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# DOE-HDBK-1011/3-92

JUNE 1992

DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Volume 3 of 4

U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 20585

FSC-6910

Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. P. O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; prices available from (615) 5768401. Available to the public from the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161. Order No. DE92019787

ELECTRICAL SCIENCE

ABSTRACT

The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of electrical theory, terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; transformers; and electrical test instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment.

Key Words: Training Material, Magnetism, DC Theory, DC Circuits, Batteries, DC Generators, DC Motors, AC Theory, AC Power, AC Generators, Voltage Regulators, AC Motors, Transformers, Test Instruments, Electrical Distribution

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This approach has resulted in revised modular handbooks that contain sufficient detail such that each facility may adjust the content to fit their specific needs. which include Mathematics. The handbooks are provided as an aid to DOE nuclear facility contractors. Prints. learning objectives. a foreword. Inc. information that applied to two or more DOE nuclear facilities was considered generic and was included. The DOE Fundamentals Handbooks have been prepared for the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy. and level of detail of the Reactor Opera tor Fundamentals Manuals were determined from several sources. and served as a primary reference in the initial development phase. and text material. These handbooks were first published as Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manuals in 1985 for use by DOE category A reactors. The final draft of each of the handbooks was then reviewed by these two groups. Instrumentation and Control. Heat Transfer. Mechanical Science. by the DOE Training Coordination Program. and Fluid Flow. The subject areas. results of job and task analyses. Material Science. Electrical Science. Training guidelines from the commercial nuclear power industry. The DOE Fundamentals Handbooks represent the needs of various DOE nuclear facilities' fundamental training requirements. DOE Category A reactor training managers determined which materials should be included. and Drawings. subject matter content.ELECTRICAL SCIENCE FOREWORD The Department of Energy (DOE) Fundamentals Handbooks consist of ten academic subjects. Engineering Symbology. To update their reactor-specific content. and Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. Each handbook contains an abstract. and is divided into modules so that content and order may be modified by individual DOE contractors to suit their specific training needs. the Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manual learning objectives were distributed to the Nuclear Facility Training Coordination Program Steering Committee for review and comment. To increase their applicability to nonreactor nuclear facilities. and independent input from contractors and operations-oriented personnel were all considered and included to some degree in developing the text material and learning objectives. Classical Physics. On the basis of feedback from these sources. Thermodynamics. This program is managed by EG&G Idaho. 0 ES . Rev. Chemistry. Each subject area is supported by a separate examination bank with an answer key. Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards. DOE Category A reactor training managers also reviewed and commented on the content. an overview.

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circuit arrangements. This knowledge will help personnel more fully understand the impact that their actions may have on the safe and reliable operation of facility components and systems. The Electrical Science handbook consists of fifteen modules that are contained in four volumes. maintenance personnel.DC Circuits This module introduces the rules associated with the reactive components of inductance and capacitance and how they affect DC circuits. Volume 2 of 4 Module 3 . Module 2 . Volume 1 of 4 Module 1 . Module 4 . A basic understanding of electricity and electrical systems is necessary for DOE nuclear facility operators.Batteries This module introduces batteries and describes the types of cells used.ELECTRICAL SCIENCE OVERVIEW The Department of Energy Fundamentals Handbook entitled Electrical Science was prepared as an information resource for personnel who are responsible for the operation of the Department's nuclear facilities.Basic DC Theory This module describes the basic concepts of direct current (DC) electrical circuits and discusses the associated terminology. and the technical staff to safely operate and maintain the facility and facility support systems. The information in the handbook is presented to provide a foundation for applying engineering concepts to the job. Rev. 0 ES . and associated hazards. The following is a brief description of the information presented in each module of the handbook.Basic Electrical Theory This module describes basic electrical concepts and introduces electrical terminology.

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and load characteristics. methods of voltage production.ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Module 5 . Volume 4 of 4 Module 12 .AC Power This module presents power calculations for single-phase and three-phase AC circuits and includes the power triangle concept.AC Generators This module describes the operating characteristics of AC generators and includes terminology.DC Motors This module describes the types of DC motors and includes discussions of speed control.Voltage Regulators This module describes the basic operation and application of voltage regulators. 0 ES . Module 6 . applications.AC Reactive Components This module describes inductance and capacitance and their effects on AC circuits. Volume 3 of 4 Module 7 . and methods of paralleling AC generation sources. Module 8 . Module 10 .AC Motors This module explains the theory of operation of AC motors and discusses the various types of AC motors and their application.Basic AC Theory This module describes the basic concepts of alternating current (AC) electrical circuits and discusses the associated terminology. Module 9 . Rev.DC Generators This module describes the types of DC generators and their application in terms of voltage production and load characteristics. Module 11 .

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Rev. the Electrical Science handbook does present enough information to provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to understand the advanced theoretical concepts presented in other subject areas. and application. An attempt to present the entire subject of electrical science would be impractical. and to better understand basic system and equipment operations.ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Module 13 .Transformers This module introduces transformer theory and includes the types of transformers. 0 ES . Module 15 . However. voltage/current relationships.Electrical Distribution Systems This module describes basic electrical distribution systems and includes characteristics of system design to ensure personnel and equipment safety. The information contained in this handbook is by no means all encompassing. Module 14 .Test Instruments and Measuring Devices This module describes electrical measuring and test equipment and includes the parameters measured and the principles of operation of common instruments.

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Department of Energy Fundamentals Handbook ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Module 7 Basic AC Theory .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Page i ES-07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frequency Calculations Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Phase Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v AC GENERATION . . . . . . . . . . 4 Effective Values . 1 Development of a Sine-Wave Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Voltage Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Basic AC Theory TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . 3 AC GENERATION ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 7 8 9 9 10 Rev. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . iv OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Phase Relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Developing a Sine-Wave Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Voltage Sine Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 ES-07 Page ii Rev. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Effective Value of Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES Basic AC Theory LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Simple AC Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . .

0 Page iii ES-07 .Basic AC Theory LIST OF TABLES LIST OF TABLES NONE Rev.

Academic Program for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel. Lister. McGraw-Hill. Columbia. Carr. Kidwell. 10th Edition. Library of Congress Card #A 326517. Sienko and Plane. and Summers. Exide Industrial Marketing Division. ES-07 Page iv Rev. Milton. Walter. Volume IV. 1981. Croft. McGrawHill. Hayden Book Company. Electric Circuits and Machines. Nooger. Understanding Electricity and Electronics. 3rd Edition. Russel. 2nd Edition. The Electric Storage Battery Company.. Academic Program for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel. 5th Edition. Electricity One . Watt. Electrical Instruments and Measurements. Mileaf. 5. Basic Electricity. Vol. McGraw-Hill. and Neville. Buban and Schmitt. Volume II. McGraw-Hill. Van Valkenburgh. C. The Art and Science of Protective Relaying. 1982. Schaum’s Outline Series. Mason. Basic Electricity. MD: General Physics Corporation. Harry. Electromechanics and Electric Machines. Chemical Principles and Properties. Lead-Acid Type. Revised 2nd Edition. Eugene C. Hayden Book Company. Library of Congress Card #A 326517. MD: General Physics Corporation. 0 . John Wiley and Sons. McGraw-Hill. John Wiley and Sons.REFERENCES Basic AC Theory REFERENCES Gussow. McGraw-Hill. American Electricians Handbook. Nasar and Unnewehr. Columbia. The Storage Battery.Seven.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES 1.4 1. DESCRIBE the relationship between average and RMS values of voltage and current. EXPLAIN the development of a sine-wave output in an AC generator.Basic AC Theory OBJECTIVES TERMINAL OBJECTIVE 1.3 DESCRIBE the construction and operation of a simple AC generator.0 Given an alternating current (AC) waveform. 0 Page v ES-07 .5 1. CALCULATE the effective (RMS) and average values of AC voltage. 1.2 1. Period DEFINE effective value of an AC current relative to DC current.1 1. DEFINE the following terms in relation to AC generation: a. Given a maximum value. and the angular velocity within that waveform. Hertz c.6 Rev. Radians/second b. DESCRIBE the phase relationship between the two waves. Given a diagram of two sine waves.

0 .Basic AC Theory Intentionally Left Blank ES-07 Page vi Rev.

As the coil rotates in a counter-clockwise direction. EXPLAIN the development of a sine-wave output in an AC generator. there is no voltage induced in the loop.Basic AC Theory AC GENERATION AC GENERATION An understanding of how an AC generator develops an AC output will help the student analyze the AC power generation process. Rev. The elementary AC generator (Figure 1) consists of a conductor. first in one direction and then the other. EO 1. 0o).1 EO 1. the coil sides will cut the magnetic lines of force in opposite directions.2 DESCRIBE the construction and operation of a simple AC generator. the coil sides are moving parallel to the field and do not cut magnetic lines of force. and they are in contact with two brushes. or loop of wire in a magnetic field that is produced by an electromagnet. 0 Page 1 ES-07 . Figure 1 Simple AC Generator Development of a Sine-Wave Output At the instant the loop is in the vertical position (Figure 2. When the loop rotates it cuts magnetic lines of force. The direction of the induced voltages depends on the direction of movement of the coil. The two ends of the loop are connected to slip rings. In this instant.

The potential across resistor R will cause a current to flow from Y to X through the resistor. where the coil is again in the vertical position (Figure 2.AC GENERATION Basic AC Theory The induced voltages add in series. In the other half revolution. As the coil continues to turn. an equal voltage is produced except that the polarity is reversed (Figure 2. making slip ring X (Figure 1) positive (+) and slip ring Y (Figure 1) negative (-). 360o). 90o). Figure 2 Developing a Sine-Wave Voltage ES-07 Page 2 Rev. The horizontal coil is moving perpendicular to the field and is cutting the greatest number of magnetic lines of force. This current will increase until it reaches a maximum value when the coil is horizontal to the magnetic lines of force (Figure 2. the voltage and current induced decrease until they reach zero. 270o. The current flow through R is now from X to Y (Figure 1). 0 . 180o).

The sine wave output is the result of one side of the generator loop cutting lines of force. cutting across the magnetic lines of force.Basic AC Theory AC GENERATION The periodic reversal of polarity results in the generation of a voltage. In the first half turn of rotation this produces a positive current and in the second half of rotation produces a negative current. 0 Page 3 ES-07 . Rev. AC Generation Summary A simple generator consists of a conductor loop turning in a magnetic field. This completes one cycle of AC generation. as shown in Figure 2. Summary AC generation is summarized below. The rotation of the coil through 360° results in an AC sine wave output.

