3
8
4
; ; cos ' ; sin ; tan ;
2
2
2
2
2 2
0
1
k
k
k
b
k
k
k
k kK
k
E K
z
k
E
b
na
z n
a
p
k
E p K a n
L
b
nc
z k k p
b
a
p
(17)
IV. EXPLICIT FORMULAS FOR MUTUAL INDUCTANCE
An interesting solution involving true spiral coils was the
formula for the mutual inductance between a circular
loop and a true solenoid starting at it plane obtained by
John Viriamu Jones [7]. A is the radius of the solenoid, a
the radius of the loop, p the height of a turn divided by
2π, Θ is the final angle of the solenoid 2πn, and ∏(k,c)
is the complete elliptic integral of the third kind. For
solenoids at any distance from the loop, M=M
Θ2
M
Θ1
.
The paper also shows how to compute the mutual
inductance between a cylindrical current sheet and a
solenoid.
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
0
2
; 1 ' ; ;
2
; ) , (
'
4
x a A
Aa
k
c c p x
a A
Aa
c
c k K
c
c
k
E K
ck a A M
+ +
=
− = Θ =
+
=
(
¸
(
¸
Π − +
−
+ Θ
π
µ
=
Θ
(18)
If c=1, the second term reduces to zero. The complete
elliptic integral of the third kind:
( )
∫
π
ϕ − ϕ −
ϕ
= Π
2 /
0
2 2 2 2
sin 1 sin 1
) , (
k c
d
c k
(19)
can also be efficiently evaluated by an AGM algorithm
[8]. Below is the Pascal routine used in the Inca
program, that evaluates simultaneously the three elliptic
integrals when they are needed. It requires at most 7
iteractions in the loop:
{
Complete elliptic integrals of first, second,
and third kinds  AGM
Returns the global variables Ek=E(k), Fk=F(k),
and IIkc=II(k,c)
Reference: Garrett, Journal of Applied Physics,
34, 9, 1963, p. 2571
}
procedure EFII(k,c:real);
var
a,b,d,e,f,a1,b1,d1,e1,f1,S,i:real;
begin
a:=1;
b:=sqrt(1sqr(k));
d:=(1sqr(c))/b;
e:=sqr(c)/(1sqr(c));
f:=0;
i:=1/2;
S:=i*sqr(ab);
repeat
a1:=(a+b)/2;
b1:=sqrt(a*b);
i:=2*i;
S:=S+i*sqr(a1b1);
d1:=b1/(4*a1)*(2+d+1/d);
e1:=(d*e+f)/(1+d);
f1:=(e+f)/2;
a:=a1;
b:=b1;
d:=d1;
e:=e1;
f:=f1;
until (abs(ab)<1e15) and (abs(d1)<1e15);
Fk:=pi/(2*a);
Ek:=FkFk*(sqr(k)+S)/2;
IIkc:=Fk*f+Fk;
end;
With this formula, the mutual inductance between a coil
with circular turns and a true solenoid can be easily
calculated, by just adding all the mutual inductances
between the individual turns and the solenoid.
The same formula can also be written as (adapting a
formula in [8]):
( )
( )
( ) [ ]
a A
Aa
c
z
Aa
k
x a A z
c k K
z
a A
E K z n M
+
= =
+ + =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
Π −
−
+ −
µ
=
Θ
2
;
2
; ) (
; ,
2
2 2
2
0
(20)
Again, the second term disappears if A=a. Another
equivalent formula, that instead of the elliptic integral of
the third kind uses incomplete elliptic integrals (the
limits of the integrals in (4) are from 0 to θ) is [5]:
Created: 14 March 2003. Last update: 11 May 2005
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2
1 2
2 2
2 2
0
1
1
; 1 ' ;
4
;
2
, ' , '
2
2

¹

\

−
+

¹

\

+
+
= θ − =
+ +
=
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(
¸
π
− θ − − θ − ±
± −
µ
=
−
Θ
a A
x
a A
x
sin k k
a A x
Aa
k
k F E K k KE a A
E K
k
Aa x
x
n
M
(21)
Curiously, the formula for the mutual inductance
between a circular ring and a current sheet solenoid is
identical to these formulas, that consider a true
filamental solenoid. [7].
A formula for the mutual inductance between two
solenoids modeled as current sheets, hinted in [7], is
(adapting [5]):
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2 1
2
2 1 1
2
2
2 1
2
2 1
2
2
2
1
2 1
2
2 / 3
2 1
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 1 2 2 1 2
2 1
2 1
1
1
; 1 ' ;
4
;
2
, ' , '
2
'
; 1
2
3
8
'
;
2


