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the purpose of job evaluation. Job analysis can be carried out in a number of ways, including interviewing jobholders and supervisors, observation of work activity, and the completion of a job-analysis questionnaire. The result should be an account of the tasks and competencies that comprise a particular job, which can then be used to inform a wide range of personnel management.
Job analysis and job descriptions have many important functions. The job description is a product of a job analysis. They work interdependent of one another. Job analysis and descriptions are vital because it helps to support several human resource management activities such as recruitment and selection processes, compensation, training, and performance appraisals. An employer's recruitment and selection practices seek to identify and hire the most suitable applicants. Job analysis information helps employers achieve this aim by identifying selection criteria, such as the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) needed to perform a job successfully. A firm's managers and human resource (HR) professionals can then use this information to choose or develop the appropriate selection devices (e.g., interview questions, tests). This approach to selection is legally required.
Firms can also use job analysis information to assess training needs and to develop and evaluate training programs. Job analyses can identify tasks a worker must perform. Then, through the performance appraisal process, supervisors can identify which tasks are being performed properly or improperly. The supervisor can next determine whether improperly performed work can be corrected through training. HR professionals also use job analysis information to develop relevant training programs. The job analysis specifies how each job is performed, step by step, allowing HR professionals to develop training materials to teach trainees how to perform each task. To evaluate the effectiveness of a training program, the organization must first specify training objectives or the level of performance expected of trainees when they finish the program. The success of a training program is judged on the basis of the extent to which those performance levels have been reached. Expected performance levels are often specified during a job analysis.