Given a diagram of two sine waves. Hertz c.6 Effective Values The output voltage of an AC generator can be expressed in two ways. The second way is algebraically by the equation e = Emax sin ωt. EO 1. DESCRIBE the phase relationship between the two waves. 0 . CALCULATE the effective (RMS) and average values of AC voltage. Figure 3 Voltage Sine Wave ES-07 Page 4 Rev.5 EO 1.4 EO 1. One is graphically by use of a sine wave (Figure 3). Radians/second b.AC GENERATION ANALYSIS Basic AC Theory AC GENERATION ANALYSIS Analysis of the AC power generation process and of the alternating current we use in almost every aspect of our lives is necessary to better understand how AC power is used in today’s technology. EO 1. which will be covered later in the text.3 DEFINE the following terms in relation to AC generation: a. Period DEFINE effective value of an AC current relative to DC current. Given a maximum value.

the voltage increases from zero to Emax in one direction. The I2 curve has twice the frequency of I and varies above and below a new axis. the output voltage goes through one complete cycle. spanned by the sine wave. one ampere effective value of AC will produce the same amount of heat in a conductor. the value most commonly used for AC is effective value. This is the maximum voltage or current for an AC sine wave. which is equal to 0. therefore. The value of Emax occurs at 90° and is referred to as peak voltage. However. taking the average of these values. in a given time. is the magnitude of voltage. Effective value of AC can be calculated by squaring all the amplitudes of the sine wave over one period.Basic AC Theory AC GENERATION ANALYSIS When a voltage is produced by an AC generator.414 Average value = effective (RMS) x 0. of current. Effective value of AC is the amount of AC that produces the same heating effect as an equal amount of DC. Rev. The new axis is the average of the I2 values. The average value is ½ Imax2. as one ampere of DC. The heating effect of a given AC current is proportional to the square of the current. decreases to zero. no subscript is used. One way to refer to AC voltage or current is by peak voltage (Ep) or peak current (Ip). refer to Figure 4. As the generator coil rotates 360°. and then decreases to zero again. or current range. Another value. The time it takes for the generator to complete one cycle is called the period. increases to Emax in the opposite direction (negative Emax).637 Effective value (RMS) = peak value x 0. and the square root of that value is the RMS. or effective value. In one cycle.9 (7-1) (7-2) (7-3) (7-4) (7-5) (7-6) The values of current (I) and voltage (E) that are normally encountered are assumed to be RMS values. The values of I are plotted on the upper curve. and then taking the square root. as listed below.11 Peak value = effective value (RMS) x 1. the resulting current varies in step with the voltage. In order to understand the meaning of effective current applied to a sine wave.57 Effective value (RMS) = average value x 1. is known as the root-mean-square. being the root of the mean (average) square of the currents. 2 max There are six basic equations that are used to convert a value of AC voltage or current to another value. The RMS value is then 2 Imax 2 2 OR 2 I . and the number of cycles per second is called the frequency (measured in hertz). Average value = peak value x 0. the peak-to-peak value (Ep-p or Ip-p). The effective value. In simpler terms. and the corresponding values of I2 are plotted on the lower curve.707 Peak value = average value x 1. or RMS value. 0 Page 5 ES-07 .707 Imax.

Equation (7-7) is the mathematical relationship between Iav . Iav 0. What is the RMS value of the voltage? E = 0. and I. Emax .AC GENERATION ANALYSIS Basic AC Theory Figure 4 Effective Value of Current Another useful value is the average value of the amplitude during the positive half of the cycle.637 Emax 0.4 V ES-07 Page 6 Rev. Eav Example 1: 0. Imax .707 (200 V) E = 141.90 E (7-8) The peak value of voltage in an AC circuit is 200 V.637 Imax 0. 0 .707 Emax E = 0. and E.90 I (7-7) Equation (7-8) is the mathematical relationship between Eav .

which is 60° ahead of e2 (e2 equals zero at 180°). In Figure 5. take point 1 as the starting point or zero phase. until Point 13 where the phase is 360°. Figure 5 Phase Relationship Rev. e1 passes through the zero value. The voltage e1 is said to lead e2 by 60 electrical degrees. and so on.637 (10 amps) Iav = 6.637 Imax Iav = 0. or zero. in degrees.Basic AC Theory AC GENERATION ANALYSIS Example 2: The peak current in an AC circuit is 10 amps. Referring back to Figure 3. or it can be said that e2 lags e1 by 60 electrical degrees. Point 3 is 60°. which pass through zero values in the same direction at different times.37 amps Phase Angle Phase angle is the fraction of a cycle. A term more commonly used is phase difference. What is the average value of current in the circuit? Iav = 0. At 120°. that has gone by since a voltage or current has passed through a given value. The given value is normally zero. the angles along the axis indicate the phases of voltages e1 and e2 at any point in time. Point 4 is 90°. 0 Page 7 ES-07 . The phase difference can be used to describe two different voltages that have the same frequency. The phase at Point 2 is 30°.

e ES-07 Emax sinθ (7-9) ωt (7-10) Emax sin (ωt) Page 8 (7-11) Rev. a relationship between the voltage induced. and the angular velocity can be expressed.84 V The maximum induced voltage can also be called peak voltage Ep. the maximum induced voltage. e where e Emax θ Example 1: = induced EMF = maximum induced EMF = angle from reference (degrees or radians) What is the induced EMF in a coil producing a maximum EMF of 120 V when the angle from reference is 45°? e = Emax sin θ e = 120 V (sin 45°) e = 84. they are said to be "out-of-phase." Voltage Calculations Equation (7-9) is a mathematical representation of the voltage associated with any particular orientation of a coil (inductor). Equation (7-10) is the mathematical representation of the angular velocity." If the phase difference is an amount other than zero. two voltages. then the angular velocity (ω) of the coil is equal to θ/t and is expressed in units of radians/sec. Equation (7-11) is the mathematical representation of the relationship between the voltage induced. and the angular velocity. If (t) is the time in which the coil turns through the angle (θ). the maximum voltage. they are said to be "in-phase. or a voltage and a current is zero degrees. θ where ω = angular velocity (radians/sec) t = time to turn through the angle from reference (sec) θ = angle from reference (radians) Using substitution laws. If the phase difference between two currents. and is equal to the output of an AC Generator. 0 .AC GENERATION ANALYSIS Basic AC Theory Phase difference is also used to compare two different currents or a current and a voltage.

ω where ω = angular velocity (radians/sec) f = frequency (HZ) 2π f (7-13) Rev. One cycle of the sine wave is generated when the coil rotates 2π radians. Equation (7-13) is the mathematical relationship between frequency (f) and the angular velocity (ω) in an AC circuit.3 degrees. and 2π radians is a full revolution. The units of angular velocity are radians per second. Equation (7-12) is a mathematical representation of the relationship between the maximum induced current and the angular velocity. 0 Page 9 ES-07 . A radian is an angle that subtends an arc equal to the radius of a circle.Basic AC Theory AC GENERATION ANALYSIS where e Emax ω t = = = = induced EMF (volts) maximum induced EMF (volts) angular velocity (radians/sec) time to turn through the angle from reference (sec) Current Calculations Maximum induced current is calculated in a similar fashion. i where i Imax ω t Imax sin (ωt) (7-12) = = = = induced current (amps) maximum induced current (amps) angular velocity (radians/sec) time to turn through the angle from reference (sec) Frequency Calculations The frequency of an alternating voltage or current can be related directly to the angular velocity of a rotating coil. One radian equals 57.

8 radians/sec θ = ωt = (376. Angle from reference at 1 msec 3. It references the start.I = 0. 0 .636 Emax = values equate AC to DC equivalents: Effective Current Effective Voltage 0. and Frequency Summary The following terms relate to the AC cycle: radians/second. Find the following: 1. e Summary AC generation analysis is summarized below. Effective value of AC equals effective value of DC.Eav = 0. Wave forms with the same start point are "in-phase" while wave forms "out-of-phase" either lead or lag. Voltage.707 Emax = . period.636 Imax = .3679) 44.AC GENERATION ANALYSIS Basic AC Theory Example 1: The frequency of a 120 V AC circuit is 60 Hz. or zero point. Root mean square (RMS) .8 radian/sec) (. hertz. 3.9 I = Average Current 0. of each wave. Current. the velocity the loop turns.E = 0.9 E = Average Voltage Phase angle is used to compare two wave forms.001 sec) = 0.707 Imax = .3768 radians) (120 V) (0.15 V Solution: 1.Iav = 0.14) (60 Hz) = 376.3768 radians = = = = Emax sin θ (120 V) (sin 0. the time to complete one cycle. 2. ES-07 Page 10 Rev. the number of cycles in one second. Angular velocity 2. It compares differences by degrees of rotation. Induced EMF at that point ω = 2πf = 2 (3.

Department of Energy Fundamentals Handbook ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Module 8 Basic AC Reactive Components .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 19 20 20 Rev. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Capacitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impedance in R-C-L Circuits Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parallel Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 CAPACITANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . Impedance in R-C Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Capacitive Reactance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Page i ES-08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Resonant Frequency Series Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . 2 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v INDUCTANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Inductive Reactance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 IMPEDANCE . . 1 Voltage and Current Phase Relationships in an Inductive Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impedance in R-L Circuits . . . . . . . . . 9 11 12 13 18 RESONANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Basic AC Reactive Components TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . Charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Relationship Between Resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Applied Voltage in Inductive Circuit . . . . 15 Simple Parallel R-C-L Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reactance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 ES-08 Page ii Rev. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Impedance . . . 5 Circuit and Phasor Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Coil Circuit and Phasor Diagram . . . 3 Voltage. .LIST OF FIGURES Basic AC Reactive Components LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Simple R-C-L Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Self-Induced EMF. and Current in a Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Simple R-C Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Simple R-L Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Series R-C-L Impedance-Phasor . . . . . 0 . .

0 Page iii ES-08 .Basic AC Reactive Components LIST OF TABLES LIST OF TABLES NONE Rev.

Volume IV. Electricity One . Walter. C. 3rd Edition. Schaum’s Outline Series. MD: General Physics Corporation. Croft. Hayden Book Company. Harry. McGraw-Hill. Carr. John Wiley and Sons. Nasar and Unnewehr. The Electric Storage Battery Company. Milton.. Academic Program for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel. Columbia. Electromechanics and Electric Machines. Lead-Acid Type. MD: General Physics Corporation. Watt. 5th Edition. Vol. McGrawHill. Academic Program for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel. Lister. Sienko and Plane. Van Valkenburgh. Electrical Instruments and Measurements. The Storage Battery. Volume II. Columbia. and Summers. Eugene C. 1982. Library of Congress Card #A 326517. Buban and Schmitt. John Wiley and Sons. and Neville. Kidwell. American Electricians Handbook. McGraw-Hill. 0 . The Art and Science of Protective Relaying. Chemical Principles and Properties. Basic Electricity. ES-08 Page iv Rev.REFERENCES Basic AC Reactive Components REFERENCES Gussow. Mason. 2nd Edition. Mileaf. McGraw-Hill. 10th Edition. Revised 2nd Edition. Understanding Electricity and Electronics. Exide Industrial Marketing Division.Seven. McGraw-Hill. Hayden Book Company. Nooger. McGraw-Hill. Library of Congress Card #A 326517. 1982. Electric Circuits and Machines. Russel. Basic Electricity. 5.

6 1.1 1. 1. Given the operating frequency (f) and the value of capacitance (C). 0 Page v ES-08 .Basic AC Reactive Components OBJECTIVES TERMINAL OBJECTIVE 1.4 1. inductive reactance (XL).0 Using the rules associated with inductors and capacitors.9 1. Given the values for resistance (R) and capacitance (C) and a simple R-C series AC circuit. and capacitive reactance (XC). DESCRIBE the effect on phase relationship between current (I) and voltage (E) in a capacitive circuit. CALCULATE the inductive reactance (XL) of a simple circuit. DEFINE capacitive reactance (XC). ENABLING OBJECTIVES 1. Given the values for resistance (R) and inductance (L) and a simple R-L series AC circuit.8 1. DESCRIBE the effect of the phase relationship between current and voltage in an inductive circuit. CALCULATE the capacitive reactance (XC) of a simple AC circuit.10 1. CALCULATE the impedance (Z) for that circuit. Given a simple R-C-L series AC circuit and the values for resistance (R). DRAW a simple phasor diagram representing AC current (I) and voltage (E) in a capacitive circuit. DRAW a simple phasor diagram representing AC current (I) and voltage (E) in an inductive circuit. DESCRIBE the characteristics of these elements when they are placed in an AC circuit. Given the operation frequency (f) and the value of inductance (L). DEFINE impedance (Z).3 1.7 1. CALCULATE the impedance (Z) for that circuit.5 1.11 1.12 Rev. CALCULATE the impedance (Z) for that circuit.2 DESCRIBE inductive reactance (XL).