¹

\

−
+


¹

\

+
+
= θ
− =
+ +
=
(
¸
(
¸
π
− θ − − θ − ±
± − =
(
¸
(
¸
− 
¹

\

− − + =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
− − − + −
− + − + + −
π
=
−
r r
x
r r
x
sin
k k
r r x
r r
k
k F E K k KE r r
E K
k
r r x
x W
E K
k
K
k
r r
x xW x W
b b W h h b b W
h b b W h b b W
h h
n n
M
(22)
The signal or the ± term is positive if x is positive. When
r
1
=r
2
and x=0 (coils touching), k=1, and the formula for
W(x) tends to a limit. Comparing (21) with (20), it can
be seen that (22) can also be written using the complete
elliptic integral of the third kind, that is easier to
evaluate. Only the formula for W’(x) changes:
( ) ( )
( )
( ) [ ]
2 1
2 1 2 1
2 2
2 1
2
2 1
2
;
2
; ) (
; , '
r r
r r
c
z
r r
k
x r r z
c k K
z
r r
E K z x x W
+
= =
+ + =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
Π −
−
+ − =
(23)
Another expression for W’(x) is obtained recognizing
that Heuman’s Lambda function Λ
0
(k,θ) appears in (22)
(a restricted case is listed in [9]):
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
2
2 1
2
2 1 1
2
2 1
2
2 1
0
2
2
2
1
2 1
1
1
;
4
; 1 ,
2
2
'


