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Communication

Communication

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Published by: Amit Kasar on Jun 08, 2012
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15-1

15
Communication

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

 Improve Quality of their product or service. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2000 .15-2 Importance of Good Communication Good  Communication allows a firm to Learn new skills and technologies. Inc..  Foster innovation Effective communication is needed by all Managers.  Become more responsive to customers.

Feedback phase: a common understanding is assured.15-3 The Communication Process Communication consists of two phases: 1. Transmission phase: information is shared by 2 or more people.  Sender must decide on a message to share  Sender also puts the message into symbols or language. 2. Inc. a process called encoding. 2000 .  Starts with the Sender who wants to share information. Noise: anything harming the communication process..  Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

. 2000 .1 Transmission Phase Message Encoding Medium Decoding Sender NOISE Receiver (now sender) Decoding Medium Encoding Message Feedback Phase Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.15-4 The Communication Process Figure 15.

 This is a critical point. Inc. can lead to mis-understanding..  Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.  Decoding allows the receiver to understand the message.  Medium: pathway the message is transmitted on (phone. letter).  Receiver next decodes the message.  Receiver: person getting the message.  Feedback is started by receiver and states that the message is understood or that it must be re-sent.15-5 The Communication Process Messages are transmitted over a medium to a receiver. 2000 .

 Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.  Effective Managers avoid communicating based on a pre-set belief.  Sender and receiver communicate based on their perception.  Nonverbal: facial gestures. body language. 2000 .  Subjective perception can lead to biases and stereotypes that hurt communication. Inc.15-6 Communication Issues Encoding of messages can be done verbally or nonverbally  Verbal: spoken or written communication.. dress.

To be effective:  Select an appropriate medium for each message..  Medium with high richness can carry much information to aid understanding.  Is there a need for a paper/electronic trail to provide documentation? ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.  Consider information richness: the amount of information a medium can carry. 2000 Irwin/McGraw-Hill .15-7 Dangers of Ineffective Communication Managers spend most of their time communicating so both they and the subordinates must be effective communicators. Inc.   There is no one “best” medium.

15-8 Information Richness and Media Type Figure 15.. Inc.2 High Richness Face-to-face communication Verbal communication electronically transmitted Verbal communication electronically transmitted Impersonal written communication ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2000 Low Richness Irwin/McGraw-Hill .

 Phone conversations.  Irwin/McGraw-Hill Do have tone of voice. sender’s emphasis and quick feedback.  Video Conferences: provide much of this richness. but no visual nonverbal cues.  Reduce travel costs and meeting times.  Can take advantage of verbal and nonverbal signals. Inc..  Provides for instant feedback.  Management by wandering around takes advantage of this with informal talks to workers. Verbal Communication electronically transmitted: has next highest richness. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2000 .15-9 Communication Media Face-to-Face: highest information richness.

 Good for messages to many receivers. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. reports are examples.  Excellent for complex messages needing follow-up.  Personal addressing helps ensure receiver reads it.  Cannot provide instant feedback to sender but can get feedback later. Inc.  Letters and e-mail are common forms. but still is directed at a given person. 2000 . Impersonal Written Communication: lowest richness..  Irwin/McGraw-Hill Newsletters. Little feedback is expected.15-10 Communication Media Personally Addressed Written Communication: lower richness than the verbal forms.

 E-mail has allowed telecommuting.  Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2000 . Inc. where workers can work from home and be in touch with e-mail.  Pay attention to spelling and treat like a written letter.  Punctuate your messages for easy reading and don’t ramble on. and there are even special e-mail etiquette:  Words in all CAPITALS are seen as “screaming” at the receiver..15-11 E-Mail Trends E-mail use is growing rapidly in large firms.

Inc.  Wheel and Chain networks provide for little interaction. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2000 .  Chain Network: members communicate with people next to them in sequence.  Circle Network: members communicate with others close to them in terms of expertise.15-12 Communication Networks Networks show information flows in an organization. office location.  Wheel Network: information flow to and from one central member.  All-Channel Network: found in teams.. with high levels of communications between each member and all others. etc.

Inc.3 Wheel Network Chain Network Circle Network Irwin/McGraw-Hill All Channel Network ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.15-13 Communication Networks in Groups & Teams Figure 15.. 2000 .

 Vertical Communication: goes up and down the corporate hierarchy.  Informal communications can span levels and departments.15-14 Organization Communication Networks Organization chart depicts formal reporting channels. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. 2000 Irwin/McGraw-Hill . goals.  Grapevine: informal network carrying unofficial information through the firm.  Horizontal Communication: between employees of the same level. and projects..  Communication is informal and flows around issues.

. Inc.15-15 Organizational Communications Network Figure 15.4 Formal Communication Informal Communication Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2000 .

. 2000 . Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Intranets: use the same information concepts as the Internet. Groupware: software designed to let workers share information and improve communication. but keep the network inside the firm.15-16 Technological Advances     Internet: global system of computer networks Many firms use it to communicate with suppliers. Inc. World Wide Web (WWW): provides multimedia access to the Internet. Best for team oriented support.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.15-17 Communication Skills for Managers as Senders       Send clear and complete messages. Inc. Ensure a feedback mechanism is included in the message. Provide accurate information to avoid rumors. Encode messages in symbols the receiver understands. Select a medium appropriate for the message AND monitored by the receiver.. Avoid filtering (holding back information) and distortion as the message passes through other workers. 2000 .

Inc.  Be a good listener: don’t interrupt. This is particularly true across cultures. tone.    Speed. 2000 . Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Managers should expect and plan for this. pausing all impact communication..15-18 Communication Skills for Managers as Receivers  Pay Attention to what is sent as a message.   Be Ask questions to clarify your understanding.  Understand linguistic styles: different people speak differently. empathetic: try to understand what the sender feels.

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