Given a simple R-C-L parallel AC circuit and the values for voltage (VT). CALCULATE the impedance (Z) for that circuit. 1.15 1. 0 .13 STATE the formula for calculating total current (IT) in a simple parallel R-C-L AC circuit. inductive reactance (XL). Given a parallel R-C-L circuit at resonance. Given a series R-C-L circuit at resonance. resistance (R).17 1.OBJECTIVES Basic AC Reactive Components ENABLING OBJECTIVES (Cont. DESCRIBE the circuit output relative to current (I). CALCULATE the resonant frequency.14 1.18 ES-08 Page vi Rev.16 1.) 1. Given the values of capacitance (C) and inductance (L). DEFINE resonance. and capacitive reactance (XC). DESCRIBE the net reactance of the circuit.

Equation (8-2) is the mathematical representation for XL.Basic AC Reactive Components INDUCTANCE INDUCTANCE Any device relying on magnetism or magnetic fields to operate is a form of inductor. XL 2πf L (8-2) E XL (8-1) Rev. generators. The use of an inductor in a circuit can cause current and voltage to become out-of-phase and inefficient unless corrected. CALCULATE the inductive reactance (XL) of a simple circuit. transformers. DRAW a simple phasor diagram representing AC current (I) and voltage (E) in an inductive circuit. I where I = effective current (A) XL = inductive reactance (Ω) E = effective voltage across the reactance (V) The value of XL in any circuit is dependent on the inductance of the circuit and on the rate at which the current is changing through the circuit.3 EO 1. Equation (8-1) is the mathematical representation of the current flowing in a circuit that contains only inductive reactance. and coils are inductors. its effect is measured in ohms.2 DESCRIBE inductive reactance (XL). Because this EMF opposes the continuous change in the flowing current. EO 1. This rate of change depends on the frequency of the applied voltage. Motors. This opposition of the inductance to the flow of an alternating current is called inductive reactance (XL). the current is continually changing and is continuously inducing an EMF.4 Inductive Reactance In an inductive AC circuit. DESCRIBE the effect of the phase relationship between current and voltage in an inductive circuit. 0 Page 1 ES-08 . EO 1. Given the operation frequency (f) and the value of inductance (L).1 EO 1.

the self-induced EMF in the coil is at its maximum (or minimum) value at these points. In a purely inductive circuit. This CEMF opposes any change in current. Voltage and Current Phase Relationships in an Inductive Circuit As previously stated.INDUCTANCE Basic AC Reactive Components where π = ~3. Therefore. 0 . as shown in Figure 1. the flux change is also the greatest at those times. Consequently. 180° (point c). a counter EMF is induced in the coil due to a change in current and flux in the coil. Because the current changes at its maximum rate when it is going through its zero value at 90° (point b on Figure 1) and 270° (point d). Self-Induced EMF. and 360° (point e).14 f = frequency (Hertz) L = inductance (Henries) The magnitude of an induced EMF in a circuit depends on how fast the flux that links the circuit is changing. Figure 1 Current. and Applied Voltage in an Inductive Circuit ES-08 Page 2 Rev. and its value at any time will depend on the rate at which the current and flux are changing at that time. any change in current in a coil (either a rise or a fall) causes a corresponding change of the magnetic flux around the coil. In the case of self-induced EMF (such as in a coil). the flux change is zero at those times. the selfinduced EMF in the coil is at its zero value at these points. The voltage applied to the circuit must always be equal and opposite to the EMF of self-induction. Because the current is not changing at the point when it is going through its peak value at 0° (point a). the resistance is negligible in comparison to the inductive reactance.

the induced EMF is of opposite polarity to the applied voltage and opposes the rise in current. 60 Hz power source (see Figure 2). when the current is increasing from zero to its maximum negative value at 360° (point d to point e). the induced EMF is at its maximum positive value. Thus. therefore. the induced EMF can be seen to lag the current by 90°. Figure 2 Coil Circuit and Phasor Diagram Rev. Draw a phasor diagram showing the phase relationship between current and applied voltage.Basic AC Reactive Components INDUCTANCE According to Lenz’s Law (refer to Module 1. The applied voltage must be equal and opposite to the self-induced EMF at all times. the induced EMF is at a zero value and falling.4 H coil with negligible resistance is connected to a 115V. the induced voltage always opposes the change in current. Referring to Figure 1. Diagrams of this type are referred to as phasor diagrams. Example: A 0. then the current can be expressed as a vector that is lagging the applied voltage by 90°. the induced voltage is of the opposite polarity as the current and tends to keep the current from increasing in the negative direction. With the current now at its maximum positive value (point c). Later. As the current is falling toward its zero value at 180° (point c to point d). as shown in Figure 1. Thus. 0 Page 3 ES-08 . the induced EMF is at a zero value and rising. Basic Electrical Theory). Notice that as the current passes through its zero value (point b) the induced voltage reaches its maximum negative value. Find the inductive reactance of the coil and the current through the circuit. the current lags the applied voltage by 90° in a purely inductive circuit. If the applied voltage (E) is represented by a vector rotating in a counterclockwise direction (Figure 1b). When the current reaches a zero value. when the current rises in a positive direction (point a to point c). with the current at its maximum negative value (point a). The value of the self-induced EMF varies as a sine wave and lags the current by 90°. the induced EMF is of the same polarity as the current and tends to keep the current from falling.

4) XL 2.76 amps Draw a phasor diagram showing the phase relationship between current and applied voltage.7 I 0. ES-08 Page 4 Rev.14)(60)(0. The phasor diagram shows the applied voltage (E) vector leading (above) the current (I) vector by the amount of the phase angle differential due to the relationship between voltage and current in an inductive circuit. Inductive reactance of the coil XL 2πfL (2)(3.7 Ω Current through the circuit I E XL 115 150. 150. The formula for calculating XL is: XL = 2πfL Current (I) lags applied voltage (E) in a purely inductive circuit by 90° phase angle.INDUCTANCE Basic AC Reactive Components Solution: 1. Summary Inductive reactance is summarized below. Phasor diagram showing the current lagging voltage by 90° is drawn in Figure 2b. 0 . Inductive Reactance Summary Opposition to the flow of alternating current caused by inductance is called Inductive Reactance (XL). 3.

but decreasing in value. From points c to d. CALCULATE the capacitive reactance (XC) of a simple AC circuit.7 EO 1. and the current flowing through the capacitor are represented by Figure 3. and the voltage and current are again in the same direction. and computer monitors. Between points a and b. and its current flows in a direction opposite to the voltage. the capacitor begins to charge in the opposite direction.5 EO 1. Figure 3 Voltage. DESCRIBE the effect on phase relationship between current (I) and voltage (E) in a capacitive circuit. and Current in a Capacitor Rev. the capacitor is fully charged. EO 1. these are counteracted by the inductors previously discussed. DRAW a simple phasor diagram representing AC current (I) and voltage (E) in a capacitive circuit. The current flow in Figure 3 is greatest at points a. we must calculate the amount of capacitance to add or subtract from an AC circuit by artificial means. From points b to c. Normally. the charge on the capacitor. passing through zero).. Charge. and e. and the current flow is into the capacitor. EO 1.Basic AC Reactive Components CAPACITANCE CAPACITANCE There are many natural causes of capacitance in AC power circuits. However. and the current is zero. At these points. the voltage and charge are decreasing as the capacitor discharges. Given the operating frequency (f) and the value of capacitance (C). 0 Page 5 ES-08 . fluorescent lighting. The current flow in a circuit containing capacitance depends on the rate at which the voltage changes. At point b.8 Capacitors The variation of an alternating voltage applied to a capacitor. where capacitors greatly outnumber inductive devices. the voltage and charge are increasing.6 DEFINE capacitive reactance (XC).e. the voltage is changing at its maximum rate (i. such as transmission lines. c.

is inversely proportional to frequency and capacitance. In any purely capacitive circuit.000 2πf C (8-4) Equation (8-5) is the mathematical representation for the current that flows in a circuit with only capacitive reactance. which is the opposition to current flow. if the frequency of the capacitance of a given circuit is increased. Capacitive reactance XC. Figure 3 shows the current leading the applied voltage by 90°. the current flow will increase. the opposition to current flow decreases. the capacitor is fully charged.CAPACITANCE Basic AC Reactive Components At point d. Equation (8-3) is a mathematical representation for capacitive reactance. therefore. The current flowing in a capacitive circuit is directly proportional to the capacitance and to the rate at which the applied voltage is changing. Capacitive Reactance Capacitive reactance is the opposition by a capacitor or a capacitive circuit to the flow of current. 0 . and the flow of current is opposite to the voltage. and the current flow is again zero. I E XC (8-5) ES-08 Page 6 Rev. as is inductive reactance. XC where f = π = C = frequency (Hz) ~3. It can also be said that if the frequency or capacitance is increased. is measured in ohms. current leads applied voltage by 90°. From points d to e. therefore. XC 1. capacitive reactance.000.14 capacitance (farads) 1 2πf C (8-3) Equation (8-4) is the mathematical representation of capacitive reactance when capacitance is expressed in microfarads (µF). the capacitor discharges. The rate at which the applied voltage is changing is determined by the frequency of the supply.

000 2πf C 1.Basic AC Reactive Components CAPACITANCE where I = effective current (A) E = effective voltage across the capacitive reactance (V) XC = capacitive reactance (Ω) Example: A 10µF capacitor is connected to a 120V.000. Figure 4 Circuit and Phasor Diagram Solution: 1.000 (2)(3. Find the capacitive reactance and the current flowing in the circuit. 60Hz power source (see Figure 4).000. Capacitive reactance XC 1. Draw the phasor diagram. 0 Page 7 ES-08 .14)(60)(10) 1.4 Ω Rev.000.000 3768 XC 265.

ES-08 Page 8 Rev. Phasor diagram showing current leading voltage by 90° is drawn in Figure 4b.4 I 0. Current flowing in the circuit I E XC 120 265. The phasor diagram shows the applied voltage (E) vector leading (below) the current (I) vector by the amount of the phase angle differential due to the relationship between voltage and current in a capacitive circuit. The formula for calculating XC is: XC 1 2πf C Current (I) leads applied voltage by 90o in a purely capacitive circuit.452 amps 3. Summary Capacitive reactance is summarized below.CAPACITANCE Basic AC Reactive Components 2. Capacitive Reactance Summary Opposition to the flow of alternating current caused by capacitance is called capacitive reactance (XC). 0 .