¹

\

−
+


¹

\

+
+
= θ
+ +
=
− θ Λ
π
− ± − =
−
r r
x
r r
x
sin
r r x
r r
k
k r r E K
k
r r x
x W
(24)
The same equivalence can be used in (21). This just
simplifies the notation. The derivation of (22) and other
variations of it can be found in [14].
Other formulas for mutual inductances between
cylindrical and flat coils, that sometimes are equivalent
to to ones discussed above, can be found in ref. [9]
(formulas involving currentsheet disk and solenoidal
coils, in some particular arrangements), [10] (current
sheet disksolenoid mutual inductance and a circular
filament method), [11] (complicated formula for the
mutual inductance between two rectangular coils) [12]
(circular filament method for rectangular coils), and in
the classical reference [13] (with many tables and
references). Another interesting paper is [15], that
contains alternative deductions, calculation methods, and
equivalent forms for some of these equations.
Turnsindependent coupling coefficient
When the coils are considered as current sheets, the
coupling coefficient
2 1
/ L L M k =
becomes independent
from the numbers of turns in the coils. For solenoidal
coils, for example, this happens if the inductances are
calculated by Lorenz’ formula (14) and the mutual
inductance is calculated by Snow/Jones’ formula (22).
V. PRIMARY COILS WITH ALL THE TURNS IN PARALLEL
Low inductance primary coils can be built by connecting
the turns of the coil in parallel instead of in series.
Inductances and mutual inductances of a transformer
built in this way can be calculated by the procedure:
1) Calculate the the inductance matrix of the whole
system, considering each individual primary turn as a
separate inductor. The program uses (3) for inductances
and mutual inductances of the primary side, and for the
inductance of the secondary coil. Mutual inductances
between the primary turns and the secondary coils are
obtained by (17). For n primary turns, this is an
(n+1)×(n+1) matrix.
2) Invert the matrix, and add all the first n lines and
columns. This corresponds to have the same voltage
over all the primary turns, and a primary current that is
the sum of the currents in all the turns.
3) Invert again the resulting 2×2 matrix, obtaining the
Created: 14 March 2003. Last update: 11 May 2005
equivalent primary and secondary inductances, and the
mutual inductance.
A curious effect of this connection is that the secondary
inductance is slightly reduced, because of the different
mutual inductances between the primary turns and the
secondary coil. The resulting mutual inductance is
similar to the mutual inductance between two spiral
coils, and the primary inductance is similar to the
inductance of a single turn current sheet coil.
VI. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Some solenoidal coils were wound with a copper tube
and had their inductances measured. The table below
compares the measured inductances with the prediction
by Maxwell’s method, with turns approximated by
circular loops, and also lists the values that can be
obtained with the formulas by Wheeler, Lorenz, Snow,
and Kirchhoff. Inductances in µH, dimensions in meters.
Short coils with closely spaced turns: Coil radius =
0.486 m, tube diameter = 0.0095 m.
Height N Mea Whe Lor Sno Kir Max
0.0921 5 49 44.03 49.58 49.20 49.23 49.36
0.0719 4 33 29.29 34.13 33.82 33.85 33.94
0.0516 3 20 17.16 21.02 20.75 20.78 20.84
0.0312 2 9 7.96 10.57 10.33 10.35 10.39
0.0109 1 2 2.08 3.28 3.00 3.03 3.03
Long coils with widely spaced turns: Coil radius =
0.486, tube diameter = 0.0095 m.
Height N Mea Whe Lor Sno Kir Max
2.1336 5 17 9.07 9.09 18.75 18.17 18.17
1.7051 4 13 6.96 6.98 14.67 14.28 14.28
1.2764 3 10 4.90 4.90 10.64 10.42 10.42
0.8479 2 6 2.90 2.90 6.71 6.64 6.64
0.4191 1 3 1.09 1.09 3.00 3.03 3.03
The measurements show that the formulas based on a
current sheet model (Lorenz’ formula and its
approximation by Wheeler), fail when the turns are
widely spaced. The other formulas, based on filaments,
however, work well in all cases.
A version of this document was published in [16].
Acknowledgment: Thanks to Godfrey Loudner for the
hint about the AGM algorithm and several papers, and to