Impedance is defined as the total opposition to current flow in a circuit. CALCULATE the impedance (Z) for that circuit.11 EO 1. Given a simple R-C-L parallel AC circuit and the values for voltage (VT). inductive reactance (XL). resistance (R). CALCULATE the impedance (Z) for that circuit. Given a simple R-C-L series AC circuit and the values for resistance (R). Given the values for resistance (R) and inductance (L) and a simple R-L series AC circuit.Basic AC Reactive Components IMPEDANCE IMPEDANCE Whenever inductive and capacitive components are used in an AC circuit.10 DEFINE impedance (Z).13 EO 1. The total opposition to current flow in a circuit depends on its resistance.12 EO 1. EO 1. 0 Page 9 ES-08 . Given the values for resistance (R) and capacitance (C) and a simple R-C series AC circuit. Resistive and reactive components in an AC circuit oppose current flow. EO 1. inductive reactance (XL). whether desired or not.14 Impedance No circuit is without some resistance.9 EO 1. and capacitive reactance (XC). CALCULATE the impedance (Z) for that circuit. the calculation of their effects on the flow of current is important. and the phase relationships between them. and capacitive reactance (XC). CALCULATE the impedance (Z) for that circuit. STATE the formula for calculating total current (IT) in a simple parallel R-C-L AC circuit. Z R2 X2 (8-6) Rev. its reactance. Equation (8-6) is the mathematical representation for the magnitude of impedance in an AC circuit.

and Impedance The current through a certain resistance is always in phase with the applied voltage. Net reactance in an AC circuit is the difference between inductive and capacitive reactance. Equation (8-7) is the mathematical representation for the calculation of net reactance when XL is greater than XC.IMPEDANCE Basic AC Reactive Components where Z = impedance (Ω) R = resistance (Ω) X = net reactance (Ω) The relationship between resistance. reactance. The current through an inductor lags applied voltage by 90°. capacitive reactance is shown along the -90° axis. and impedance is shown in Figure 5. inductive reactance is shown along the 90° axis.XC where X = net reactance (Ω) XL = inductive reactance (Ω) XC = capacitive reactance (Ω) (8-7) ES-08 Page 10 Rev. Figure 5 Relationship Between Resistance. Resistance is shown on the zero axis. Current through a capacitor leads applied voltage by 90°. 0 . X = XL . Reactance.

(8-9) Impedance in R-L Circuits Impedance is the resultant of phasor addition of R and XL. The voltage drop across an AC circuit element equals the current times the impedance.Basic AC Reactive Components IMPEDANCE Equation (8-8) is the mathematical representation for the calculation of net reactance when XC is greater than XL. Equation (8-9) is the mathematical representation of the voltage drop across an AC circuit. what is the circuit impedance? Rev. 0 Page 11 ES-08 . Impedance in an AC circuit corresponds to the resistance of a DC circuit.XL (8-8) Impedance is the vector sum of the resistance and net reactance (X) in a circuit. as shown in Figure 5. Impedance is the total opposition to the flow of current and is expressed in ohms. The symbol for impedance is Z. Equation (8-10) is the mathematical representation of the impedance in an RL circuit. The angle θ is the phase angle and gives the phase relationship between the applied voltage and the current. V = IZ where V = voltage drop (V) I = current (A) Z = impedance (Ω) The phase angle θ gives the phase relationship between current and the voltage. Z Example: R2 XL 2 (8-10) If a 100 Ω resistor and a 60 Ω XL are in series with a 115V applied voltage (Figure 6). X = XC .

000 13. Equation (8-11) is the mathematical representation for impedance in an R-C circuit.600 Z 116. impedance is the resultant of phasor addition of R and XC. Calculate the impedance. Z Example: R2 XC 2 (8-11) A 50 Ω XC and a 60 Ω resistance are in series across a 110V source (Figure 7). 0 .IMPEDANCE Basic AC Reactive Components Figure 6 Simple R-L Circuit Solution: Z R2 1002 10. as in an inductive circuit.6 Ω XL 2 602 3600 Impedance in R-C Circuits In a capacitive circuit. ES-08 Page 12 Rev.

and capacitive reactance (Figure 8).Basic AC Reactive Components IMPEDANCE Figure 7 Simple R-C Circuit Solution: Z R2 602 3600 6100 Z 78. Rev.1 Ω XC 2 502 2500 Impedance in R-C-L Circuits Impedance in an R-C-L series circuit is equal to the phasor sum of resistance. 0 Page 13 ES-08 . inductive reactance.

Z Z R2 R2 (XL (XC XC)2 XL)2 (8-12) (8-13) Example: Find the impedance of a series R-C-L circuit. ES-08 Page 14 Rev. XL = 20 Ω. and XC = 10 Ω (Figure 9).IMPEDANCE Basic AC Reactive Components Figure 8 Series R-C-L Impedance-Phasor Equations (8-12) and (8-13) are the mathematical representations of impedance in an R-C-L circuit. Because the difference between XL and XC is squared. 0 . when R = 6 Ω. the order in which the quantities are subtracted does not affect the answer.

0 Page 15 ES-08 . ZT VT IT (8-14) Rev. Equation (8-14) is the mathematical representation of the impedance in a parallel R-C-L circuit.66 Ω (XL (20 102 100 XC)2 10)2 Impedance in a parallel R-C-L circuit equals the voltage divided by the total current.Basic AC Reactive Components IMPEDANCE Figure 9 Simple R-C-L Circuit Solution: Z R2 62 62 36 136 Z 11.

Equations (8-15) and (8-16) are the mathematical representations of total current in a parallel R-C-L circuit. IR IR 2 (IC (IL IL)2 IC)2 (8-15) (8-16) 2 Figure 10 Simple Parallel R-C-L Circuit ES-08 Page 16 Rev.IMPEDANCE Basic AC Reactive Components where ZT = total impedance (Ω) VT = total voltage (V) IT = total current (A) Total current in a parallel R-C-L circuit is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the current flows through the resistance. IT = IT = where IT IR IC IL Example: = = = = total current (A) current through resistance leg of circuit (A) current through capacitive reactance leg of circuit (A) current through inductive reactance leg of circuit (A) A 200 Ω resistor. inductive reactance. a 100 Ω XL. Because the difference between IL and IC is squared. 0 . the order in which the quantities are subtracted does not affect the answer. and an 80 Ω XC are placed in parallel across a 120V AC source (Figure 10). Find: (1) the branch currents. (2) the total current. and capacitive reactance branches of the circuit. and (3) the impedance.

6)2 0.2 A IC IC VT XC 120 80 1. 0.671 A 0.2)2 (0.09 Impedance Z VT IT 120 0.45 IT 3.6)2 (0.36 0.Basic AC Reactive Components IMPEDANCE Solution: 1.8 Ω Rev. 0 Page 17 ES-08 .5 A Total current IT IR 2 (IC IL)2 (1.5 (0.6 A IL IL VT XL 120 100 1. Branch currents IR VT R 120 200 IR 2.671 Z 178.3)2 1. 0.

The formula for impedance in a series AC circuit is: Z R2 X2 The formula for impedance in a parallel R-C-L circuit is: Z R2 (XC XL)2 The formulas for finding total current (IT) in a parallel R-C-L circuit are: where IC > IL . IT where IL > IC . IT IR IR 2 (IC (IL IL)2 IC)2 2 ES-08 Page 18 Rev.IMPEDANCE Basic AC Reactive Components Summary Impedance is summarized below. 0 . Impedance Summary Impedance (Z) is the total opposition to current flow in an AC circuit.

Resonant frequency (fRes) is the frequency at which resonance occurs. EO 1. at resonance the net reactance of the circuit is zero. Given the values of capacitance (C) and inductance (L). but for opposite reasons.Basic AC Reactive Components RESONANCE RESONANCE In the chapters on inductance and capacitance we have learned that both conditions are reactive and can provide opposition to current flow. the total reactance. or where XL = XC. Given a parallel R-C-L circuit at resonance.18 DEFINE resonance. Because inductive reactance and capacitive reactance are both dependent on frequency.XC becomes zero and the impendence is totally resistive. fRes where fRes L C = resonant frequency (Hz) = inductance (H) = capacitance (f) 1 2π LC (8-14) Series Resonance In a series R-C-L circuit.16 EO 1. therefore. and the impedance is equal to the circuit resistance. Therefore. (Z=R) I VT ZT VT R Page 19 ES-08 Rev. as in Figure 9. Given a series R-C-L circuit at resonance. X = XL .17 EO 1. DESCRIBE the circuit output relative to current (I). DESCRIBE the net reactance of the circuit. 0 .15 EO 1. When this occurs. it is important to find the point where inductance and capacitance cancel one another to achieve efficient operation of AC circuits. CALCULATE the resonant frequency. Equation (8-14) is the mathematical representation for resonant frequency. it is possible to bring a circuit to resonance by adjusting the frequency of the applied voltage. Resonant Frequency Resonance occurs in an AC circuit when inductive reactance and capacitive reactance are equal to one another: XL = XC. the current output of a series resonant circuit is at a maximum value for that circuit and is determined by the value of the resistance.

Resonant frequency is: fRes 1 2π LC R-C-L series circuit at resonance is when net reactance is zero and circuit current output is determined by the series resistance of the circuit.RESONANCE Basic AC Reactive Components Parallel Resonance Resonance in a parallel R-C-L circuit will occur when the reactive current in the inductive branches is equal to the reactive current in the capacitive branches (or when XL = XC). as in Figure 10. The capacitor will alternately charge and discharge through the inductor. but the total current will be negligible. the net current flow through the circuit is at minimum because of the high impendence presented by XL and XC in parallel. they cancel one another at parallel resonance. R-C-L parallel circuit at resonance is when net reactance is maximum and circuit current output is at minimum. Summary Resonance is summarized below. 0 . If a capacitor and an inductor. in a parallel R-C-L. Resonance Summary Resonance is a state in which the inductive reactance equals the capacitive reactance (XL = XC) at a specified frequency (fRes). The parallel C-L circuit will present an almost infinite impedance. each with negligible resistance. ES-08 Page 20 Rev. Because inductive and capacitive reactance currents are equal and opposite in phase. current will flow in the inductor and the capacitor. are connected in parallel and the frequency is adjusted such that reactances are exactly equal. Thus.

Department of Energy Fundamentals Handbook ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Module 9 Basic AC Power .

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. . . . Total Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v POWER TRIANGLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power in Parallel R-C Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Apparent Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power in Series R-C-L Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power in Series R-L Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 19 23 26 Rev. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power in Parallel R-L Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reactive Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power in Balanced 3φ Loads Unbalanced 3φ Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Three-Phase Systems . . . . . . . . . . . .Basic AC Power TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . Power in Series R-C Circuit . . . True Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Power Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Page i ES-09 . . . . . Power in Parallel R-C-L Circuit Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Factor . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Figure 11 3φ AC Power Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Series R-C-L Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Figure 16 3φ Unbalanced Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Figure 14 Three-Phase Delta Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Series R-C Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Series R-L Circuit . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Figure 15 Three-Phase Wye Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Parallel R-C-L Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Lagging Power Factor . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Parallel R-L Circuit . . . . . . 8 Parallel R-C Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Leading Power Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Figure 12 3φ Balanced Loads . . .LIST OF FIGURES Basic AC Power LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Power Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 ES-09 Page ii Rev. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Figure 13 3φ Power Triangle . . . . . . 14 Figure 10 Three-Phase AC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Basic AC Power LIST OF TABLES LIST OF TABLES NONE Rev. 0 Page iii ES-09 .

Harry. Revised 2nd Edition. Russel. Hayden Book Company. Croft. Understanding Electricity and Electronics. 10th Edition. 1982. MD: General Physics Corporation. Carr.Seven. McGrawHill. Nasar and Unnewehr. 5. The Art and Science of Protective Relaying.REFERENCES Basic AC Power REFERENCES Gussow. Basic Electricity. Vol. Volume II. Library of Congress Card #A 326517. and Summers.. Mason. Columbia. ES-09 Page iv Rev. John Wiley and Sons. Library of Congress Card #A 326517. 0 . Kidwell. MD: General Physics Corporation. John Wiley and Sons. Volume IV. American Electricians Handbook. Columbia. Academic Program for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel. McGraw-Hill. 5th Edition. Electromechanics and Electric Machines. Watt. McGraw-Hill. Lister. Schaum’s Outline Series. Buban and Schmitt. Milton. 1982. 3rd Edition. Van Valkenburgh. Eugene C. Walter. Hayden Book Company. Nooger. Mileaf. Electricity One . C. Electric Circuits and Machines. and Neville. Electrical Instruments and Measurements. McGraw-Hill. Basic Electricity. McGraw-Hill. Academic Program for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel.