Barton B. Anderson for the measurements.
REFERENCES
[1] James Clerk Maxwell, “ A Treatise on Electricity and
Magnetism, Dover Publications Inc, New York, 1954
(reprint from the original from 1873).
[2] H. A. Wheeler, “Simple inductance formulas for
radio coils,” Proceedings of the IRE, vol 16, no. 10,
October 1928.
[3] L. Lorenz, “Ueber die Fortpflanzung der
Electricität,” Annalen der Physik, VII, 1879, pp.
161193.
[4] G. Kirchhoff, “Zur Theorie der Entladung einer
Leydner Flasche,” Annalen der Physik, CXXI, 1864,
pp. 551566.
[5] Chester Snow, “Formulas for Computing
Capacitance and Inductance,” National Bureau of
Standards Circular #544.
[6] Steve Moshier, “Coil” program, available at http://
www.moshier.net/coildoc.html
[7] John Viriamu Jones, “On the calculation of the
coefficient of mutual induction of a circle and a
coaxial helix, and of the electromagnetic force
between a helical current and a uniform coaxial
circular cylindrical current sheet,” Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society, 63, 192, 1898, pp.
192205.
[8] M. W. Garrett, “Calculation of fields, forces, and
mutual inductances of current systems by elliptic
integrals,” Journal of Applied Physics, 34, 9,
September 1963, pp. 25672573.
[9] S. Babic and C. Akyel, “Improvement in calculation
of the self and mutual inductance of thinwall
solenoids and disk coils,” IEEE Transactions on
Magnetics, 36, 4, July 2000, pp. 19701975.
[10] C. Akyel, S. Babic, and S. Kincic, “New and fast
procedures for calculating the mutual inductance of
coaxial circular coils (circular coildisk coil)”, IEEE
Transactions on Magnetics, 38, 5, September 2002,
pp. 23672369.
[11] D. Yu and K. S. Han, "Selfinductance of aircore
circular coils with rectangular cross section," IEEE
Transactions on Magnetics, MAG33, 6, November
1987, pp. 39163921.
[12] KiBong Kim et al, "Mutual inductance of
noncoaxial circular coils with constant current
density", IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 33, 5,
September 1997, pp. 43034309.
[13] Frederick Grover, “Inductance Calculations:
Working Formulas and Tables,” Dover Publications,
Inc., New York 1946.
[14] Chester Snow, “Mutual inductance and force
between two coaxial helical wires,”, Journal of
Research of the National Bureau of Standards, 22,
February 1939, pp. 239269.
[15] Alexander Russel, “The magnetic field and
inductance coefficients of circular, cylindrical, and
helical currents,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London, 20, No.
1, 1906, pp. 476506.
[16] Antonio C. M. de Queiroz, “Cálculo de Indutâncias
e indutâncias mútuas pelo método de Maxwell,” 1a.
Semana da Eletrônica, UFRJ, September 2003.
ai = i . E:=1sqr(c)/2. in principle. b:=sqrt(1sqr(c)). but the coils would be different. the produces accurate values quickly. be evaluated by the series: K= 2 2 2 π 1 2 1⋅ 3 4 1⋅ 3 ⋅ 5 6 k + k + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 1 + k + 2 2 2⋅4 2⋅4⋅6 True spiral coils The equation that gives the mutual inductance between two general coaxial conical coils is a more general version of (1) (see fig. a very simple algorithm exists. E:=Ei*sqr((ab)/2). It is possible to use different series. end.b. just n different terms would be necessary. repeat a1:=(a+b)/2. for i=1 and 2: gi = si − ri h . i:=1. RM:=d/2*exp(0. dyi = [xi + g i sin θi ]dθi . the modulus k in (3) tends to 1 in the integrals involving a turn and its adjacent copy. Reference: Pi and the AGM. dxi = [− yi + g i cos θi ]dθi .Mn1’ and M1n’ that appear just 1 time.a1. EF(c). using elliptic integrals Rounds the number of turns. m.b1b2. b1:=sqrt(a*b). and the error probably larger. MaxwellLEl:=4e7*pi*soma.b1. i:=2*i. z2:=z10. yi = (ri + g i θi ) sin θi . Borwein and P. The series converges very slowly. v. However. soma:=soma+(vt(v1))*(turn1+turn2). implemented in the Inca program.9999999999. Borwein. Evaluation of the elliptic integrals The complete elliptic integrals can. instead of above. of K becomes problematic. If the image coil were assembled outside or inside. The Pascal routine used in Inca (with the drawing routines and messages removed) is shown below: { Inductance of a solenoid by Maxwell’s method. Flat and conical coils A conical of flat coil doesn’t admit this simplification. Fk:=pi/(2*a). end. z10:=b+a1/2. z1:=z1+a1. Numerical integration is an alternative when this happens.25). until abs(ab)<1e15. if v=1 then soma:=vt*turn1 else begin c:=2*r/sqrt(sqr(2*r)+sqr(z1z2+b1b2)). Ek:=E*Fk end.999999999). {g. var a.b.i:real. b1b2:=RM. dzi = ai dθi zi = ai θi + bi . 