DESCRIBE the power characteristics in the circuit. 0 Page v ES-09 . 1.2 1. Lagging power factor STATE the reasons that three-phase power systems are used in the industry.7 1. Power factor (pf) DEFINE the following terms: a.5 1.1 DESCRIBE the relationship between apparent. Given the necessary values for voltage (E).Basic AC Power OBJECTIVES TERMINAL OBJECTIVE 1. true. Real power b. Reactive power (Q) d. Leading power factor b.4 1.0 Given an AC single-phase or three-phase circuit. and power factor in a three-phase system. reactance (X). CALCULATE the following power components for an AC circuit: a. DEFINE power factor as it relates to true power and apparent power. STATE the indications of an unbalanced load in a three-phase power system. True power (P) b. and reactive power by definition or by using a power triangle. voltage. CALCULATE the following: a. ENABLING OBJECTIVES 1.3 1. Apparent power (S) c. DESCRIBE the voltage/current relationships of the circuit. and/or current (I). Apparent power Given a diagram of a wye. resistance (R).6 1. impedance (Z).or delta-connected three-phase system. Given values for current. Reactive power c.8 Rev.

Basic AC Power Intentionally Left Blank ES-09 Page vi Rev. 0 .

3 EO 1. current and voltage are normally out of phase and. CALCULATE the following power components for an AC circuit: a. true. The phase angle (θ) represents the inefficiency of the AC circuit and corresponds to the total reactive impedance (Z) to the current flow in the circuit. shown in Figure 1.2 EO 1.P) in watts.Q) in volt-amperes-reactive (VAR). you will learn that power in AC circuits cannot be calculated in the same manner as in DC circuits. Given the necessary values for voltage (E). impedance (Z). Leading power factor b.1 DESCRIBE the relationship between apparent. By the same token. Rev. equates AC power to DC power by showing the relationship between generator output (apparent power . DEFINE power factor as it relates to true power and apparent power. Apparent power (S) c.S) in volt-amperes (VA). and/or current (I). True power (P) b. alternating current has three different forms of power that are related in a unique relationship. 0 Page 1 ES-09 . Reactive power (Q) d. power cannot be calculated in AC circuits in the same manner as in DC circuits. Lagging power factor EO 1. EO 1. reactance (X). not all the power produced by the generator can be used to accomplish work. as a result. and reactive power by definition or by using a power triangle.4 Power Triangle In AC circuits.Basic AC Power POWER TRIANGLE POWER TRIANGLE While direct current has one form of power. usable power (true power . resistance (R). and wasted or stored power (reactive power . The power triangle. Power factor (pf) DEFINE the following terms: a. In this chapter.

POWER TRIANGLE Basic AC Power Figure 1 Power Triangle The power triangle represents comparable values that can be used directly to find the efficiency level of generated power to usable power. The measurement of apparent power is in voltamperes (VA). Apparent power. which is expressed as the power factor (discussed later). reactive power. Equation (9-1) is a mathematical representation of apparent power. 0 . and true power can be calculated by using the DC equivalent (RMS value) of the AC voltage and current components along with the power factor. S = I2Z = ITE where S I E Z = = = = apparent power (VA) RMS current (A) RMS voltage (V) impedance (Ω) (9-1) ES-09 Page 2 Rev. Apparent Power Apparent power (S) is the power delivered to an electrical circuit.

because they expand and collapse their magnetic fields in an attempt to keep current constant.Basic AC Power POWER TRIANGLE True Power True power (P) is the power consumed by the resistive loads in an electrical circuit. thus. Equation (9-2) is a mathematical representation of true power. The true power. This power is stored by inductors. Circuit inductance and capacitance consume and give back reactive power. the cycle of expansion and collapse of the magnetic and electrostatic fields constantly occurs. is thus zero. 0 Page 3 ES-09 . Equation (9-3) is a mathematical representation for reactive power. We know that alternating current constantly changes. The power delivered to the capacitance is stored in the electrostatic field when the capacitor is charging and returned to the source when the capacitor discharges. None of the power delivered to the circuit by the source is consumed. It is all returned to the source. P = I2R = EI cosθ where P I E R θ = = = = = true power (watts) RMS current (A) RMS voltage (V) resistance (Ω) angle between E and I sine waves (9-2) Reactive Power Reactive power (Q) is the power consumed in an AC circuit because of the expansion and collapse of magnetic (inductive) and electrostatic (capacitive) fields. Reactive power is a function of a system’s amperage. Reactive power is expressed in volt-amperes-reactive (VAR). because they charge and discharge in an attempt to keep voltage constant. The measurement of true power is in watts. The power delivered to the inductance is stored in the magnetic field when the field is expanding and returned to the source when the field collapses. Rev. which is the power consumed. Q= I2X = EI sinθ where Q I X E θ = = = = = reactive power (VAR) RMS current (A) net reactance (Ω) RMS voltage (V) angle between the E and I sine waves (9-3) Unlike true power. reactive power is not useful power because it is stored in the circuit itself. and by capacitors.

True power is the power consumed by an AC circuit. It is the ratio of true power to apparent power. It can vary from 1. Part of this apparent power. Equation (9-4) is a mathematical representation of power factor. the current leads the voltage and is said to have a leading power factor. when the phase angle is 0°. as shown in Figure 2. when the phase angle is 90°. and reactive power is the power that is stored in an AC circuit. The rest of the apparent power is returned to the source by the circuit inductance and capacitance. is dissipated by the circuit resistance in the form of heat. ELI refers to an inductive circuit (L) where current (I) lags voltage (E). In an inductive circuit. Figure 3 Leading Power Factor ES-09 Page 4 Rev. to 0. the current lags the voltage and is said to have a lagging power factor. A mnemonic memory device. ICE refers to a capacitive circuit (C) where current (I) leads voltage (E). Figure 2 Lagging Power Factor In a capacitive circuit. Power Factor Power factor (pf) is the ratio between true power and apparent power. cos θ where cosθ P S = = = power factor (pf) true power (watts) apparent power (VA) P S (9-4) Power factor also determines what part of the apparent power is real power. as shown in Figure 3. "ELI the ICE man. called true power." can be used to remember the voltage/current relationship in AC circuits. where θ is the phase angle between the applied voltage and current sine waves and also between P and S on a power triangle (Figure1).POWER TRIANGLE Basic AC Power Total Power The total power delivered by the source is the apparent power. Cosθ is called the power factor (pf) of an AC circuit. 0 .

16) V 412.097 IZ I R2 2 2002 2 42.Basic AC Power POWER TRIANGLE Power in Series R-L Circuit Example: A 200 Ω resistor and a 50 Ω XL are placed in series with a voltage source. V P Q S Figure 4 Series R-L Circuit X cos arctan L R 50 cos arctan 200 cos (14° ) pf 2. Find: 1. Z XL 2 R2 XL 2 502 Rev. and the total current flow is 2 amps. V 0. 2. as shown in Figure 4.3 volts Note: Inverse trigonometric functions such as arctan are discussed in the Mathematics Fundamentals Manual. 5. Solution: 1. pages 6 and 7 should the student require review. 4. Module 4. Trigonometry. pf cos θ θ X arctan L R pf applied voltage.500 (2)(206. 0 Page 5 ES-09 . 3.

6 VA Power in Parallel R-L Circuit Example: A 600 Ω resistor and 200 Ω XL are in parallel with a 440V source.86 watts EI sin θ (412. 5.POWER TRIANGLE Basic AC Power 3. Q 799.3)(2) S 824. 0 .3)(2)(0.6 VAR EI (412.242) Q 5. S 199. P EI cos θ (412. 4. as shown in Figure 5. 2. IT pf P Q S Figure 5 Parallel R-L Circuit ES-09 Page 6 Rev. 3.3)(2)(0.97) P 4. Find: 1.

4 VAR Rev.2 cosarctan 0.5°) pf 3.3)(0.73 cos(arctan( 3)) cos( 71. pf cos θ θ I arctan L I R arctan IL cos I R 2.32 EI cos θ (440)(2.32) P 4.Basic AC Power POWER TRIANGLE Solution: 2. P 0.3)(0.948) Q 959. Q 323.84 watts EI sin θ (440)(2. 0 Page 7 ES-09 .

as shown in Figure 6. IT 100 Ω VT Z 120 100 IT 1. S EI (440)(2. 3. 6. Z R2 602 3600 Z 2. 2.2 amps XC 802 6400 2 Z IT pf P Q S Figure 6 Series R-C Circuit ES-09 Page 8 Rev. 4. Solution: 1. Find: 1. 0 .POWER TRIANGLE Basic AC Power 5.3) S 1012 VA Power in Series R-C Circuit Example: An 80 Ω Xc and a 60 Ω resistance are in series with a 120V source. 5.

2) S 144 VA Rev.60) P 5.60 EI cos θ (120)(1.Basic AC Power POWER TRIANGLE 3.798) Q 6.9 VAR EI (120)(1. P 0. Q 86. pf cos θ θ XC arctan R XC cosarctan R 80 cosarctan 60 cos(arctan( 1.4 watts EI sin θ (120)(1.2)(0.2)(0. 0 Page 9 ES-09 . S 114.33)) cos( 53°) pf 4.

3. 6.POWER TRIANGLE Basic AC Power Power in Parallel R-C Circuit Example: A 30 Ω resistance and a 40 Ω XC are in parallel with a 120V power source. 4. Find: 1. 0 . IT Z pf P Q S Solution: Figure 7 Parallel R-C Circuit 2. 2. as shown in Figure 7. 5. Z VT IT 120 5 Z 24 Ω ES-09 Page 10 Rev.

80) P 5.Basic AC Power POWER TRIANGLE 3. 0 Page 11 ES-09 . pf cos θ θ I arctan C I R I cosarctan C I R 3 cosarctan 4 cos(arctan(36. S 360 VAR EI (120)(5) S 600 VA Rev.9°)) pf 4.80 EI cos θ (120)(5)(0.6) Q 6. P 0. Q 480 watts EI sin θ (120)(5)(0.

POWER TRIANGLE

Basic AC Power

**Power in Series R-C-L Circuit
**

Example: An 8 Ω resistance, a 40 Ω XL, and a 24 Ω XC are in series with a 60 Hz source with a current flow of 4 amps, as shown in Figure 8. Find: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Z VT pf P Q S

Figure 8 Series R-C-L Circuit

1.

Z

R2 82 82

(XL (40 162

XC)2 24)2

Z 2. VT

17.9 Ω IZ (4)(17.9)

VT

71.6 volts

ES-09

Page 12

Rev. 0

Basic AC Power

POWER TRIANGLE

3.

pf

cos θ

θ

X arctan R

X cosarctan R 16 cosarctan 8 cos(arctan(2)) cos(63.4°) pf 4. P 0.45 EI cos θ (71.6)(4)(0.45) P 5. Q 128.9 watts EI sin θ (71.6)(4)(0.89) Q 6. S 254.9 VAR EI (71.6)(4) S 286.4 VA

Rev. 0

Page 13

ES-09

POWER TRIANGLE

Basic AC Power

**Power in Parallel R-C-L Circuits
**

Example: An 800 Ω resistance, 100 Ω XL, and an 80 Ω XC are in parallel with a 120V, 60Hz source, as shown in Figure 9. Find: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. IT pf P Q S

Figure 9

Parallel R-C-L Circuit

Solution:

ES-09

Page 14

Rev. 0

5 1. S 36. 0 Page 15 ES-09 .89) Q 5.15 cos(arctan(2)) cos(63. P 0.34) S 40.34)(0. pf cos θ θ I IL arctan C I R I IL cosarctan C I R 1.4 VAR EI (120)(0. Q 18.Basic AC Power POWER TRIANGLE 2.2 cosarctan 0.34)(0.45) P 4.4°) pf 3.36 watts EI sin θ (120)(0.45 EI cos θ (120)(0.8 VA Rev.

θ is the angle between voltage and current. and power factor: Apparent power (S) = I2Z = ITE True power (P) = I2R = EI cosθ Reactive power (Q) = I2X = EI sinθ P Power factor (pf) = = cosθ S From observation. AC Power Relationships Summary Observe the equations for apparent. Current (I) lags voltage (E) in an inductive circuit (L) Current (I) leads voltage (E) in a capacitive circuit (C) ES-09 Page 16 Rev. From this relationship. ELI the ICE man is a mnemonic device that describes the reactive characteristics of an AC circuit. and reactive power. a power triangle.POWER TRIANGLE Basic AC Power Summary AC power relationships are summarized below. you can see that three power equations have the angle θ in common. as shown in Figure 1. is formed. 0 . true.

voltage. STATE the indications of an unbalanced load in a threephase power system.Basic AC Power THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS The design of three-phase AC circuits lends itself to a more efficient method of producing and utilizing an AC voltage. 0 Page 17 ES-09 . power comes from a 3φ AC generator that produces three separate and equal voltages.6 EO 1. CALCULATE the following: a. EO 1. Given values for current. EO 1. Reactive power c.7 EO 1. DESCRIBE the voltage/current relationships of the circuit. Apparent power Given a diagram of a wye. each of which is 120° out of phase with the other voltages (Figure 10).or delta-connected threephase system. Rev. and power factor in a three-phase system. In a 3φ balanced system. Real power b.5 STATE the reasons that three-phase power systems are used in the industry.8 Three-Phase Systems A three-phase (3φ) system is a combination of three single-phase systems.

If the three phases are connected in series to form a closed loop. or ∆-. connection (Figure 11).THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS Basic AC Power Figure 10 Three-Phase AC Three-phase equipment (motors. or Y-. Three-phase equipment is smaller in size. and is more efficient than single-phase equipment. They have a wide range of voltages and can be used for single-phase loads. transformers.) weighs less than single-phase equipment of the same power rating. If the three common ends of each phase are connected at a common point and the other three ends are connected to a 3φ line. it is called a wye. it is called a delta. connection. etc. Three-phase systems can be connected in two different ways. weighs less. 0 . ES-09 Page 18 Rev.

Basic AC Power THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS Figure 11 3φ AC Power Connections Power in Balanced 3φ Loads Balanced loads. The impedance of each winding in a delta load is shown as Z∆ (Figure 12a). 0 Page 19 ES-09 . and the impedence in a wye load is shown as Zy (Figure 12b). B. For either the delta or wye connection. have identical impedance in each secondary winding (Figure 12). Figure 12 3φ Balanced Loads Rev. the lines A. and C supply a 3φ system of voltages. in a 3φ system.

phase power is one third of the total power. Equation (9-8) is a mathematical representation of IL in a balanced wye load. Equation (9-7) is a mathematical representation of VL in a balanced wye load. Equation (9-6) is a mathematical representation of IL in a balanced delta load.THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS Basic AC Power In a balanced delta load. Equation (9-11) is the mathematical representation for total power in a balanced delta or wye load. VL = Vφ and Iφ PT 3 VL IL cos θ so: In a wye-connected load. the line voltage (VL) is equal to the square root of three times phase voltage ( 3 Vφ ). VL = Vφ IL 3 Iφ (9-5) (9-6) In a balanced wye load. and line current (IL) is equal to the phase current (Iφ ). IL = Iφ and Vφ PT 3 VL IL cos θ 3 VL 3 so: ES-09 Page 20 Rev. 0 . PT = 3Vφ Iφ cosθ 3 IL 3 (9-11) In a delta-connected load. the line voltage (VL) is equal to the phase voltage (Vφ ). and the line current (IL) is equal to the square root of three times the phase current ( 3 Iφ ). Equation (9-10) is the mathematical representation for phase power (Pφ ) in a balanced delta or wye load. Pφ = Vφ Iφ cosθ (9-10) Total power (PT) is equal to three times the single-phase power. VL IL Iφ 3 Vφ (9-7) (9-8) Because the impedance of each phase of a balanced delta or wye load has equal current. Equation (9-5) is a mathematical representation of VL in a balanced delta load.

0 Page 21 ES-09 .and wye-connected loads are identical. 3. A balanced three-phase load has the real. the total power formulas for delta.6 lagging power factor. Find: 1.Basic AC Power THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS As you can see. apparent. 4. VL VL Vφ 440 volts Rev. 5. Total apparent power (ST) in volt-amperes and total reactive power (QT) in volt-amperes-reactive are related to total real power (PT) in watts (Figure 13). as shown in Figure 14. VL IL PT QT ST Figure 14 Three-Phase Delta Generator Solution: 1. and reactive powers given by: PT ST QT 3 VT IL cos θ 3 VT IL 3 VT IL sin θ Figure 13 3φ Power Triangle Example 1: Each phase of a deltaconnected 3φ AC generator supplies a full load current of 200 A at 440 volts with a 0. 2.

Find: 1.6) PT 4.8) QT 5.THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS Basic AC Power 2. ST 210. VL PT QT ST Figure 15 Three-Phase Wye Generator ES-09 Page 22 Rev. 4.73)(440)(346)(0.73)(200) IL 3.9 lagging. 2. as shown in Figure 15.7 kVAR 3 VL IL (1. 3.4 kVA Example 2: Each phase of a wyeconnected 3φ AC generator supplies a 100 A current at a phase voltage of 240V and a power factor of 0. 0 .73)(440)(346)(0. PT 346 amps 3 VL IL cos θ (1. QT 158.73)(440)(346) ST 263.2 kW 3 VL IL sin θ (1. IL 3 Iφ (1.

436) QT 4. 0 Page 23 ES-09 .3 kVAR 3 VL IL (1.Basic AC Power THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS Solution: 1. Therefore.9) PT 3. contains a wye load. as shown in Figure 16a. Example: A 3φ balanced system.73)(415. PT 415.73)(240) VL 2. The imbalance occurs when an open or short circuit appears at the load. the phasor sums and the neutral current (In) are not zero.6 kW 3 VL IL sin θ (1. VL 3 Vφ (1.2)(100)(0.line voltage is 240V.8 kVA Unbalanced 3φ Loads An important property of a three-phase balanced system is that the phasor sum of the three line or phase voltages is zero. If a three-phase system has an unbalanced load and an unbalanced power source. Rev. therefore. the methods of fixing the system are complex. and the load is. and the resistance is 40 Ω in each branch.2)(100)(0. When the three load impedances are not equal to one another. QT 64. ST 31. The line-to. and the phasor sum of the three line or phase currents is zero.2)(100) ST 71.73)(415. we will only consider an unbalanced load with a balanced power source.2 volts 3 VL IL cos θ (1. unbalanced.73)(415.

IL Iφ V L 3 Rφ Iφ Vφ Rφ Vφ VL 3 IL 240 1. 1.THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS Basic AC Power Figure 16 3φ Unbalanced Load Find line current and neutral current for the following load conditions.73 40 138. balanced load 2. short circuit in phase A (Figure 16c) 1.5 amps IN 0 ES-09 Page 24 Rev.7 40 IL 3. 0 . open circuit phase A (Figure 16b) 3.

Therefore. IB IC IB IB 6 amps IC 6 amps The current in Phase A is equal to the neutral line current.4 amps In a fault condition. Unbalanced three-phase circuits are indicated by abnormally high currents in one or more of the phases. Rev. VL IB IC IB RB RC 240 40 40 IB IN 3 amps IB 3 IN IC 3 IC 3 amps 6 amps VL RB 240 40 3. IN 3 IB (1. the neutral connection in a wye-connected load will carry more current than the phase under a balanced load.73)(6) IN 10. This may cause damage to equipment if the imbalance is allowed to continue.Basic AC Power THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS 2. IN is the phasor sum of IB and IC. Current flow in lines B and C becomes the resultant of the loads in B and C connected in series. 0 Page 25 ES-09 . IA = IN.

Three-phase equipment is smaller in size. weighs less. and is more efficient than single-phase equipment. Three-Phase Circuits Summary Three-phase power systems are used in the industry because: Three-phase circuits weigh less than single-phase circuits of the same power rating. They have a wide range of voltages and can be used for single-phase loads. Unbalanced three-phase circuits are indicated by abnormally high currents in one or more of the phases. ES-09 Page 26 Rev.THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS Basic AC Power Summary Three-phase circuits are summarized below. 0 .

Department of Energy Fundamentals Handbook ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Module 10 AC Generators .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 10 10 11 12 14 Rev. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Theory of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Armature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6 7 7 7 8 AC GENERATOR OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prime Mover Rotor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AC Generators TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 AC GENERATOR THEORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Losses in an AC Generator Hysteresis Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slip Rings . . 0 Page i ES-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three-Phase AC Generators AC Generator Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanical Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Ratings . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v AC GENERATOR COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paralleling AC Generators . . . . . Types of AC Generators . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rotating Field. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Simple AC Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Characteristics of a Delta-Connected Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Delta Connection . . . . . . . 12 Wye Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Stationary Field. . . . . 5 AC Generator Nameplate Ratings . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES AC Generators LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Basic AC Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stationary Armature . . . . . . 10 Simple AC Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 ES-10 Page ii Rev. 2 Comparison of DC and AC Generator Outputs . 11 Stationary Armature 3φ Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rotating Armature AC Generator . . . . . 13 Characteristics of a Wye-Connected AC Generator . . .

AC Generators LIST OF TABLES LIST OF TABLES NONE Rev. 0 Page iii ES-10 .

1982. Nooger. Mason. Understanding Electricity and Electronics. Electromechanics and Electric Machines. MD: General Physics Corporation. The Art and Science of Protective Relaying. Academic Program for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel. Eugene C. Electricity One . Volume II. Schaum’s Outline Series. and Summers. Vol.Seven. Volume IV. Hayden Book Company. and Neville. Nasar and Unnewehr. ES-10 Page iv Rev. Russel. Columbia. Kidwell. C. John Wiley and Sons. Basic Electricity. Electrical Instruments and Measurements.REFERENCES AC Generators REFERENCES Gussow. 10th Edition. Academic Program for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel. MD: General Physics Corporation. McGrawHill. Van Valkenburgh. Mileaf. Walter. McGraw-Hill. Library of Congress Card #A 326517.. Revised 2nd Edition. Lister. Croft. Library of Congress Card #A 326517. Watt. Columbia. McGraw-Hill. Harry. Electric Circuits and Machines. Buban and Schmitt. American Electricians Handbook. Milton. Hayden Book Company. Carr. 1982. 3rd Edition. 5. Basic Electricity. 0 . John Wiley and Sons. McGraw-Hill. McGraw-Hill. 5th Edition.