2πni 2πni (7) 2 2 2 4 6 π 1 1⋅ 3 k 1 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 5 k E = 1 − k 2 − − − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 2 2 2⋅4 3 2⋅4⋅6 5 xi = (ri + g i θi ) cos θi . J. John Wiley & Sons. for v:=1 to vt do begin c:=2*r/sqrt(sqr(2*r)+sqr(z1z2b1b2)).r. d. turn1:=r*((c2/c)*Fk+(2/c)*Ek). z1:=z10. Last update: 11 May 2005 .h. end. begin vt:=round(n).} a1:=h/vt. a:=a1. but can still be decomposed in a series of circular rings.z1. begin a:=1. but it must be performed with high resolution due to the large derivatives of the integrand close to the end of the interval (about 100000 intervals with an uniform Simpson’s rule are necessary for good precision up to k = 0. Returns the global variables: Ek=E(c) and Fk=F(c) Doesn’t require more than 7 iterations for c between 0 and 0. EF(c).z2.d:real):real. turn2:=r*((c2/c)*Fk+(2/c)*Ek). the AGM (arithmeticgeometric mean) method. turn2:real. See Kirchhoff’s formula below for a similar approach. (9) A problem is that if R is much smaller than the radius of the loops. is: { Complete elliptic integrals of first and second classes . b:=b1. The mutual inductance between two coaxial conical coils can be still calculated by (5). A Pascal function that evaluates F(c) and E(c) using the AGM method. and easily millions of terms must be used. 1): µ M 12 = 0 4π 2 πn1 2 πn2 ∫∫ 0 0 dx1dx2 + dy1dy2 + dz1dz 2 ( x1 − x2 ) 2 + ( y1 − y2 ) 2 + ( z1 − z 2 ) 2 (8) where.vt:integer.z10. and the evaluation Created: 14 March 2003.E. var a1. that converge quickly for k close to 1 [15]. and the self inductance can be calculated as the mutual inductance between two identical coils separated by (6).soma.c. } procedure EF(c:real).AGM method. n≥1 } function MaxwellLEl(n.turn1.RM.
that is R with a small correction for the inclination of the wire: R' = R (h / n) 2 + (2πr ) 2 2πr III. The selfinductance of a conical coil can be calculated by considering two identical coils separated by a vertical distance R’. as an Created: 14 March 2003. the geometrical average of the radii is used. This apparently irreductible integral [7] can be solved numerically. For the selfinductance calculation. For the case of a solenoid (the formula below) there is a simplification similar to the one described for Maxwell’s method. the program uses two identical coils separated vertically by R’ (10). 1. Last update: 11 May 2005 . with only n different mutual inductances that are calculated by Maxwell’s formula: L = nf (0 ) + 2(n − 1) f (ε ) + 2(n − 2 ) f (2ε ) + L + 2 f ((n − 1)ε ). decomposes the coil in circular turns. EXPLICIT FORMULAS FOR INDUCTANCE The Inca program also implements several formulas reported in the literature for the calculation of inductances of solenoids. r f (z ) = µ 0 2 − k 2 K − 2E . Conical coil.9r (12) hi Wheeler’s formula for flat coils [2] can be put in the form: L= µ 0 1000 (r + s ) 2 n 2 4π 2. and the correction is approximate (the distance between wires varies along two stacked identical conical coils). Works well when the turns are closely spaced. an approximation for the selfinductance of a single loop. True solenoidal coils For solenoidal coils. due to the small distance between the filaments.54 60 s − 28r (13) bi ri Fig. A version of it for dimensions in meters is: (10) si L = µ0 πr 2 n 2 h + 0. ε= h + 4r 2 n L = µ0 8r 3 3ε 2 Kirchhoff’s formula [4]. For a conical coil. heights h1 and h2. ε = α 4 n ∫∫ 0 0 (r1r2 cos(ϕ − ϕ' ) + a1a2 )dϕdϕ' 2 2 2 r1 + r2 − 2r1r2 cos(ϕ − ϕ') + (a1ϕ − a2ϕ'+b1 − b2 ) (11) [( ) ] where a1=h1/(2πn1) and a2=h2/(2πn2). In all cases. and works well for solenoids with thin windings of closely spaced turns. giving a result similar to Lorenz’ formula (14). (8) becomes: µ M= 0 4π 2 πn1 2 πn2 Lorenz’ formula [3].It’s assumed that both spirals start at the same angle. models a solenoid as a cylindrical