Slip rings Given the speed of rotation and number of poles. Rotor e. Given the prime mover input and generator output.2 1. Stator f.5 1. advantages of each type. stationary armature AC generator. DESCRIBE the bases behind the kW and current ratings of an AC generator. DESCRIBE the operating characteristics of that generator including methods of voltage production.1 STATE the purpose of the following components of an AC generator: a.4 1. DESCRIBE the difference between a stationary field. EXPLAIN the differences between a wye-connected and delta-connected AC generator including advantages and disadvantages of each type.AC Generators OBJECTIVES TERMINAL OBJECTIVE 1. Armature c. DESCRIBE the conditions that must be met prior to paralleling two AC generators including consequences of not meeting these conditions. ENABLING OBJECTIVES 1. Prime mover d. 0 Page v ES-10 .7 1.3 1. CALCULATE the frequency output of an AC generator. rotating armature AC generator and a rotating field. Field b. LIST the three losses found in an AC generator.0 Given the type and application of an AC generator. DETERMINE the efficiency of an AC generator. 1.6 1. and methods for paralleling.8 Rev.

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Slip rings Field The field in an AC generator consists of coils of conductors within the generator that receive a voltage from a source (called excitation) and produce a magnetic flux. Stator f. a steam turbine. Rotor e. Armature c. 0 Page 1 ES-10 . or a motor. Rev. Prime Mover The prime mover is the component that is used to drive the AC generator. To understand how these generators operate. This voltage is ultimately the output voltage of the AC generator. such as a diesel engine. The magnetic flux in the field cuts the armature to produce a voltage. Field b. This component consists of many coils of wire that are large enough to carry the full-load current of the generator.AC Generators AC GENERATOR COMPONENTS AC GENERATOR COMPONENTS AC generators are widely used to produce AC voltage. Prime mover d. EO 1. the function of each component of the generator must first be understood.1 STATE the purpose of the following components of an AC generator: a. The prime mover may be any type of rotating machine. Armature The armature is the part of an AC generator in which voltage is produced.

The rotor will be the armature if the voltage output is generated there. the rotor will be the field if the field excitation is applied there. The rotor is driven by the generator’s prime mover. the stator will be the field if the field excitation is applied there. Figure 1 Basic AC Generator Stator The stator of an AC generator is the part that is stationary (refer to Figure 1). this component may be the armature or the field. ES-10 Page 2 Rev. 0 . Like the rotor. this component may be the armature or the field. gas turbine. as shown in Figure 1. The stator will be the armature if the voltage output is generated there. Depending on the type of generator.AC GENERATOR COMPONENTS AC Generators Rotor The rotor of an AC generator is the rotating component of the generator. which may be a steam turbine. depending on the type of generator. or diesel engine.

Brushes ride on the slip ring as the rotor rotates.AC Generators AC GENERATOR COMPONENTS Slip Rings Slip rings are electrical connections that are used to transfer power to and from the rotor of an AC generator (refer to Figure 1). This oscillation of voltage and current takes the shape of a sine wave. which will allow the output current and voltage to oscillate through positive and negative values. Slip rings are used in AC generators because the desired output of the generator is a sine wave. a commutator was used to provide an output whose current always flowed in the positive direction. Figure 2 .Comparison of DC and AC Generator Outputs Rev. as shown in Figure 2. In a DC generator. This is not necessary for an AC generator. Therefore. The electrical connection to the rotor is made by connections to the brushes. The slip ring consists of a circular conducting material that is connected to the rotor windings and insulated from the shaft. an AC generator may use slip rings. 0 Page 3 ES-10 .

The rotor of an AC generator is the part that is driven by the prime mover and that rotates. The prime mover is the component that is used to drive the AC generator. AC Generator Components Summary The field in an AC generator consists of coils of conductors within the generator that receive a voltage from a source (called excitation) and produce a magnetic flux. ES-10 Page 4 Rev. The armature is the part of an AC generator in which output voltage is produced.AC GENERATOR COMPONENTS AC Generators Summary The important information in this chapter is summarized below. Slip rings are electrical connections that are used to transfer power to and from the rotor of an AC generator. 0 . The stator of an AC generator is the part that is stationary.

4 Theory of Operation A simple AC generator consists of: (a) a strong magnetic field. the basic theory of operation must first be understood. 0 Page 5 ES-10 . Rev. DETERMINE the efficiency of an AC generator. Two brushes are spring-held in contact with the slip rings to Figure 3 Simple AC Generator provide the continuous connection between the field coil and the external excitation circuit. The field coil in the rotor receives excitation through the use of slip rings and brushes. (b) conductors that rotate through that magnetic field. The strong magnetic field is produced by a current flow through the field coil of the rotor. EO 1. EO 1. the generated voltage depends on field excitation. The magnitude of AC voltage generated by an AC generator is dependent on the field strength and speed of the rotor. To understand how these generators operate.2 Given the speed of rotation and number of poles. Most generators are operated at a constant speed. or strength. A generator has many turns of wire wound into the slots of the rotor. LIST the three losses found in an AC generator.3 EO 1. and (c) a means by which a continuous connection is provided to the conductors as they are rotating (Figure 3).AC Generators AC GENERATOR THEORY AC GENERATOR THEORY AC generators are widely used to produce AC voltage. Each time the rotor makes one complete revolution. therefore. Given the prime mover input and generator output. The armature is contained within the windings of the stator and is connected to the output. CALCULATE the frequency output of an AC generator. one complete cycle of AC is developed.

AC GENERATOR THEORY

AC Generators

The frequency of the generated voltage is dependent on the number of field poles and the speed at which the generator is operated, as indicated in Equation (10-1). f = where f P N 120 = = = = frequency (Hz) total number of poles rotor speed (rpm) conversion from minutes to seconds and from poles to pole pairs NP 120 (10-1)

The 120 in Equation (10-1) is derived by multiplying the following conversion factors. 60 seconds 2 poles x 1 minute pole pair In this manner, the units of frequency (hertz or cycles/sec.) are derived.

Losses in an AC Generator

The load current flows through the armature in all AC generators. Like any coil, the armature has some amount of resistance and inductive reactance. The combination of these make up what is known as the internal resistance, which causes a loss in an AC generator. When the load current flows, a voltage drop is developed across the internal resistance. This voltage drop subtracts from the output voltage and, therefore, represents generated voltage and power that is lost and not available to the load. The voltage drop in an AC generator can be found using Equation (10-2). Voltage drop where Ia = Ra = XLa = armature current armature resistance armature inductive reactance IaRa IaXLa (10-2)

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AC Generators

AC GENERATOR THEORY

Hysteresis Losses

Hysteresis losses occur when iron cores in an AC generator are subject to effects from a magnetic field. The magnetic domains of the cores are held in alignment with the field in varying numbers, dependent upon field strength. The magnetic domains rotate, with respect to the domains not held in alignment, one complete turn during each rotation of the rotor. This rotation of magnetic domains in the iron causes friction and heat. The heat produced by this friction is called magnetic hysteresis loss. To reduce hysteresis losses, most AC armatures are constructed of heat-treated silicon steel, which has an inherently low hysteresis loss. After the heat-treated silicon steel is formed to the desired shape, the laminations are heated to a dull red and then allowed to cool. This process, known as annealing, reduces hysteresis losses to a very low value.

Mechanical Losses

Rotational or mechanical losses can be caused by bearing friction, brush friction on the commutator, and air friction (called windage), which is caused by the air turbulence due to armature rotation. Careful maintenance can be instrumental in keeping bearing friction to a minimum. Clean bearings and proper lubrication are essential to the reduction of bearing friction. Brush friction is reduced by ensuring: proper brush seating, proper brush use, and maintenance of proper brush tension. A smooth and clean commutator also aids in the reduction of brush friction. In very large generators, hydrogen is used within the generator for cooling; hydrogen, being less dense than air, causes less windage losses than air.

Efficiency

Efficiency of an AC generator is the ratio of the useful power output to the total power input. Because any mechanical process experiences some losses, no AC generators can be 100 percent efficient. Efficiency of an AC generator can be calculated using Equation (10-3). Efficiency Output x 100 Input (10-3)

Example:

Given a 5 hp motor acting as the prime mover of a generator that has a load demand of 2 kW, what is the efficiency of the generator?

Solution: In order to calculate efficiency, the input and output power must be in the same units. As described in Thermodynamics, the horsepower and the watt are equivalent units of power.

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AC GENERATOR THEORY

AC Generators

Therefore, the equivalence of these units is expressed with a conversion factor as follows.

ft lbf 550 sec 1hp

1000 w 1 kW ft lbf 1 kW 737.6 sec

746

W hp

Input Power

= 5 hp x 746

W hp

3730 W

Output Power = 2 kW Efficiency = Output Input

2000 W 2000 W 3730 W 0.54 x 100 54%

Summary

The important information covered in this chapter is summarized below.

**AC Generator Theory Summary
**

The frequency of the generated voltage in an AC generator can be calculated by multiplying the number of poles by the speed of the generator and dividing by a factor of 120. The three losses found in an AC generator are: - Internal voltage drops due to the internal resistance and impedance of the generator - Hysteresis losses - Mechanical losses Efficiency of an AC generator can be calculated by dividing the output by the input and multiplying by 100.

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number of poles. and (6) maximum temperature rise. The current rating of an AC generator is based on the insulation rating of the machine. EO 1. the operation of an AC generator requires that rules and procedures be followed. (3) speed (rpm). frequency of output. (5) armature and field current per phase.7 EO 1.AC Generators AC GENERATOR OPERATION AC GENERATOR OPERATION Because of the nature of AC voltage and current. 0 Page 9 ES-10 . In addition. and maximum supply voltage. (4) capacity rating in KVA and kW at a specified power factor and maximum output voltage. DESCRIBE the difference between a stationary field. EXPLAIN the differences between a wye-connected and delta-connected AC generator including advantages and disadvantages of each type. Figure 4 AC Generator Nameplate Ratings Rev. each type having advantages and disadvantages. Power (kW) ratings of an AC generator are based on the ability of the prime mover to overcome generator losses and the ability of the machine to dissipate the internally generated heat. rotating armature AC generator and a rotating field. DESCRIBE the conditions that must be met prior to paralleling two AC generators including consequences of not meeting these conditions. EO 1. stationary armature AC generator. there are various types of AC generators available.5 DESCRIBE the bases behind the kW and current ratings of an AC generator.6 EO 1. (2) serial number and type number.8 Ratings Typical name plate data for an AC generator (Figure 4) includes: (1) manufacturer. number of phases.

The worst case mismatch would be 180° out of phase. may interrupt the flow of current. Their frequencies must be equal. voltages of the two generators that are to be paralleled are indicated through the use of voltmeters. Figure 5 Stationary Field. If the voltages of the two AC generators are not equal. Rotating Armature AC Generator ES-10 Page 10 Rev. 0 . Types of AC Generators As previously discussed. Their terminal voltages must be equal. One important disadvantage to this arrangement is that the slip-ring and brush assembly is in series with the load circuits and. This can cause an overload in the generators and the distribution system. A mismatch in the phases will cause large opposing voltages to be developed. This high voltage can cause damage to the generators and distribution system due to high currents. This causes high currents to be exchanged between the two machines. Normally. possibly causing generator or distribution system damage.AC GENERATOR OPERATION AC Generators Paralleling AC Generators Most electrical power grids and distribution systems have more than one AC generator operating at one time. a device that senses the two frequencies and gives an indication of phase differences and a relative comparison of frequency differences. one of the AC generators could be picked up as a reactive load to the other AC generator. Frequency matching is accomplished through the use of output frequency meters. stationary armature. Small AC generators usually have a stationary field and a rotating armature (Figure 5). Their output voltages must be in phase. Three conditions must be met prior to paralleling (or synchronizing) AC generators. two or more generators are operated in parallel in order to increase the available power. During paralleling operations. resulting in an opposing voltage between the two generators of twice the output voltage. rotating armature. there are two types of AC generators: the stationary field. and the rotating field. because of worn or dirty components. Phase matching is accomplished through the use of a synchroscope. A mismatch in frequencies of the two AC generators will cause the generator with the lower frequency to be picked up as a load on the other generator (a condition referred to as "motoring").