current sheet. k3 k (14) 2 4r h k2 = 2 . and combines mutual inductances between turns calculated by elliptic integrals with f(0). The numerical integration must be done with high resolution. The same simplification of the case with circular windings appears. Russell [15] gives a derivation of f(0). Wheeler’s approximate formula [2]. and n is the number of turns. α is the wire radius. where h is the height of the coil. k (15) 4r 2 2 k = 2 . considering two coaxial solenoids with radii r1 and r2. and base heights b1 and b2 . numbers of turns n1 and n2. with only 2n integrations over single turns being necessary for the evaluation of the integral. This formula can be easily adapted for coils of any shape that can be decomposed into coaxial circular rings. for solenoids. This equation is seen in several texts (see (16)) with slightly different equivalent forms: 2k 2 − 1 1− k 2 −1+ E + 3 K . as done in Maxwell’s method. r is the radius of the turns (always measured between wire centers). the formulas were adapted for inductances in Henrys and dimensions in meters. 4r + z 2 h 8r 7 f (0 ) = µ 0 r Ln − .
S:=S+i*sqr(a1b1). Fk:=pi/(2*a). d1:=b1/(4*a1)*(2+d+1/d). d:=d1. The paper also shows how to compute the mutual inductance between a cylindrical current sheet and a solenoid. b b µ 8n2 aπ K + ( p 2 − 1) E L= 0 − p2 4π 3 k p= 2 1 1 2πna 4 E z − 2 − 11 + 2n − ln z + ln 8 4 3 b π k + 2πa 2 K − E kK k ' k ' θ − − − 1 − 2 2k k 3 k (17) 1 + k' + b ln + k ' ln 4 1 − k' IV.e. begin a:=1. IIkc:=Fk*f+Fk. The number of turns n shall be integer: πnc 2a .e1.approximation for an expression using elliptic functions: 1 f (0) = µ 0 r 2(K − E ) + .c) is the complete elliptic integral of the third kind. θ = tan −1 p.a1. b:=sqrt(1sqr(k)).S. without the summation. For solenoids at any distance from the loop. and c is the wire diameter. 1963.c:real). a:=a1.b. var a. A is the radius of the solenoid. 2571 } procedure EFII(k. f:=f1. p. k= 2 Aa 2 Aa . the mutual inductance between a coil with circular turns and a true solenoid can be easily calculated. and third kinds . f1:=(e+f)/2. until (abs(ab)<1e15) and (abs(d1)<1e15). A+ a 2 Aa k= ( A + a )2 + x 2 (18) z = ( A + a)2 + x 2 . and IIkc=II(k. z = . S:=i*sqr(ab). The same formula can also be written as (adapting a formula in [8]): MΘ = µ0 ( A − a )2 [K − Π(k . The result is similar to Maxwell’s or Kirchhoff’s formulas using circular turns. repeat a1:=(a+b)/2. c= z A+ a (20) If c=1. The complete elliptic integral of the third kind: π/ 2 Π ( k . Θ is the final angle of the solenoid 2πn. EXPLICIT FORMULAS FOR MUTUAL INDUCTANCE An interesting solution involving true spiral coils was the formula for the mutual inductance between a circular loop and a true solenoid starting at it plane obtained by John Viriamu Jones [7]. Last update: 11 May 2005 . c '2 = 1 − c 2 . 34. 4π k c 2 With this formula. the second term disappears if A=a. n z (K − E ) + 2 z 2 Aa . b1:=sqrt(a*b).b1. k = sin θ. b is the coil height. by just adding all the mutual inductances between the individual turns and the solenoid. Another equivalent formula. k ' = cos θ. c) ). p the height of a turn divided by 2π. f:=0. MΘ = c= K − E c' µ0 Θ( A + a )ck 2 + 2 (K − Π (k . c) = ∫( 0 dϕ 2 2 1 − c sin ϕ 1 − k 2sin 2 ϕ ) (19) Again. x = pΘ. that instead of the elliptic integral of the third kind uses incomplete elliptic integrals (the limits of the integrals in (4) are from 0 to θ) is [5]: can also be efficiently evaluated by an AGM algorithm [8]. Ek:=FkFk*(sqr(k)+S)/2. 9. Below is the Pascal routine used in the Inca Created: 14 March 2003. second. i:=1/2. d:=(1sqr(c))/b. Fk=F(k). but the calculation is faster.d1. b:=b1.i:real. that evaluates simultaneously the three elliptic integrals when they are needed. e:=e1. It requires at most 7 iteractions in the loop: { Complete elliptic integrals of first. a the radius of the loop. a is the coil radius. the second term reduces to zero. (16) Snow’s formula [5][6] adds a complicated correction to Lorenz’ formula.AGM Returns the global variables Ek=E(k).d.f. end. i:=2*i. and ∏(k.c) Reference: Garrett. M=MΘ2MΘ1.f1. e1:=(d*e+f)/(1+d). c )]. Journal of Applied Physics. 4 r −α k= r program. e:=sqr(c)/(1sqr(c)).
Last update: 11 May 2005 . For n primary turns. The program uses (3) for inductances and mutual inductances of the primary side. k= 2 r1r2 2 r1r2 . it can be seen that (22) can also be written using the complete elliptic integral of the third kind. θ = sin −1 2 x + (A + a) 2 W ' (x ) = 2 x r1r2 (K − E ) ± r12 − r2 2 π [Λ 0 (k . This just simplifies the notation. θ) − . Another interesting paper is [15]. calculation methods. that contains alternative deductions. 2 k= 4r1r2 . θ) − (21) 2 4 Aa . obtaining the W ( x ) = xW ' ( x ) + W ' (x ) = 2 K − k 2 − 1(K − E ). k ' = 1 − k 2 . 2 x Aa (K − E ) ± µ0 n k MΘ = . Comparing (21) with (20). k 2 x 1+ r +r 1 2 2 x 1+ r −r 1 2 2 (24) k= x 1+ A+ a 2 x 1+ A−a 2 k= 4r1r2 . 2) Invert the matrix. The derivation of (22) and other variations of it can be found in [14]. [10] (currentsheet disksolenoid mutual inductance and a circular filament method). the coupling coefficient k = M / L1 L2 becomes independent from the numbers of turns in the coils. 2 x π 2 2 ± A − a KE (k ' . When r1=r2 and x=0 (coils touching). Turnsindependent coupling coefficient When the coils are considered as current sheets. c= z r1 + r2 (23) Another expression for W’(x) is obtained recognizing that Heuman’s Lambda function Λ0(k. and equivalent forms for some of these equations. and add all the first n lines and columns. and for the inductance of the secondary coil. Inductances and mutual inductances of a transformer built in this way can be calculated by the procedure: 1) Calculate the the inductance matrix of the whole system. k' = 1− k 2 . in some particular arrangements). 3) Invert again the resulting 2×2 matrix. θ) − 1]. the formula for the mutual inductance between a circular ring and a current sheet solenoid is identical to these formulas. 2 x r1r2 (K − E ) ± k π 2 2 ± r1 − r2 KE (k ' . can be found in ref. θ) − (K − E )F (k ' . for example. θ = sin −1 2 x 2 + (r1 + r2 ) Curiously. that consider a true filamental solenoid. [11] (complicated formula for the mutual inductance between two rectangular coils) [12] (circular filament method for rectangular coils). and the formula for W(x) tends to a limit. Mutual inductances between the primary turns and the secondary coils are obtained by (17). that is easier to evaluate. Only the formula for W’(x) changes: (r − r )2 W ' ( x ) = x z (K − E ) + 1 2 [K − Π (k . z z = (r1 + r2 ) 2 + x 2 . 2 x 2 + (r1 + r2 ) x 1+ r +r 1 2 2 x 1+ r −r 1 2 2 θ = sin −1 (22) The signal or the ± term is positive if x is positive. A formula for the mutual inductance between two solenoids modeled as current sheets. h1h2 W (b2 − b1 + h2 − h1 ) − W (b2 − b1 ) 8(r1r2 ) 3k 3/ 2 The same equivalence can be used in (21). considering each individual primary turn as a separate inductor. PRIMARY COILS WITH ALL THE TURNS IN PARALLEL Low inductance primary coils can be built by connecting the turns of the coil in parallel instead of in series. [7]. c )]. hinted in [7]. V. k=1. θ) − (K − E )F (k ' .θ) appears in (22) (a restricted case is listed in [9]): Created: 14 March 2003. this is an (n+1)×(n+1) matrix. that sometimes are equivalent to to ones discussed above. is (adapting [5]): M= 2πn1n2 W (b2 − b1 + h2 ) + W (b2 − b1 + h1 ) − . and a primary current that is the sum of the currents in all the turns. [9] (formulas involving currentsheet disk and solenoidal coils. Other formulas for mutual inductances between cylindrical and flat coils. This corresponds to have the same voltage over all the primary turns. and in the classical reference [13] (with many tables and references). this happens if the inductances are calculated by Lorenz’ formula (14) and the mutual inductance is calculated by Snow/Jones’ formula (22). For solenoidal coils.