As the rotor is turned by the prime mover. Physically adjacent loops (Figure 7) are separated by 60° of rotation. The significance of Figure 7 is that it shows that the three-phase generator has three separate armature windings that are 120 electrical degrees out of phase. In this type of generator. Figure 7 Stationary Armature 3φ Generator Rev. the stationary coils will have AC induced into them (Figure 6). 0 Page 11 ES-10 . however. stationary armature AC generator. Three-Phase AC Generators The principles of a three-phase generator are basically the same as that of a single-phase generator. and (3) much higher voltages and currents can be generated. a DC source is supplied to the rotating field coils. which produces a magnetic field around the rotating element. the Figure 6 Simple AC Generator . This arrangement is called a rotating field. stationary armature type AC generator is used when large power generation is involved. and an EMF will be induced into the armature windings.AC Generators AC GENERATOR OPERATION If DC field excitation is connected to the rotor. (2) it is much easier to insulate stator fields than rotating fields. This type of AC generator has several advantages over the stationary field. Stationary Armature field will cut the conductors of the stationary armature. except that there are three equally-spaced windings and three output voltages that are all 120° out of phase with one another. the loops are connected to the slip rings in such a manner that there are 120 electrical degrees between phases. rotating armature AC generator: (1) a load can be connected to the armature without moving contacts in the circuit. The rotating field.Rotating Field. The individual coils of each winding are combined and represented as a single coil.

and only three leads are brought out and connected to the external load. ES-10 Page 12 Rev. as are the three line voltages. the voltage between any two of the phases. and the output is connected to an external load. Two means are available to connect the three armature windings. You can see that a delta-connected generator provides an increase in current. In one type of connection. 0 . there are six leads from the armature of a three-phase generator. but no increase in voltage.7% of what it was with all three phases in operation. The capacity of the generator is reduced to 57. or delta-connected (∆) (Figure 8). In actual practice. called line voltage. As shown in Figure 9. The current in any line is 3 times the phase current. the remaining two phases can still deliver three-phase power. the three phase voltages are equal. Figure 9 Characteristics of a Delta-Connected Generator An advantage of the delta-connected AC generator is that if one phase becomes damaged or open. Figure 8 Delta Connection In a delta-connected generator. is the same as the voltage generated in any one phase.AC GENERATOR OPERATION AC Generators AC Generator Connections As shown in Figure 7. the windings are connected in series. the windings are connected together.

Figure 11 Characteristics of a Wye-Connected AC Generator An advantage of a wye-connected AC generator is that each phase only has to carry 57. The wye-connected AC generator provides an increase in voltage.73 (or 3 ) Figure 10 Wye Connection times any one phase voltage. 0 Page 13 ES-10 . but no increase in current (Figure 11). This is called a wye connection (Y) (Figure 10). one of the leads of each winding is connected. Rev.7% of line voltage and.AC Generators AC GENERATOR OPERATION In the other type of connection. and the remaining three leads are connected to an external load. can be used for high voltage generation. while line currents are equal to phase currents. therefore. The voltage and current characteristics of the wye-connected AC generator are opposite to that of the delta connection. Voltage between any two lines in a wyeconnected AC generator is 1.

7%. A mismatch in the phases will cause large opposing voltages to be developed. because of worn or dirty components. A mismatch may cause high currents and generator or distribution system damage. therefore. can be used for high voltage generation. A stationary armature. A mismatch in frequencies can cause one generator to "motor. resulting in damage to the generators and distribution system due to high currents. The advantage of the delta-connected AC generator is that if one phase becomes damaged or open. ES-10 Page 14 Rev. the remaining two phases can still deliver three-phase power at a reduced capacity of 57. (2) it is much easier to insulate stator fields than rotating fields.7% of line voltage and. There are three requirements that must be met to parallel AC generators: 1) Their terminal voltages must be equal. 0 . Their output voltages must be in phase. The current rating of an AC generator is based on the insulation rating of the machine. and (3) much higher voltages and currents can be generated. AC Generator Operation Summary Power (kW) ratings of an AC generator are based on the ability of the prime mover to overcome generation losses and the ability of the machine to dissipate the heat generated internally. may interrupt the flow of current. Their frequencies must be equal." causing an overload in the generators and the distribution system. rotating field generator has several advantages: (1) a load can be connected to the armature without moving contacts in the circuit. rotating armature is that the slip-ring and brush assembly is in series with the load circuits and. The advantage of a wye-connected AC generator is that each phase only has to carry 57.AC GENERATOR OPERATION AC Generators Summary The important information covered in this chapter is summarized below. 2) 3) The disadvantage of a stationary field.

Department of Energy Fundamentals Handbook

ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Module 11 Voltage Regulators

Voltage Regulators

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v VOLTAGE REGULATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . Block Diagram Description Sensing Circuit . . . . . . . . Reference Circuit . . . . . . . Comparison Circuit . . . . . Amplification Circuit . . . . Signal Output Circuit . . . . Feedback Circuit . . . . . . . Changing Output Voltage . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES Voltage Regulators LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Voltage Regulator Block Diagram . . 0 . . 2 ES-11 Page ii Rev. . . . . . . . . .

0 Page iii ES-11 .Voltage Regulators LIST OF TABLES LIST OF TABLES NONE Rev.

Mileaf. 1982. McGraw-Hill. Hayden Book Company. Carr. 10th Edition. 0 . Milton. Watt.REFERENCES Voltage Regulators REFERENCES Gussow. Harry. 5. 3rd Edition. ES-11 Page iv Rev. Lister. Electricity One . 1982. Croft. and Summers. Nooger. Columbia. Academic Program for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel. Buban and Schmitt. Library of Congress Card #A 326517. Van Valkenburgh. Columbia. and Neville. Basic Electricity. McGraw-Hill. Academic Program for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel. Electromechanics and Electric Machines. McGrawHill. McGraw-Hill. Volume II. John Wiley and Sons. Hayden Book Company. Electrical Instruments and Measurements. Nasar and Unnewehr.. MD: General Physics Corporation. Schaum’s Outline Series. Volume IV. Library of Congress Card #A 326517. Revised 2nd Edition. Eugene C. American Electricians Handbook. Vol. 5th Edition. McGraw-Hill.Seven. MD: General Physics Corporation. Basic Electricity. Electric Circuits and Machines. Understanding Electricity and Electronics. Kidwell. Walter.

2 STATE the purpose for voltage regulation equipment. Sensing circuit b. DESCRIBE the operation of a typical voltage regulator. 0 Page v ES-11 . Given a block diagram of a typical voltage regulator. Reference circuit c. Comparison circuit d.Voltage Regulators OBJECTIVES TERMINAL OBJECTIVE 1.1 1. Amplification circuit(s) e. ENABLING OBJECTIVES 1.0 Given a block diagram. Feedback circuit Rev. DESCRIBE the function of each of the following components: a. Signal output circuit f.

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AC generators require some auxiliary means of regulating output voltage.Voltage Regulators VOLTAGE REGULATORS VOLTAGE REGULATORS Because the voltage from an AC generator varies as the output load and power factor change. Therefore. As load on an AC generator changes. Reference circuit c.e. a voltage regulator circuit is necessary to permit continuity of the desired output voltage. Amplification circuit(s) e. the voltage will also tend to change. The IXL drop is dependent on not only the load change. but also the power factor of the circuit. EO 1. there is an IR drop and an IXL drop caused by the AC current flowing through the resistance and inductance of the windings. Because of changes in voltage. DESCRIBE the function of each of the following components: a. the output voltage of an AC generator varies with both changes in load (i. The IR drop is dependent on the amount of the load change only..2 STATE the purpose for voltage regulation equipment. Feedback circuit Purpose The purpose of a voltage regulator is to maintain the output voltage of a generator at a desired value. current) and changes in power factor.1 EO 1. In an AC generator. 0 Page 1 ES-11 . Comparison circuit d. Block Diagram Description Figure 1 shows a typical block diagram of an AC generator voltage regulator. Rev. Signal output circuit f. Sensing circuit b. This regulator consists of six basic circuits that together regulate the output voltage of an AC generator from no-load to full-load. due to changes in load and changes in power factor. The main reason for this change in voltage is the change in the voltage drop across the armature winding caused by a change in load current. Given a block diagram of a typical voltage regulator.

and the sensing circuit provides a signal of these voltage changes. Reference Circuit The reference circuit maintains a constant output for reference. ES-11 Page 2 Rev. takes the signal from the comparison circuit and amplifies the milliamp input to an amp output. This error signal represents an increase or decrease in output voltage. circuit. Comparison Circuit The comparison circuit electrically compares the reference voltage to the sensed voltage and provides an error signal. This reference is the desired voltage output of the AC generator. As the generator is loaded or unloaded.VOLTAGE REGULATORS Voltage Regulators Figure 1 Voltage Regulator Block Diagram Sensing Circuit The sensing circuit senses output voltage of the AC generator. This signal is proportional to output voltage and is sent to the comparison circuit. Amplification Circuit The amplification circuit. or field. 0 . The signal is sent to the amplification circuit. which can be a magnetic amplifier or transistor amplifier. the output voltage changes. which is then sent to the signal output.

This output from the comparison circuit will then be amplified by the amplifier circuit and sent to the signal output circuit. the signal output circuit will decrease field excitation to the AC generator. which controls field excitation of the AC generator. a drop in output voltage. Since the reference circuit is always a constant. thereby. the sensing circuit senses the decrease in output voltage as compared to the reference and lowers its input to the comparison circuit. Feedback Circuit The feedback circuit takes some of the output of the signal output circuit and feeds it back to the amplification circuit. The error signal developed will be of a positive value with the magnitude of the signal dependent on the difference between the sensed voltage and the reference voltage. the voltage output of the machine would rise. Changing Output Voltage Let us consider an increase in generator load and. As a result. This increase in field excitation causes generated voltage to increase to the desired output. the comparison circuit will develop an error signal due to the difference between the sensed voltage and the reference voltage. It does this to prevent overshooting or undershooting of the desired voltage by slowing down the circuit response. 0 Page 3 ES-11 . The actions of the voltage regulator would then be the opposite of that for a lowering output voltage. In this case. First.Voltage Regulators VOLTAGE REGULATORS Signal Output Circuit The signal output circuit. If the load on the generator were decreased. Rev. the comparison circuit will develop a negative error signal whose magnitude is again dependent on the difference between the sensed voltage and the reference voltage. The signal output circuit then increases field excitation to the AC generator. increases or decreases field excitation to either raise or lower the AC output voltage. causing the generated voltage to decrease to the desired output.

voltage output of the AC generator Comparison circuit .takes the signal from the comparison circuit and amplifies the milliamp input to an amp output Signal output circuit . 0 .maintains a constant output for reference.prevents overshooting or undershooting of the desired voltage by slowing down the circuit response ES-11 Page 4 Rev.to maintain the output voltage of a generator at a desired value Sensing circuit .compares reference voltage to output voltage and provides an error signal to the amplification circuit Amplification circuit(s) . Voltage Regulators Summary Purpose .VOLTAGE REGULATORS Voltage Regulators Summary Voltage regulators are summarized below. or desired.senses output voltage of the AC generator Reference circuit .controls field excitation of the AC generator Feedback circuit .