[4] G.. 4. tube diameter = 0.17 6. available at http:// www. The table below compares the measured inductances with the prediction by Maxwell’s method. September 2003. “Ueber die Fortpflanzung der Electricität. Acknowledgment: Thanks to Godfrey Loudner for the hint about the AGM algorithm and several papers. Short coils with closely spaced turns: Coil radius = 0. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Some solenoidal coils were wound with a copper tube and had their inductances measured.8479 0. A version of this document was published in [16]. vol 16. cylindrical. Han. VI. Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards. February 1939. [6] Steve Moshier.23 33 29.” Annalen der Physik.36 33. forces.07 6. because of the different mutual inductances between the primary turns and the secondary coil. de Queiroz. [10] C. based on filaments.33 10.28 4. [13] Frederick Grover.82 33.03 The measurements show that the formulas based on a current sheet model (Lorenz’ formula and its approximation by Wheeler). “Inductance Calculations: Working Formulas and Tables.00 3. and to Barton B.13 33.85 20 17.0516 0. W. 476506.03 3.39 3.09 3.90 2.42 2.” Proc.0921 0. and S. pp.90 1.0312 0. Phys.28 14.03 Long coils with widely spaced turns: Coil radius = 0.equivalent primary and secondary inductances. 43034309. Inductances in µH.02 20.71 6. “Calculation of fields. UFRJ. 25672573. September 1963.64 1.03 Max 49. Semana da Eletrônica.78 9 7. September 1997. 5. November 1987. 551566.0095 m. 192205.94 20. no. 19701975. 1864. “New and fast procedures for calculating the mutual inductance of coaxial circular coils (circular coildisk coil)”.75 18. Dover Publications Inc.67 14. Last update: 11 May 2005 . “Simple inductance formulas for radio coils.42 10. VII. 22. “Zur Theorie der Entladung einer Leydner Flasche.90 6. [16] Antonio C. “Cálculo de Indutâncias e indutâncias mútuas pelo método de Maxwell.” Dover Publications.”.486. “Improvement in calculation of the self and mutual inductance of thinwall solenoids and disk coils. [2] H.96 10.moshier.” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. “Formulas for Computing Capacitance and Inductance.html [7] John Viriamu Jones.09 18.84 10. Yu and K. pp.” Annalen der Physik. 33. pp. Kincic. Height 2." IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 1954 (reprint from the original from 1873). MAG33. Height 0. “Coil” program. 5. Wheeler. 63. with turns approximated by circular loops. Snow. Kirchhoff. Anderson for the measurements. 20. 1898. pp. pp. July 2000.” Journal of Applied Physics. M.35 2 2. S. and of the electromagnetic force between a helical current and a uniform coaxial circular cylindrical current sheet. [14] Chester Snow.90 10. pp. 1906. 34. S. 161193. work well in all cases.0095 m. A.” Proceedings of the IRE. [11] D. 6. 9. The other formulas. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. CXXI. and the mutual inductance. fail when the turns are widely spaced.64 10. “The magnetic field and inductance coefficients of circular.20 49. The resulting mutual inductance is similar to the mutual inductance between two spiral coils. and helical currents.17 18. and mutual inductances of current systems by elliptic integrals. dimensions in meters.0109 N 5 4 3 2 1 Mea Whe Lor Sno Kir 49 44. 23672369.7051 1. “Mutual inductance and force between two coaxial helical wires. 1. 192. pp.58 49. No. pp. [15] Alexander Russel. Inc. Soc. A curious effect of this connection is that the secondary inductance is slightly reduced.96 4. pp.net/coildoc.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.09 Lor Sno Kir Max 9. New York. 10. [9] S.” National Bureau of Standards Circular #544.57 10.64 6. "Selfinductance of aircore circular coils with rectangular cross section. Garrett. [12] KiBong Kim et al. September 2002. tube diameter = 0. [5] Chester Snow.1336 1. Akyel. Lorenz. and also lists the values that can be obtained with the formulas by Wheeler. 39163921. 36.2764 0. pp. “ A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. and the primary inductance is similar to the inductance of a single turn current sheet coil. Babic.03 49. Akyel. [3] L.16 21.” 1a. "Mutual inductance of noncoaxial circular coils with constant current density". 239269. however. Created: 14 March 2003. 1879. “On the calculation of the coefficient of mutual induction of a circle and a coaxial helix. Babic and C.75 20. [8] M. 38.0719 0. October 1928.98 14.00 3. and Kirchhoff.28 3. London.08 3. New York 1946.4191 N 5 4 3 2 1 Mea 17 13 10 6 3 Whe 9.486 m. Lorenz. REFERENCES [1] James Clerk Maxwell. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.29 34.